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1. What is surface structure?

Surface structure is….
Structural element that is able to transfer loads primarily through membrane stresses.
A surface structure is made from a material having a very small thickness compared to
its other dimensions.
Flexible surface structures include mechanically or pneumatically pre-stressed
membranes.
Surface structure (abbreviated 'SS' and often called 'S-structure') refers to the mental
representation of a linguistic expression, derived from deep structure by transformational
rules.
Surface structure may also be made of rigid material such as reinforced concrete.
As such they may be shaped as folded plates, cylinders, or hyperbolic paraboloids, and
are referred to as thin plates or shells.
These structures act like cables or arches since they support loads primarily in tension or
compression, with very little bending.
In spite of this, plate or shell structures are generally very difficult to analyze, due to the
three-dimensional geometry of their surface. Such an analysis is beyond the scope of this
text and is instead covered in texts devoted entirely to this subject.

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2. Characteristic and Types of Surface Structure


Characteristic

A surface structure is a structural element that is able to transfer loads primarily through
membrane stresses.

Surface structure may be shaped as folded plates, cylinders, or hyperbolic paraboloids,
and are referred to as thin plates or shells.

These structures act like cables or arches since they support loads primarily in tension or
compression, with very little bending.

Rigid surface structures are also called rigid shells; flexible surface structures include
mechanically or pneumatically pre-stressed membranes.


Types of Structure
Membrane structure
Plate structure
Shells structure








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1. Definition

Membranes structure are..

One sort of spatial structures made of tensioned membranes. The common membranes
include fabrics such as PVC coated polyester fabric, PVC coated glass fiber fabric and
PTFE coated glass fiber fabric.

There are also some constructions built with membrane, but it doesn't contribute to
supporting the framework.

According to different form-finding methods they can be divide into pneumatic structure,
tensile membrane structure, cable dome. In these three kinds of membrane structures
membranes work together with cables, columns and other construction members to find a
form.

Membrane structure is stabilized by the pressure of compressed air.











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2. History


This form of construction has only become well understood and widespread in large
structures in the latter part of the twentieth century.

Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov was one of the first to develop practical calculations
of stresses and deformations of tensile structures, shells and membranes.

Antonio Gaudi used the concept in reverse to create a compression-only structure for the
Colonia Guell Church.

The concept was later pioneered by German architect and engineer Frei Otto, who first
used the idea in the construction of the German pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal.

Steady technological progress has increased the popularity of fabric-roofed structures.

The low weight of the materials makes construction easier and cheaper than standard
designs, especially when vast open spaces have to be covered.

A very early large-scale use of a membrane-covered tensile structure is the Sidney Myer
Music Bowl, constructed in 1958.





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3. Typical Diagram



Uniform Arrangement Orthogonal Arrangement



Zigzag Arrangement



Lattice Arrangement

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4. System’s Work, Strength and Behaviour

To support broadly distributed dead load and live loads such as wind, drift forces,
ocean current, due to waves.

It should not be surprising that lightweight tension structures resemble biological
forms,since such forms also support loads by tension.

Because non-metallic materials used commonly for membranes have lower shear
strength,There often reinforced by cable nets in order to increase unsupported span length.










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Types of Membrane :

i. Pneumatic structure

Air-supported structures are supported by internal air pressure.
A network of cables stiffens the fabric, and the assembly is supported by a rigid
ring at the edge.
The air pressure within this bubble is increased slightly above normal atmospheric
pressure and maintained by compressors or fans.
Pneumatic structures are perhaps the most cost-effective type of building for very
long spans.


ii. Tensile membrane structure

A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension and no
compression or bending.
Most tensile structures are supported by some form of compression or bending
elements, such as masts (as in The O
2
, formerly the Millennium Dome),
compression rings or beams.
Tensile membrane structures are most often used as roofs as they can
economically and attractively span large distances .





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iii. Cable doom
The shape of doom that hanging by the cable capability.
Cables can be of mild steel, high strength steel (drawn carbon steel), stainless
steel, polyester or aramid fibers.
Structural cables are made of a series of small strands twisted or bound together
to form a much larger cable.



















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1. Definition


Plates may be considered similar to beams, however:
– Plates can bend in two directions and twist
– Plates must be flat (or else they are shells)

Plates structure is bending in two directions. A concrete flat slab is an example of a plate.

