Curs 7 - 13.11.

2013
Subject fields are special, the types of users are special and a special type of situation.
Academic no!led"e or special subjects are not part of our "eneral no!led"e# special
subjects e$press subject %or special& no!led"e# they are the object of trainin".
'eople !ho ha(e this type of no!led"e are e$perts - in particular ori"inators of special
communication.
Communication in special lan"ua"es is speciali)ed communication - al!ays in(ol(es
no!led"e transfer, !hich in turn re*uires no!led"e representation.
+he problem of no!led"e representation
,uman no!led"e is mainly represented-structured in the form of concepts. Concepts
can be for e$ample primiti(es or comple$. +here is scope for an infinite number of concepts -
(ery fe! are reali)ed in lan"ua"e.
.ach indi(idual ac*uires throu"h education the "eneral structure of the no!led"e
space if his-her society. +here is a distinction bet!een passi(e understandin" and full
understandin".
'assi(e understandin" --/ (a"ue idea of the place of a concept in the no!led"e space. 0e
understand fully !hen !e no! the e$act place in relation !ith others.
Concepts are not isolated entities. +hey are al!ays related and they can only be
understood as systems. Any no!led"e domain only becomes accessible if the domain is
structured as a concept.
+here is also a de"ree of social norms that operate - e.". social norms indicate !hen a
table as an object can no lon"er indicate a table.
1n the different subject fields, there is al!ays a (ery lar"e number of concepts. +here is
a "reat need to differentiate this object.
Concepts in "eneral no!led"e are fu))ier !hereas concepts is special fields are !ell
defined. Special subjects are different from "eneral no!led"e by the nature of reference and
also by the fact that they contain additional subjects.
+his distinction bet!een special %terms& and "eneral %!ords& is reflected in the
e$istence of terms. ,uman no!led"e is structured as objects.
2efinition of concepts - they are mental constructs.
1S3 7 04 %1nternational Standard 3r"ani)ation& - refers to concepts as thou"ht units !hich
lin objects or definition to their names.
+here are theories - one theory of concepts is no!n as 5the criteria feature theory5
!hich says that each concept consists of a set of features !hich are necessary and sufficient
for somethin" to count as an e$ample of that concept.
e.". the concept 5bird5 !ould consist of a set of features referrin" to !in"s, feathers, bein"
animate etc.
+here are a number of problems !ith this theory - it is impossible to decide !hich are
necessary and sufficient conditions.
A number of psycholo"ists %.. 6osch& ha(e proposed an alternati(e theory no!n as
5the prototype theory5 - says that a concept is not a set of necessary and sufficient concepts
but a prototype %a description of a typical insistence of that particular concept&
e.". 5bird5 - description of a typical bird % such as sparro!& as a set of features or a (isual
ima"e.
3n this theory, an object is not simply either a bird or not a bird, it is a bird to a certain
de"ree, accordin" to ho! similar it is to the prototype.
Concepts can be learnt on the base of a small no. of instances !ithout any formal definition.
+o learn this concepts, they need to be structured by sets. Concepts can be analysed as
they are accordin" to intension and e$tension.
intension 7 a set of characteristics that mae up the concept
e$tension 7 is the actual set of objects or class of objects !hich mae up concepts.
e.". pencil
intension - an object made up by a lon" piece of "raphite, introduced into a holder,
used to !rite.
e$tension - includes all the pencils %colour pencils, eraser pencils etc.&
6elations bet!een concepts
e.". '8A9+ %5ind of5&
e.". '8A9+ %5part of5&
Concepts are the smallest units of communication in the special lan"ua"es. Concepts,
in this case, refer to special no!led"e or special reference. :or hi"hly specific reference,
there are proper names. Concepts are related to terms in the special lan"ua"es and the
relationship loos lie a trian"le;