The Hotel Management is fully responsible for the safety and well being of the guest as well as of
hotel and hotel staff. In case of any harm to the customer or hotel guest in account of accident or of
negligence hotel is fully responsible for this and has to face the legal proceeding and has to pay the
legal compensation as order by the court or legal law proceeding agency .Such occurrence can build
a bad name to the company or the hotel .So management has to pay a special l attention to the
security of the guest , customer ,hotel staff or the members .

The common problem are :-


accident in the Hotel like the – Burning ,electrical shocking ,slipping and swimming Pool incident etc

To some extent because of the Natural calamities – like Earthquake ,floods etc .

Criminal attack on the guest like :- thrift of guest or Property of the Hotel
Terrorist attack


Combustion is a chemical reaction chemical that occurs between a fuel and an oxidizing agent that
produces energy, usually in the form of heat and light.

Explosion is a process in which a material oxidize at extremely high rate to release a vast amount of
heat ,light ,frame , pressure and sound .The vast amount of heat is release in a short time expanse
release gases and surrounding air ,which in turn generate a large sound .This high pressure damage
the object in surrounding .

Fire is define as a rapid rate of combustion with the release of heat , light and flame .

Smoldering is burning of fire slowly with smoke but no flame

Rusting or Decay is a slow process of combustion or oxidation of organic and inorganic material a
complaint with very slow evolution of heat
Fire is a most common damaging agent in a major disaster about 80% of property is rendered and at
same time fire cause burn and death of people ,provision should be made to save guard property
and people from fire

Types of Fire - The 5 Fire Classifications

It is very important to understand the five different classifications, or types of fire. As fires are
classified according to the type of fuel that is burning if the wrong type of fire extinguisher is used, a
dangerous situation may arise. We offer a range of fire suppression systems for all types of fire.

Class A Fire Type

Class A type fires involve combustible materials like wood, paper, textiles, straw, coal, car tyres.
They are often found in commercial and home buildings.

Class B Fire Type

Class B type fires are caused by combustion of liquids or materials that liquify for example fats, oils,
petrol, paints alcohol and parraffin.

Class C Fire Type

Class C type fires are caused by combustion of gases for example: hydrogen, natural gas, methane,
propane and acetylene.

Class D Fire Type

Class D fires involve combustible metals such as sodium, magnesium, aluminum, lithium and
potassium. These types of fires require special fire extinguishers.

Class E-Electrical Spark or Short circuit initiates the fire and it is maintain by burning of combustible
material used as indicated above an fie known ads electrical fire

Condition of Fire

Presence of combustion material or Fuel

Presence of Oxygen : 20 % oxygen is require for burring in normal condition

IGNITION TEMPERATURE: the lowest temperature at which a combustible substance when heated
(as in a bath of molten metal) takes fire in air and continues to burn —called also autogenous
ignition temperature

Variation in any of the above condition will affect and control the intensity of fire


When an external heat source heat the fuel material heat the material in the presence of oxygen ,the
portion of the substance on which attain the Ignition temperature caught the fire and start burning .

The heat liberated by combustion process is divided into two :-
One part of heat is generated by burning and released into atmosphere
The other part is utilized in warming and raising the temperature of the fuel material adjoining the
burring zone ,unfavorable condition if the material adjoining attain the favorable ignition temperature
the fire process further and sustain itself .
If the part of the heat is not enough to raise the temperature of the fuel material to the ignition
temperature, the fire will not sustain and proceed itself .
at the same time other favorable condition like oxygen and fuel should be available to sustain fire

Restriction or absence of Fire material

Restriction or absence of the oxidized air or oxygen will affect the intensity and fire will not be able to
sustain itself

Coolness or less heat of the fire , if the heat of the fire is not sufficient to raise the temperature of fuel
and material to ignition temperature the fire will not able to sustain itself


Remove the unburnt material from the vincity of fire but this is not possible for the heavy items. The
shifting is difficult due to less space and heavy smoke and weight of the object .

Cut off the oxygen supply which will starve the fire .This can be done by coveting the fire from
covering with the uncombustionl material which stop the oxygen to reach near fire and starve fire

if large amount of fire is burn in front of small fire the it will absorbed all heat of small fire and adjoing
material will not reach its ignition temperature and fire will sustain itself

Small explosion over the fire will remove the all hot gas and reduce the temperature them fire will not
be able to sustain itself as it will not able to attain the ignition temperature .This method is useful in
controlling the oil fire

Pouring water over the fire it will absorbed the heat of the fire as heat has to attain its boiling
temperature and secondly large amount of heat is use in latent heat of vaporizations and fire e will
not able to maintain its temperature and cools down



If the condition favoring fire can be contain in limited space by the removal of unburnt fuel material
from the fire area

Covering the fire from the incombustible material like sand , thick woolen blanket etc

spraying or throwing the water over fire


Sand and water should never be used to quench oil fire

foam type fire extinguisher should be used in this type of fire. Foam spay on the top of the fire
surface will cut down the oxygen supply of the fire

Dry calcium bicarbonate powder extinguisher can also be used .The powder release carbon dioxide
oncoming with the contact with the burning fire layer. the powder ,oil and carbon –di-oxide gas forms
a foam with co2 filled bubbles which float on the surface and cut the air supply .


This fire requires a very special technique to control them –

Use of the oxygen absorbing gases –some gases like ―Halon‖ are specially favored for extinguishing
gaseous fire and electrical equipment because they leave no residue and do not cause electrical
short circuit or damage the equipment .These gas are very high affinity for oxygen and absorb about
20 times of their own volume of oxygen .

