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**Effect of moist curing and use of lightweight sand
**

on characteristics of high-performance concrete

Soo-Duck Hwang

•

Kamal H. Khayat

•

Dalia Youssef

Received: 22 December 2011 / Accepted: 28 May 2012 / Published online: 19 June 2012

Ó RILEM 2012

Abstract Factorial design approach was undertaken

to determine the effect of initial moist-curing duration

(0 and 6 days) on properties of high-performance

concrete (HPC) made with different water-to-cemen-

titious materials ratios (w/cm) of 0.30 and 0.40 and

sand substitution rates with lightweight sand (LWS) of

0 and 30 %, by volume. Mechanical properties of HPC

are shown to be mainly affected by w/cm and total

shrinkage of concrete by the LWS replacement rate

and initial moist-curing period. It should be noted that

concrete made with 30 % LWS replacement that did

not receive any moist-curing exhibited lower shrink-

age than moist-cured concrete prepared without any

LWS, regardless of the w/cm. Combined use of 30 %

LWS and 7 days of moist curing can lead to greater

increase in compressive strength and larger decrease

in total shrinkage compared to the use of 30 % LWS

without moist curing or 7 days of moist curing without

LWS. The use of LWS, however, is more practical and

efﬁcient to reduce shrinkage of HPC for deep concrete

elements.

Keywords Autogenous shrinkage Á Drying

shrinkage Á Experimental design Á High-performance

concrete Á Internal curing Á Lightweight sand

1 Introduction

The use of high-performance concrete (HPC) is widely

accepted for the construction and repair of concrete

infrastructure in North America. However, compared

with conventional concrete, HPC may develop greater

risk of cracking if not properly cured. Water curing is

essential to promote continuous cement hydration,

reﬁnement of the capillary porosity, and reduce the risk

of cracking due to shrinkage. This can lead to increased

strength and the lowpermeability. This is especially the

case when the concrete is proportioned with low water-

to-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) using ﬁnely

ground cementitious materials, such as silica fume. In

such concrete, the outer surface should be maintained

moist at early age to reduce the risk of cracking due to

autogenous shrinkage. Independently of the w/cm,

autogenous shrinkage can develop in concrete cured

in a closed system. Such shrinkage may be negligible

compared to the drying shrinkage in the case of

conventional concrete, which is typically proportioned

with moderate to high w/cm. On the other hand, in the

S.-D. Hwang Á D. Youssef

Department of Civil Engineering, Universite´ de

Sherbooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada

e-mail: soo-duck.hwang@USherbrooke.ca

D. Youssef

e-mail: dalia.youssef@hotmail.com

K. H. Khayat (&)

Department of Civil, Architectural, Environmental

Engineering, Missouri University of Science and

Technology, 224, Engineering Research Lab, Rolla,

MO 65409, USA

e-mail: Khayatk@mst.edu

Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46

DOI 10.1617/s11527-012-9881-7

case of HPC made with low w/cm, the magnitude of

autogenous shrinkage can be as high as that of drying

shrinkage and should be controlled to reduce the risk of

cracking and enhance concrete performance.

Jensen and Hansen [1, 2] reported that autogenous

shrinkage can be as high as 3,000 lm/m in cement

paste made with w/cm of 0.25. Tazawa and Myazawa

[3] measured autogenous shrinkage values on the order

of 4,000 lm/m in paste of low w/cm. In the case of

concrete, autogenous shrinkage values as high as

600 lm/m were reported. The difference in shrinkage

behavior of HPC and conventional concrete can be

explained by the major differences that can be

observed at the microstructural level between the two

materials [4–6]. In the case of conventional concrete

made with relatively high w/cm, capillary water is

drained with relative ease because the water is weakly

retained in the coarse capillary network. Tensile forces

accompanying the creation of menisci in the coarse

capillaries are not high enough to result in signiﬁcant

autogenous shrinkage. On the other hand, in the case of

HPC of low w/cm, autogenous shrinkage develops

rapidly as water drains from the ﬁne pore structure.

A number of approaches can be used to mitigate

cracking induced by shrinkage at early age in HPC.

This includes the modiﬁcation of cement composition,

use of supplementary cementitious materials, incor-

poration of ﬁbers, control of moist curing conditions,

and internal curing [7]. Shrinkage mitigation through

internal curing has recently gained attention [8, 9]. To

implement this technique, several methods have been

proposed, including the use of water-saturated light-

weight aggregate (LWA) [10–15], super-absorbent

polymers [8], and shrinkage-reducing admixtures

[16]. Water-saturated materials, including pre-satu-

rated aggregates, provide an internal source of water

necessary to replace that consumed by chemical

shrinkage during hydration. As the cement hydrates,

this extra water will be drawn from the relatively large

pores in the LWA into the much smaller ones in the

cement paste. This will minimize the development of

autogenous shrinkage since the shrinkage stress is

controlled by the size of the smallest empty pore, via

the Kelvin–Laplace equation [9]. Crack width result-

ing from plastic shrinkage can also be reduced as the

LWA replacement volume is increased [17].

