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Procedia Engineering 90 (2014) 154 – 159

10th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, ICME 2013

Comparative Study of Ring and Compact Yarn-Based Knitted

of Textile Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, Gazipur-1700, Bangladesh.
EDepartment of Textile Engineering, Northern University, Bangladesh.
FDelta Spinning Mills Ltd. Gazipur, Bangladesh

The compact spinning system was designed on the basis of conventional ring-spinning system along with a negligible mechanical
variation but to deviate significantly yarn properties. This article presents an analysis and comparative study of the properties of
100% cotton yarn of 30 Ne spun on compact spinning frame & conventional ring spinning frame and the significant variation in
fabric properties. Mechanical properties e.g. tenacity, elasticity, elongation% at break, breaking-work, breaking-force
and evenness properties e.g. unevenness, thick, thin, neps, hairiness of both types of yarns were tested and compared.
Shrinkage, pilling, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, washing fastness, perspiration fastness, rubbing fastness properties of
single jersey knitted dyed fabrics made from ring and compact yarns were investigated. Compact yarn based single jersey
knitted fabric exhibited better pilling resistance, higher bursting strength, perspiration resistance whereas the both fabrics have
similar spirality.
by Elsevier
Ltd. This
an open access
The Authors.
Ltd. article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of
and peer-review
under responsibility
and Technology
(BUET). of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering
and Technology (BUET)

Keywords: compact yarn; ring yarn; knitted fabric; pilling; fabric properties.

1. Introduction
To meet the consistently uniform yarn characteristics and diversified customer demands, through the production
of diverse, novel and creative yarns focus of spinning industries goes to the new spinning system. Consequently,
certain techniques have been introduced onto the spinning market which offer improved quality and/or reduced costs
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: DVKDKLG#JPDLOFRP

1877-7058 © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering
and Technology (BUET)

1.(a) In the compact spinning system. This enables yarn production with a reduced level of hairiness.1. This causes a greater waste of fibres. This allows nearly all of the fibres to contribute to the yarn structure under relatively equal tension. caused by sub-atmospheric pressure inside the drum.2. The air flow through the perforated drum. Abdus Shahid et al. / Procedia Engineering 90 (2014) 154 – 159 155 for yarn production by inducing some sort of modifications on ring spinning technology [1]. we inspected fabric samples knitted from compact spun yarn in comparison with fabric samples knitted from classic ring-spun yarn. 1. The drafting system of a conventional ring spinning machine unfortunately delivers the fibers over a width W which is considerably larger than width WS of the adjacent spinning triangle Fig. or become partly spun into the yarn with one end only. 15] that occurs while the yarn is formed is the reason why many fibres leave the drafting roving. . As the twist is given at a location which is very near to the clamping line of the end rollers. yarn structure of conventional ring comb (A) and compact yarn (B) of 100% cotton The vast majority of the aforementioned studies deal with the properties of compact yarn as it is in yarn form. but associatively allows the manifestations of compact spun yarn on the end product to be observed. Operating principle of compact spinning frame Fig. the system of compact spinning has constituted a rapidly developing technological trend in most countries. produces the desired condensation of the fiber flow prior to yarn formation The fibres become more closely aligned and increasingly parallel within this compacting zone [9.10] prior to yarn formation. The most accepted of them is the compact spinning system. strength properties. 1. This approach not only examines the behaviour of the compact yarn during further production processes. the ComforSpin principle. 2. (a)Conventional ring spinning vs. The comparison tests dealt particularly with the pilling properties. a poorer appearance and a greater hairiness of the spun yarn [6].(b). (b) Suction system of compact machine. short fibres also contribute to the yarn structure under controlled tension at this critical location. The results show that almost all the properties of the compact yarns are better than that of traditional ring spun yarns. Over recent years. In this study. Fiber flow is laterally condensed by gentle aerodynamic forces in an aerodynamic condensing zone between the drafting unit and the yarn formation point. The fibers are supported and transported by a perforated drum Fig. Inside this drum is a stationary insert with specially shaped openings.1. Fig.Md. The spinning triangle [10. Fig. the fibres are compacted aerodynamically just after the drafting. Yarns produced by compact spinning have many advantages over traditional ring spun yarns. Compact yarn is a revolution in spinning technology on that respect. The present research was conducted to study the properties of compact spun and traditional ring spun yarns. and abrasion properties of the fabric samples after dying with same shade. demonstrates the comparison of ring-spun and compact spun yarns [7]. a lower exploitation of fibres tenacity in yarn. 11.

The fabrics knitted with compact yarns . Also during the twisting period all the fibers are contribute into the spinning triangle in the compact spinning system. This test [14] result may be causes due to the higher tenacity and elongation % of the compact yarn.4) of the compact yarn knitted fabric sample is higher than ring yarn fabric because of lower number of short fiber present in the compact yarn. The combed and compact yarns were spun on Toyota RX 240 and Rieter K 44 machine respectively. Table 1.2 Pilling Test Pilling resistance properties (fig. Tests on the fabric samples Test name Method Type Hydraulic bursting strength tester Bursting strength Pilling test ISO 12945-1 IPI Pillbox Rubbing fastness ISO 105×12 Color fastness to perspiration ISO 105 E04:1994 Perspiration meter Colorfastness to wash ISO 105 C03 Gyrowash Dimensional stability (shrinkage & spirality) ISO6330: 2000(E) Washing machine Crock meter 4. 3. Abdus Shahid et al. made by using USA. After microscopic examination the following tests were performed on both samples. 30/1 Ne classic ring yarn and 30/1 Ne compact yarn were spun from the same raw cotton blend. Pilling tendency of fabrics is affected by the yarn hairiness. Tests applied on fabric samples Single jersey fabrics were knitted from that combed ring-spun and compact cotton yarn in Fukuhara circular knitting machine having 20‫ ״‬diameter and 24 gauges. 3. 4. IND and MALI cotton.1 Tests on the fabric samples Dyeing processes are carried out in Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET) dyeing laboratory on the compact yarn’s sample and comb yarns sample by the application of 2% shade. The total number of rub was 10800 for this experiment. Results and discussion 4. The pre-processes up to roving frame for both yarns were identical. Materials and methods In this study. / Procedia Engineering 90 (2014) 154 – 159 2. It was aimed to predict the bursting strength of the plain knitted fabrics regarding different types of yarn.156 Md.1 Bursting strength The results of the analysis of variance and comparison of individual means for fabric strength reveal that the effect of the bursting strength of the compact yarn fabric is higher than the comb yarn fabric.

