How is Milk Made
Step 1 - Cows Grain!
Step 2 - "ar#estin! $il%
Step 3 - Storin! $il%
Step 4 - &ransportin! $il%
Step ' - (aborator) &estin!
Step * - +rocessin! $il%
Step , - Sellin! $il%
Step 1 - Cows Grazing
&)picall) cows spen- about . hours eatin!/ . hours sleepin! an- . hours ruminatin! or chewin!
their cu-. Cows are usuall) pro#i-e- with a fresh pa--oc% of !rass in the mornin! after mil%in! an-
another fresh pa--oc% of !rass in the e#enin! after mil%in!. &he) ma) also be fe- some !rain in the
-air) while bein! mil%e- an- "a) or Sila!e 0conser#e- fora!e1 if there is not enou!h !rass

Step 2 - Harvesting Mlik

Cows are normall) mil%e- 2 times per -a)/ howe#er some hi!h pro-ucin! her-s are mil%e- 3 times
per -a). 2ormall) cows are mil%e- at about * am in the mornin! an- a!ain at about ' pm in the
e#enin!. $il%in! time ta%es about ' minutes per cow but -epen-s on the t)pe of machine an- the
amount of mil% the cow is pro-ucin!. $ost -airies ha#e enou!h machines to mil% 23 to 43 cows at
one time/ re-ucin! the amount of time the cows wait to be mil%e-. $il%in! machines mimic the
action of a )oun! calf b) creatin! a pulsatin! #acuum aroun- the teat/ which causes the mil% to be
release- from the u--er.
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Step 3 - Storing Milk
$il% stora!e #ats or silos are refri!erate- an- come in #arious shapes an- sies. $il% is store- on
farm at 4 -e!rees Celsius an- less for no lon!er than 4. hours. 4ats an- silos are a!itate- to ma%e
sure that the entire #olume remains col- an- mil%fat -oes not separate from the mil%. 5fter mil% has
been collecte-/ stora!e #ats an- stainless steel pipes are thorou!hl) cleane- before the farmer mil%s
Step 4 - Transporting Milk
$il% is collecte- from the farm e#er) 24 or 4. hours. &he tan%ers that are use- ha#e a special
stainless steel bo-) which are hea#il) insulate- to %eep the mil% col- -urin! transportation to the
processin! factor). $il% tan%er -ri#ers are accre-ite- mil% !ra-ers/ which allows them to e#aluate
the mil% prior to collection. &an%er -ri#ers !ra-e an- if necessar) re6ect mil% base- on temperature/
si!ht an- smell. 5 representati#e sample is collecte- from each farm pic%up prior to bein! pumpe-
onto the tan%er. 5fter collection/ mil% is transporte- to factor) sites an- store- in refri!erate- silos
before bein! processin!.
Step 5 - Laborator Testing
Samples of mil% are ta%en from farm #ats prior to collection an- from the bul% mil% tan%er on
arri#al at the factor). Samples from the bul% mil% tan%er are teste- for antibiotic an- temperature
before the mil% enters the factor) processin! area. 7arm mil% samples are teste- for
mil%fat/protein/bul% mil% cell count an- bacteria count. 8f mil% is unsuitable for our 9ualit)
pro-ucts the mil% will be re6ecte-. $ost farmers are pai- on 9ualit) an- composition of their mil%
an- it is e:tremel) important that these samples are collecte- an- store- correctl).
Step ! - "ro#essing Milk
;hole mil%/ once appro#e- for use/ is pumpe- into stora!e silos where it un-er!oes pasteuriation/
homo!eniation an- further processin!.

8n#ol#es heatin! e#er) particle of mil% to a specific temperature for a specifie- perio- of time an-
coolin! it a!ain without allowin! recontamination. +asteuriation is performe- for two reasons<
1. =nsure all mil% pro-ucts are safe for human consumption b) -estro)in! all bacteria that ma) be
harmful to health 0patho!ens1.
2. 8mpro#e the %eepin! 9ualit) of mil% b) %illin! or inacti#atin! some un-esirable en)mes an-
spoila!e bacteria.
8n#ol#es pushin! the raw mil% throu!h an atomier to form tin) particles so that the fat is -isperse-
e#enl) throu!hout the mil%/ stoppin! the fat from floatin! to the top of the container.
7urther processin!:
8nclu-es/ re-ucin! the fat content b) micro-filtration/ increasin! the stora!e life b) ultra hi!h
temperature 0>"&1 treatment an- mi:in! or culturin! mil% for fla#ore- an- )o!hurt pro-ucts.
Step $ - Selling Milk
&hen mil% is sent off to )our fa#ourite store for sale to the !eneral public.

