""'Il""ll

""""'"''''''''''
64
sólucioriando el sistema de ecuaciones, se obtiene:
{XB} {20.0285}' . XE " ;A ~2.4077 YE 2.3792
CAP. 2, MÉTODOS ENERGÉTICOS
. !
~)1 LFy=O
0= -2.3792 + 10sen 30° - 4.0268 sen ex
0=-2.3792+5 -2.6206
()5
Si !!<?_ seconsidera la ~Q.ntribución_desegundo orden de~E~~em() debi( I()
a la fuerza dP', el trabajo externo realizado en_llistructura habiá aumenta( I()
h~s~ c~mo coñSecueñCiade la i1t.troduccióndel diferencial <:le despÍaza
miento do¡, así, __'1 ¡IP·'·? (Q ~Ol ; J ~L{~ Cj f· ~. ~
\ .
T>Te-hip¡#o; (2.64)
\_-_!
Para deducir este teorema, supónganse que una e~tur~est~en eqll í /1
'QtiQ. bélJ.~~!!~~iQ~d_~U.~.~ETgas Pl,F2L~:.:!J!,n:. Después de la aplicación de Ia:i
cargas_~~ ..@'c:>!i.~"<:~!?:,9~_~plaz~.~J:lE:.~~:.:..::§n (en lospuntos correspond í t' 11
tes de aplicación de dichas cargas). Estas cargas'producen nna cierta cantidad
p~_!rabajQex~~r~.r. y una <:~ti9~-ªId'eeñer~::¡r~~fºrroadQIJjIlte rn"
Uint en la estructura ..... ' . ,,', .
---.- Al variar la carga p¡ \ma cantidad diferencial'.dP;,!e1Jkspl_ª~-ª_.mi~Il.t(X 0,
t?~V~~~-ª[~.i~~ia1 ~iª~SE!~amie1!'tO:?S¡Jiíéntras los o~?s ?espla
zamlentos Oj,j:t: 1se mantienen c0Il.~t.antes, la energía de deformaClOnmterna
~!!.~t~i~te~avaria hasta-alcanzar Unvalor Uint' pOi1Oque-;----------
('1..Id)
~
10ton
U• -u aUint dI:
int - int + -- u'
dO¡ 1
Figura 2.18. Carga axíal en las barras.
¿40~8
TEOREMAS DE CASTIGLlANO
~ e",
~' , ;,' 1 " ••
1I1 ",,).p ':~e ", 1)"
Primer teorema de Castigliano
?7
["'ll,r>i: <;-<1
!:. _ 22.4077 /
1- EA
!:.2:::0.7593(22.4077') +0.6508(2.3792)= 18.~5626 EA EA EA
!:.3:::O.7071( 20.0285-22~:077+2.3792 )=0
!:. _ -2.3792
4- EA
!:.¡E¡A¡
N¡ L,
1
, 22.407'7 EA =5.6019 ton (tenlrión)
NI EA 4 ,
18.5626 EA _ 4.0268 ton (tensión)
N2::: EA ~ 4.6098
En la figura 2.18 se representan las cargas axiales para cada bé1'rra.
~g.:mPL()9-ª9~l1:<:l>lJ~.quilibrio:
@
--~ LF;,== O •
O:::-5.6019 + 10cos 30°- 4.0268 cos ex
0=-5.6019 + 8.6602 - 3.0575
sustituyendo en la expresión para las cargas axiales en función de l¡.s deforma-
ciones,
sustituyendo en las ecuaciones de las deformaciones para cada barra,
·f"'.· ••• ·'- •.•····'•• ':··'••:·:·••""'
66 CAP 2. MÉmDOS [',éRGÉTiCOS
TWREMASD¿ CASI1GL!ANO
67
Segundo teorema de Castigliano -
pero, de acuerdo con la ecuación 2 .54, Uint = Te, sustituyendo esta relación en la
ecuación 2.65, se obtiene;
(2.hll¡
(2.70)
(2.71 J
(2.n.}
(2.7:;,
dT=dP¡do¡
U·' - r T a Ujnt dP - -L). +-- -
1m mt i)p Z
,
T~= Te + dP¡ Oj
• dUint' s:
Uint +--- di; = 1'. +dP¡ V¡
ap¡
dT=dP¡Ó¡
P, P {rdP¡ P
~ $m ••••••••• , •• •• •••• ··t u •••• _-..v::,. .
