Quantum Entanglement and

Electromagnetic Diffraction
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave!article
"uality and the electron#s spin also, building the $ridge between the %lassical
and &uantu' Theories(
The !lanc) "istribution *aw o+ the electro'agnetic oscillators explains the
electron,proton 'ass rate and the Wea) and Strong -nteractions by the
di++raction patterns( The Wea) -nteraction changes the di++raction patterns by
'oving the electric charge +ro' one side to the other side o+ the di++raction
pattern, which violates the %! and Ti'e reversal sy''etry(
The di++raction patterns and the locality o+ the sel+'aintaining
electro'agnetic potential explains also the &uantu' Entangle'ent, giving it
as a natural part o+ the relativistic quantu' theory(
The asy''etric sides are creating di++erent +requencies o+ electro'agnetic
radiations being in the sa'e intensity level and co'pensating each other( .ne
o+ these co'pensating ratios is the electron / proton 'ass ratio( The lower
energy side has no co'pensating intensity level, it is the dar) energy and the
corresponding 'atter is the dar) 'atter(

Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................... 2
Quantum entanglement ........................................................................................................... 3
Quantum Biology ................................................................................................................. 3
Quantum Consciousness ....................................................................................................... 3
Quantum Cognition .............................................................................................................. 4
Human Perception ............................................................................................................ 4
Human memory ............................................................................................................... 4
Knowledge representation ................................................................................................ 4
Quantum Information .......................................................................................................... 5
Quantum Teleportation ........................................................................................................ 5
Quantum Computing ............................................................................................................
T!e Bridge ..............................................................................................................................
"ccelerating c!arges ............................................................................................................ #
$elati%istic effect ................................................................................................................. #
Heisen&erg 'ncertainty $elation ............................................................................................... #
(a%e ) Particle *uality ............................................................................................................ #
"tomic model ......................................................................................................................... #
T!e $elati%istic Bridge .............................................................................................................. +
T!e wea, interaction ............................................................................................................... +
T!e -eneral (ea, Interaction ............................................................................................... .
/ermions and Bosons ............................................................................................................... .
0an *er (aals force ...............................................................................................................12
3lectromagnetic inertia and mass .............................................................................................12
3lectromagnetic Induction ...................................................................................................12
$elati%istic c!ange of mass ...................................................................................................12
T!e fre4uency dependence of mass ......................................................................................12
3lectron ) Proton mass rate .................................................................................................12
-ra%ity from t!e point of %iew of 4uantum p!ysics ....................................................................11
T!e -ra%itational force ........................................................................................................11
T!e Higgs &oson .....................................................................................................................11
Higgs mec!anism and Quantum -ra%ity ....................................................................................12
(!at is t!e 5pin6 ................................................................................................................12
T!e -ra%iton ......................................................................................................................12
*ar, 7atter and 3nergy ..........................................................................................................13
Cosmic microwa%e &ac,ground ............................................................................................13
T!ermal radiation ...............................................................................................................13
Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................14
$eferences ............................................................................................................................14

"ut!or8 -eorge $a9na
Preface
P!ysicists are continually loo,ing for ways to unify t!e t!eory of relati%ity: w!ic! descri&es large;
scale p!enomena: wit! 4uantum t!eory: w!ic! descri&es small;scale p!enomena< In a new
proposed e=periment in t!is area: two toaster;si>ed ?nanosatellites? carrying entangled condensates
or&it around t!e 3art!: until one of t!em mo%es to a different or&it wit! different gra%itational field
strengt!< "s a result of t!e c!ange in gra%ity: t!e entanglement &etween t!e condensates is
predicted to degrade &y up to 22@< 3=perimentally testing t!e proposal may &e possi&le in t!e near
future< A5B
Quantum entanglement is a p!ysical p!enomenon t!at occurs w!en pairs or groups of particles are
generated or interact in ways suc! t!at t!e 4uantum state of eac! particle cannot &e descri&ed
independently ) instead: a 4uantum state may &e gi%en for t!e system as a w!ole< A4B
I t!in, t!at we !a%e a simple &ridge &etween t!e classical and 4uantum mec!anics &y understanding
t!e Heisen&erg 'ncertainty $elations< It ma,es clear t!at t!e particles are not point li,e &ut !a%e a
d= and dp uncertainty<

Quantum entanglement
7easurements of p!ysical properties suc! as position: momentum: spin: polari>ation: etc<
performed on entangled particles are found to &e appropriately correlated< /or e=ample: if a pair of
particles is generated in suc! a way t!at t!eir total spin is ,nown to &e >ero: and one particle is
found to !a%e cloc,wise spin on a certain a=is: t!en t!e spin of t!e ot!er particle: measured on t!e
same a=is: will &e found to &e countercloc,wise< Because of t!e nature of 4uantum measurement:
!owe%er: t!is &e!a%ior gi%es rise to effects t!at can appear parado=ical8 any measurement of a
property of a particle can &e seen as acting on t!at particle Ce<g< &y collapsing a num&er of
superimposed statesDE and in t!e case of entangled particles: suc! action must &e on t!e entangled
system as a w!ole< It t!us appears t!at one particle of an entangled pair ?,nows? w!at
measurement !as &een performed on t!e ot!er: and wit! w!at outcome: e%en t!oug! t!ere is no
,nown means for suc! information to &e communicated &etween t!e particles: w!ic! at t!e time of
measurement may &e separated &y ar&itrarily large distances< A4B
Quantum Biology
T!e !uman &ody is a constant flu= of t!ousands of c!emicalF&iological interactions and processes
connecting molecules: cells: organs: and fluids: t!roug!out t!e &rain: &ody: and ner%ous system< 'p
until recently it was t!oug!t t!at all t!ese interactions operated in a linear se4uence: passing on
information muc! li,e a runner passing t!e &aton to t!e ne=t runner< Howe%er: t!e latest findings in
4uantum &iology and &iop!ysics !a%e disco%ered t!at t!ere is in fact a tremendous degree of
co!erence wit!in all li%ing systems<
Quantum Consciousness
3=tensi%e scientific in%estigation !as found t!at a form of 4uantum co!erence operates wit!in li%ing
&iological systems t!roug! w!at is ,nown as &iological e=citations and &iop!oton emission< (!at
t!is means is t!at meta&olic energy is stored as a form of electromec!anical and electromagnetic
e=citations< T!ese co!erent e=citations are considered responsi&le for generating and maintaining
long;range order %ia t!e transformation of energy and %ery wea, electromagnetic signals< "fter
nearly twenty years of e=perimental researc!: /rit>;"l&ert Popp put forward t!e !ypot!esis t!at
&iop!otons are emitted from a co!erent electrodynamics field wit!in t!e li%ing system<