Autogenous shrinkage can further increase the risk of

early-age cracking when the concrete subjected to

restrained shrinkage. In repair applications, thermal

contraction and shrinkage of the repair material can be

restrainedbyexistingconcrete andreinforcement as well

as by adjacent structural steel members, such as steel

girders in a composite bridge deck. The risk of cracking

of HPC can be high given the high elastic modulus of

such concrete and its lower degree of stress relaxation at

early age. Therefore, internal curing is gaining accep-

tance as an effective means of reducing autogenous

shrinkage in massive structural elements made with

HPC, thus decreasing total shrinkage (autogenous and

drying shrinkage) of such concrete [12].

The majority of research on lightweight sand (LWS)

aimed to evaluate the inﬂuence of LWS content on

concrete shrinkage and did not particularly address

shrinkage reduction as a function of the effect of using

LWS and initial duration of moist-curing. This paper

investigated the effect of LWS substitution rate on the

engineering properties of HPC subjected to various

periods of external moist-curing for HPC proportioned

with different w/cm. Statistical models were estab-

lished for compressive strength, elastic modulus, total

shrinkage, and rapid chloride-ion permeability (RCP)

values. Trade-offs between w/cm, LWS substitution

rate, and initial moist-curing period (MCP) on the

values of the modeled properties were established.

Recommendations for LWS replacement rate and

curing of HPC made with LWS are discussed.

Knowledge gained in this research can be used to

develop mix design guidelines, curing provisions, and

technical speciﬁcations for owner agencies and mate-

rial suppliers to promote wider acceptance of LWS as

a key component of durable concrete for infrastructure

construction and repair.

2 Experimental program

2.1 Scope of work and testing program

An experimental design approach was undertaken to

determine the effect of LWS substitution rate on key

engineering properties of HPC. The testing parameters

include varying the replacement of the total sand

volume by 0–30 % of LWS, changing the w/cm

between 0.30 and 0.40, and subjecting the concrete to

an initial MCP of 0–6 days, in addition to 1 day in the

molds. An experimental design approach was used to

determine the effect of these parameters on key

engineering properties of HPC. As shown in Table 1,

36 Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46

16 concrete mixtures were prepared in the factorial

design that takes into consideration three main factors

each evaluated at two distinct levels of -1 and ?1

(minimum and maximum levels). The central point of

the factorial design was repeated four times (mixtures

9–12) to validate the relative error of each modeled

response. The central mixture corresponds to 15 %

volume substitution of normal weight sand by LWS, a

w/cm of 0.35, and an initial moist-curing duration of

3 days after demolding at 1 day. Four additional

mixtures (No. 13–16) were prepared to evaluate the

validity of the derived statistical models. The coded

values are calculated as the difference between

the absolute values and values corresponding to the

central points divided by the difference between the

absolute values corresponding to the 0 and 1 coded

values, as follows:

Coded w/cm ¼ absolute w/cm À 0:35 ð Þ=0:05

Coded LWS% ¼ absolute LWS%À 15 ð Þ=15

Coded initial moist À curing period after demolding

MCP ð Þ ¼ absolute MCP À 3 ð Þ=3

Table 2 summarizes the experimental design test-

ing program. Samples prepared to evaluate mechanical

properties and shrinkage were subjected to different

durations of initial moist-curing of 0, 3, and 6 days in

quasi-isothermal conditions following demolding after

1 day of age. Following the initial MCP, the samples

were subjected to air-drying at 23 ± 2 °C and 50 %

R.H. The RCP test was used to assess the electrical

conductivity of the concrete. Again, different dura-

tions of initial moist-curing of 0–6 days were applied.

Several 100 9 200 mm cylinders were cast to

determine compressive strength (ASTM C 39) and

modulus of elasticity (ASTM C 469). Prisms measur-

ing 75 9 75 9 355 mm were prepared to evaluate

frost durability (ASTM C 666, A and C 330). In

general, samples for frost durability are cured for

14 days prior to testing; however, as presented in

Table 2, the ‘‘Standard Speciﬁcation for Lightweight

Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C 330)’’

stipulates that unless otherwise speciﬁed, LWA con-

crete specimens for frost durability is removed from

moist-curing at the age of 14 days and then exposed to

air-drying at 50 ± 5 % R.H. and 23 ± 2 °C for

another 14 days. Thereafter, frost durability speci-

mens were submerged in water at 4 °C for 24 h prior

to the durability testing. Cylinders used for air-void

system measurement were moist cured for 6 days after

Table 1 Test variables of investigated concrete mixtures

Type Mixture No. Coded values Absolute values

LWS/total

sand

w/cm Initial period

of moist-curing

LWS/total sand

(% by volume)

w/cm Initial period of

moist-curing (day)

a

8 HPC mixtures 1 1 1 1 30 0.40 6

2 1 1 -1 30 0.40 0

3 1 -1 1 30 0.30 6

4 1 -1 -1 30 0.30 0

5 -1 1 1 0 0.40 6

6 -1 1 -1 0 0.40 0

7 -1 -1 1 0 0.30 6

8 -1 -1 -1 0 0.30 0

Central point mixtures

(repeated four times:

No. 9–12)

9 0 0 0 15 0.35 3

10 0 0 0 15 0.35 3

11 0 0 0 15 0.35 3

12 0 0 0 15 0.35 3

Mixtures used to

validate models

13 -1 -1/3 -1/3 0 0.33 2

14 -1/3 -1 1/3 10 0.30 4

15 ?1 -2/3 1/3 30 0.32 4

16 1/3 ?1 -1/3 20 0.40 2

a

Additional moist-curing duration after demolding at 1 day

Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46 37

demolding and then exposed to air-drying at

50 ± 5 % R.H. and 23 ± 2 °C prior to testing at

28 days.

A digital-type extensometer was used to monitor

total shrinkage of HPC using prismatic specimens

measuring 75 9 75 9 285 mm. At 24 h after casting,

the mold was removed very carefully. Initial lengths of

shrinkage specimens were recorded and then, shrink-

age specimens were subjected to different MCPs,

including no further moist-curing, 3 days of additional

moist-curing, and 6 days of additional moist-curing

before the exposure to air-drying at 50 ± 5 % R.H.

and 23 ± 2 °C in order to evaluate the inﬂuence of

MCP on total shrinkage of HPC. These periods

correspond then to 1, 4, and 7 days of moist curing,

including 1 day in the mold. The shrinkage measure-

ment started from the time of form removal at 24 h,

thus, the shrinkage deformation includes autogenous

shrinkage and drying shrinkage of HPC from the time

of form removal at 24 h. It should be mentioned that

autogenous shrinkage from the time of setting to that

of form removal was not included in the shrinkage

values reported in this study.

2.2 Materials and mixture composition

As presented in Table 3, all of the investigated

mixtures were prepared with CSA Type GUb-SF

cement (similar to CEM II/A-D cement) containing

approximately 92 % Type GU cement and 8 % silica

fume, by mass, and continuously graded crushed

limestone aggregate with 10 mm nominal maximum

size of aggregate (MSA). The sand-to-total aggregate

volume ratio (S/A) was ﬁxed at 0.43. Well-graded

siliceous sand was employed as normal-weight sand

(NWS). The coarse aggregate has bulk speciﬁc gravity

of 2.74 and absorption value of 0.35 %. The NWS and

LWS have ﬁneness moduli of 2.6 and 3.4, bulk speciﬁc

gravities of 2.63 and 1.82, and absorption values of

1.43 and 21 %, respectively. Based on the material

characteristics of the LWS from the supplier, the bulk

loose unit weight of the LWS ranged from 720 to

880 kg/m

3

depending on gradation. Concretes made

with the LWS have been exposed to more than 300

cycles of freezing thaw without deteriorations.

A polycarboxylate-based high-range water reducer

(HRWR) and a sulfonate-based air-entraining agent

(AEA) were used. The dosage rates of the HRWR

and AEA were adjusted to secure an initial slump

and air content values of 150 ± 20 mm and 5–8 %,

respectively.

Before every batching, the LWS was pre-treated to

secure a saturated surface-dry (SSD) condition. First,

the moisture content of the LWS was determined

according to ASTM C 128 (oven-dry for 48 h). The

moisture content LWS was sometimes less than the

SSD. The bulk LWS used for every batching was

added to a concrete mixer. Enough water was then

Table 2 Testing program and curing for experimental design

Concrete

property

Property Curing regime

Plastic

properties

Slump, unit weight, and air volume –

Mechanical

properties

Compressive strength (ASTM C 39) at 1, 3,7,

28, 56 and 91 days

1 day in the mold, then 0, 3, or 6 days of initial moist-curing and

air-drying at 23 °C and 50 % R.H.

Modulus of elasticity (ASTM C 469) at 28 and

91 days

Visco-

elastic

properties

Total shrinkage on prisms

(ASTM C 157)

1 day in mold, then 0, 3, or 6 days of initial moist-curing, then air-

drying at 23 °C and 50 % R.H. (monitored from demolding at

1 day)

Durability Air-void system (ASTM C 457) 1 day in mold, then 6 days of initial moist-curing and air-drying at

23 °C and 50 % R.H. prior to testing at 28 days

Frost durability ASTM C 330: Procedure for

LWS and lightweight coarse aggregate

mixtures

14 days of moist-curing including 1 day in mold, then 14 days of

air-drying at 23 °C and 50 % R.H. and 1 day in water at 4 °C

Transport

properties

56-day chloride-ion permeability (ASTM C

1202)

1 day in mold, then 0, 3, or 6 days of initial moist-curing, and air-

drying at 23 °C and 50 % R.H.

38 Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46

introduced to the bulk LWS (non-oven-dried LWS) in

the mixer to reach SSD condition, and the LWS was

homogenized thoroughly in the concrete mixer then

placed in sealed plastic bags to maintain the SSD

conditions before batching (1 day before batching).

