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# REVISED GCSE

## For First Teaching September 2010

For First Examination Summer 2011
This Unit Summer 2012
Scheme of Work
Mathematics
Foundation Unit 5
Version 1: 28 April 10
Version 1: 28 April 10
Unit T5
Version 1: 28 April 10
2
Unit T5

This is a working document for teachers to adapt to their own specific needs.

Unit T5
Topic No. Topic Subject Content
1 Number Read, write and order numbers
2 Number The four operations
3 Number BODMAS
4 Algebra Unknowns
5 Algebra Formulae
6 Geometry and Measures Area/Surface Area
7 Algebra Indices
8 Number Number Calculations
9 Algebra Graphs
10 Geometry and Measures Imperial Measures
11 Geometry and Measures Compound Measures
12 Number Ratios
13 Algebra Inequalities
15 Number Estimation
16 Number Degree of Accuracy
17 Geometry and Measures 2D shapes
18 Geometry and Measures Constructions
19 Geometry and Measures Symmetry
20 Geometry and Measures Transformations

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21 Number Language of Number
22 Number Multiplicative Inverses
23 Number Multiplying and Dividing by multiples of ten
24 Handling Data Probability experiments
25 Handling Data Calculating probabilities
26 Handling Data Estimating probabilities
27 Handling Data Probability outcomes

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TOPIC 1: NUMBER Read, write and order numbers UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

order numbers.

How to put numbers in order. Place value of digits.
How to round off to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand.
Readings from rulers, jugs and any other measuring instrument.

Specimen P1 Q1(a)

Specimen P2 Q1

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TOPIC 2: NUMBER The four Operations UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand the four
operations and the
relationship
between them.

Know addition and the effect it has.
Know subtraction and the effect it has.
Recognise that subtraction is the inverse of addition.
Know multiplication and the effect it has.
Know division and the effect it has.
Recognise that division is the inverse of multiplication.

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TOPIC 3: NUMBER OPERATIONS AND APPLICATIONS BODMAS UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand the
effects of operations
on numbers of any
size;

apply order of
precedence.

Class discussion: what effect addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
have on numbers (less than and greater than one).

Teacher demonstration: Introduce the term BODMAS. Explain what the letters
BODMAS represent and complete a number of worked examples. First without
brackets and then with brackets.
Worked example: Distinguish correctly between 3 + 2 5 and
(3 + 2) 5.
Solve problems requiring application of order of precedence.
Example questions:
(a) 14 2 4 (b) 7 + 3 4 (c) (10 + 2) (14 5 + 1)

Distinguish correctly between:

7 . 12 8 . 9
2 . 7

and
8 . 9
2 . 7
+ 12.7

Specimen P1, Q5

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TOPIC 4: TOPIC: ALGEBRA Unknowns UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand key
concepts and terms;

appreciate the use of
letters to represent
unknowns.

Terms such as solve, simplify, substitute.
Distinguish between the different roles played by letter symbols in algebra.
Knowing that letter symbols represent:
definite unknown numbers in equations (e.g. 5x + 1 = 16),
defined quantities or variables in formulae (e.g. V = IR),
general unspecified numbers in identities (e.g. 3x + 2x = 5x for all values of
x)
and in functions they define new expressions or quantities by referring to
known quantities (e.g. y = 2x).

Specimen P1, Q6

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TOPIC 5: TOPIC: ALGEBRA Formulae UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand key
concepts and terms;
understand,
construct and
evaluate formulae
related to
Mathematics or
other subjects or
real-life situations;
change the subject
of linear formulae.

Construct simple algebraic formulae.
For example:
Mr Smith bought a apples and some oranges. He had 4 times as many
oranges as apples. How many oranges did he have?
He used half the apples in a pie and his son ate one. How many apples were
left?
To cook a chicken, allow 20 minutes per lb plus 20 minutes. A chicken
weighs x lb. Write an expression to show the number of minutes m to cook a
chicken.