(!at t!is means is t!at eac! li%ing cell is gi%ing off: or resonating: a &iop!oton field of co!erent
energy< If eac! cell is emitting t!is field: t!en t!e w!ole li%ing system is: in effect: a resonating field;a
u&i4uitous nonlocal field< "nd since &iop!otons are t!e entities t!roug! w!ic! t!e li%ing system
communicates: t!ere is near;instantaneous intercommunication t!roug!out< "nd t!is: claims Popp:
is t!e &asis for co!erent &iological organi>ation ;; referred to as 4uantum co!erence< T!is disco%ery
led Popp to state t!at t!e capacity for e%olution rests not on aggressi%e struggle and ri%alry &ut on
t!e capacity for communication and cooperation< In t!is sense t!e &uilt;in capacity for species
e%olution is not &ased on t!e indi%idual &ut rat!er li%ing systems t!at are interlin,ed wit!in a
co!erent w!ole8 Gi%ing systems are t!us neit!er t!e su&9ects alone: nor o&9ects isolated: &ut &ot!
su&9ects and o&9ects in a mutually communicating uni%erse of meaning< < < < Hust as t!e cells in an
organism ta,e on different tas,s for t!e w!ole: different populations enfold information not only for
t!emsel%es: &ut for all ot!er organisms: e=panding t!e consciousness of t!e w!ole: w!ile at t!e
same time &ecoming more and more aware of t!is collecti%e consciousness<
Quantum Cognition
Human Perception
" Bi;sta&le perceptual p!enomenon is a fascinating topic in t!e area of perception< If a stimulus !as
an am&iguous interpretation: suc! as a Iec,er cu&e: t!e interpretation tends to oscillate across
time< Quantum models !a%e &een de%eloped to predict t!e time period &etween oscillations and
!ow t!ese periods c!ange wit! fre4uency of measurement< Quantum t!eory !as also &een used for
modeling -estalt perception: to account for interference effects o&tained wit! measurements of
am&iguous figures< AB
Human memory
T!e !ypot!esis t!at t!ere may &e somet!ing 4uantum;li,e a&out t!e !uman mental function was
put forward wit! J5poo,y "cti%ation at *istanceK formula w!ic! attempted to model t!e effect t!at
w!en a wordLs associati%e networ, is acti%ated during study in memory e=periment: it &e!a%es li,e a
4uantum;entangled system< 7odels of cogniti%e agents and memory &ased on 4uantum collecti%es
!a%e &een proposed &y 5u&!as! Ka,< But !e also points to specific pro&lems of limits on o&ser%ation
and control of t!ese memories due to fundamental logical reasons< AB
Knowledge representation
Concepts are &asic cogniti%e p!enomena: w!ic! pro%ide t!e content for inference: e=planation: and
language understanding< Cogniti%e psyc!ology !as researc!ed different approac!es for
understanding concepts including e=emplars: prototypes: and neural networ,s: and different
fundamental pro&lems !a%e &een identified: suc! as t!e e=perimentally tested non classical
&e!a%ior for t!e con9unction and dis9unction of concepts: more specifically t!e Pet;/is! pro&lem or
guppy effect: and t!e o%ere=tension and under e=tension of typicality and mem&ers!ip weig!t for
con9unction and dis9unction< By and large: 4uantum cognition !as drawn on 4uantum t!eory in t!ree
ways to model concepts<
3=ploit t!e conte=tuality of 4uantum t!eory to account for t!e conte=tuality of concepts in cognition
and language and t!e p!enomenon of emergent properties w!en concepts com&ine<
'se 4uantum entanglement to model t!e semantics of concept com&inations in a non;
decompositional way: and to account for t!e emergent propertiesFassociatesFinferences in relation
to concept com&inations<
'se 4uantum superposition to account for t!e emergence of a new concept w!en concepts are
com&ined: and as a conse4uence put forward an e=planatory model for t!e Pet;/is! pro&lem
situation: and t!e o%ere=tension and under e=tension of mem&ers!ip weig!ts for t!e con9unction
and dis9unction of concepts< T!e large amount of data collected &y Hampton on t!e com&ination of
two concepts can &e modeled in a specific 4uantum;t!eoretic framewor, in /oc, space w!ere t!e
o&ser%ed de%iations from classical set Cfu>>y setD t!eory: t!e a&o%e mentioned o%er; and under;
e=tension of mem&ers!ip weig!ts: are e=plained in terms of conte=tual interactions: superposition:
interference: entanglement and emergence< "nd: more: a cogniti%e test on a specific concept
com&ination !as &een performed w!ic! directly re%eals: t!roug! t!e %iolation of BellLs ine4ualities:
4uantum entanglement &etween t!e component concepts< AB
Quantum Information
In 4uantum mec!anics: 4uantum information is p!ysical information t!at is !eld in t!e ?state? of a
4uantum system< T!e most popular unit of 4uantum information is t!e 4u&it: a two;le%el 4uantum