Weight values of LWS and NWS presented in Table 3

include water for saturation.

2.3 Mixing procedure

The concrete was prepared in 80-L batches using an

open-pan mixer of 100-L capacity. The mixing

sequence consisted of homogenizing the sand and

coarse aggregate for 30 s before introducing half of

the mixing water and AEA. The AEA was diluted in

half of the mixing water then added to the concrete.

After 30 s of mixing, all of the cementitious materials

were introduced along with the remaining water that

was used to dilute the HRWR. The concrete was

mixed for 3 min and kept at rest for 3 min, before

remixing for two additional minutes. The mixture was

kept at rest for 30 s before sampling and testing.

3 Test results

3.1 Effect of LWS, w/cm, and moist-curing

duration on mechanical properties

In general, the compressive strength and elastic

modulus varied with the w/cm, LWS replacement

rate, and duration of moist-curing, as presented in

Table 4. For a given w/cm, moist-cured concrete

exhibited higher compressive strength and elastic

modulus than similar concrete exposed to air-drying

right after demolding, regardless of the LWS replace-

ment rate. It is interesting to note that the relative

inﬂuence of moist-curing duration and LWS replace-

ment on compressive strength depends on w/cm of the

concrete. In the case of mixture made with relatively

high w/cm of 0.40, strength increase resulting from

6 days of moist-curing was much larger than strength

gain due to the incorporation of 30 % LWS. On the

contrary, mixtures made with 0.3 w/cm exhibited

larger strength increase due to LWS replacement than

the extended duration of moist-curing. This indicates

that the effect of internal curing through the use of

LWS is more signiﬁcant for concrete with low w/cm

that has less water available for cement hydration.

For a given w/cm and LWS replacement rate,

mixtures moist-cured for 7 days exhibited higher

compressive strengths after 28 days of age compared

to those subjected to air-drying after 1 day in the mold

(1 day of moist-curing). It is interesting to note that,

however, at 1, 3, and 7 days, the 0–0.3–0 M mixture

subjected to air-drying after demolding had slightly

higher compressive strength than the 0–0.3–6 M

moist-cured for 7 days. The higher compressive

strength of the 0–0.3–0 M at 1–7 days can be attrib-

uted to the lower air content (5.3 vs. 7 %) and lower

internal relative humidity of the air-dried concrete

when tested. Such lower internal moisture of the air-

dried mixture (0–0.3–0 M), however hindered further

cement hydration, thus leading to lower compressive

strength values at ages beyond 28 days compared to

the 0–0.3–6 M concrete.

Table 3 Mixture compositions of HPC (kg/m

3

)

30–0.4

a

30–0.3 0–0.4 0–0.3 15–0.35 0–0.33 10–0.3 30–0.32 20–0.4

Mixture No. (Table 1) 1, 2 3, 4 5, 6 7, 8 9, 10, 11, 12 13 14 15 16

Design mixtures Central point mixtures Validation mixtures

Cement GUb-SF 470 470 470 470 470 470 470 470 470

Sand NWS 477 514 681 734 601 716 662 509 546

LWS 141 152 0 0 73 0 51 150 94

Coarse aggregate 10 mm MSA 940 1,014 940 1,014 977 990 1,013 1,000 940

Water – 188 141 188 141 164.5 156.7 141 148.8 188

w/cm – 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.35 0.33 0.3 0.32 0.4

HRWR (L/m

3

) 0.8 4.1 1.3 4.9 2.7 to 3 4.0 5.0 4.1 1.2

AEA (mL/m

3

) 170 530 170 470 170 300 490 400 170

a

% of LWS-w/cm

Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46 39

As presented in Table 4, for a given MCP, mixtures

made with 30 % LWS replacement developed slightly

higher compressive strength than similar concrete

prepared without any LWS. In particular, the

30–0.40–6 M mixture made with 30 % LWS and

subjected to 6 days of initial moist-curing after

demolding at 1 day (or 7 days of moist-curing) exhi-

bited higher compressive strength of 56 MPa at

91 days compared to values of 44–51 MPa for the

other mixtures made with 0.4 w/cm. It is interesting to

note that strength increase of concrete containing

30 % LWS increases with the age of concrete. Similar

results were observed for mixtures made with 0.3

w/cm. Unlike the case of compressive strength, concrete

made with 30 % LWS replacement had lower elastic

modulus than similar concrete prepared without any

LWS, as presented in Table 4. In particular, the 30–

0.40–0 M mixture exhibited signiﬁcantly lower 28-day

elastic modulus of 26 GPa compared to 29–30 GPa for

the other mixtures prepared without any LWS.