Introduction to Dairy Science and
Technology: Milk History,
Consumption, Production, and
This course is a"out the study o! milk and milk#deri$ed !ood products !rom a
!ood science perspecti$e It !ocuses on the "iological, chemical, physical, and
micro"iological aspects o! milk itsel!, and on the technological %processing&
aspects o! the trans!ormation o! milk into its $arious consumer products,
including "e$erages, !ermented products, concentrated and dried products, "utter
and ice cream
Milk is as ancient as mankind itsel!, as it is the su"stance created to !eed the
mammalian in!ant 'll species o! mammals, !rom man to whales, produce milk !or
this purpose Many centuries ago, perhaps as early as ()))#*))) +C, ancient man
learned to domesticate species o! animals !or the pro$ision o! milk to "e
consumed "y them These included cows %genus +os&, "u!!aloes, sheep, goats, and
camels, all o! which are still used in $arious parts o! the world !or the
production o! milk !or human consumption
,ermented products such as cheeses were disco$ered "y accident, "ut their
history has also "een documented !or many centuries, as has the production o!
concentrated milks, "utter, and e$en ice cream
Technological ad$ances ha$e only come a"out $ery recently in the history o! milk
consumption, and our generations will "e the ones credited !or ha$ing turned
milk processing !rom an art to a science The a$aila"ility and distri"ution o!
milk and milk products today in the modern world is a "lend o! the centuries old
knowledge o! traditional milk products with the application o! modern science
and technology
The role o! milk in the traditional diet has $aried greatly in di!!erent regions
o! the world The tropical countries ha$e not "een traditional milk consumers,
whereas the more northern regions o! the world, -urope %especially Scandina$ia&
and .orth 'merica, ha$e traditionally consumed !ar more milk and milk products
in their diet In tropical countries where high temperatures and lack o!
re!rigeration has led to the ina"ility to produce and store !resh milk, milk has
traditionally "een preser$ed through means other than re!rigeration, including
immediate consumption o! warm milk a!ter milking, "y "oiling milk, or "y
con$ersion into more sta"le products such as !ermented milks
/orld#wide Milk Consumption and Production
The total milk consumption %as !luid milk and processed products& per person
$aries widely !rom highs in -urope and .orth 'merica to lows in 'sia Howe$er,
as the $arious regions o! the world "ecome more integrated through tra$el and
migration, these trends are changing, a !actor which needs to "e considered "y
product de$elopers and marketers o! milk and milk products in $arious countries
o! the world
-$en within regions such as -urope, the custom o! milk consumption has $aried
greatly Consider !or e0ample the high consumption o! !luid milk in countries
like ,inland, .orway and Sweden compared to ,rance and Italy where cheeses ha$e
tended to dominate milk consumption /hen you also consider the climates o!
these regions, it would appear that the culture o! producing more sta"le
products %cheese& in hotter climates as a means o! preser$ation is e$ident
Ta"le 1 illustrates milk per capita consumption in!ormation !rom $arious
countries o! the world Ta"le 2 shows the 3uantity o! raw milk produced around
the world
Ta"le 1 Per Capita Consumption o! Milk and Milk Products in 4arious Countries,
2))5 data
Country ,luid Milk %6itres& Cheeses %kg& +utter %kg&
,inland 117) 1)* 18
.orway 1))* 18* 17
.ew 9ealand :8; 8* ;:
Sweden :;7 1(; 12
Spain :27 (: )2
'ustralia *)* 71 )*
<nited =ingdom 752 (; 22
<nited States (7* 55 )7
.etherlands (); 1)7 18
Italy 57* 155 11
-uropean <nion %25 countries& 572 5* 1)
>ermany 585 :8 ;;
'ustria 518 7* 2*
Swit?erland 51; 11( 28
Me0ico 51; 5) ./'
Canada 8*5 () 18
,rance 8(8 1;( 2:
'rgentina ;;5 58 )*
>reece ;); 18; )7
Ireland 1:1 ;5 2;
China 25 ./' ./'
Source: 'griculture and 'gri#,ood Canada,
Canadian Dairy In!ormation Centre
This is
national @retail@ consumption data %although I am not sure how that is de!ined
and compiled& di$ided "y population, "ut please note that there are
discrepancies !rom the data presented "y the International Dairy ,ederation, in
+ulletin ;::/2))5
Ta"le 2 Cow milk production %A))) tonnes& in selected countries in the world
<nited States 77,87)
India ;*,5))
>ermany 2*,1*)
,rance 2;,:7)
+ra?il 2;,;))
China 1*,*5)
.ew 9ealand %2))8& 18,5))
<nited =ingdom 18,8))
Poland 12,7))
.etherlands 1),(;)
Italy 1),8))
'ustralia %2))8& 1),7))
Me0ico ::))
Canada 758)
Source: 'griculture and 'gri#,ood Canada,
Canadian Dairy In!ormation Centre