system< Howe%er: unli,e classical digital states Cw!ic! are discreteD: a two;state 4uantum system can
actually &e in a superposition of t!e two states at any gi%en time<
Quantum information differs from classical information in se%eral respects: among w!ic! we note
t!e following8
Howe%er: despite t!is: t!e amount of information t!at can &e retrie%ed in a single 4u&it is e4ual to
one &it< It is in t!e processing of information C4uantum computationD t!at a difference occurs<
T!e a&ility to manipulate 4uantum information ena&les us to perform tas,s t!at would &e
unac!ie%a&le in a classical conte=t: suc! as unconditionally secure transmission of information<
Quantum information processing is t!e most general field t!at is concerned wit! 4uantum
information< T!ere are certain tas,s w!ic! classical computers cannot perform ?efficiently? Ct!at is:
in polynomial timeD according to any ,nown algorit!m< Howe%er: a 4uantum computer can compute
t!e answer to some of t!ese pro&lems in polynomial timeE one well;,nown e=ample of t!is is 5!orMs
factoring algorit!m< Nt!er algorit!ms can speed up a tas, less dramatically ; for e=ample: -ro%erMs
searc! algorit!m w!ic! gi%es a 4uadratic speed;up o%er t!e &est possi&le classical algorit!m<
Quantum information: and c!anges in 4uantum information: can &e 4uantitati%ely measured &y
using an analogue of 5!annon entropy< -i%en a statistical ensem&le of 4uantum mec!anical systems
wit! t!e density matri= 5: it is gi%en &y<
7any of t!e same entropy measures in classical information t!eory can also &e generali>ed to t!e
4uantum case: suc! as t!e conditional 4uantum entropy< A#B
Quantum Teleportation
Quantum teleportation is a process &y w!ic! 4uantum information Ce<g< t!e e=act state of an atom
or p!otonD can &e transmitted Ce=actly: in principleD from one location to anot!er: wit! t!e !elp of
classical communication and pre%iously s!ared 4uantum entanglement &etween t!e sending and
recei%ing location< Because it depends on classical communication: w!ic! can proceed no faster t!an
t!e speed of lig!t: it cannot &e used for superluminal transport or communication of classical &its< It
also cannot &e used to ma,e copies of a system: as t!is %iolates t!e no;cloning t!eorem< "lt!oug!
t!e name is inspired &y t!e teleportation commonly used in fiction: current tec!nology pro%ides no
possi&ility of anyt!ing resem&ling t!e fictional form of teleportation< (!ile it is possi&le to teleport
one or more 4u&its of information &etween two CentangledD atoms: t!is !as not yet &een ac!ie%ed
&etween molecules or anyt!ing larger< Nne may t!in, of teleportation eit!er as a ,ind of
transportation: or as a ,ind of communicationE it pro%ides a way of transporting a 4u&it from one
location to anot!er: wit!out !a%ing to mo%e a p!ysical particle along wit! it<
T!e seminal paper first e=pounding t!e idea was pu&lis!ed &y C< H< Bennett: -< Brassard: C< CrOpeau:
$< Ho>sa: "< Peres and (< K< (ootters in 1..3< 5ince t!en: 4uantum teleportation !as &een reali>ed
in %arious p!ysical systems< Presently: t!e record distance for 4uantum teleportation is 143 ,m C+.
miD wit! p!otons: and 21 m wit! material systems< In "ugust 2213: t!e ac!ie%ement of ?fully
deterministic? 4uantum teleportation: using a !y&rid tec!ni4ue: was reported< Nn 2. 7ay 2214:
scientists announced a relia&le way of transferring data &y 4uantum teleportation< Quantum
teleportation of data !ad &een done &efore &ut wit! !ig!ly unrelia&le met!ods< A+B
Quantum Computing
" team of electrical engineers at 'I5( "ustralia !as o&ser%ed t!e uni4ue 4uantum &e!a%ior of a
pair of spins in silicon and designed a new met!od to use t!em for ?2;&it? 4uantum logic operations<
T!ese milestones &ring researc!ers a step closer to &uilding a 4uantum computer: w!ic! promises
dramatic data processing impro%ements<
Quantum &its: or 4u&its: are t!e &uilding &loc,s of 4uantum computers< (!ile many ways to create
a 4u&its e=ist: t!e "ustralian team !as focused on t!e use of single atoms of p!osp!orus: em&edded
inside a silicon c!ip similar to t!ose used in normal computers<
T!e first aut!or on t!e e=perimental wor,: P!* student Huan Pa&lo *e!ollain: recalls t!e first time
!e reali>ed w!at !e was loo,ing at<
?(e clearly saw t!ese two distinct 4uantum states: &ut t!ey &e!a%ed %ery differently from w!at we
were used to wit! a single atom< (e !ad a real M3ure,aPM moment w!en we reali>ed w!at was
!appening ) we were seeing in real time t!e QentangledM 4uantum states of a pair of atoms<? A.B