Plates are understood by using continuum mechanics, but due to the complexity involved
they are most often designed using a codified empirical approach, or computer analysis.

They can also be designed with yield line theory, where an assumed collapse mechanism
is analysed to give an upper bound on the collapse load. This is rarely used in practice.




Many of these elements can be classified according to form (straight, plane / curve) and
dimensionality (one-dimensional / two-dimensional).





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2. History


Revolution time period and finds Euler performing free vibration analyses of plate
problems (Euler, 1766).

Chadni, a German physicist, performed experiments on horizontal plates to quantify their
vibratory modes. He sprinkled sand on the plates, struck them with a hammer, and noted
the reglular patterns that formed along the nodal lines (Chladni, 1802).

Bernoulli then attempted to theoretically justify the experimental results of Chladni using
the previously developed Euler-Bernoulli bending beam theory, but his results did not
capture the full dynamics (Bernoulli, 1789).

The French mathematician Germain developed a plate differential equation that lacked a
warping term (Germain, 1826).

Cauchy (1828) and Poisson (1829) developed the problem of plate bending using general
theory of elasticity.

Then, in 1829, Poisson successfully expanded “the Germain-Lagrange plate equation to
the solution of a plate under static loading.

Some of the greatest contributions toward thin plate theory came from Kirchhoff’s thesis
in 1850 (Kirchhoff, 1850). Kirchhoff declared some basic assumptions that are now
referred to as “Kirchhoff’s hypotheses.” Using these assumptions, Kirchhoff: simplified
the energy functional for 3D plates; demonstrated, under certain conditions.



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3. Typical Diagram

Figure below shows a representative plate geometry.

Sample plate geometry showing the midplane, or middle surface, and typical Cartesian
coordinate axes.
Thin plates are usually characterized by the ratio a / h (the ratio between the length of a
side, a, and the thickness of the material, h, falling between the values of 8 and 80.












Plate Structure : Reinforced concrete building construction



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4. System’s Work, Strength and Behaviour

A plate is a three dimensional body with
one of the plate dimensions much smaller than the other two
the curvature of the plate mid-surface in the reference configuration is zero


It is important to consider the loading as well as the slenderness of
the structure before classifying it as a plate or shell


Membrane and Bending response of Plate Structure
For a plate membrane and bending response are decoupled




■ For practical applications the membrane and bending response can be investigated
independently and later combined (two-surface model).


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1. Definition

Shells derive their strength from their form, and carry forces in compression in two
directions. A dome is an example of a shell.

They can be designed by making a hanging-chain model, which will act as a catenary in
pure tension, and inverting the form to achieve pure compression.

Thin-shell structures are light weight constructions using shell elements. These elements
are typically curved and are assembled to large structures.

Typical applications are fuselages of aeroplanes, boat hulls and roof structures in some
buildings.

A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is small compared to its other
dimensions and in which deformations are not large compared to thickness.

A primary difference between a shell structure and a plate structure is that, in the
unstressed state, the shell structure has curvature as opposed to plates structures which
are flat.

Membrane action in a shell is primarily caused by in-plane forces (plane stress), though
there may be secondary forces resulting from flexural deformations.

Where a flat plate acts similar to a beam with bending and shear stresses, shells are
analogous to a cable which resists loads through tensile stresses.

Though the ideal thin shell must be capable of developing both tension and compression.

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2. History

In building construction, a thin, curved plate structure shaped to transmit applied forces
by compressive, tensile, and shear stresses that act in the plane of the surface.

Shell structures are usually constructed of concrete reinforced with steel mesh. Shell
construction began in the 1920s; the shell emerged as a major long-span concrete
structure after World War II.

When World War II thin parabolic shell vaults stiffened with ribs have been built with
spans up to about 300 ft or equal as (90 m).

More complex forms of concrete shells have been made, including hyperbolic
paraboloids, or saddle shapes, and intersecting parabolic vaults less than 0.5 in. (1.25 cm)
thick. Pioneering thin-shell designers include Felix Candela and Pier Luigi Nervi.