~ ~.~\r..~: w. _ _-~
.()
,
,t''.~
Figura 2.19. Desplazamientos en el punto de aplicación de la carga P¡-
La ecuación 2.70 muestra que <tI eS.Ull'!.~Ilt!~t!cle ~I.lIlcioord~.Qy se
puede. con~<i~~jl:lsíw.tic~_~te. Si a partir de la configuración deformada se
aphcanlas cargaSP¡,P2"'" Pm el trabajo externo Te realizado por ellas no se mo-
difica por la presencia de la diferencial de cargadPilsinembargo, durante la apli.
cación de estas cargas, el punto de aplicpción de la c~ diferencial dP,sc des.
plaza una cantidad & en la dirección de su línea de aplicación, como se jndica
en la figura 2.19, por lo que durante este desplazamienln la carga diferencial d l'
realiza una diferencial de trabajo externo igual a:
P1, P2> •.. , P1l'l sila carga p¡ se apliCa primero o después que las otras, la energlil .
de deformación interna será la misma en ambos casos.
SllPóngase_que~~c:a!8alLª~.IDentauna~antidaddifereI1 ~iªl ejE" enton ("'S
el trahajo interno aumentará' a~ma cantidad Ulnt el Ola:! se expresa corno:
Si el incremento diferencial de la carga dP; se aplica primero, produce! In
desplazamiento diferencial dó¡ de modo que el correspondiente trabajo exte r.
no reaJjza~d1l!(l~~ !;i. ª~cacióE..~~_~aªif_e~~n_c~1!!~c:.a~.?a dP; es,
.
Después de aplicarlascargasP1, P2' ... , Pn, el trahajo desarrollado se pue-
de escribir como:
• igualandolaecuadón 2~69conla 2.72,
(2.65)
(2.66 )
(2.67)
(2.68)
aUUlt =p¡
dÓ¡
Te= f (p¡, P2, .•• , Pn)
Uint =f (p,¡, P2, ••• , Pn)
dU
UiJlt + dÓllil do; = Te +'lJ dÓ¡
,
(l
Corno la energía de deformación iIlJerna Uint de be serig!lal al trabajo externo •
T~,igualando las ecuaciones 2.63 y2.64 , se tiene 10siguiente:
La ecuación 2.66 se conoce como el primer t~orerna de c:~tigliapo yse pue-
de enunciar corno: "En una estructura cualquiera cuyo lll~t:.c:Jja,L~~~0:g:i~o,la
primera derivada parcial de la en~rgía de deformación interna con respecto a
cualquier componente del desplazamiento, es igual a la[tl~fzª~Pª-0l:~a._~~e1
pun to y en la dirección correspondiente a esa componente del desplazamiento."
Para utilizar este teorema es evidente que hayquege.t~rrr>.mªr la,e...n~rgía
(le ddormª"ci~I!mte.El!a ~Efunción de los~esp1a;oaI~ieI!ÍQs 3)1>~, .. :' ¡5n~Al aplicar
t'l teorema, 10guest:_()º1:LeIl~sP!1lascargasqu_eg,eneran ~icJ:lps~e~p!¿¡4ª¡:pien-
t¡ )5, sin embargo,1º C@esec()I).oce gene~arillenJe s()f11~§~argªs qtJ~s~ap"lican a
la estfl1ct~ra,y lo que -se ~e~ea con9s;er sQnJ~A~splél~@J,ientQSgetlerados al
él plicar dichas cargas, razón por la cual este teorema no es de u1ilida<!práctica .
• " .. ~_""' __ """ _,' < . .-- __ .c·' •.•• __ ._ •• __ "
Para deducir este teorema, considérese una estructura a la cual se le apli-
can en forma gradual las cargas Pt, P2, ••• , Pn' El trabajo exterÍ10 desarrollado
por estas cargas es función de las mismas, por lo que,-'-"---
C~ornola ~nt:~a d~ defor!!!ª~ié.l!_ Í!lt~I!la es igual al trabajo externo realizado
por las cargas durante su aplicacioIÍ-gradua1, entonces l~ energía de deforma-
ción interna también se puede escribir en función de estas cargas,
Por otro lado, se sabe que l?_~E~J:gfacl~ ~eformacióIl in~eIl1.~112d~p~1}s:le
del orden eIl9:u.e._~e~pli~e..glª$.ca¡g.a,s, es decir, al aplicar el sistema de cargas

/\
......•
6C)
OSxs L/2
Osxs L/2
~
;:?