The Bridge
T!e accelerating electrons e=plain not only t!e 7a=well 34uations and t!e 5pecial $elati%ity: &ut t!e
Heisen&erg 'ncertainty $elation: t!e wa%e particle duality and t!e electronLs spin also: &uilding t!e
&ridge &etween t!e Classical and Quantum T!eories< A1B

Accelerating charges
T!e mo%ing c!arges are self maintain t!e electromagnetic field locally: causing t!eir mo%ement and
t!is is t!e result of t!eir acceleration under t!e force of t!is field< In t!e classical p!ysics t!e c!arges
will distri&uted along t!e electric current so t!at t!e electric potential lowering along t!e current: &y
linearly increasing t!e way t!ey ta,e e%ery ne=t time period &ecause t!is accelerated motion<
T!e same t!ing !appens on t!e atomic scale gi%ing a dp impulse difference and a d= way difference
&etween t!e different part of t!e not point li,e particles<
Relativistic effect
"not!er &ridge &etween t!e classical and 4uantum mec!anics in t!e realm of relati%ity is t!at t!e
c!arge distri&ution is lowering in t!e reference frame of t!e accelerating c!arges linearly8 dsFdt R at
Ctime coordinateD: &ut in t!e reference frame of t!e current it is para&olic8 s R aF2 t
2
Cgeometric
coordinateD<

Heisenerg !ncertainty Relation
In t!e atomic scale t!e Heisen&erg uncertainty relation gi%es t!e same result: since t!e mo%ing
electron in t!e atom accelerating in t!e electric field of t!e proton: causing a c!arge distri&ution on
delta = position difference and wit! a delta p momentum difference suc! a way t!at t!ey product is
a&out t!e !alf Planc, reduced constant< /or t!e proton t!is delta = muc! less in t!e nucleon: t!an in
t!e or&it of t!e electron in t!e atom: t!e delta p is muc! !ig!er &ecause of t!e greater proton mass<
T!is means t!at t!e electron and proton are not point li,e particles: &ut !as a real c!arge
distri&ution<
"ave # Particle $uality
T!e accelerating electrons e=plains t!e wa%e ) particle duality of t!e electrons and p!otons: since
t!e elementary c!arges are distri&uted on delta = position wit! delta p impulse and creating a wa%e
pac,et of t!e electron< T!e p!oton gi%es t!e electromagnetic particle of t!e mediating force of t!e
electrons electromagnetic field wit! t!e same distri&ution of wa%elengt!s<
Atomic model
T!e constantly accelerating electron in t!e Hydrogen atom is mo%ing on t!e e4uipotential line of t!e
proton and itMs ,inetic and potential energy will &e constant< Its energy will c!ange only w!en it is
c!anging its way to anot!er e4uipotential line wit! anot!er %alue of potential energy or getting free
wit! enoug! ,inetic energy< T!is means t!at t!e $ut!erford;Bo!r atomic model is rig!t and only t!at
c!anging acceleration of t!e electric c!arge causes radiation: not t!e steady acceleration< T!e steady
acceleration of t!e c!arges only creates a centric para&olic steady electric field around t!e c!arge:
t!e magnetic field< T!is gi%es t!e magnetic moment of t!e atoms: summing up t!e proton and
electron magnetic moments caused &y t!eir circular motions and spins<

The Relativistic Bridge
Commonly accepted idea t!at t!e relati%istic effect on t!e particle p!ysics it is t!e fermionsM spin ;
anot!er unresol%ed pro&lem in t!e classical concepts< If t!e electric c!arges can mo%e only wit!
accelerated motions in t!e self maintaining electromagnetic field: once upon a time t!ey would
reac! t!e %elocity of t!e electromagnetic field< T!e resolution of t!is pro&lem is t!e spinning
particle: constantly accelerating and not reac!ing t!e %elocity of lig!t &ecause t!e acceleration is
radial< Nne origin of t!e Quantum P!ysics is t!e Planc, *istri&ution Gaw of t!e electromagnetic
oscillators: gi%ing e4ual intensity for 2 different wa%elengt!s on any temperature< "ny of t!ese two
wa%elengt!s will gi%e e4ual intensity diffraction patterns: &uilding different asymmetric
constructions: for e=ample proton ; electron structures CatomsD: molecules: etc< 5ince t!e particles
are centers of diffraction patterns t!ey also !a%e particle ) wa%e duality as t!e electromagnetic
wa%es !a%e< A2B

The wea% interaction
T!e wea, interaction transforms an electric c!arge in t!e diffraction pattern from one side to t!e
ot!er side: causing an electric dipole momentum c!ange: w!ic! %iolates t!e CP and time re%ersal
symmetry< T!e 3lectrowea, Interaction s!ows t!at t!e (ea, Interaction is &asically electromagnetic
in nature< T!e arrow of time s!ows t!e entropy grows &y c!anging t!e temperature dependent
diffraction patterns of t!e electromagnetic oscillators<
"not!er important issue of t!e 4uar, model is w!en one 4uar, c!anges its fla%or suc! t!at a linear
oscillation transforms into plane oscillation or %ice %ersa: c!anging t!e c!arge %alue wit! 1 or ;1< T!is
,ind of c!ange in t!e oscillation mode re4uires not only parity c!ange: &ut also c!arge and time
c!anges CCPT symmetryD resulting a rig!t !anded anti;neutrino or a left !anded neutrino<
T!e rig!t !anded anti;neutrino and t!e left !anded neutrino e=ist only &ecause c!anging &ac, t!e
4uar, fla%or could !appen only in re%erse: &ecause t!ey are different geometrical constructions: t!e
u is 2 dimensional and positi%ely c!arged and t!e d is 1 dimensional and negati%ely c!arged< It needs
also a time re%ersal: &ecause anti particle Canti neutrinoD is in%ol%ed<
T!e neutrino is a 1F2spin creator particle to ma,e e4ual t!e spins of t!e wea, interaction: for
e=ample neutron decay to 2 fermions: e%ery particle is fermions wit! S spin< T!e wea, interaction
c!anges t!e entropy since more or less particles will gi%e more or less freedom of mo%ement< T!e
entropy c!ange is a result of temperature c!ange and &rea,s t!e e4uality of oscillator diffraction
intensity of t!e 7a=well)Bolt>mann statistics< T!is way it c!anges t!e time coordinate measure and
ma,es possi&le a different time dilation as of t!e special relati%ity<
T!e limit of t!e %elocity of particles as t!e speed of lig!t appropriate only for electrical c!arged
particles: since t!e accelerated c!arges are self maintaining locally t!e accelerating electric force<
T!e neutrinos are CP symmetry &rea,ing particles compensated &y time in t!e CPT symmetry: t!at is
t!e time coordinate not wor,s as in t!e electromagnetic interactions: conse4uently t!e speed of
neutrinos is not limited &y t!e speed of lig!t<
T!e wea, interaction T;asymmetry is in con9unction wit! t!e T;asymmetry of t!e second law of
t!ermodynamics: meaning t!at locally lowering entropy Con e=tremely !ig! temperatureD causes t!e
wea, interaction: for e=ample t!e Hydrogen fusion<
Pro&a&ly &ecause it is a spin creating mo%ement c!anging linear oscillation to 2 dimensional
oscillation &y c!anging d to u 4uar, and creating anti neutrino going &ac, in time relati%e to t!e
proton and electron created from t!e neutron: it seems t!at t!e anti neutrino fastest t!en t!e
%elocity of t!e p!otons created also in t!is wea, interaction6


