http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?

flora_id=1&taxon_id=200016131
3. Chimaphila umbellata (Linnaeus) W. P. C. Barton, Veg. Mater. Med. U.S. 1: 17. 1817.
Pipsissea, !"i#ap"i$e o#%e$$es Pipsissea, !"i#ap"i$e o#%e$$es
Pyrola umbellata Linnaeus, Sp. P$. 1: 3&'. 17(3
Su%spe!ies ) (1 in t"e *$ora): +ort" ,#eri!a, Me-i!o, West .ndies (/ispanio$a), Centra$ ,#eri!a (0uate#a$a),
1urasia.
Chimaphila umbellata is #orp"o$ogi!a$$2 3aria%$e a!ross its e-tensi3e range. Si- su%spe!ies "a3e %een
re!ogni4ed ide$2 in t"e $iterature: su%sp. acuta in t"e sout"estern United States, su%sp. cisatlantica in eastern
+ort" ,#eri!a, su%sp. domingensis (S. 5. B$a6e) 7orr in /ispanio$a, su%sp. mexicana (de Cando$$e) /u$t8n in
Me-i!o, and su%sp. umbellata in 1urasia. S. 5. B$a6e (1&17), in dis!ussing t"e !o#p$e-, stated, 9..."i$e t"e
di**erentia$ !"ara!ters %roug"t *orard *or t"eir spe!i*i! separation are !on*ined to di**eren!es in si4e, in t"e
pro#inen!e o* t"e 3enation, t"e s"ape o* t"e sepa$s, t"e dire!tion o* t"e pedi!e$s, and t"e rotundit2 o* t"e ste#,
!"ara!ters "i!" are not on$2 rat"er o%s!ure %ut at %est are #ere$2 !o#parati3e, and are s"on %2 t"e #ateria$
e-a#ined to %e %2 no #eans a%so$ute$2 !onstant.9 /iros"i :a6a"as"i (1&87), "o did not !onsider
su%sp.domingensis, *ound %road o3er$ap in #ost #orp"o$ogi! !"ara!ters used to distinguis" t"e su%spe!ies.
1-tre#e *or#s o* t"e spe!tru# o* #orp"o$ogi! e-pression #a2 %e distin!ti3e; 3ariation a#ong t"e ta-a appears to
%e !$ina$. <n$2 su%sp. domingensis, "i!" is geograp"i!a$$2 iso$ated on /ispanio$a and "as g$a%rous pedun!$es
and pedi!e$s, g$a%rous *i$a#ents, and re$ati3e$2 s#a$$ $ea3es, appears to %e su**i!ient$2 distin!t *ro# t"e rest o* t"e
spe!ies to arrant re!ognition (L. =. 7orr 1&&(). .t a$so "as rugu$ate po$$en; ot"er ta-a in!$uded "ere it"in
su%sp.umbellata "a3e psi$ate po$$en (:a6a"as"i 1&8'%).
S1L1C:17 >151>1+C1S B$a6e, S. 5. 1&17. :"e 3arieties o* Chimaphila umbellata. >"odora 1&: )37?)@@.
:a6a"as"i, /iros"i. 1&87. <n t"e in*raspe!i*i! 3ariation o* Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Barton (P2ro$a!eae). ,!ta
P"2tota-. 0eo%ot. 38: 8)?&'.
Asta e din China:
Pyrola umbellata Linnaeus, Sp. P$. 1: 3&'. 17(3; Chimaphila corymbosa Purs"; P. corymbosa (Purs") Berto$oni.
S"ru%s or "er%s, to 1( !# ta$$, !$ona$, o*ten *or#ing e-tensi3e #ats. >"i4o#e $ong !reeping, 1A) ## in dia#.,
%ran!"ed. ,eria$ ste#s ere!t or as!ending, 1A).) ## in dia#., si#p$e or %ran!"ed, ang$ed, g$a%rous. Lea3es
!au$ine, in )A' su%3erti!i$s o* @A& ea!", a$ternating it" !adu!ous s!a$es; petio$e 3A' ##, g$a%rous; $ea* %$ade
a%a-ia$$2 pa$e green, ada-ia$$2 deep green, o%$an!eo$ate, 1A( !# B 'A8 ##, t"i!6$2 $eat"er2, s"in2, ada-ia$$2
g$a%rous and it" 3eins i#pressed, %ase !uneate, #argin serrate a%o3e #idd$e, ape- o%tuse to su%a!ute.