Vy=P
2
M _Px
, z- ,-
2
La eJ:le~&ade defo®ación interna al cº!1.~der~~~rza_cort~nte y 1111)-
~I1.t9 fl~~m:e está dada por: Al?)
L f V2 L M2
U. = r ....!LL dx + 1 _z_ dx
In! Jo' 2GA o 2Elz
[lU2 ffy(P/2)2 - lU2 (Px/2i ]
U· =2 ~--dx+ ---dx
m! O 2GA O 2EI
Z
sustituyendo y considerando simetría,
1
JJ
(2.75)
CAP. 2.
aUint =0
ap¡
aUint =O¡
ap¡
f p~.;:.) .0.0:1t+'
~ r-"
, ,
(1t :::
Al considerar que Uint = Te, Ysustituyendo en la
68
La ecuación 2.74 se conoce como el segundo te91:e~ de
puede enunciar como: "EIlllna estructuraéli-aIqUíer~91..Yº-iiilii:~itá1;g,S'~~M1ico,
la p!"!m-era deri~-ªparc.!al <i~!8energía d_~~_t?!~@aé:0~ c9nJes~ l!!l~car-
ga, e~!gual~t<i~!ª~!lJ.i~ntQeñe}pJ:Illifº~_aJ:)Jj~étc:ióndeesta carga en la direc-
Ciónº-iSií.Jípe-ª-º_~acción." - -'----------
--' - Un c;asoe~ciaIdel segundo teorema de Castigliano se da cuando la c:ª!- ---..-. .........,...- .
gé!..P¡ esu1!.areacción, en este casoel desplazamiento correspondiente Oí es"Cero;
iustituyendoestacónsideración en la ecuación 2.74, se obtiene: ---~-
o:-\:.c
?'f
:\,
1L/2 ffy p2 1U2 p2 x2
U. = ---dx+ --dx
mt O 4GA O 4Elz
aplicando el ~~~!:l.:r!:~9t~ore~~_~e ~~tigliano,
auin!
y=--
ap
lU2 ffy P lU2 Px2
y= -- dx+ --dx
- o 2GA o 2EI
Z
1-
11C.,
d
La ecuación 2.75 se conoce comoel princiRiodelp-ab<tiomínimo yse pue-
de enunciar como: "En una estructura estáucaÍnente indeterminada, las fuer-
---.----... , . - _._---~-~_ ..~._----._---,-------~-~-, ---'-'--
~~~da~!es :e.:r:.l?d1!cidaspor l~i fue_~~~E!!~_'!E!~das, sO~.~L~a~-
Ilitu.<:t®~k@~ª_g~ defon;nacióJlin~_ITgJien~_!:llLyalor JIlLnimo."
- El principio del trabajo mínimo es útil para el análisis de estructuras hi-
perestáticas.
Ejemplo 2.3. Para la~~ección ~ggte que se muestrae~la.figura
2.20 y conbase en el ~eiundo teoreE1~ Castigliapo, cl~t~.I::~T1_i.na~s,~~o
la c¡ggaconsiderando flexióny cortante.>:, 0 __ /~ •.•...",. """"'-:"":'-:, .. .' .. ::;'.
.----:J .
~I x > I~
• L/2 • L/2 •
Figura 2.20. Viga simplemente apoyada sujeta a una
Para determinar las ~cuaciones que definen los elemelfti.
dna distancia x, se sigue la convención planteada en Ja figura,2.
esta figura, las ecuaciones l!ara fuerzas cOl::tan~entQ.s"fri
rededor del eje z';a 1iiiadiStancia X-delapoyo izquierdo, están d;;
.•
"f.
integrando,
]L/2 ]U2
= f¡yPx + Px3 =:
y 2GA 6Elz
o o
sustituyendo límites,
ffyPL PL3•
y= 4GA + 48EI
z
- - - , "...•...........•
70 CAP LMÉrODOSENERGt'TlCOS ITOH.iMA\ Dé CASTIC.UA,\¡O
71
La ecuaciÓn anterior muestra que la fleC!'1íi está compuesta por clospartes,
la primera corresponde a la ipBuencia de la f'uer:za coÍtantc'(yJ y la segunda al
rnornel~toJle~i()!lªnte (Ym), así, .. n_'_~,_ .. _" ,.,....
f¡),PL..