" 4uar, fla%or c!anging s!ows t!at it is a reflection c!anges mo%ement and t!e CP; and T; symmetry
&rea,ingPPP T!is fla%or c!anging oscillation could pro%e t!at it could &e also on !ig!er le%el suc! as
atoms: molecules: pro&a&ly &ig &iological significant molecules and responsi&le on t!e aging of t!e
life<

Important to mention t!at t!e wea, interaction is always contains particles and antiparticles: w!ere
t!e neutrinos CantineutrinosD present t!e opposite side< It means &y /eynmanLs interpretation t!at
t!ese particles present t!e &ac,ward time and pro&a&ly &ecause t!is t!ey seem to mo%e faster t!an
t!e speed of lig!t in t!e reference frame of t!e ot!er side<

/inally since t!e wea, interaction is an electric dipole c!ange wit! S spin creatingE it is limited &y t!e
%elocity of t!e electromagnetic wa%e: so t!e neutrinoLs %elocity cannot e=ceed t!e %elocity of lig!t<

The &eneral "ea% Interaction
T!e (ea, Interactions T;asymmetry is in con9unction wit! t!e T;asymmetry of t!e 5econd Gaw of
T!ermodynamics: meaning t!at locally lowering entropy Con e=tremely !ig! temperatureD causes for
e=ample t!e Hydrogen fusion< T!e arrow of time &y t!e 5econd Gaw of T!ermodynamics s!ows t!e
increasing entropy and decreasing information &y t!e (ea, Interaction: c!anging t!e temperature
dependent diffraction patterns< " good e=ample of t!is is t!e neutron decay: creating more particles
wit! less ,nown information a&out t!em<
T!e neutrino oscillation of t!e (ea, Interaction s!ows t!at it is a general electric dipole c!ange and
it is possi&le to any ot!er temperature dependent entropy and information c!anging diffraction
pattern of atoms: molecules and e%en complicated &iological li%ing structures<
(e can generali>e t!e wea, interaction on all of t!e decaying matter constructions: e%en on t!e
&iological too< T!is gi%es t!e limited lifetime for t!e &iological constructions also &y t!e arrow of
time< T!ere s!ould &e a new researc! space of t!e Quantum Information 5cience t!e Mgeneral
neutrino oscillationM for t!e greater t!en su&atomic matter structures as an electric dipole c!ange<
T!ere is also connection &etween statistical p!ysics and e%olutionary &iology: since t!e arrow of
time is wor,ing in t!e &iological e%olution also<
T!e /luctuation T!eorem says t!at t!ere is a pro&a&ility t!at entropy will flow in a direction opposite
to t!at dictated &y t!e 5econd Gaw of T!ermodynamics< In t!is case t!e Information is growing t!at
is t!e matter formulas are emerging from t!e c!aos< 5o t!e (ea, Interaction !as two directions:
samples for one direction is t!e Ieutron decay: and Hydrogen fusion is t!e opposite direction<

'ermions and Bosons
T!e fermions are t!e diffraction patterns of t!e &osons suc! a way t!at t!ey are &ot! sides of t!e
same t!ing<
(an $er "aals force
Iamed after t!e *utc! scientist Ho!annes *ideri, %an der (aals ) w!o first proposed it in 1+#3 to
e=plain t!e &e!a%iour of gases ) it is a %ery wea, force t!at only &ecomes rele%ant w!en atoms and
molecules are %ery close toget!er< /luctuations in t!e electronic cloud of an atom mean t!at it will
!a%e an instantaneous dipole moment< T!is can induce a dipole moment in a near&y atom: t!e
result &eing an attracti%e dipole)dipole interaction<
)lectromagnetic inertia and mass
)lectromagnetic Induction
5ince t!e magnetic induction creates a negati%e electric field as a result of t!e c!anging acceleration:
it wor,s as an electromagnetic inertia: causing an electromagnetic mass< A1B
Relativistic change of mass
T!e increasing mass of t!e electric c!arges t!e result of t!e increasing inducti%e electric force acting
against t!e accelerating force< T!e decreasing mass of t!e decreasing acceleration is t!e result of t!e
inducti%e electric force acting against t!e decreasing force< T!is is t!e relati%istic mass c!ange
e=planation: especially importantly e=plaining t!e mass reduction in case of %elocity decrease<
The fre*uency dependence of mass
5ince E = hν and E = mc
2
: m = hν /c
2
t!at is t!e m depends only on t!e ν fre4uency< It means t!at t!e
mass of t!e proton and electron are electromagnetic and t!e result of t!e electromagnetic
induction: caused &y t!e c!anging acceleration of t!e spinning and mo%ing c!argeP It could &e t!at
t!e m
o
inertial mass is t!e result of t!e spin: since t!is is t!e only accelerating motion of t!e electric
c!arge< 5ince t!e accelerating motion !as different fre4uency for t!e electron in t!e atom and t!e
proton: t!ey masses are different: also as t!e wa%elengt!s on &ot! sides of t!e diffraction pattern:
gi%ing e4ual intensity of radiation<
)lectron # Proton mass rate
T!e Planc, distri&ution law e=plains t!e different fre4uencies of t!e proton and electron: gi%ing
e4ual intensity to different lam&da wa%elengt!sP "lso since t!e particles are diffraction patterns
t!ey !a%e some closeness to eac! ot!er ) can &e seen as a gra%itational force< A2B
T!ere is an asymmetry &etween t!e mass of t!e electric c!arges: for e=ample proton and electron:
can understood &y t!e asymmetrical Planc, *istri&ution Gaw< T!is temperature dependent energy
distri&ution is asymmetric around t!e ma=imum intensity: w!ere t!e anni!ilation of matter and
antimatter is a !ig! pro&a&ility e%ent< T!e asymmetric sides are creating different fre4uencies of
electromagnetic radiations &eing in t!e same intensity le%el and compensating eac! ot!er< Nne of
t!ese compensating ratios is t!e electron ) proton mass ratio< T!e lower energy side !as no
compensating intensity le%el: it is t!e dar, energy and t!e corresponding matter is t!e dar, matter<