3.2 Effect of LWS, w/cm, and moist-curing

duration on total shrinkage

For a given MCP, HPC mixtures made with 30 %

LWS exhibited signiﬁcantly lower shrinkage than

similar concrete prepared without any LWS, as

presented in Fig. 1. In particular, the 30–0.4–6 M

mixture made with 30 % LWS and 6 days of initial

moist-curing exhibited lower shrinkage of 640 lm/m

at 91 days compared to 865–1,630 lm/m for the other

mixtures. It is interesting to note that shrinkage

reduction due to the use of 30 % LWS was larger for

concrete that did not beneﬁt from any initial moist-

curing. Concrete made with 30 % LWS replacement

that did not receive any moist-curing exhibited lower

shrinkage than moist-cured concrete prepared without

any LWS, regardless of the w/cm.

As compared in Fig. 2, for a given w/cm and initial

MCP, the use of 30 % LWS led to 30–47 % decrease

in total shrinkage at 91 days compared to the

Table 4 Mechanical properties and durability results

Codiﬁcation (% LWS-w/cm-MCP) 30–0.4–

6 M

30–0.4–

0 M

30–0.3–

6 M

30–0.3–

0 M

0–0.4–

6 M

0–0.4–

0 M

0–0.3–

6 M

0–0.3–

0 M

15–0.35–

3 M

a

Slump (mm) 150 ± 20

Air content (%) 6.4 7 6.8 6.2 5.5 6.4 7 5.3 6 to7

Unit weight (kg/m

3

) 2,195 2,180 2,235 2,285 2,290 2,240 2,295 2,370 –

Compressive strength (MPa)

1 day 22 23 36 37 19 21 28 34 –

3 days 30 33 44 46 23 32 39 43 –

7 days 38 38 52 53 38 36 47 51 –

28 days 49 44 62 64 45 41 60 56 59

56 days 52 45 68 68 48 43 65 56 60

91 days 56 46 71 68 51 44 65 60 62

Modulus of elasticity (GPa)

28 days 28 26 34 33 30 29 35 34 33

56 days 29 26 35 34 31 30 36 34 34

91 days 30 27 35 34 31 30 36 34 34

RCP at 56 days (C)

56 days 1,000 1,300 410 330 750 960 290 220 500

Air-void spacing factor (lm)

28 days 250 250 300 275 –

Frost durability coefﬁcient (%)

104 101 103 100 98

Total shrinkage (lm/m)

91 days 645 865 445 570 975 1,630 645 1,050 450

a

Mean values of 4 central point mixtures

40 Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46

shrinkage value of corresponding concrete made with

0 % LWS. This is because the internal moisture

supplied by the LWS can maintain greater degree of

saturation of the cement paste, which has a signiﬁcant

impact on the shrinkage. It should be noted that

shrinkage reduction associated with the use of LWS

was much larger in the case of mixtures subjected to

air-drying directly after form removal than those

subjected to 6 days of initial moist-curing (47 and

45 % vs. 34 and 30 %). For example, moist-cured

concrete made with low w/cm of 0.3 had 200 lm/m

shrinkage reduction by 30 % LWS. On the other hand,

air-dried concrete prepared with 0.4 w/cm and 30 %

LWS exhibited 765 lm/m lower shrinkage than

similar concrete made with any LWS.

A decrease in w/cm from 0.4 to 0.3 resulted in

approximately 30 % reduction in total shrinkage at

91 days in the case of mixtures made with LWS and

subjected to 6 days of initial moist-curing. Shrinkage

reduction was 35 % for the non-LWS concrete,

regardless of the MCP. As presented in Fig. 2, an

increase in moist-curing led to signiﬁcant reduction in

shrinkage. In general, concrete that is moist cured for

7 days including 1 day in the molds had 22–40 %

lower shrinkage compared to similar concrete that

received no moist-curing after demolding. Shrinkage

reduction due to moist-curing was much larger for

mixture made without any LWS.

3.3 Effect of LWS, w/cm, and moist-curing

duration on durability

RCP results of concrete mixtures made either with or

without LWS are compared in Fig. 3. The inﬂuence of

moist-curing on RCP values varies with the w/cm. As

presented in Fig. 3, in the case of mixtures made with

0.4 w/cm, an increase in initial MCP from 0 to 6 days

led to a reduction in RCP values. On the other hand,

mixtures proportioned with 0.3 w/cmexhibited similar

RCP values regardless of the MCP. For example,

moist-cured concretes made with 0.4 w/cm had 210

and 300 C reduction compared to those subjected to

air-drying right after demolding. The RCP reduction

was *75 C for concrete with w/cm of 0.3. This

indicates that the duration of moist-curing is more

critical for concrete made with the higher w/cm.