Yv= 4GA
p[}
Ym = 48Elz
aplj cando el pr~ciQ~5~]!-:<:b~i9.~íIl_~1110,
'¡¡¡Vú1t =0
dlJ.J4
~= fL(','M' + wx.2 _ "f,VL.X) dx~, Jo A 2 2 EA
integrando,
Ejemplo 2.4. Con base en el Principl.Q.dd 1Lal:>ªioI!1:ÍIlimo, de~rminar el
valorde los momentos d~ empotramiento PélralaavigaqueSeIl!ll~~tl:ª-~nI~figu-
ra2.21. - _'~"n~"'r' "' •••• --- •• " u •• fi_ 1 [ 177. 3 ]L
v--,-" M vv X t-f7T .. 2
EA AX+ ,--'- _LX_ .. 6_ 4
o
O~x~L
WX:1
M =---RAx
• 2
:1 •
1 _ JL (WX2 -R'X) dx Uhrt - o 2 ¿l. 2EJ
Figura 2.22. Viga ..
M wE
A-
- -
12

x t·
--->.... '
R'l ~ L .Rs
sustituyendo límites y despejando Mil se obtiene,
Ejemplo2.5. Conbaiseen el principio del trabajo mínimo, determinar la'
reacciones de la viga que se muestra en la figura 2.22. •
La ecuación de momentos alrededor del eje z, a una distancia x, queda dt'
finidapor:
sustituyendo en la ecuación de la energía de deformaciónintema,
'dl
2
:.:.0
l",
,

h.. v\t I}A(~
(
\ ,
"
R_H1L
A-~
2
Figura 2.21 . Viga.
MA~MB;
x L IR
•• II
.[ =-~----'-~
Por simetría,
U. -iL( Wx2 WLX)/iJd
mt- MA+ . ._ X
o --
2 2 2EI
~'1~:=. -~ r~/:~
Wx2 VVLx .
M. =MA +----- O~x~L
2 2
El planteamiento de la eq¡ación de momentos alrededor del eje z, a una
distancia x es: o;' .. - ........•. r -~-_._ •• -
• 1-.
sustituyendo en la€'m~9~~ºe~en~rgfª. de~d!f(){@a9Ón interna, , (l
.~
n
e
x'L¡p
Pyc=P
OS;x¡ S;3
W=2 ton/m
u ._fL 1\;.[2 mt - Jj _x
• o 2EI dx.
x
Mzc=O
Mz1=0
B
A
Figura 2.24. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz1'
U fL¡ M;l d fL2 M;2 d fL3 M;3 d
int = Jo 2El Xl +Jo 2El X2 +Jo 2EI X3
zl x2 <3
L=L1 +L2+~
.La energía de deformación interna está dada por,
TEOREMASDECASTIGLlANO .
En la expresión anterior, L es la longitud de toda la estructura. si ésta se h"YiI
formada por tres barras, entonces,
Por tanto; la energía de deformación interna para la estructura se pUl'de I'SII i
bircomo,
Para el primer tramo, la ecuación de momentos se determina a partir dI' 1.1
figura 2.24:
Si se trasmite el efecto de las cargas del punto D al punto C, es decir, ;d
evaluarla carga vertical y el momento cuandox¡ =3,
gráficamente se tiene (véase fig. 2.25):
3m
CAl' 2.
e
MB=::: 3WL2
8
21
0= WX4 _ R4X3 ]L 8 3 o
wU RL3
O= A_
8 3
RA 3M
8
dUint =0
dRA
IL(wx2 ) X
0= --. -RAx - dx
o 2 . El
R _ 5liVL
B- -'
8 '
Figura 2.23. Marco.
..
\bvJO r (~;\ t t) c'l.!J r 0.. '-)
B
D
// 6m t •• p
A
72
aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo,
integrando,
Conocida la reacción del apoyo A, las otras dos reacciones se determinan
por equilibrio:
Ejemplo 2.6. Detenriinar el valor de la fuerza P para que el de~p!az,;a-
miento vertical en el punto D del marco mostrado en la figura 2.23 seac~F9' ..
A
74
3m
e
2EI
El
El
Figura 2.27. Marco.
B
D
+ 5m ~ +
A
5 ton
La energía de deformación interna para el marco es:
~6
1 N xi .3
- (-- --)' +(36Px3-216x3J] =0
'21 3 4 o o
P(6f~_ (6)4 +36 P(3)- 216(3) = O
~ ;j~
,1
P= 5.625 ton ,v[ f~
! ')""e- r' "
-o' ::¡,"'!'.) v b " ¡/ •
Ejemplo 2.7. Encontrar el valor de las reacciones en el apoyoD para el
marco que se muestra en la figura 2.27.