&ravity from the point of view of *uantum physics
The &ravitational force
T!e gra%itational attracti%e force is &asically a magnetic force<
T!e same electric c!arges can attract one anot!er &y t!e magnetic force if t!ey are mo%ing parallel
in t!e same direction< 5ince t!e electrically neutral matter is composed of negati%e and positi%e
c!arges t!ey need 2 p!otons to mediate t!is attracti%e force: one per c!arges< T!e Bing Bang caused
parallel mo%ing of t!e matter gi%es t!is magnetic force: e=perienced as gra%itational force<
5ince gra%iton is a tensor field: it !as spin R 2: could &e 2 p!otons wit! spin R 1 toget!er<
Tou can t!in, a&out p!otons as %irtual electron ) positron pairs: o&taining t!e necessary %irtual
mass for gra%ity<
T!e mass as seen &efore a result of t!e diffraction: for e=ample t!e proton ) electron mass rate
7pR1+42 7e< In order to mo%e one of t!ese diffraction ma=imum Celectron or protonD we need to
inter%ene into t!e diffraction pattern wit! a force appropriate to t!e intensity of t!is diffraction
ma=imum: means its intensity or mass<

T!e Big Bang caused acceleration created radial currents of t!e matter: and since t!e matter is
composed of negati%e and positi%e c!arges: t!ese currents are creating magnetic field and attracting
forces &etween t!e parallel mo%ing electric currents< T!is is t!e gra%itational force e=perienced &y
t!e matter: and also t!e mass is result of t!e electromagnetic forces &etween t!e c!arged particles<
T!e positi%e and negati%e c!arged currents attracts eac! ot!er or &y t!e magnetic forces or &y t!e
muc! stronger electrostatic forcesP6

T!e gra%itational force attracting t!e matter: causing concentration of t!e matter in a small space
and lea%ing muc! space wit! low matter concentration8 dar, matter and energy<
T!ere is an asymmetry &etween t!e mass of t!e electric c!arges: for e=ample proton and electron:
can understood &y t!e asymmetrical Planc, *istri&ution Gaw< T!is temperature dependent energy
distri&ution is asymmetric around t!e ma=imum intensity: w!ere t!e anni!ilation of matter and
antimatter is a !ig! pro&a&ility e%ent< T!e asymmetric sides are creating different fre4uencies of
electromagnetic radiations &eing in t!e same intensity le%el and compensating eac! ot!er< Nne of
t!ese compensating ratios is t!e electron ) proton mass ratio< T!e lower energy side !as no
compensating intensity le%el: it is t!e dar, energy and t!e corresponding matter is t!e dar, matter<


