`Curs 5 - 30.10.

Scientific argumentation uses typical structures.
ENTT! pro"es ENTT!
ST#TE # in$icates ST#TE %
#T&%'TE causes(signals #T&%'TE
)E#T causes e*pansion of metals
+T,e -ptics+ .y Ne/ton 011023 /as /ritten in Englis,.
E*cerpt4 +f t,e )umorous of t,e Eye .y ol$-age $ecay5 so as .y s,rin6ing to ma6e t,e
Cornea an$ Coat of t,e Crystalline )umour gro/ flatter t,an .efore5 t,e 7ig,t /ill not .e
refracte$ enoug,5 an$ for /ant of a sufficient &efraction /ill not con"erge to t,e .ottom of
t,e Eye .ut to some place .eyon$ it5 an$ .y conse8uence5 paint in t,e .ottom of t,e Eye a
confuse$ 9icture5 an$ accor$ing to t,e n$istinctness of t,is 9icture5 t,e o.:ect /ill appear
confuse$. T,is is t,e reason of t,e $ecay of sig,t in men an$ s,o/s /,y t,eir sig,t is men$e$
.y spectacles. ;or t,ose Con"e* glasses supply t,e $efect of 9lumpness in t,e Eye an$ .y
increasing t,e &efraction ma6e t,e &ays con"erge sooner5 so as to con"ene $istinctly at t,e
.ottom of t,e Eye if t,e glass ,a"e a $ue $egree of con"e*ity. #n$ t,e contrary ,appens in
s,ort-sig,te$ men /,ose eyes are too plump.+
7e*ically5 it is not $ifficult to see many /or$s .orro/e$ from 7atin. E*pressions suc,
as +Crystalline )umour+ 0a 6in$ of ,umour3 or refraction 0in t,e te*t is $efine$ in association
/it, refle*ion3 con"e* an$ con"e*ity - tec,nical terms.
T,e .asic $istinction .et/een /or$s an$ terms is t,at in general language5 /or$s ,a"e
more t,an one meaning< e"ery term ,as only one meaning.
n terms of "oca.ulary /e can alrea$y see terms an$ all of t,em5 in t,is case5 come
from 7atin. =rammatically5 /e notice t,e appearance of nominali>ation.
n eac, of t,ese pairs5 a "er. or a$:ecti"e is re/ar$e$ in a secon$ e*pression as a noun.
Nominali>ation is of particular significance in aca$emic /riting.
T,is is $etaile$ in ?.#.@ )alli$ay an$ ,is co-aut,orAs 0B. &. ?artin3 /riting science -
+7iteracy an$ $iscursi"e po/er+
T,roug, t,e centuries5 .eginning /it, t,e 11t, - 1Ct,5 t,ere ,as .een a mo"ement
to/ar$s nominali>ation. ;rom # ,appens5 so D ,appens -E ,appening # is t,e cause of
,appening D.
e.g. )y$rogen is ,eate$ so energy is release$.
T,is is t,e preferre$ grammatical form of common speec, for e"ery$ay con"ersation5
more "er.s t,at nouns.
e.g. ,eating of )y$rogen is t,e cause of t,e release of )y$rogen
T,e /or$s t,at are turne$ into nouns .ecome tec,nicali>e$5 t,ey .ecome terms. T,ey
also ,a"e a $iscourse function5 t,ey are use$ to pac6-up information. T,is p,enomenon in t,e
.oo6 of )alli$ay is calle$ grammatical metap,or 0a grammatical category replaces anot,er
grammatical category3.
#n important function ser"e$ .y nominali>ation is referre$ to argumentation. T,e
noun p,rase inclu$es mo$ifiers. # lot of information can .e pac6age$ in t,is noun p,rases.
T,e emergence of aca$emic /riting meant a $istinction .et/een 2 literacies - t,e
social $imension of aca$emic /riting.
#ca$emic /riting $istances itself from t,is imme$iate /orl$s5 it constructs an
alternati"e /orl$ of entities or t,ings of a.stractions /,ic, are remo"e$ from e"ery$ay
e*perience. T,is is t,e /orl$ of t,e e*pert /,o aut,oritati"ely claims to pro:ect an o.:ecti"e
"ie/ of reality. #t t,e same time5 t,is alternati"e "ie/ is not neutral5 it is not $isintereste$5 it
is not i$eologically innocent5 it often reflects certain interests an$ e*clu$es ot,ers. n ot,er
/or$s5 t,is alternati"e "ie/ is mystifie$ 0contemporary3.