For a given MCP, mixtures made with 30 % LWS

replacement exhibited slightly higher RCP values than

similar concrete prepared without any LWS. The

presence of 30 % LWS led to an increase of 250 and

120 C in mixtures made with 0.4 and 0.3 w/cm,

respectively, in the case of 7 days of moist curing

(1 day in mold and 6 days of moist curing). These

spreads are quite small and may be due to higher

porosity of the mixtures, given the presence of LWS

that has signiﬁcantly higher absorption (more poros-

ity) compared to NWS. In addition, it should be noted

that RCP values of the investigated mixtures are

(a) w/cm = 0.40

(b) w/cm = 0.30

T

o

t

a

l

s

h

r

i

n

k

a

g

e

(

µ

m

/

m

)

Time after casting (day)

T

o

t

a

l

s

h

r

i

n

k

a

g

e

(

µ

m

/

m

)

Time after casting (day)

Fig. 1 Variations of shrinkage of concrete with and without

LWS

T

o

t

a

l

s

h

r

i

n

k

a

g

e

a

t

9

1

d

a

y

s

(

µ

m

/

m

)

Fig. 2 Shrinkage comparison of concrete made with 30 %

LWS and without LWS

Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46 41

classiﬁed into low and very low according to ASTM C

1202. In fact, mixtures made with 0.3 w/cm had

signiﬁcantly low RCP values of 220–410 C, regard-

less of the MCP and LWS replacement.

The RCP values of mixtures made with different

w/cm are also compared in Fig. 3. As expected,

mixtures made with lower w/cm of 0.3 exhibited

signiﬁcantly lower RCP values than similar concretes

prepared with 0.4 w/cm. A decrease in w/cm from 0.4

to 0.3 led to 460 to 970 Creduction in RCP values. It is

interesting to note that the RCP reduction by w/cm

decrease was more signiﬁcant for mixtures subjected

to air-drying right after form removal at 1 day. In

particular, a decrease in w/cm from 0.4 to 0.3 led to

970 C reduction in RCP value for mixtures made with

30 % LWS and without any moist-curing. These

values were 460 and 590 C for the moist-cured

concrete.

The results of the frost durability coefﬁcient and

air-void spacing factor for the investigated mixtures

are compared in Table 4. Excellent frost durability

was obtained with frost durability coefﬁcient of

100–104 %, regardless of the LWS replacement and

w/cm. Air-void spacing factors ranged from 250 to

300 lm. In general, mixtures made with 30 % LWS

replacement had slightly lower spacing factor com-

pared to those prepared without any LWS; however,

this did not affect frost durability.

3.4 Statistical models to evaluate the effects

of LWS, w/cm, and moist-curing duration

on concrete performance

The factors that inﬂuence fresh and hardened proper-

ties of concrete are too complicated to permit the

development of an exact mathematical model.

Therefore, an empirical statistical approach (2

3

full

factorial design) was used to evaluate the inﬂuence of

two different levels of LWS content, w/cm, and

duration of initial moist-curing on compressive

strength development, elastic modulus, shrinkage,

and RCP values using linear multi-regression analysis.

Such a two-level factorial design requires a minimum

number of tests for each variable. The estimate for

each factor refers to the contribution of that factor to

the modeled response. The Design Expert was used to

derive statistical models using measured properties of

concrete mixtures made with different parameters

investigated in this study.

Statistical models were established by multi-

regression analysis using the least square method.

The ﬁrst step in the statistical modeling is to input all

the variables and responses for linear regression

modeling. Secondly, for each response, all the vari-

ables [w/cm, MCP, LWS%, and second order inter-

action (combined effect among the three parameters)]

were selected for the statistical modeling using the

least square method. Once mathematical equations

modeling the relation between all the variables and

targeting response were generated, ‘‘p value (Proba-

bility [F)’’ value for each variable was checked to

verify whether the variable has signiﬁcant inﬂuence on

the response or not. Then, the variables that have

p value higher than 0.1 (in 90 % conﬁdence level)

were removed from the derived equation because

p values higher than 0.1 indicate model terms are not

signiﬁcant. This step was repeated until derived

statistical equation consists of only variables with

p values lower than 0.1 which have signiﬁcant effect

on the modeled response.

The derived statistical models presented in Table 5

demonstrate that the evaluated properties are affected

by the combined effect of the modeled parameters. A

negative estimate signiﬁes that an increase in the

modeled parameter can lead to a reduction in the

measured response. Correlation coefﬁcients (R

2

) of

the derived models ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. For each

modeled response, the single-operator relative error

corresponding to 90 % conﬁdence level was used to

perform signiﬁcance evaluation. The relative errors

were determined using mixtures corresponding to the

central point of the experimental domain. Mean value

for each response and relative errors corresponding to

90 % conﬁdence levels are summarized in Table 6.

All factors are expressed in terms of coded values.

R

C

P

v

a

l

u

e

a

t

5

6

d

a

y

s

(

C

o

u

l

o

m

b

)

Fig. 3 Comparison of RCP values for concrete made with

30 % LWS and without LWS

42 Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46

The models are expressed the factors with the highest

inﬂuence on the modeled responses list by descending

order.

As expected, the w/cm is found to have the most

signiﬁcant effect on mechanical properties. Secondly,

the LWS% had a considerable effect on mechanical

properties, followed by initial MCP. As presented in

Table 5, increases in LWS replacement rate (LWS%)

and MCP lead to increase in the compressive strength

of HPC. On the other hand, the increase in LWS%

reduces modulus of elasticity in particular mixtures

made with w/cm of 0.4. It should be noted that the

effect of LWS% on elastic modulus reduction

decreases with respect to time (-0.88 at 28 and 56

vs. -0.63 at 91 days). This indicates that the use of

LWS can provide additional hydration of cement with

respect to time equilibrating the lower modulus of the

aggregate.