Explosion Method- This is only suitable for gas fire .especially in oil field . A series of explosion is
carried out over a quick succession over the gas fire .Large amount of oxygen is absorbed by the
explosion material and due to creation high pressure the fire spread out which finally help to cool
and control the fire .

Electric Fire

Water or Soda acid fire extinguisher should never be used in case of electric fire.

special carbon tetra chloride fire extinguisher are used CCL,which is an insulating liquid , is stored in
a container and sprayed with help of pressurized nitrogen gas .

Nitrogen displacement foam type fire extinguisher may also been used in some cases of electric fire.

A fire alarm system is a set of electric/electronic devices/equipment working together to detect and
alert people through visual and audio appliances when smoke/fire is present. These alarms may be
activated from smoke detectors, heat detectors, water flow sensors, which are automatic or from a
manual fire alarm pull station

Smoke Alarms:

Smoke alarms will detect most fires more rapidly than heat detectors. There are currently three types
of smoke alarms on the market: ionization, photoelectric and combination ionization/photoelectric.

An ionization smoke alarm contains a small amount of radioactive material. The radiation passes
through an ionization chamber which is an air-filled space between two electrodes and permits a
small, constant current between the electrodes. Any smoke that enters the chamber absorbs the
alpha particles, which reduces the ionization and interrupts this current, setting off the alarm. This
type of alarm responds best to fast raging fires.

• Slightly cheaper than other types of smoke alarms
• Very good with fast flaming fires with little visible smoke
• Less prone to false alarms caused by dust and steam
• Suitable for general use

• Can be susceptible to nuisance alarms if placed too close to cooking
• May be slow to respond to slow smouldering fires
• Contain a very small amount of radioactive material

Photoelectric smoke alarms operate using a light source, a light beam collimating system and a
photoelectric sensor. When smoke enters the optical chamber and crosses the path of the light
beam, some light is scattered by the smoke particles, directing it at the sensor and thus activating
the alarm. This type of alarm responds best to slow smoldering fires.

Photoelectric light scattering smoke detectors :-typically consist of one light source, typically a light
emitting diode (LED) and one light sensitive device, typically a photodiode. When smoke particles
enter the light path, light collides with these particles and is reflected at the photo-sensitive device,
causing the detector to respond.

Photoelectric light obscuration smoke detectors also employ a light source and a light sensitive
device. When smoke particles block the light beam, the light sensitive device identifies the reduction
in light and its output is modified. The change in output is sensed by the detector’s circuitry and
when the pre-set threshold is passed, the detector produces an alarm.

In contrast to ionisation smoke detectors, photoelectric smoke detectors are more suitable for
detecting slow developing (smouldering) fires which are typically characterised by smoke particles in
the 0.4 to 10 microns size. On the other hand, ionisation smoke detectors are better suited for fast
developing (flaming) fires, with a typical smoke particle size below 0.4 microns. Of course, both
types of detectors can detect both types of fire, but their response (reaction) time will vary,
depending on the actual type of fire.

Since fires usually develop in unpredictable ways, neither type of detectos is alwasy best and
consequently, it is strongly recommended to use both types of smoke detectors. However, it is to
stressed that in certain circumstances, standard smoke detectors may be unsuitable. In such cases,
special-type of detectors, like flame detectors or heat detectors can be used.

Light diffusion smoke detector :-This are widely used ,it employs a detection chamber in which
smoke can enter .The light and photo cell are fixed in chamber in such a way that light sensitive
element cannot ordinary ―see ― the light source .LED , when the particle or smoke enter the chamber
that hold both the LED and photocell, the smoke particle diffuse or scatter the light ray so it can be
seen by photocell an alarm is triggered. Photo cell response is more efficient and faster to a large
smoke particle generated by smoldering, slow burning fire etc.

• Good for smouldering fire and dense smoke
• Not as prone to cooking nuisance alarms as ionisation alarms
• Contain no radioactive material
• Suitable for general use
• Slightly more expensive than ionisation alarms
• Nuisance alarms can occasionally occur from dust and insects
• They must be kept clean

Combination smoke alarms feature both ionization and photoelectric technologies. Ionization smoke
alarms respond faster to high energy fires, whereas photoelectric detectors respond better to low
energy smoldering fires. The NFPA recommendsusing both smoke alarms in the home for the best


All the restaurant with the capacity of more than 50 person should have an underground water tank
with 5000 lit ,and terrace tank of 5000 lit for hose reel and 10000 lit if sprinkler are not provided ,if it
cover are of more than 1500 sq .m or capacity of more than 1000 person than it should have
sprinkler system ,

Arrangement should be made for the safety of consumer and staff .This should include following of
the eclectic safety norms, taking precaution for avoidance of the general accident ,providing
obstruction free passage and movement area , fixing of hanging machine and equipment in a proper
manner , stair case side rail should be properly fixed ,swimming side rules and precaution should be
strictly follow ,some bed in a well establish hospital should be kept for an emergency for hotel guest
and well maintain van should be kept ready in a hotel premises with proper staff to transfer patient to
hospital immediately .

Hotel management should be in a touch with local authorities for warning help and rescues facility in
a cause of natural disaster

Criminal cases are very common in a hotel. The guest and employee in a hotel are vulnerable to
robbery, assault and rape and larceny .The management should seriously consider for efficiency of
the security person and procedures and equipment . Unnecessary movement and entries of the
visitor everywhere in a building may led to the various criminal activity in a hotel however
incorporation of CCTV may reduce this activity

Paring are is an another area which need constant watch and monitoring .Add to this item like
exhaust pollution in a parking area ,proper parking of vehicles ,hit and run accident , vandalism auto
theft etc should properly monitored in parking area