Redox reactions

1. Oxidation: - addition of oxygen/removal of hydrogen/removal of electron is
called oxidation.
Mg + O
2
MgO 2H
2
S + O
2
 2S + 2H
2
O
3

2. Reduction: - addition of hydrogen/removal of oxygen/addition of electron is
called reduction.
3. Redox-Reactions: - Reaction in which oxidation and reduction takes place
simultaneously is called redox reaction.
2Na + Cl
2
 2Na
+
Cl
-
Oxidation half reaction Na  Na
+
+ e
Reduction half reaction Cl + e
-
Cl
-
4. Oxidation Number: - O.N is the charge assigned to an atom in compound or
ion when all elements are removed under certain rules is called oxidation
number.
Rules for assigning Oxidation Number
(i) ON of an element is zero.
(ii) ON of monoatomic ion is equal to its charge.=Eg.Na
+
1, O
2-
-2
(iii) ON of oxygen is -2 but in peroxide it is -1 and in super oxide it is -1/2
(iv) ON of Hydrogen is +1 but in LiH, NaH, KH, CaH
2
it is -1.
(v) ON of fluorine is always -1. ON of Cl,Br,I = -1 but in IF
7
it is +7.
(vi) Algebraic sum of oxidation number of elements in compound is 0.
(vii) ON of polyatomic ion is equal to its charge: NO
3
-
= -1
5. Fractional Oxidation Number:- In C
3
O
2
oxidation no of C= 4/3, in Na
2
S
2
O
6

oxidation number of S=5/2 which is not possible. e
-
never transfer in fraction
but explain as C
3
O
2

6. Oxidant: - It is used to oxidise and it itself reduces i.e. gain electron.
Reductant: - It is used to reduce and it itself oxidises i.e. lose electron.
7. Redox reactions and its types:-
Only those reactions in which oxidation number of element change is called
redox reactions unless it is not redox reaction.
(i) Combination reaction:- C + O
2
 CO
2
, Mg + N
2
 Mg
3
N
2

(ii) Decomposition reaction:- 2KClO
3
2KCl + 3O
2
{ON of Cl and O
change}
(iii) Metal displacement reaction :- CuSO
4
+ Zn  ZnSO
4
+ Cu{ON of Cu,
Zn change}
Non metal displacement reaction:- Na + H
2
O  NaOH + H
2

(iv) Disproportionation reaction :- reaction in which same element
oxidise as well as reduce (have 3 ON) H
2
O
2
 2H
2
0 + O
2

8. Balancing of redox reactions:- (i) By oxidation no method (ii) By e
-
half
reaction method
ON method (i) Assign ON to all elements to O
2
and H
2
[O
2
and H
2
also if ON
change]
(ii) Balance all atom except O
2
and H
2
[O
2
and H
2
also if their ON change]
(iii) Find total decrease in Oxidation Number and total increase in ON balance
change in ON by multiplying by suitable integer.
(iv) Balance charge H+ in acidic medium and OH- in basic medium.
(v) Balance O atom by adding H
2
O in deficient side.
Half reaction method (i) Break the reaction in two half reaction (Oxidation and
reduction and balance each by above two method by e
-
and add the reaction
9. Redox reaction is base of titration:- The process in which two solution are
allowed to react is called titration. The final result (molarity of unknown
solution) is calculated by using volume of two solutions consumed and molarity
of one solution. Redox reactions take place during titration
Eg :- 2MnO
4
-
+ 5C
2
O
7
2-
+ 16H
+
 2Mn
2+
+ 10CO
2
+ 8H
2
O [Acidic]
10. Half cell:- When metal rod dipped in metal salt solution is called half cell.
When metal converted into metal ion - oxidation half cell Zn  Zn
2+
+ 2e
-

When metal ion converted into metal – Reduction half cell Cu
2+
+ 2e
-
 Cu
11. Electrochemical cell/ Galvanic cell/ Dancill cell:- Chemical energy converted
into electrical energy . Two half cell connected to salt bridge then current flow
from Zn to Cu: Zn act as anode and Cu act as cathode.
Reaction at anode Zn – Zn
2+
+ 2e
-

Reaction at cathode Cu
2+
+ 2e
-
- Cu
Net reaction Zn + Cu
2+
 Zn
2+
+ Cu

Representation of cell : Zn/Zn
2+
!! Cu
2+
/Cu
13. Salt Bridge:- It is U shaped glass tube contain agaz-agaz dipped in KNO
3
(aq)
Function – (i) Flow of current by completing circuit.
(ii) Maintain electrical neutrality
14. Electromotive force (e.m.f) of cell = E
cathode
- E
anode

Standard e.m.f of cell = E
0
cell = E
0
cathode – E
0
anode
15. Electrode potential: - When metal rod dipped in its salt solution
Eg. Zn in ZnSO
4
(aq), Cu in CuSO
4
– There are three possibilities
(i) Metal ion colloid with metallic rod and bounce back E
0
= 0
(ii) Metal ion colloid with metallic rod and converted in metal Cu
2+
-> Cu E
0
= -ve
(iii) Metal collide with metallic rod & converted into metal ion Zn-> Zn
2+
E
0
=+ve
A potential setup b/w metal and its ion are called half cell. Electrode
potential is either oxidation or reduction potential. Both are equal but in
opposite sign. Conventionally called reduction potential [Em+/M]
16. Standard reduction potential: - Potential setup between metals and its ion
when conc. Of solution (metal salt solution) at 298K< 1M. It can be measured
against some reference electrode whose electrode potential is zero [NHE/SHE]
Electrode potential predict reactivity of metal
Metal whose E
0
reduc. – Less than NHE – more reactive / has more reducing
power.
Zn is more reactive than H
2
/Cu. Since E
0

Zn2+
< H
2
or Cu
Cu is less reactive than H
2
/Zn. Since E
0
Cu
2+
/Cu > H
2
or Zn