Find an unknown where it is not the subject of the formula and where an equation
must be solved. For example, the formula for the change C from 50 for d
compact discs at 7 each is C = 50 7d. If C = 15, what is d?

Change the subject of a formula using inverse operations. For example:
Make R the subject of V = IR
Make u the subject of v = u + at

Specimen P2 Q3

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TOPIC 6: GEOMETRY AND MEASURES Area/Surface Area UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

recall and use the
formula for the area
of squares and
triangles;

calculate the surface
areas of cubes and
cuboids.

Use to calculate the areas of compound shapes, parallelograms, rhombuses, kites
and trapezia.

Calculate the surface area of a box.
Illustrate the net of a cube as 6 joined squares. Calculate the area of one square
and hence the surface area of the cube.
Illustrate the net of a cuboid as 6 rectangles/squares, calculate area of each and
hence the surface area.

Specimen P2, Q8 (c)
Specimen P2, Q10

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TOPIC 7: ALGEBRA Indices UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

use the rules of
indices for integral
values.

Use index notation for positive integer powers.

Know that expressions involving repeated multiplication of the same number,
such as nn; nnn; nnnn are written as n
2
, n
3
and n
4
and are referred to as
n squared, n cubed and n to the power of 4, etc.

Understand the different meanings of expressions such as 2n and n
2
, 3n and n
3
.

Simplify expressions such as 2x
2
+ 3x
2
, n
2
n
3
, p
3
p
2

Know and use the general forms of the index laws for multiplication and division
of integer powers:
p
a
p
b
= p
a+b

p
a
p
b
= p
a-b

(p
a
)
b
= p
ab

Specimen P2, Q11

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TOPIC 8: NUMBER Money Calculations UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

calculate with
money.

Solve problems in the context of finance (for e.g. currency exchange rates, loans,
deposit accounts, credit cards, hire purchase, general bank accounts including
overdrafts, interest rates and mortgages, simple interest, mail order sales,
insurance, taxation, wages, salaries, unemployment benefit).

Ability to read bank statements and bills for information.

Work out total wages and salaries received given scenarios.

Use given exchange rates to work out holiday money etc.

Specimen P1 Q3
Specimen P2, Q8 (a), (b)

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TOPIC 9: ALGEBRA Graphs UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

interpret and display
information on
graphs that describe
real-life situations.

Conversion graphs
Discuss practical examples such as:
The number of euros you can exchange for pounds sterling
The number of km equal to miles
The cost of books at 3 each
Draw a graph of such information.
Observe that the points lie in a straight line.
Discuss, plot and interpret graphs (which may be non-linear) modelling real
situations.

Distance-time graphs including intersecting travel graphs
Plot a simple distance-time graph.
Interpret a simple distance-time graph, giving plausible reasons for each section.

Specimen P2 Q5

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TOPIC 10: GEOMETRY AND MEASURES Imperial Measures UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

know imperial
measures still in
common use
including foot, yard,
mile, pound and
pint and their
approximate metric
equivalents.

Recall that 1 kg is about 2.2 lb, 8 km is approximately 5 miles, 1 litre is about
1.75 pints.

Specimen P2, Q6

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TOPIC 11: TOPIC: GEOMETRY AND MEASURES Compound Measures UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand and use
compound measures
including speed and
density.

Work out average speed (distance/time) density (mass/volume)
30 mph for 3 hours = 90 miles
120 miles in 3 hours = 40 mph
400 miles at 50 mph = 8 hours

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TOPIC 12: NUMBER OPERATIONS AND APPLICATIONS Ratios UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

use unitary ratios
and calculate with
ratios in a variety of
situations;

divide a quantity in
a given ratio.

Unitary ratios: for example: 1:n or n:1. Know that if the ratio of cement to sand
is 1:3 then the ratio of sand to cement is 3:1. The order of the objects is very
important. Remember that the ratios are numbered in the same order as they are
written.