75
- f3 dx¡ fll ,)') dX2f3 ,1 dx, U = (O) -+ (Px2-x.;)---+ (6P-36)-··-,
In! o 2El o -, 2E(2I) o' . lE1
2 2 2
U iLl .NI"l d iLz lvlz2 d fL3 A1z3
. = -- Xl+ --- x' + ---dX3
mt o 2EI o 2El ¿ o 2EI. '
,,1 z2 23
aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo,
integrando,
oU¡nt =0
oP
1 16 o 1 J3 . -", .- (Px, - Xi") x., dxo +- (6P - 36)(6) dx., = O
2EI o - - - - El o . ~
Para determinar las ecuaciones de momentos alrededordel ejezAJz1• Al,,,
y Mz3' se procede en forma similar al ejemplo anterior, así, para determinar ;\--['1
(véase fig. 2.28),
Osx¡::;;3
Os X2::;; 6
0:::;;x3::;;3
P:::;;x3::;;3
OS~2::;6
MzB=6P-36
PyB=P-12
Mz3=6P-36
Mz¡=O
Mz2=Px2-~
Mz3=6P-36
x, _1 P
< .
rv= 2 ton/m
MZ2=::Px2-~
Figura 2.26. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz3'
Figura 2.25. CondIciones de la estructura para determinar M¡2-
sustituyendo en la ecuación de la energía de deformación interna, •
En resumen se tiene:
en forma gráfica (fig. 2.26):
Una vez más, si se trasmite el efecto qu e generan las cargas sobre la barra
B(: al punto B, esto es, al evaluar la ecuación anterior y las cargas verticales en
.x~=6,
Mzc=-3Rz
Pxe=-Rz
Pyc=R¡
Los resultados de trasmitir los efectos de las reacciones al punto e, con las
condiciones para determinar Mzz• se muestran en la figura 2.29.
77
.. ,••• ...,... """"·'r"'''-''''·"·~''''""""""",
o S; XJ S; 3
O:5:X¡~3
O:5:xz:5:S
0S;x3:5::3
~.
~ l.B
B
x3'
PxB
Mz¡ =-RZx1
Mzz = R¡ Xz - 3Rz
Mz3 =5R¡-3Rz - (5 -Rz) x3
Mz3 =MzB- PxBX3
Mz3=SR¡-3Rz - (5 -Rz)xJ
13(-Rzx¡)Z 15 (R¡xz-3Rzi
u· t = --- dx¡ + ---- dx" +
ID o 2E(2l) o 2E! ~
r3'[SR¡-3Rz-(5-Rz)x3F dx
Jo 2E! 3
116.67 R¡ -60 Rz -11~.50= O
Figura 2.30. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz3.
15 (Rl Xz - 3Rz) Xz d 13[SR¡ -3Rz - (5 - Rz) X3](S) d _ O ----- xz+ ' . X3-
o El o El
En resumen:
TEOREMAS DE. CASTIGLlANO
sustituyendo en la ecuación de la ener~a de deformación interna,
.
~Representándolo¡; gráficamente (fig. 2.30):
aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo con respecto a Rl'
integrando, sustituyendo límites y reduciendo términos,
. aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo con respecto aRz.
~
Rz
R,
e
xt[ R,
O:5:xz:5:S
0:5:x¡:5:3
MzB=SR¡ - 3Rz
PxB=S-Rz
PyB=R¡
A
Mz1 =-RZXl
B
Mzz=Rl Xz -3Rz
A
Figura 2.28. Condiciones para determinar Mz1•
5 ton lB
5ton'
Figura 2.29. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz2•
~
76
Para trasmitir el efecto de las cargas al punto B (véase figura 2.30),
man las cargas en dicho punto, es decir, en Xz =5,
evaluando las cargas en el nodo e, es decir, si x¡ =3,

A
.......•

(276)
~
E
Nv =nvPv
Vvy=v.yPv
Vv¿=Vvz Pv
lM'",,=mvxPv
Mvy=mvyP"
Mw=mvzPv
79
Figura 2.31. Estructuras con diferentes cargas.
f,L(N+Tl.vPv? . iL!fy(Vy+VvyPv)2 d
U. t= ----ds+ -~---- s+
m O 2EA O ZGA
r:!ft(Vz+vvzP")2 ds+ rL (Mx+TflvxP"f ds+ (2.77)
Jo . 2GA Jo 'ZG] .
fL(Mv+m"."Pvf rL (Mz+m".P"f .. ds + J, ------ ds
O 2EI O 2El
y z
real), los cuales se denotan por: N, Vy' Vz' Mx>My, M.y al aplicar la carga viml!lal
Pven el punto y dirección en donde se desea calcular el desplazamiento, esna.