The LWS replacement rate and MCP have similar

or greater effect on total shrinkage compared to w/cm.

The statistical model in Table 5 indicates that shrink-

age of concrete decreases with the increase in LWS

replacement rate and MCP. For a given LWS content

and MCP, it should be mentioned that the increase in

w/cm can lead to increase in total shrinkage. The

shrinkage model in Table 5 indicates that among the

parameters investigated in this study, sand replace-

ment by LWS seems to be the most efﬁcient way to

reduce total shrinkage of HPC.

The four central points (mixtures No. 9–12) and

four additional mixtures (mixture No. 13–16) within

the range of the factorial design were used to validate

the derived statistical models. Based on the relative

error estimates, predicted and measured values are

compared for each of the established models, as

illustrated in Fig. 4 for compressive strength at

different ages. Data points above the solid diagonal

1:1 line indicate that the derived statistical model

overestimates the real values, while those below the

line indicate an underestimation of the actual values.

As presented in Table 6, 90 % conﬁdence level for

28-, 56-, and 91-day compressive strength results are

determined to be 1.4, 2.0, and 1.0 MPa, respectively.

The majorities of the predicted compressive strength

values are within the mean error of ±1.5 MPa (two

dotted diagonal lines) corresponding to the 90 %

conﬁdence level. On average, the predicted-to-mea-

sured compressive strength ratio was 0.998. As in the

case of compressive strength, the other predicted

properties were within the corresponding error limits,

hence demonstrating that the derived models offer

adequate prediction of concrete properties within the

experimental domain of the modeled parameters. It is

important to mention that the absolute values of the

predicted values are expected to change with changes

in raw material characteristics. However, the relative

contributions of the various parameters are expected to

be similar, thus facilitating mix design protocol.

Table 5 Derived models for key engineering properties (coded values)

Property Age (day) Derived equation R

2

p value

(Prob [F)

HRWR demand (L/m

3

) 2.88 - 1.74 w/cm - 0.28 LWS % 0.99 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

Compressive strength (MPa) 28 52.6 - 7.88 (w/cm) ? 2.12 (LWS) ? 1.37 (MCP) 0.97 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

56 55.6 - 8.63 (w/cm) ? 2.62 (LWS) ? 2.62 (MCP) 0.94 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

91 57.6 - 8.38 (w/cm) ? 3.12 (MCP) ? 2.62 (LWS) 0.95 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

Modulus of elasticity (GPa) 28 31.1 - 2.88 (w/cm) - 0.88 (LWS) ? 0.62 (MCP) 0.94 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

56 31.9 - 2.88 (w/cm) - 0.88 (LWS) ? 0.87 (MCP) 0.89 0.0009

91 32.1 - 2.63 (w/cm) ? 0.87 (MCP) - 0.63 (LWS) 0.88 0.0012

RCP (Coulomb) 56 658 ? 345 (w/cm) ? 102.5 (LWS) - 45 (MCP)

? 45 (w/cm)(LWS) - 82.5 (w/cm)(MCP)

0.99 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

Total shrinkage (lm/m),

(? value: contraction)

56 Exp {6.62 - 0.24 (LWS) - 0.23 (MCP)

? 0.2 (w/cm) ? 0.061 (LWS) (MCP)}

0.99 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

91 Exp {6.67 - 0.25 (LWS) ? 0.21 (w/cm)

- 0.19 (MCP) ? 0.058 (LWS) (MCP)}

0.99 ###BOT_TEXT###.0001

Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46 43

4 Discussion

Given the results of the derived statistical models, the

relative inﬂuence of each of the investigated param-

eters on the modeled properties of HPC is presented in

Table 7. As expected, mechanical properties and RCP

of HPC are mostly affected by the w/cm. Shrinkage of

HPC mostly varied with the LWS replacement rate

and MCP. In general, the LWS content has greater

inﬂuence on key engineering properties than the initial

duration of moist-curing. The LWS content has

signiﬁcant inﬂuence on mechanical properties and

shrinkage.

In comparing the inﬂuence of 30 % LWS replace-

ment versus providing an initial moist curing of 6 days

after demolding, Table 8 compares the residual ben-

eﬁts of these two approaches on various properties of

HPC made with w/cm of 0.3 and 0.4. The reported

values represent the approximate beneﬁts that are

deducted from the statistical models resulting from the

use of 30 % LWS versus no LWS and 6 days of initial

moist curing versus no additional moist curing after

demolding (i.e. 1 vs. 7 days of moist curing). The

reference mixture in Table 8 corresponds to concrete

made with normal sand and subjected to no additional

moist curing after demolding (i.e. 1 day of moist

curing).