Example questions:
In a recipe, the ratio of flour to currants is 5:1. If you need 10 ounces of flour,
how many ounces of currants will you need?

Simplify ratios.

Use the approximation of 5 miles to 8 km to find the equivalent of 12 miles.

State the lengths 8cm and 12cm in a drawing are in the ratio 2:3

Adapt a recipe for six people to one for eight people.

Understand the relationship between fractions and ratios. Divide 10 between
two people in the ratio 2:3

Specimen P1, Q9

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TOPIC 13: ALGEBRA Inequalities UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand key
concepts and terms;
solve inequalities on
a number line.

Solve linear inequalities in one variable.
Represent the solution set on a number line.
For example:
List the values of the integer n such 10 < 2n 20
Solve the inequality 2n 3 7 illustrating the solution on a number line.
Solve x 3x 5 where x is a real number.

Specimen P2 Q12

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TOPIC 14: ALGEBRA Quadratic Functions UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

explore the
properties of

Make tables of such functions.

Sketch and interpret their graphs using graphical calculators and computers to
understand their behaviour.

To include drawing graphs of y = ax
2
+ bx + c

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TOPIC 15: NUMBER Estimation UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

approximate
numbers to the
nearest unit, 10 or
100;

estimate within
calculations
(initially with
numbers within 100
and extending to all
whole numbers).

Estimate that 1472 383 is about 1100 (1500 400)

Estimate that 278 39 is about 7 (280 40)

Understand that 32.24 9.75 is approximately 30 10

Recognise that
7 . 5
4 . 83 25 . 0

Specimen P1 Q1(b)
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TOPIC 16: NUMBER Degree of Accuracy UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

give solutions in the
context of a
problem to an
appropriate degree
of accuracy,
recognising
limitations on the
accuracy of data and
measurements.

Comment on the upper and lower bounds of data.
e.g. 10.5cm correct to the nearest tenth means a range from 10.45cm to 10.55cm.

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TOPIC 17: GEOMETRY AND MEASURES 2D Shapes UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

explore shape
through drawing
and practical work
using a wide range
of materials.

Recognise and describe 2-D shapes.

Recognise right-angled corners in 2-D shapes.

Specimen P1, Q8

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TOPIC 18: GEOMETRY AND MEASURES Constructions UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

use ruler and
compasses for
standard
constructions;
construct loci.

To include triangles, quadrilaterals, the mid-point and perpendicular bisector of a
line segment, the perpendicular from a point to a line, the perpendicular from a
point on a line and the bisector of an angle.

Region bounded by a circle and an intersecting line.

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TOPIC 19: GEOMETRY AND MEASURES Symmetry UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

recognise symmetry
properties in a
variety of shapes in
two dimensions;
recognise line
symmetry;
draw the axes of
symmetry;
reflect shapes in a
mirror line;
recognise rotational
symmetry, its order
and centre;
know and use
symmetry properties
of triangles,
other polygons;
recognise planes of
symmetry in
practical situations.

Find the centres and axes of symmetry in a variety of shapes.
Rotate shapes using tracing paper.
Reflection to include rectilinear figures only.

Study shapes and identify some lines and planes of symmetry.

Specimen P1, Q4

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TOPIC 20: GEOMETRY AND MEASURES Transformations UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand
transformation of
shapes;
reflect shapes in a
line,
[for example, x = 1];
given centre;
translate shapes;
enlarge a shape
through a given centre
of enlargement
recognise that
enlargements preserve
angle but not length;
distinguish properties
that are preserved
under particular
transformations.

Transformations will include single or combined enlargements, reflections,
rotations and translations.
Rotations will be limited to 90
o
and 180
o
Reflections will be limited to reflections in lines parallel to the co-ordinate
axes.
Vector notation for translation.

Enlarge a shape by a whole number scale factor only.