Pedun!$e ere!t, 3A' !#, papi$$ose, )A7?*$oered. Bra!t %road$2 $inear, 3A@ ##. Sepa$s (, persistent, o3ate?
or%i!u$ar, 1A) B 1A) ##, #argin irregu$ar$2 toot"ed, !i$iate. Peta$s "ite, so#eti#es ros2, su%or%i!u$ar, @A' B 3A(
##, !on!a3e, #argin irregu$ar$2 toot"ed, opening *u$$2. Sta#ens: $oer di$ated portion o* *i$a#ents %road$2
e$$ipsoid, sparse$2 papi$$ose; ant"ers 1.(A).3 ##, papi$$ate at %ase, tu%es s"ort, pores !a. C.@ ## ide. <3ar2
$ongitudina$$2 papi$$ose, (?$o!u$ed; stig#a rounded, it" ( s"a$$o $o%es, 1.(A).( ## in dia#. Capsu$es @A7 ##
in dia#., *i%ers a%sent or o%$ong, C.'AC.7 ##. 5$. =u$, *r. SepA<!t. )n D )'.
Chimaphila umbellata is an e3ergreen su%s"ru% o!!urring prin!ipa$$2 in t"e !oni*erous *orests o* t"e te#perate
regions o* t"e + "e#isp"ere. :"is spe!ies "as %een di3ided into *i3e geograp"i!a$$2 de$i#ited in*raspe!i*i! ta-a,
and on$2 t"e t2pi!a$ su%sp. umbellata is distri%uted in C"ina.
7r2 !oni*erous or de!iduous %road?$ea3ed *orests; $o e$e3ations. =i$in, Liaoning, +ei Mongo$ E=apan, >ussia;
ide$2 distri%uted e$se"ere in + te#perate 4oneF.
http://www.n!i.nl".nih.go#/p$!"ed/1%&'03(%
Abstract
Bioassa2?guided *ra!tionation o* C"i#ap"i$a u#%e$$ata (L.) W. Bart (P2ro$a!eae) et"ano$ e-tra!ts $ed
to t"e identi*i!ation o* ),7?di#et"2$?1,@?nap"t"oGuinone (!"i#ap"i$in) as t"e prin!ipa$ anti*unga$
!o#ponent. :"e stru!ture o* !"i#ap"i$in as !on*ir#ed %2 1/ and 13C +M> spe!tros!op2. :"e
anti*unga$ a!ti3it2 o* !"i#ap"i$in as e3a$uated using t"e #i!rodi$ution #et"od it" Sa!!"aro#2!es
!ere3isiae (C.C(#gH#L) and t"e dandru**?asso!iated *ungi Ma$asse4ia g$o%osa (C.3&#gH#L) and
Ma$asse4ia restri!ta (C.((#gH#L). Pronoun!ed antio-idant a!ti3it2 o* C. u#%e$$ata !rude e-tra!t as
a$so identi*ied using t"e 7PP/ (),)?dip"en2$?1?pi!r2$"2dra42$) assa2, suggesting t"is p"2to#edi!ine
"as an antio-idant *un!tion in ound "ea$ing. , !"e#i!a$?geneti! pro*i$e as !o#p$eted it"
!"i#ap"i$in using appro-i#ate$2 @7CC S. !ere3isiae gene de$etion #utants. Ce$$u$ar ro$es o* de$eted
genes in t"e #ost sus!epti%$e #utants and se!ondar2 assa2s indi!ate t"at t"e targets *or !"i#ap"i$in
in!$ude pat"a2s in3o$3ed in !e$$ a$$ %iogenesis and trans!ription.
)in $lti"$l site
http://www.sienediret.o"/siene/artile/pii/*0031&+220%00'6+,
Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphilaumbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol
extracts led to the identifcation of 2,7-dimethyl-,!-na"htho#uinone (chima"hilin) as the
"rinci"al antifungal com"onent. $he structure of chima"hilin %as confrmed &y

' and
(
)
*+, s"ectrosco"y. $he antifungal acti-ity of chima"hilin %as e-aluated using the
microdilution method %ith Saccharomyces cerevisiae (.../ mg0mL) and the dandru1-
associated fungi Malassezia globosa (..(2 mg0mL) and Malassezia restricta (..// mg0mL).
Pronounced antioxidant acti-ity of C. umbellata crude extract %as also identifed using
the 3PP' (2,2-di"henyl--"icrylhydra4yl) assay, suggesting this "hytomedicine has an
antioxidant function in %ound healing. 5 chemical-genetic "rofle %as com"leted %ith
chima"hilin using ∼@7CC S. cerevisiae gene deletion mutants. )ellular roles of deleted
genes in the most susce"ti&le mutants and secondary assays indicate that the targets for
chima"hilin include "ath%ays in-ol-ed in cell %all &iogenesis and transcri"tion.
Graphical abstract
3emonstration of antifungal and antioxidant e1ects su""orts the traditional use of
"i"sisse%a in treating s6in ailments. )hemical-genetic "rofling %ith a li&rary of yeast
deletion mutants indicated that the "rinci"al antifungal constituent, chima"hilin, had a
com"lex mode of action, a1ecting a "rotein7"rotein interaction net%or6 including 289 of
the genes in the "rofle.
Keywords
• Chimaphilaumbellata:
• Malassezia:
• 5ntifungal mode of action:
• 5ntioxidant acti-ity:
• )hemical-genetic "rofle:
• 2,7-3imethyl-,!-na"htho#uinone