Purposes

Rodolf Dreikurs
“ We should realize that a misbehaving child is only a discouraged child trying to find his
place; he is acting on the faulty logic that his misbehavior will give him the social
acceptance which he desires”
(Dreikurs & Cassel, 1972, p.32 )
Rudolf Dreikurs classroom discipline models explains that his ideas for working with
children on the use of logical consequences. The first purpose of this model is to determine
students motives. Clliford (2008) argues that Dreikurs believed that discipline is based on
mutual respect and understanding. As a teacher we should be able to understand the learners
need as all students have the desire to feel what they value and to feel what they can contribute
to the classroom. This supports Dreikurs theory as he believes that all human beings have a
primary need to belong and feel part of a group. Hence, when we are able to understand the
students needs, they feel respected this motivates students to behave beneficially.
.The second purpose of this theory is to help teachers to understand their student’s
motives. Dreikurs theory which is the democratic discipline encourages the students to be given
a choice rather than be forced to behave as directed. C.M Charles (1991), in his book Building
Classroom Discipline supports this point of view as he argues that discipline at its best is seen
in student self-control. When the students are given a choice, they tend to think which helps
them to understand their needs. For example, when the teacher and students collaborate to
make decisions, a good discipline is obtain in the classroom. On the other hand, lack of
understanding in students will lead to misbehavior the classroom.
Next, Dreikurs theory helps students exchange their mistaken goals for useful ones with
the teacher’s guidance. As a teacher, we should be able to identify the mistaken goal. Firstly,
teachers can observe their own response to the misbehavior and at the same time observe the
students reactions too. Then, the teacher should confront the mistaken goal. This can be done
by providing an explanation together with a discussion. For example, if a student often disturbs
others in the class for attention seeking, the teacher talks or explains the negative impacts of his
behavior to him. By doing this, students usually examine and change their behavior.
In short, Rudolf Dreikurs focuses discipline through democratic teaching.
Jacob Kounin
Jacob Kounin main idea of his theory is to improve discipline through lesson
management. This model is also known as preventive discipline. Kounin explains his purpose
and the need of teacher’s monitoring and supervision when carrying out activities in the
classroom. Furthermore, Kounin shares his opinion that the efficiency and performance of the
activities necessary for good classroom management. In other words, this model gives an
overview that teachers can control students' behavior by monitoring teaching and learning
activities carefully. For instance, teachers need to provide interesting teaching and learning
activities during the teaching and learning process so undesirable behavior among students can
be avoided. In other words, the teachers should be skillful in observing the classroom at all
times in a way to combat discipline problems.
…the business of running a classroom is a complicated technology having to do wih
developing a nonsatiatiating learning program; programming for the progress, challenge, and
variety in learning activities; intiatiang and mainting movement in classroom tasks with
smoothness and momentum; coping with more than one even simultaneously observing and
emiting feedback for many different events…..
(1971,pp.144-145)
This quotation above explains the second purpose of Kounin model as the emphasis is
given on teachers in combating discipline problems. C.M Charles (1991), in his book Building
Classroom Discipline argues that Kounin discipline model talks also on ideas on withitness,
overlapping, group alerting, momentum and smoothness as the purpose of producing a
conducive learning by involving the students. Here, it is important for the teacher to control the
entire class, and groups of students and individual students. For example, as teacher should be
able to use variety of strategies and techniques to engage students in teaching and learning
process. Therefore, teachers should be able to make them available at all times in order to
prevent discipline problems among the students.
In short, Kounin’s Discipline Model focuses on the teacher awareness in monitoring
student movement in the classroom in order to assimilate teaching with disciplining the
students.


Comparing and Contract










Rudolf Dreikurs
• democratic discipline

• determine students
motives

• help students to
understand their
motives

• helps students exchange
their mistaken goals for
useful ones
Jacob Kounin
• preventive discipline

• the need of teacher’s us
e variety of strategies
and techniques to
engage teaching and
learning process.

• emphasis is given on the
teacher
Strength and Weakness of Kounin Discipline model
There are few strength and weakness that been identified. The first strength of Kounin
Discipline model is that the model presents methods of withitness and organization that
teachers can use in their classrooms. Withitness, also described as “having eyes in the back of
your head,” demonstrates to students that teachers know what is going on at all times and can
intervene “promptly and accurately when inappropriate behavior threatens to become disruptive”
(Keane, 1984; Marzano, 2007, p. 137). For example, teacher can call the student’s name to
make sure they concentrate during the lesson. This means the teacher should be aware of what
is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times. This method helps the teacher to be alert on
student’s movement and have a control of the classroom.
Besides that, Kounin theory argues that effective teachers keep students attentive and
actively involved. This is because teachers should be able to attend to two activities at the same
time. This has a purpose of discarding student’s satiation (boredom) in the classroom.
Moreover, teachers should have the ability to provide smooth transition between activities. For
instance, if there is a gap during the learning process, the changes students misbehave is more.
Thus, a teacher should be able to carry out many enjoyable and challenging activities.
Group alerting is strength of this model. This helps to gain the attention of students.C.M
Charles (1991), in his book Building Classroom Discipline supported Kounin model as Kounin
made an outstanding contribution concerning the relation of classroom management to
student’s behavior. Therefore, group alerting also allows teachers to present to students
expectations that they have for the class. Thus, it helps to prevent discipline problems in the
classroom.
On the other hand, several weaknesses are seen through Kounin discipline model.
Firstly, teachers can lose track of time when performing a lesson. For example, when the
teacher trying to attend two activities at the same time, he or she might run of time. Hence, this
leads the classroom being not organized well. Another example, teachers can get distracted by
students or other outside variables such as the phone rings, someone walks into the classroom,
students cries and so on. Hence, it will affect the control of discipline when the teacher is
distracted.
Secondly, the teachers’ eyes are impossible to be on every student at all times. This is
merely because the teacher can lose control over a distracting student. This means the teacher
should be extra aware of what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times so that
student’s movement is controlled. For example, as a teacher we should be able to use variety of
strategies and techniques to engage students in teaching and learning process. Therefore,
teachers should be able to make them available at all times in order to avoid discipline problems
among the students.
Last but not least, Kounin model stress the need of skillful teacher in succeeding this
theory. It is a merely seen as a weakness of the theory as Kounin model as the emphasis is
given on teachers in combating discipline problems. C.M Charles (1991), in his book Building
Classroom Discipline argues that Kounin discipline model talks also on ideas on withitness,
overlapping, group alerting, momentum and smoothness as the purpose of producing a
conducive learning by involving the students. This consumes time to produce a skillful and
experience teacher in mastering Kounin discipline model. Consequently, this shows that this
theory does not help students become personally responsible for their behavior.

Strength

Weakness
1. The model presents methods of
withitness and organization. ( aware on
the student’s behavior)

1. Teachers can lose track of time when
performing a lesson.
2. Teachers keep students attentive and
actively involved.
2.Teachers eyes are impossible to be on every
student at all times.
3. Group alerting 3. The teacher needs to be experienced and
skillful in implementing this theory.