carga genera otros seis elementos mecánicos (elementos mecánicos por Cél;~
virtual), los cuales se denotan por Nv, Vvy' Vvz' Mvx, MVJ' Mvz. Los elementos~
cánicos por carga virtual P" se pueden escribir como una relación o función dr
la misma, como se indica en la ecuación 2.76:
Los elementos mecánicos por efecto de ambas cargas (elementos medm-
cos por carga real más cargá vírtual) serán: (N +nvPv), (Vy +vvyPv}"Cv,;+vvzPv),
(Mx +mvx Pv), (My +m",Pv), (Mz +mvz Pv)' .
La energía de deformación interna en términos de los elementos medni-
cos totales está dadapor:
IR1}={1.62}
Rz 1.28
arreglando en forma matriciallas ecuaciones que resultan de aplicar el princi-
pio del trabajo mínimo,
MÉTODO DE LA CARGA VIRTUAL UNITARIA
.
solucionando el sistema de ecuaciones,
integra nclo, sustituyendo límites y reduciendo términos,
Las otras reacciones se pueden determinar con ayuda de las ecuaciones
rice equilibrio estático.
78
[116.67 -60]{R¡}={112.50}
-60 58.5 Rz -22.5
- -
f3_(.-_R_2_X_¡)_(-_X_1_) dx +J5_(R_l._X2_-_3_R_2)_( ~_3) "dx.) +
o 2ET ¡ o El ~
r3[5R¡-3Rc(5-R2)x:J(-3+X3) J, ..• dx., = °
o El· .,)
-60 R¡ +58.5 Rz +22.5 =O
De los ejemplos anteriores en donde se aplicó el segundo teorema de Cas-
tigliano, se~observa que sólo se pueden determinar los desplazamientos linea-
les en puntos donde hay cargas concentradas y lós desplazamientos angulares
en puntos donde hay momentos aplicados directamente, sin embargo, se pue-
de tener otro tipo de carga o bien, desear cq1cu1ar el desplazamiento en puntos
donde no existen cargas aplicadas, por ejemplo en los puntos Dy E de la estruc-
tura que se muestra en la figura 131.•
Como no hay carga concentrada o momento aplicado en los puntos Dy E,
coo el segundo teorema de Castigliano no se puede determinar ninguno de los
~s desplazamientos, por lo que se tiene que recurrir al método de la carga vir-
mIunitaria, que consiste en aplicar una carga virtual Pven el punto y dirección
E'lil que se quiere conocer el desplazamiento.
Al aplicar en la estructura·el sistema de cargas (W, P), en el Gasa más ge-
:neral, se generan seis elementos mecánicos (elementos mecánicos por carga

Related Interests

h.. v\t I}A(~
(
\ ,
"
R_H1L
A-~
2
Figura 2.21 . Viga.
MA~MB;
x L IR
•• II
.[ =-~----'-~
Por simetría,
U. -iL( Wx2 WLX)/iJd
mt- MA+ . ._ X
o --
2 2 2EI
~'1~:=. -~ r~/:~
Wx2 VVLx .
M. =MA +----- O~x~L
2 2
El planteamiento de la eq¡ación de momentos alrededor del eje z, a una
distancia x es: o;' .. - ........•. r -~-_._ •• -
• 1-.
sustituyendo en la€'m~9~~ºe~en~rgfª. de~d!f(){@a9Ón interna, , (l
.~
n
e
x'L¡p
Pyc=P
OS;x¡ S;3
W=2 ton/m
u ._fL 1\;.[2 mt - Jj _x
• o 2EI dx.
x
Mzc=O
Mz1=0
B
A
Figura 2.24. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz1'
U fL¡ M;l d fL2 M;2 d fL3 M;3 d
int = Jo 2El Xl +Jo 2El X2 +Jo 2EI X3
zl x2 <3
L=L1 +L2+~
.La energía de deformación interna está dada por,
TEOREMASDECASTIGLlANO .