The use of 30 % LWS can secure slightly greater

reduction in shrinkage than an additional 6 days of

external moist curing. For HPC made with normal

sand (0 % LWS), the use of 7 days of moist curing can

lead to 40 % decrease in total shrinkage, regardless of

the w/cm. If the concrete is subjected only to 1 day of

moist curing, the use of 30 % LWS can reduce total

shrinkage at 91 days by 45 %, regardless of the w/cm.

The use of LWS however, is more practical and

efﬁcient to reduce shrinkage of HPCbecause the depth

that external water curing can overcome may not be

enough to lead to signiﬁcant inﬂuence on shrinkage of

HPC at the core of the concrete elements due to the

low porosity of such concrete. The combined use of

30 % LWS and 7 days of moist curing can lead to

60 % lower shrinkage compared to the reference.

In the case of mechanical properties, it should be

noted that the use of 30 % LWS can lead to *5 %

reduction in compared to mixtures made with normal

sand. Concrete made with 30 % LWS and subjected to

7 days of moist curing can develop similar MOE

compared to the reference concrete (no LWS and

Table 6 Mean values and relative errors of central points (90 % conﬁdence level)

Mean Standard deviation Error Relative error ( %)

HRWR demand (L/m

3

) 2.9 5.1 0.2 6.0

28-day compressive strength (MPa) 52.0 1.2 1.4 2.6

56-day compressive strength (MPa) 55.8 1.7 2 3.6

91-day compressive strength (MPa) 58.0 0.8 1 1.7

28-day modulus of elasticity (GPa) 31.5 0.6 0.7 2.1

56-day modulus of elasticity (GPa) 31.8 0.4 0.5 1.5

91-day modulus of elasticity (GPa) 32.2 0.7 0.8 2.6

56-day RCP (C) 658 22.2 26 4.0

Total shrinkage at 56 days (lm/m) 748 16.6 20 2.6

Total shrinkage at 91 days (lm/m) 791 7.5 9 1.1

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

e

d

c

o

m

p

r

e

s

s

i

v

e

s

t

r

e

n

g

t

h

(

M

P

a

)

Measured compressive strength (MPa)

Fig. 4 Comparison between predicted and measured compres-

sive strength

44 Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46

1 days of moist curing). The combined use of 30 %

LWS and 7 days of moist curing can yield 12–19 and

17–26 % increases in compressive strength of HPC

made with 0.3 and 0.4 w/cm, respectively.

5 Conclusions

Based on the results reported in this paper, the

following conclusions appear to be warranted:

Mechanical properties and RCP values of HPC are

shown to be mainly affected by the w/cm. Shrinkage

of HPC varies mainly with the LWS replacement rate

and MCP.

Internal curing due to the use of 30 % LWS can

lead to slightly greater beneﬁt on shrinkage reduction

compared to the 6 additional days of moist curing. The

30 % LWS replacement with no additional moist

curing can lead to up to 45 % lower shrinkage at

91 days compared to similar concrete made without

LWS. In addition, for deep concrete elements, the use

of LWS is more practical and efﬁcient to reduce

shrinkage of HPC.

Combined use of 30 % LWS and 7 days of moist

curing can lead to greater increase in compressive

strength and larger decrease in total shrinkage com-

pared to the use of 30 % LWS without moist curing or

7 days of moist curing without LWS.

Table 7 Relative signiﬁcance of modeled parameters

w/cm LWS %

Moist-curing

period

L

o

w

M

e

d

i

u

m

H

i

g

h

L

o

w

M

e

d

i

u

m

H

i

g

h

L

o

w

M

e

d

i

u

m

H

i

g

h

HRWR demand

28-day compressive strength

56 and 91-day compressive strength

28, 56, and 91-day MOE

Total shrinkage at 56 and 91 days

Chloride-ion permeability at 56 days

Shaded areas refer to the level of influence for the modeled parameter.

Shaded areas refer to the level of inﬂuence for the modeled parameter

Table 8 Incremental beneﬁts of using 30 % LWS and/or 7 days of moist curing compared to reference concrete made with no LWS

and 1 day of moist curing

w/cm = 0.3 w/cm = 0.4

LWS (%) LWS (%)

0 30 0 30 0 30 0 30

MCP (day) 1 7 1 7

Increase in 28-day compressive strength Reference

concrete (100 %)

7 5 12 Reference

concrete (100 %)

10 7 17

Increase in 56-day compressive strength 9 9 18 13 13 25

Increase in 91-day compressive strength 9 10 19 12 14 26

Increase in 28-day MOE -5 4 -2 -6 4 -2

Increase in 56-day MOE -5 5 0 -6 6 0

Increase in 91-day MOE -4 5 1 -4 6 2

Decrease in shrinkage at 91 days 45 40 60 45 40 60

Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46 45

Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Be´ton

Provincial, Euclid Canada, Northeast Solite Corp., the Jacques

Cartier and Champlain Bridge Inc., the Ministry of Transport of

Que´bec, and the City of Montreal for their support.

References

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46 Materials and Structures (2013) 46:35–46

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