Tec,nocratic /riting uses terms suc, as glo.ali>ation or t,ermalici$e 06illing .y
nuclear /eapons3 or aerial "isitations 0nuclear attac63 or ant,romeg 0one million people3 or
filteration 0ra$iation3 or culminating e*perience 0$eat, .y nuclear /eapons3.
T,e po/er of aca$emic /riting - or$inary people are $isempo/ere$.
T,e emergence of aca$emic /riting - instrument of t,e mo$ern 6no/le$ge para$igm
in association /it, t,e gro/t, of capital in$ustrialism. #ca$emic /riting is a $iscourse for
.usiness science.
7inguists an$ terminologists refer to t,e language su.-systems use$ to communicate in
particular su.:ect fiel$s or areas of 6no/le$ge as special languages.
n Europe5 t,e term +7anguages for Special 9urposes+07S93 is /i$ely use$ as a
synonym for special languages. T,e same notion ,as anot,er meaning in N #merica. T,e
notion of tec,nical language or tec,nolect - term use$ .y many Englis,-spea6ing translators
an$ it is a synonymous /it, any special language. )o/e"er5 is also inclu$es t,e special
language of non-tec,nical su.:ects suc, as la/5 art - causes confusion.
T,ere are "ariations 4 speciali>e$ language
specialist language
su.languages - is use$ mainly .y computation linguists t,at are
concerne$ .y t,e computational tracta.ility of language.
+Su.language+0.oo63 .y B. 7e,r.erger an$ &. @ittne$ge 01FC23 - G factors are
i$entifie$ t,at ,elp c,aracteri>e a su.language4
1. limite$ su.:ect matter
2. le*ical syntactic an$ semantic restrictions
3. +$e"iant+ rules of grammar
2. ,ig, fre8uency of certain constructions
5. te*ts structure
G. use of special sym.ols
T,e special languages are $istinguis,e$ from general language .y restrictions on
"oca.ulary5 terms an$ synta*5 nominali>ation5 t,e passi"e "oice.
Terms ac8uire pretecti"e states /,en t,ey are use$ in special su.:ect fiel$s.
Spea6ing of "oca.ulary5 t,e fe/er t,e num.er of participants in a su.:ect fiel$5 t,e
more li6ely t,e su.:ect is to .e percei"e$ as speciali>e$.
e.g. nuclear p,ysics
molecular .iology
T,ere is also a great num.er of $efinitions of t,e special languages5 .ut to put it
simply5 t,e special languages are t,e languages of speciali>e$ $isciplines.
Hefinition 0comes from a .oo6 .y B. Sager5 Hung/ort, an$ ?acHonal$ - +Englis,
special languages+ - 1FC03 4 +Special languages are semi-autonomous5 comple* semiotic
systems .ase$ on an$ $eri"e$ from general language< t,eir use presupposes special e$ucation
an$ is restricte$ to communication among specialists in t,e same or closely relate$ fiel$s.+
T/o .roa$ types of 6no/le$ge are re8uire$ to .ecome a proficient special language
1. linguistic 6no/le$ge
2. conceptual 6no/le$ge
T,ere are se"eral types of special language users4
1. e*perts 0 people /it, training an$ e*perience3
2. semi-e*perts 0 stu$ents or e*perts from relate$ fiel$s3
3. non-e*perts 0 translators or tec,nical /riters3
&easons for learning a.out t,e special languages4
1. to communicate /it, e*perts t,at spea6 ot,er language
2. to /or6 as a translator
#not,er $istinction t,at /e can ma6e is t,at .et/een t,e special languages an$
artificial languages.
Special languages are part of natural language .ut t,ey also ,a"e features t,at ma6e
t,em similar to artificial languages. #rtificial languages are not natural5 t,ey are +in"erte$+
languages /it, a pre"ious controlle$ conceptuali>ation.
e.g. .iological nomenclature
c,emical notations