En la expresión anterior, L es la longitud de toda la estructura. si ésta se h"YiI
formada por tres barras, entonces,
Por tanto; la energía de deformación interna para la estructura se pUl'de I'SII i
bircomo,
Para el primer tramo, la ecuación de momentos se determina a partir dI' 1.1
figura 2.24:
Si se trasmite el efecto de las cargas del punto D al punto C, es decir, ;d
evaluarla carga vertical y el momento cuandox¡ =3,
gráficamente se tiene (véase fig. 2.25):
3m
CAl' 2.
e
MB=::: 3WL2
8
21
0= WX4 _ R4X3 ]L 8 3 o
wU RL3
O= A_
8 3
RA 3M
8
dUint =0
dRA
IL(wx2 ) X
0= --. -RAx - dx
o 2 . El
R _ 5liVL
B- -'
8 '
Figura 2.23. Marco.
..
\bvJO r (~;\ t t) c'l.!J r 0.. '-)
B
D
// 6m t •• p
A
72
aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo,
integrando,
Conocida la reacción del apoyo A, las otras dos reacciones se determinan
por equilibrio:
Ejemplo 2.6. Detenriinar el valor de la fuerza P para que el de~p!az,;a-
miento vertical en el punto D del marco mostrado en la figura 2.23 seac~F9' ..
A
74
3m
e
2EI
El
El
Figura 2.27. Marco.
B
D
+ 5m ~ +
A
5 ton
La energía de deformación interna para el marco es:
~6
1 N xi .3
- (-- --)' +(36Px3-216x3J] =0
'21 3 4 o o
P(6f~_ (6)4 +36 P(3)- 216(3) = O
~ ;j~
,1
P= 5.625 ton ,v[ f~
! ')""e- r' "
-o' ::¡,"'!'.) v b " ¡/ •
Ejemplo 2.7. Encontrar el valor de las reacciones en el apoyoD para el
marco que se muestra en la figura 2.27.
75
- f3 dx¡ fll ,)') dX2f3 ,1 dx, U = (O) -+ (Px2-x.;)---+ (6P-36)-··-,
In! o 2El o -, 2E(2I) o' . lE1
2 2 2
U iLl .NI"l d iLz lvlz2 d fL3 A1z3
. = -- Xl+ --- x' + ---dX3
mt o 2EI o 2El ¿ o 2EI. '
,,1 z2 23
aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo,
integrando,
oU¡nt =0
oP
1 16 o 1 J3 . -", .- (Px, - Xi") x., dxo +- (6P - 36)(6) dx., = O
2EI o - - - - El o . ~
Para determinar las ecuaciones de momentos alrededordel ejezAJz1• Al,,,
y Mz3' se procede en forma similar al ejemplo anterior, así, para determinar ;\--['1
(véase fig. 2.28),
Osx¡::;;3
Os X2::;; 6
0:::;;x3::;;3
P:::;;x3::;;3
OS~2::;6
MzB=6P-36
PyB=P-12
Mz3=6P-36
Mz¡=O
Mz2=Px2-~
Mz3=6P-36
x, _1 P
< .
rv= 2 ton/m
MZ2=::Px2-~
Figura 2.26. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz3'
Figura 2.25. CondIciones de la estructura para determinar M¡2-
sustituyendo en la ecuación de la energía de deformación interna, •
En resumen se tiene:
en forma gráfica (fig. 2.26):
Una vez más, si se trasmite el efecto qu e generan las cargas sobre la barra
B(: al punto B, esto es, al evaluar la ecuación anterior y las cargas verticales en
.x~=6,
Mzc=-3Rz
Pxe=-Rz
Pyc=R¡
Los resultados de trasmitir los efectos de las reacciones al punto e, con las
condiciones para determinar Mzz• se muestran en la figura 2.29.
77
.. ,••• ...,... """"·'r"'''-''''·"·~''''""""""",
o S; XJ S; 3
O:5:X¡~3
O:5:xz:5:S
0S;x3:5::3
~.
~ l.B
B
x3'
PxB
Mz¡ =-RZx1
Mzz = R¡ Xz - 3Rz
Mz3 =5R¡-3Rz - (5 -Rz) x3
Mz3 =MzB- PxBX3
Mz3=SR¡-3Rz - (5 -Rz)xJ
13(-Rzx¡)Z 15 (R¡xz-3Rzi
u· t = --- dx¡ + ---- dx" +
ID o 2E(2l) o 2E! ~
r3'[SR¡-3Rz-(5-Rz)x3F dx
Jo 2E! 3
116.67 R¡ -60 Rz -11~.50= O
Figura 2.30. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz3.
15 (Rl Xz - 3Rz) Xz d 13[SR¡ -3Rz - (5 - Rz) X3](S) d _ O ----- xz+ ' . X3-
o El o El
En resumen:
TEOREMAS DE. CASTIGLlANO
sustituyendo en la ecuación de la ener~a de deformación interna,
.