Illustrator sketch of 1960's parabolic concrete shell building

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3. Typical Diagram






















Beijing Bird Nest Stadium, China Golden Terraces, Warsaw, Poland




Beijing Bird Nest Stadium, China Golden Terraces, Warsaw, Poland


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4. System’s Work, Strength and Behaviour

A shell structure is one in which the strength reloads into the outer surface. They are
usually lighter than frame structures. For example, A turtle, an egg, an airplane, a boat, a
lobster or a car has a shell structure .

In a structure the form is very important. The resistance of the structure depends on its
form. A good example is an egg.





Test: Get an egg and place it vertically between your index finger and your thumb. Now
squeeze hard. You will see that however hard you squeeze, you will not be able to break the
egg. You can even do it with both hands, by interlacing your fingers and squeezing the egg
between them so that force is applied at both the lower and upper ends of the egg.

There are two main mechanisms by which a shell can support loads. On the one hand, the
structure can react with only in-plane forces, in which case it is said to act as a membrane.
In practice, however, real structures have local areas where equilibrium or compatibility
of displacements and deformations is not possible without introducing bending.

Local behaviour, however, is often critical in determining structural adequacy. Dimpling
in domes, or the development of the so-called Yoshimura patterns in compressed
cylinders, are phenomena related to local buckling that introduce a new level of
complexity into the study of shells.

The theoretical limits of bifurcation of equilibrium that can be reached using
mathematical models are upper limits to the behaviour of actual structures; as soon as any
initial displacement or shape imperfection is present, the curve is smoothed.


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Shell structures can usually be understood as a set of beams, arches and catenaries. Man-
made shell structures as used in various branches. Engineering structures and/or
architectural works whose structure is defined as Thin-shell structures from around the
world.

Localized bending stresses : -



























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Surface structure can be produced by rigid material such as reinforced concrete.
Concrete structure may be shaped as folded plates, cylinders, or hyperbolic paraboloids, and are
referred to as thin plates or shells. These structures act like cables or arches since they support
loads primarily in tension or compression, with very little bending. A surface structure is a
structural element that is able to transfer loads primarily through membrane stresses. Surface
structure may be shaped as folded plates, cylinders, or hyperbolic paraboloids, and are referred to
as thin plates or shells. Types of Structures are Membrane structure, Plate structure and Shells
structure.
Membranes structure is one sort of spatial structures made of tensioned membranes. The
common membranes include fabrics such as PVC coated polyester fabric, PVC coated glass fiber
fabric and PTFE coated glass fiber fabric. Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov was one of the
first to develop practical calculations of stresses and deformations of tensile structures, shells and
membranes. Membranes structure can support broadly distributed dead load and live loads such
as wind, drift forces, ocean current, due to waves. It should not be surprising that lightweight
tension structures resemble biological forms,since such forms also support loads by tension.

Plates may be considered similar to beams, however, plates can bend in two directions
and twist and plates must be flat. Some of the greatest contributions toward thin plate theory
came from Kirchhoff’s thesis in 1850 (Kirchhoff, 1850). Kirchhoff declared some basic
assumptions that are now referred to as “Kirchhoff’s hypotheses.” A plate is a three dimensional
body with one of the plate dimensions much smaller than the other two and the curvature of the
plate mid-surface in the reference configuration is zero.


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Shells derive their strength from their form, and carry forces in compression in two
directions. A dome is an example of a shell. They can be designed by making a hanging-chain
model, which will act as a catenary in pure tension, and inverting the form to achieve pure
compression. Shell structures are usually constructed of concrete reinforced with steel mesh.
Shell construction began in the 1920s; the shell emerged as a major long-span concrete structure
after World War II. A shell structure is one in which the strength reloads into the outer
surface. They are usually lighter than frame structures. For example, A turtle, an egg, an
airplane, a boat, a lobster or a car has a shell structure .There are two main mechanisms by which
a shell can support loads. On the one hand, the structure can react with only in-plane forces, in
which case it is said to act as a membrane.






















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P.M. Marcus (Author), F. Jona, Determination of Surface Structure Plenum Press; 1
edition (March 1, 1984)

http://www.answers.com

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1382569/membrane-structure

Gould, P.L., Analysis of shells and plates, Springer Verlag, 1988

Ventsel, E., Krauthammer, T., Thin Plates and Shells: Theory, Analysis, and Applications,
CRC Press, 2001