DEPARTMENT OF INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

MIT CAMPUS-ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI.






TUTORIAL PROBLEMS ON

CONTROL ENGINEERING (EI8401)









ASSESMENT-1
1.Find the Transfer function
a) Y
2
(s)/R
1
(s) and
b) Y
2
(s)/R
2
(s) using Block diagram reduction technique.

Solution:
a) Y
2
(s)/R
1
(s)


Hence Y
2
(s)/R
1
(s) = 3/ (s
2
+2s+3)
b) Y
2
(s)/R
2
(s)




Hence Y
2
(s)/R
2
(s) = (-s-2)/ (s
2
+2s+3)



2. Construct Signal Flow Graph for the Differential equation given below.


Solution:
Step 1: Solve the above equation for highest order

Step 2: Consider the left hand terms(highest derivative) as dependant variable
and all other terms on right hand side as independent variables.
Construct the branches of Signal flow graph as shown below:

(a)
Step 3: Connect the nodes of highest order derivatives to the lowest order node
and so on. The flow of signal will be from higher node to lower node and
transmittance will be 1/s as shown in fig (b)

(b)
x y y y y = + ' + ' ' + ' ' ' 2 5 3
y y y x y 2 5 3 ÷ ' ÷ ' ' ÷ = ' ' '
Step 4: Reverse the sign of a branch connecting y’’’ to y’’, with condition no
change in T/F fn.



Step5: Redraw the SFG as shown.






3.For the following state space model of a system, Comment on
Controllability and Observability of the system.







SOLUTION:

i) Controllabilty Matrix, U= [B AB] = [ 3 -6
1 -1 ]

Here rank(U) = 2 = Order of the Matrix
Hence the System is Completely State Controllable.
ii) Observability Matrix, V=[C
CA ]
=[1 0
-2 0 ]
Here rank(U) = 1 ≠ Order of the Matrix
Hence the System is NOT Observable.
| |
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
2
1
2
1
0 1
) (
1
3
1 0
0 2
x
x
y
t u
x
x
x
x


ASSESMENT-2:
1.Obtain the state transition matrix u(t) of the following system. Obtain
also the inverse of the state transition matrix u
-1
(t) .



SOLUTION:

For this system,


The state transition matrix u(t) is given by,


Now,

The inverse (sI-A) is given by,

By Taking Inverse Laplace Transform,
State Transition Matrix is given by,

Since u
-1
(t)= u(-t), we obtain the inverse of transition matrix as,









2.The Transfer function of the system is given as follows. When the system
oscillates with a frequency of oscillation 2 rad/sec, find K and a.


SOLUTION:
The Characteristic equation is given by
1+G(s)H(s) = k(s+1)/ (s
3
+bs
2
+3s+1) + 1 = 0
s
3
+bs
2
+3s+1+k(s+1)=0
s
3
+bs
2
+(3+k)s+(k+1)=0
For Marginally Stable system,
The condition is b(3+k) = (k+1)
b = (k+1) / (k+3)
Now Auxiliary Equation is given by
bs
2
+(k+1)=0

When s=jw
b(-w
2
) + (k+1) = 0

Given w=2 rad/sec,
b(-4) + (k+1) = 0
Substitute the value of b from above equation,
And Solving for k, we get,
K=1
Now b is found as b=0.5

3. A control System defined as follows:
d
2
x/dt
2
+ 6 dx/dt + 5x = 12(1-e
-2t
). Find Response at t tends to ∞
SOLUTION:
Taking Laplace Transform of given equation,
s
2
X(s) + 6 sX(s) + 5 X(s) = 12(1/s – 1/s+2)
X(s)[ s
2
+6s+5] = 12(1/s – 1/s+2)
On solving for X(s), we get,
X(s)= 24/ s(s+2)( s
2
+6s+5)
By Final value Theorem,
Now x(t) when t tends to ∞ = lim s tends to 0 [sX(s)]
= 24/ (2* 5) = 2.4



ASSESMENT-3
1.Sketch the bode plot for the Transfer Function,



SOLUTION:
Step 1: Convert the TF in following standard form & put s=jw


Step 2: Find out corner frequencies
,
So corner frequencies are 10, 1000 rad/sec
The slope will change at each corner frequency by +20dB/dec for zero and
-20dB/dec for pole.

Step 3:
Term Corner Frequency
rad/sec
Slope db/dec Change in slope
db/dec

1/(1+0.1jw)


W
c1
= 10

-20

0-20=-20

1/(1+0.001jw)


W
c2
= 1000

-20

-20-20=-40

) 001 . 0 1 )( 1 . 0 1 (
1000
) (
s s
s G
+ +
=
) 001 . 0 1 )( 1 . 0 1 (
1000
) (
jw jw
jw G
+ +
=
10
1 . 0
1
= 1000
001 . 0
1
=
MAGNITUDE PLOT:

PHASE PLOT:
S.No W Angle (G(jw)
1 1 ----
2 100 -90
0

3 200 -98
0

4 1000 -134.42
0

5 2000 -153.15
0

6 3000 -161.36
0

7 5000 -168.57
0

8 8000 -172.79
0

9 Infi -180
0



PHASE PLOT:

COMPLETE BODE PLOT:



2.The open loop Transfer function of a Unity Negative feedback Control system is
given by
G(s) =

Find the Phase Cross over frequency and Gain Margin.
SOLUTION:
i) Phase Cross over frequency can be found by equating the Phase
angle of G(s) to -180 degree.
-90 -

-

= -180
On Sloving for w, we get,
Phase Cross over frequency, W
pc
=15 rad/sec.
ii) Gain Margin is found by
G.M = 20 log (

)
Hence, G.M= 20 log (

) dB

Since W= 15 rad/sec,
Substituting in the above equation, we get,
Gain Margin, G.M= 34.15 dB.




3.Design cascade Lead compensator for the following system
G(s) =

for ϒ >=30, W
c
>=45 rad/sec,
K
v
>=100s
-1
.

SOLUTION:
Step 1: Determine desired gain K.

Step 2: Gain-compensated system analysis

Let W
c

=50 > 45 rad/sec, then
Arg G
P
(j50) = -90- arctan5-arctan0.5
= -90-78.69- 26.57
= -195.26
The bode diagram for the compensator is given below.






Bode Diagram for the Compensator:


Step 3: Required phase lead angle



Step 4: Calculate




Step 5: Calculate T

Take
Then,


Step 6: Compensator is designed as,




Step 7: Final check

By Asymptotes


o
10
sin 1
sin 1
=
÷
+
=
m
m
¢
¢
o
s rad
m
/ 50 = =
8 . 15
1
158
1
50
1
= = =
T T
T
o
o

s
s
s
s
s G
c
006325 . 0 1
06325 . 0 1
1
158
1
1
8 . 15
1
) (
+
+
=
+
+
=
By Actual Curves