~Representándolo¡; gráficamente (fig. 2.30):
aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo con respecto a Rl'
integrando, sustituyendo límites y reduciendo términos,
. aplicando el principio del trabajo mínimo con respecto aRz.
~
Rz
R,
e
xt[ R,
O:5:xz:5:S
0:5:x¡:5:3
MzB=SR¡ - 3Rz
PxB=S-Rz
PyB=R¡
A
Mz1 =-RZXl
B
Mzz=Rl Xz -3Rz
A
Figura 2.28. Condiciones para determinar Mz1•
5 ton lB
5ton'
Figura 2.29. Condiciones de la estructura para determinar Mz2•
~
76
Para trasmitir el efecto de las cargas al punto B (véase figura 2.30),
man las cargas en dicho punto, es decir, en Xz =5,
evaluando las cargas en el nodo e, es decir, si x¡ =3,

A
.......•

(276)
~
E
Nv =nvPv
Vvy=v.yPv
Vv¿=Vvz Pv
lM'",,=mvxPv
Mvy=mvyP"
Mw=mvzPv
79
Figura 2.31. Estructuras con diferentes cargas.
f,L(N+Tl.vPv? . iL!fy(Vy+VvyPv)2 d
U. t= ----ds+ -~---- s+
m O 2EA O ZGA
r:!ft(Vz+vvzP")2 ds+ rL (Mx+TflvxP"f ds+ (2.77)
Jo . 2GA Jo 'ZG] .
fL(Mv+m"."Pvf rL (Mz+m".P"f .. ds + J, ------ ds
O 2EI O 2El
y z
real), los cuales se denotan por: N, Vy' Vz' Mx>My, M.y al aplicar la carga viml!lal
Pven el punto y dirección en donde se desea calcular el desplazamiento, esna.
carga genera otros seis elementos mecánicos (elementos mecánicos por Cél;~
virtual), los cuales se denotan por Nv, Vvy' Vvz' Mvx, MVJ' Mvz. Los elementos~
cánicos por carga virtual P" se pueden escribir como una relación o función dr
la misma, como se indica en la ecuación 2.76:
Los elementos mecánicos por efecto de ambas cargas (elementos medm-
cos por carga real más cargá vírtual) serán: (N +nvPv), (Vy +vvyPv}"Cv,;+vvzPv),
(Mx +mvx Pv), (My +m",Pv), (Mz +mvz Pv)' .
La energía de deformación interna en términos de los elementos medni-
cos totales está dadapor:
IR1}={1.62}
Rz 1.28
arreglando en forma matriciallas ecuaciones que resultan de aplicar el princi-
pio del trabajo mínimo,
MÉTODO DE LA CARGA VIRTUAL UNITARIA
.
solucionando el sistema de ecuaciones,
integra nclo, sustituyendo límites y reduciendo términos,
Las otras reacciones se pueden determinar con ayuda de las ecuaciones
rice equilibrio estático.
78
[116.67 -60]{R¡}={112.50}
-60 58.5 Rz -22.5
- -
f3_(.-_R_2_X_¡)_(-_X_1_) dx +J5_(R_l._X2_-_3_R_2)_( ~_3) "dx.) +
o 2ET ¡ o El ~
r3[5R¡-3Rc(5-R2)x:J(-3+X3) J, ..• dx., = °
o El· .,)
-60 R¡ +58.5 Rz +22.5 =O
De los ejemplos anteriores en donde se aplicó el segundo teorema de Cas-
tigliano, se~observa que sólo se pueden determinar los desplazamientos linea-
les en puntos donde hay cargas concentradas y lós desplazamientos angulares
en puntos donde hay momentos aplicados directamente, sin embargo, se pue-
de tener otro tipo de carga o bien, desear cq1cu1ar el desplazamiento en puntos
donde no existen cargas aplicadas, por ejemplo en los puntos Dy E de la estruc-
tura que se muestra en la figura 131.•
Como no hay carga concentrada o momento aplicado en los puntos Dy E,
coo el segundo teorema de Castigliano no se puede determinar ninguno de los
~s desplazamientos, por lo que se tiene que recurrir al método de la carga vir-
mIunitaria, que consiste en aplicar una carga virtual Pven el punto y dirección
E'lil que se quiere conocer el desplazamiento.
Al aplicar en la estructura·el sistema de cargas (W, P), en el Gasa más ge-
:neral, se generan seis elementos mecánicos (elementos mecánicos por carga

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