The Higgs oson
By 7arc! 2213: t!e particle !ad &een pro%en to &e!a%e: interact and decay in many of t!e e=pected
ways predicted &y t!e 5tandard 7odel: and was also tentati%ely confirmed to !a%e U parity and >ero
spin: two fundamental criteria of a Higgs &oson: ma,ing it also t!e first ,nown scalar particle to &e
disco%ered in nature: alt!oug! a num&er of ot!er properties were not fully pro%en and some partial
results do not yet precisely matc! t!ose e=pectedE in some cases data is also still awaited or &eing
analy>ed<
5ince t!e Higgs &oson is necessary to t!e ( and V &osons: t!e dipole c!ange of t!e (ea, interaction
and t!e c!ange in t!e magnetic effect caused gra%itation must &e conducted< T!e (ien law is also
important to e=plain t!e (ea, interaction: since it descri&es t!e T
ma=
c!ange and t!e diffraction
patterns c!ange< A2B
Higgs mechanism and Quantum &ravity
T!e magnetic induction creates a negati%e electric field: causing an electromagnetic inertia< Pro&a&ly
it is t!e mysterious Higgs field gi%ing mass to t!e c!arged particles6 (e can t!in, a&out t!e p!oton
as an electron;positron pair: t!ey !a%e mass< T!e neutral particles are &uilt from negati%e and
positi%e c!arges: for e=ample t!e neutron: decaying to proton and electron< T!e wa%e ) particle
duality ma,es sure t!at t!e particles are oscillating and creating magnetic induction as an inertial
mass: e=plaining also t!e relati%istic mass c!ange< Hig!er fre4uency creates stronger magnetic
induction: smaller fre4uency results lesser magnetic induction< It seems to me t!at t!e magnetic
induction is t!e secret of t!e Higgs field<
In particle p!ysics: t!e Higgs mec!anism is a ,ind of mass generation mec!anism: a process t!at
gi%es mass to elementary particles< "ccording to t!is t!eory: particles gain mass &y interacting wit!
t!e Higgs field t!at permeates all space< 7ore precisely: t!e Higgs mec!anism endows gauge &osons
in a gauge t!eory wit! mass t!roug! a&sorption of Iam&u)-oldstone &osons arising in spontaneous
symmetry &rea,ing<
T!e simplest implementation of t!e mec!anism adds an e=tra Higgs field to t!e gauge t!eory< T!e
spontaneous symmetry &rea,ing of t!e underlying local symmetry triggers con%ersion of
components of t!is Higgs field to -oldstone &osons w!ic! interact wit! Cat least some ofD t!e ot!er
fields in t!e t!eory: so as to produce mass terms for Cat least some ofD t!e gauge &osons< T!is
mec!anism may also lea%e &e!ind elementary scalar Cspin;2D particles: ,nown as Higgs &osons<
In t!e 5tandard 7odel: t!e p!rase ?Higgs mec!anism? refers specifically to t!e generation of masses
for t!e (
W
: and V wea, gauge &osons t!roug! electrowea, symmetry &rea,ing< T!e Garge Hadron
Collider at C3$I announced results consistent wit! t!e Higgs particle on Huly 4: 2212 &ut stressed
t!at furt!er testing is needed to confirm t!e 5tandard 7odel<
"hat is the +pin,
5o we ,now already t!at t!e new particle !as spin >ero or spin two and we could tell w!ic! one if we
could detect t!e polari>ations of t!e p!otons produced< 'nfortunately t!is is difficult and neit!er
"TG"5 nor C75 are a&le to measure polari>ations< T!e only direct and sure way to confirm t!at t!e
particle is indeed a scalar is to plot t!e angular distri&ution of t!e p!otons in t!e rest frame of t!e
centre of mass< " spin >ero particles li,e t!e Higgs carries no directional information away from t!e
original collision so t!e distri&ution will &e e%en in all directions< T!is test will &e possi&le w!en a
muc! larger num&er of e%ents !a%e &een o&ser%ed< In t!e mean time we can settle for less certain
indirect indicators<
The &raviton
In p!ysics: t!e gra%iton is a !ypot!etical elementary particle t!at mediates t!e force of gra%itation in
t!e framewor, of 4uantum field t!eory< If it e=ists: t!e gra%iton is e=pected to &e massless C&ecause
t!e gra%itational force appears to !a%e unlimited rangeD and must &e a spin;2 &oson< T!e spin
follows from t!e fact t!at t!e source of gra%itation is t!e stress;energy tensor: a second;ran, tensor
Ccompared to electromagnetismMs spin;1 p!oton: t!e source of w!ic! is t!e four;current: a first;ran,
tensorD< "dditionally: it can &e s!own t!at any massless spin;2 field would gi%e rise to a force
indistinguis!a&le from gra%itation: &ecause a massless spin;2 field must couple to Cinteract wit!D t!e
stress;energy tensor in t!e same way t!at t!e gra%itational field does< T!is result suggests t!at: if a
massless spin;2 particle is disco%ered: it must &e t!e gra%iton: so t!at t!e only e=perimental
%erification needed for t!e gra%iton may simply &e t!e disco%ery of a massless spin;2 particle< A3B
$ar% -atter and )nergy
*ar, matter is a type of matter !ypot!esi>ed in astronomy and cosmology to account for a large part
of t!e mass t!at appears to &e missing from t!e uni%erse< *ar, matter cannot &e seen directly wit!
telescopesE e%idently it neit!er emits nor a&sor&s lig!t or ot!er electromagnetic radiation at any
significant le%el< It is ot!erwise !ypot!esi>ed to simply &e matter t!at is not reactant to lig!t<
Instead: t!e e=istence and properties of dar, matter are inferred from its gra%itational effects on
%isi&le matter: radiation: and t!e large;scale structure of t!e uni%erse< "ccording to t!e Planc,
mission team: and &ased on t!e standard model of cosmology: t!e total mass)energy of t!e ,nown
uni%erse contains 4<.@ ordinary matter: 2<+@ dar, matter and +<3@ dar, energy< T!us: dar,
matter is estimated to constitute +4<5@ of t!e total matter in t!e uni%erse: w!ile dar, energy plus
dar, matter constitute .5<1@ of t!e total content of t!e uni%erse< AB
Cosmic microwave ac%ground
T!e cosmic microwa%e &ac,ground CC7BD is t!e t!ermal radiation assumed to &e left o%er from t!e
?Big Bang? of cosmology< (!en t!e uni%erse cooled enoug!: protons and electrons com&ined to
form neutral atoms< T!ese atoms could no longer a&sor& t!e t!ermal radiation: and so t!e uni%erse
&ecame transparent instead of &eing an opa4ue fog< A#B
Thermal radiation
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated &y t!e t!ermal motion of c!arged
particles in matter< "ll matter wit! a temperature greater t!an a&solute >ero emits t!ermal
radiation< (!en t!e temperature of t!e &ody is greater t!an a&solute >ero: interatomic collisions
cause t!e ,inetic energy of t!e atoms or molecules to c!ange< T!is results in c!arge;acceleration
andFor dipole oscillation w!ic! produces electromagnetic radiation: and t!e wide spectrum of
radiation reflects t!e wide spectrum of energies and accelerations t!at occur e%en at a single
temperature< A+B

