ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

- Engineering Practices Laboratory

(Common to all B.E. / B.Tech. Degree Programmes)SEMESTER I
GROUP B (ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS)
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICES
1. Residential house wiring using switches, fuse, indicator, lamp and energymeter.
2. Fluorescent lamp wiring.
3. Stair case wiring
4. Measurement of electrical quantities – voltage, current, power & powerfactor in RLCcircuit.
5. Measurement of energy using single phase energy meter.
6. Measurement of resistance to earth of electrical equipment.





ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING PRACTICES
1.Study of Electronic components and equipments – Resistor, colour codingmeasurement of AC
signal parameter (peak-peak, rms period, frequency) usingCRO
2.Study of logic gates AND, OR, EOR and NOR.
3.Generation of Clock Signal.
4.Soldering practice – Components Devices and Circuits – Using general purposePCB.
5.Measurement of ripple factor of HWR and FWR.









RESIDENTIAL HOUSE WIRING USING SWITCHES,
FUSE, INDICATOR LAMP AND ENERGY METER
AIM:-
To make simple residential house wiring using switches, fuse, indicator, filament
lamps and energy meter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-
Wiring Board
Connecting Wires
Lamps
Fuse
Indicator
Energy meter

THEORY:-
A switch is used to make or break the electric circuit. It must make the contact finely.
Under some abnormal conditions it must retain its rigidity and keep its alignment
between switch contacts. Different types of switches are as follows.
1. Surface or Tumbler switch
a. Single way switch
b. Two way switch
2. Flush Switch
3. Pull or Ceiling switches
4. Rotary snap switches
5. Push button switch
6. Iron- Clad watertight switches
The fuse arrangement is made to break the circuit in the fault or overloaded conditions.
The energy meter is measuring the units (KWhr) consumed by the various loads.








CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-



PROCEDURE:-
1. Mark the bulb and switch positions.
2. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.
3. Switch on the supply.
4. Check the lamps are glowing or not in the corresponding switches are kept in
the ON position.
5. Check whether the energy meter responding to the load.


RESULT:-
Thus the simple house wiring by using switches, fuse, indicator, filament lamps and
energy meter was studied.

Viva Questions:
1.What are the different types of house wiring used in non-industrial premises?
2.What are the advantages of non metallic PVC wiring?
3.What are the accessories used for conduit wiring?
4.How the selection of size of the cable is decided?
5.What are the types of lamp holder?





MEASUREMENT OF POWER USING WATTMETER


Aim:
To measure the power in the AC circuit with the help of a single-phase wattmeter.

Apparatus required:
1. Single phase autotransformer 1 KVA, (0-300V)
2. Wattmeter 300V, 10A UPF
3. Connecting wires
4. Lamp load
5. Voltmeter (0-300) V MI
6. Ammeter (0-10) A MI


Formula used:
1.Indicated value of power = Measured value X Multiplication factor
2.Actual power = VI Cos Watts
Where, V-Voltmeter reading
I - Ammeter reading
Assumed power factor Cos = 1
3. % Error = Indicated power-Actual power X 100
Actual Power










CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

TABULATION



Procedure:
1.The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Initially no load is applied
3.The autotransformer is varied to the rated voltage.
4.The values of voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter on no load condition is noted.
5.By varying the load in steps the corresponding readings of ammeter, voltmeter
and wattmeter are noted.
6.The % Error is calculated.



Result:
Thus the power in the circuit was measured by the wattmeter and the % error was calculated.



Viva Questions
1. Mention two types of wattmeter
2. How are current coil terminal of a wattmeter identified
3. How are pressure coil terminal of a wattmeter identified
4. If wattmeter pointer tends to deflect in the reverse direction, what is the action to
be taken
5. What is meant by Multiplication Factor as applied to wattmeter
6. State precautions to be observed while conducting the experiment
MEASUREMENT OF POWER FACTOR

Aim :
To measure power factor for the load in the given circuit.

Apparatus required:
1. Single phase autotransformer 1 KVA , 230/(0-270)V
2. Voltmeter (0-300)V, MI
3. Ammeter (0-10)A MI
4. Wattmeter 300V, 10A, UPF
5. Load
6. Connecting wires

Theory:
The numerical value of cosine of the phase angle between the applied voltage and
the current drawn from the supply voltage gives the power.
It is denoted by cos.
For pure resistive circuit power factor value is 1 and for pure inductive or
capacitive circuits power factor is 0. For the other combinations the power factor is
defined as lagging or leading i.e whether the resultant current lags or leads the supply
voltage.
Circuit Diagram

Tabular Column

Formula used:
Power measured by wattmeter = VI cos
Actual power = VI
V - Voltmeter reading in volts
I - Ammeter reading in Amps
Power factor cos = Power measured by wattmeter (VI cos)
Actual Power (VI)




Procedure:
1.The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2.The autotransformer is varied to the rated voltage.
3.The values of voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter are noted for the various load
conditions
4.Finally by using the formula the value of power factor is calculated.


Result:

Thus the power factor in the given circuit was measured.

MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE TO EARTH OF
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Aim:
To measure the resistance to earth / insulation resistance of the order of mega ohms.

Theory:
For this experiment we have to use the Megger. Is is an instrument for testing the
insulation resistance of the order of mega ohms.

Principle:
A megger consists of an emf source and a voltmeter. The voltmeter scale is
calibrated in ohms. In measurement, the emf of the self-contained source should be equal
that of the source used in calibration.
The deflection of the moving system depends on the ratio of the currents in the coils
and is independent of the applied voltage. The value of unknown resistance can be found
directly from the scale of the instrument. Figure shows detailed diagram of a megger. It
consists of a hand driven dc generator a emf about 500v.the permanent dc meter has two
moving coils. First one is deflecting coil and another another one is controlling coil. The
deflecting coil is connected to the generator through a resistor R2 . The torque due to the
two coils oppose each other. It consists of three terminals E (earth terminal ) and L (line
terminal) and G (guard wire terminal).

Operation:
When the terminals are open circuited, no current flows through the deflecting coil.
The torque to the controlling coil moves the pointer to one end of the scale. When the
terminals are short circuited, the torque due to the controlling coil and the pointer is
deflected to the other end of the scale i.e. zero mark. In between the two extreme
positions the scale is calibrated to indicate the value of unknown resistance directly. The
unknown insulation resistance is the combination of insulation volume resistance and
surface leakage resistance. The guard wire terminal makes the surface leakage current to
by pass the instrument hence only insulation resistance is measured.
Result:
Thus the measured value of the resistance to earth / insulation resistance of the unknown
material is = ----- M






Procedure:
1.Mark switch and bulb location points and draw lines for wiring on the wooden board.
2. Place wires along the lines and fix them with the help of clamps
3. Fix the two-way switches and bulb holder in the marked positions on the wooden
board.
4. Complete the wiring as per the wiring diagram.
5. Test the working of the bulbs by giving electric supply to the circuit.


Result
The staircase wiring is completed and tested.
TUBE LIGHT WIRING
Aim
To prepare wiring for a fluorescent tube light with switch control.

Tool required
1. Screw driver
2. Hammer
3. Cutting Plier
4. Line tester

Components required
1. Switch
2. Tube light with fitting
3. Joint clips
4. Wires
5. Screws
6. Switch board

FLUORESCENT LAMP WIRING:-