Fig.96 Count CV% 0.Md. Test Parameter  Yarn count Ne 30 Yarn Count Compact 29. / Procedia Engineering 90 (2014) 154 – 159 have better pilling performance compared to the fabric knitted from conventional ring yarns. 3.46 20.15 Uster CVm % 11. Fig.66 Elongation % 4. The interaction effect of spinning system and yarn linear density effect is significant on fabric pilling grade.60 Tenacity (cN/Tex) 18.3 Yarn properties Table 2.67 16.95 9. Pilling test result of fabric sample.76 The measurements of uniformity and hairiness of the conventional and compact yarns has confirmed that the compact yarns have very good uniformity and extremely low hairiness. Comparison between ring and compact yarn’s parameters.41 Elongation CV% 8.22 5. CV%.56 0.5 18 IPI 38 35 CSP 2473 2411 TPI 19. The drafting system structure and the geometry of the spinning triangle occurring at the point of fibres spinning-in into the ring-spun yarn contribute to obtaining yarns with better uniformity and significantly lower primary and secondary hairiness [12] These result (Table 2) exhibits that tenacity.60 6. This may cause due to the inefficient operation of the suction drum of the compact spinning machine.28 Hairiness 4. elongation.53 Thin places/ Km 0 0. Abdus Shahid et al.94 Comb 29. 4. Bursting strength evaluation of fabric samples. 157 .50 Uster U% 8.05 4.50 Thick places/ Km 15 16 Neps/Km 22.31 11. 4. and hairiness values of compact yarn is better compare to the ring spun yarn but neps were found more.

. Natural Fibres”. 10/2003. Fabric samples out of compact yarns displayed better pilling behaviors after dyeing process. Tekstil Teknoloji.14. ‘Compact spinning . 2002. 3/2002. p.rieter.Spin novation.com> [10] Technology-of short-staple-spinning.novation in staple fibre spinning’. The tenacity of the compact yarns expresses greater value than conventional ring spun yarn. 2005. / Procedia Engineering 90 (2014) 154 – 159 4. Tekstil Maraton. 1999 . 6.Also the result shows that washing fastness [13. [2] Brunk N. Aralık. Fig. The test results displayed that the fabric samples knitted out of compact yarns exhibited better bursting strength values at every stages of applied load. Colour fastness to Rubbing of ring vs compact yarn fabric. Fig. ‘Three Years of Practical Experience with the EliTe Compact Set in Short-staple Spinning’. [Online] Available at: <http://www. 6.. p. The elongation % of the compact yarns has a significantly lower value than that of conventional ring yarn. Abdus Shahid et al..: Successful compact spinning process. 1998. namely. This property has an especially good effect in knitting. 6) revealed that there is no significant difference between the both types of sample with perspiration test [14. ‘EliTe Compact Set . Zurich. 1993.158 Md. 1. 15]. Spin novation No 12/2000. 15] properties of the compact yarn fabrics are poorer compare to the comb yarn fabric. 5. [6] Artzt P.a true in. This result (fig. [3] Prospects of the Suessen Company: ‘Spinning machines Fiomax 1000 and Fiomax 1000 E1’.. 5th edition. 5. References [1]  Brunk N. [9] Ring-Frame-suessen. International Textile Bulletin. This may causes due to not proper fixation of the dyes into the compact fabric.com> [11] W. [7] Artzt P.. they are more brilliant and glossier. 42. [8] Gordon C. Rusch A. Fabrics knitted from compact yarns have divergent visual properties. “Specific Technological Aspects of the Compact Spinning Process”. [Online] Available at: <www. 2003. but the washing fastness and perspiration test did not reveal any significant difference between the samples.18 Months after ITMA in Paris. Spin novation. 5) but in wet state ring yarn fabric shows better result because dye molecules are penetrate into and fix properly due to porous of the ring yarn fabrics. No 1. J. Conclusion The following conclusion may be drawn based on the observation carried out during this study. “Handbook of Textile Fibres I. 13-16 and 64-70. The results are valid only within the experimental regions. which influence the fabric strength. Colour fastness to wash and perspiration of ring vs compact yarn fabric. 1/2002. [4] Stahlecker H. where elasticity and elongation at break are features of substantial importance.15] of the compact and comb yarn fabrics were similar(fig. International Textile Bulletin. “Spinning Geometry and its Significance”. 2.: Spinning System . Ocak-Şubat.The Third Generation’.4 Colour fastness In dry state the rubbing fastness properties [13.trishulassociates. Klein. [5] Stalder H.

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