Use transformations to create and analyse spatial patterns.

Specimen P1, Q2

Specimen P1, Q12

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TOPIC 21: NUMBER Language of Number UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand and use
the language of
number.

Reciprocal: understand the meaning of reciprocal and its place in number
patterns. If the product of two numbers is 1 then each number is called the
reciprocal of the other.
Example: You know that 2 = 1, so you say 2 is the reciprocal of and is
the reciprocal of 2.
Questions: What is the reciprocal of
(a) 7 (b) 10 (c) (d)

Specimen P1 Q11(a)

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TOPIC 22: NUMBER Multiplicative inverses UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

use unit fractions as
multiplicative
inverses;

understand
reciprocal as
multiplicative
inverse.

Know that multiplication by
5
1
is equivalent to division by 5

Know that any non-zero number multiplied by its reciprocal is one and that zero
has no reciprocal, because division by zero is not defined.

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TOPIC 23: NUMBER Multiplying and Dividing by multiples of ten UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

multiply and divide
mentally single digit
multiples of any
power of ten.
Realise that, when
multiplying by a
number less than
one, multiplication
has a decreasing
effect, and division
an increasing effect.

Multiply by numbers less than 1. Divide by numbers less than 1 (using and not
using a calculator).

Work out mentally 80 0.2 and 600 0.2

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TOPIC 24: HANDLING DATA Probability experiments UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

understand possible
outcomes of random
trials or experiments;

understand that there
is a degree of
occurrence of some
events, and others are
certain or impossible;

know that when
repeating the same
experiment, different
outcomes may result
and that the possible
outcomes may not be
equally likely;

understand and use 0
and 1 as the limits of
the probability scale.

Know what the term probability means. Know that you do not always get 5
heads in 10 tosses of a fair coin and very occasionally there will be none.
Discussions as to whether or not all outcomes are equally likely.

Place events in order of likelihood and use appropriate words to identify
chance. Mark the likelihood of events on a probability scale.

Specimen P2, Q9(a)

Specimen P1 Q10(c)

Specimen P2, Q7

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TOPIC 25: HANDLING DATA Calculating Probability UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

know that for
equally likely
outcomes, the
probability of an
event is the number
of desirable
outcomes divided
by the number of
possible outcomes.

Know that if there are six identical beads numbered 1, 1, 2, 2, 3 and 4, the
probability of selecting a bead labelled 1 is 2/6 = 1/3
Calculate probabilities.
Write probabilities as fractions and simplify answers.
Use probability to calculate expected frequency.

Specimen P1 Q7(a),(b)

Specimen P1 Q10(b)

Specimen P2, Q9(b)

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TOPIC 26: HANDLING DATA Estimating Probability UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

recognise situations
where probabilities
can be based on
equally likely
outcomes and others
where estimates
must be based on
sufficient
experimental
evidence and make
these estimates;

understand and use
relative frequency
as an estimate of
probability.

Experimental probability. Experiment to find the contents of a bag to introduce
relative frequency.

Find relative frequency.

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TOPIC 27: HANDLING DATA Probability outcomes UNIT: T5

Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies:

Resources:

Pupils should be able to:

identify all the
outcomes when
dealing with a
combination of two
independent events
using diagrams or
tables, and use these
to find probabilities;

know that if there
are several possible
outcomes
(exhaustive and
mutually exclusive),
the total of these
probabilities is 1.

understand that the
probability of
something
happening is 1
minus the
probability of it not
happening.

Complete sample space diagrams for various events. List all the outcomes when
tossing two coins; HH, TT, TH, HT.

Make a table of all the outcomes when throwing two dice and show the total
sums arising.

Find probabilities using sample spaces.

Calculate the probability that an event will not happen. Recognise that if the
probability of a machine failing is 0.05 then the probability of it not failing is
0.95

Specimen P1 Q10(a)
Specimen P1 Q7(c)