Conclusions
T!e accelerated c!arges self;maintaining potential s!ows t!e
t!e 4uantum le%el also< A1B
T!e 5ecret of Quantum 3ntanglement
electromagnetic wa%es and t!is way t!eir 4uantum states e%ery time is t!e result of t!e 4uantum
state of t!e intermediate electromagnetic wa%es< A2B
Nne of t!e most important conclusions is t!at t!e elec
and e%en if t!eir %elocity is constant: t!ey !a%e an intrinsic acceleration anyway: t!e so called spin:
since t!ey need at least an intrinsic acceleration to ma,e possi&le t!ey mo%ement <
T!e &ridge &etween t!e classical and 4uantum t!eory is &ased on t!is intrinsic acceleration of t!e
spin: e=plaining also t!e Heisen&erg 'ncertainty Principle< T!e particle
c!arges and t!e p!oton ma,es certain t!at t!ey are &ot! sides of t!e same t
gra%itational force on t!e accelerating 'ni%erse caused magnetic force and t!e Planc, *istri&ution
Gaw of t!e electromagnetic wa%es caused diffraction gi%es us t!e &asis to &uild a 'nified T!eory of
t!e p!ysical interactions< T!e lower energy side !as no compensating intensity le%el: it is t!e dar,
energy and t!e corresponding matter is t!e dar, matter<
t!e diffraction patterns: also cannot &e part of 4uantum entanglement: &ecause of t!is we !a%
information a&out it: we conclude its e=istence from its
References
A1B T!e 7agnetic field of t!e 3lectric
!ttp8FFacademia<eduF3+33335FT!eX7agneticXfieldXofXt!eX3lectricXcurrent
A2B 3 *imensional 5tring T!eory
!ttp8FFacademia<eduF3+34454F3X*imensionalX5tringXT!eory
A3B -ra%iton Production By Two P!oton and 3lectron
Garge 3=tra *imensions

maintaining potential s!ows t!e locality of t!e relati%ity: wor,ing on
T!e 5ecret of Quantum 3ntanglement t!at t!e particles are diffraction patterns of t!e
electromagnetic wa%es and t!is way t!eir 4uantum states e%ery time is t!e result of t!e 4uantum
state of t!e intermediate electromagnetic wa%es< A2B
Nne of t!e most important conclusions is t!at t!e electric c!arges are mo%ing in an accelerated way
and e%en if t!eir %elocity is constant: t!ey !a%e an intrinsic acceleration anyway: t!e so called spin:
since t!ey need at least an intrinsic acceleration to ma,e possi&le t!ey mo%ement <
classical and 4uantum t!eory is &ased on t!is intrinsic acceleration of t!e
spin: e=plaining also t!e Heisen&erg 'ncertainty Principle< T!e particle ) wa%e duality of t!e electric
c!arges and t!e p!oton ma,es certain t!at t!ey are &ot! sides of t!e same t!ing< Basing t!e
gra%itational force on t!e accelerating 'ni%erse caused magnetic force and t!e Planc, *istri&ution
Gaw of t!e electromagnetic wa%es caused diffraction gi%es us t!e &asis to &uild a 'nified T!eory of
T!e lower energy side !as no compensating intensity le%el: it is t!e dar,
energy and t!e corresponding matter is t!e dar, matter< 5ince t!e dar, matter not participating in
t!e diffraction patterns: also cannot &e part of 4uantum entanglement: &ecause of t!is we !a%
information a&out it: we conclude its e=istence from its gra%itational effect only<
T!e 7agnetic field of t!e 3lectric current and t!e 7agnetic induction
!ttp8FFacademia<eduF3+33335FT!eX7agneticXfieldXofXt!eX3lectricXcurrent
!ttp8FFacademia<eduF3+34454F3X*imensionalX5tringXT!eory
-ra%iton Production By Two P!oton and 3lectron;P!oton Processes In Kalu>a;Klein T!eories (it!
wor,ing on
t!at t!e particles are diffraction patterns of t!e
electromagnetic wa%es and t!is way t!eir 4uantum states e%ery time is t!e result of t!e 4uantum
tric c!arges are mo%ing in an accelerated way
and e%en if t!eir %elocity is constant: t!ey !a%e an intrinsic acceleration anyway: t!e so called spin:
classical and 4uantum t!eory is &ased on t!is intrinsic acceleration of t!e
wa%e duality of t!e electric
!ing< Basing t!e
gra%itational force on t!e accelerating 'ni%erse caused magnetic force and t!e Planc, *istri&ution
Gaw of t!e electromagnetic wa%es caused diffraction gi%es us t!e &asis to &uild a 'nified T!eory of
T!e lower energy side !as no compensating intensity le%el: it is t!e dar,
5ince t!e dar, matter not participating in
t!e diffraction patterns: also cannot &e part of 4uantum entanglement: &ecause of t!is we !a%enMt
Klein T!eories (it!
!ttp8FFar=i%<orgFa&sF!ep;p!F..2.3.2
A4B Quantum 3ntanglement
!ttp8FFen<wi,ipedia<orgFwi,iFQuantumXentanglement
A5B 5pace;&ased e=periment could test gra%ityMs effects on 4uantum entanglement
!ttp8FFp!ys<orgFnewsF2214;25;space;&ased;gra%ity;effects;4uantum;entanglement<!tml
AB Quantum Cognition
!ttp8FFen<wi,ipedia<orgFwi,iFQuantumXcognition
A#B Information 3ntropy;T!eory of P!ysics
!ttps8FFwww<academia<eduF3+32+4FInformationX;X3ntropyXT!eoryXofXP!ysics
A+B Quantum Teleportation
!ttp8FFen<wi,ipedia<orgFwi,iFQuantumXteleportation
A.B Pairing up single atoms in silicon for 4uantum computing
!ttp8FFp!ys<orgFnewsF2214;2;pairing;atoms;silicon;4uantum<!tmlYnwlt