Milk Composition
The role o! milk in nature is to nourish and pro$ide immunological protection
!or the mammalian young Milk and honey are the only articles o! diet whose sole
!unction in nature is !ood It is not surprising, there!ore, that the
nutritional $alue o! milk is high
Ta"le ; Composition o! Milk !rom Di!!erent Mammalian Species %per 1)) g !resh
Protein %g& ,at %g& Car"ohydrate %g& -nergy %kcal&
Cow ;2 ;7 8( ((
Human 11 82 7) 72
/ater +u!!alo 81 :) 8* 11*
>oat 2: ;* 87 (7
Donkey 1: )( (1 ;*
-lephant 8) 5) 5; *5
Monkey, rhesus 1( 8) 7) 7;
Mouse :) 1;1 ;) 171
/hale 1): 82; 1; 88;
Seal 1)2 8:8 )1 5)2
Source: /e"", +H, 'H Bohnson and B' 'l!ord 1:78 ,undamentals o! Dairy
Chemistry Second -d '4I Pu"lishing Co, /estport, CT, Chap 1
Ta"le 8 >ross composition o! milk o! $arious "reeds, g/1))g
+ody /t
Milk Cield
Total Solids
Holstein (8) 7;() ;58 ;2: 8(* )72 121(
(8) (1)) ;:: ;(8 8:8 )78 1;)*
'yrshire 52) 57() ;:5 ;8* 8() )72 1277
>uernsey 5)) 527) 872 ;75 871 )7( 18)8
Bersey 8;) 5)() 51; ;:* 8*; )77 1882
Shorthorn 5;) 5;7) 8)) ;;2 8*: )7; 12:
Holstein: 121(D TS 0 7;() kg/lactation E *:5 kg o! total solids
produced/lactation %18)D o! her "ody wtF&
Bersey: 1882D TS 0 5)() kg/lactation E 7;) kg o! total solids
produced/lactation %17)D o! her "ody wtF&
Source: /e"", +H, 'H Bohnson and B' 'l!ord 1:78 ,undamentals o! Dairy
Chemistry Second -d '4I Pu"lishing Co, /estport, CT, Chap 1
.ow you can return to the home page and work through the $arious topics within
this -ducation Series systematically, or you can select any topic o! interest
!or !urther, in#depth in!ormation I hope you enGoyF
Milk "rod%#tion and &iosnt'esis
Milk Production
$il% is the source of nutrients an- immunolo!ical protection for the )oun! cow. &he !estation
perio- for the female cow is ? months. Shortl) before cal#in!/ mil% is secrete- into the u--er in
preparation for the new born. 5t parturition/ flui- from the mammar) !lan- %nown as #olostr%( is
secrete-. &his )ellowish coloure-/ salt) li9ui- has a #er) hi!h serum protein content an- pro#i-es
antibo-ies to help protect the newborn until its own immune s)stem is establishe-. ;ithin ,2 hours/
the composition of colostrum returns to that of fresh mil%/ allowin! to be use- in the foo- suppl).
The period of lactation, or milk production, then continues for an average of 3! days,
producing " kg of milk# This is $uite a large amount considering the calf only needs
about % kg for gro&th#
'ithin the lactation, the highest yield is (-3 months post- parturition, yielding )-! *+day#
'ithin the milking lifetime, a co& reaches a peak in production about her third lactation,
but can be kept in production for !-, lactations if the yield is still good#
-bout %-( months after calving, the co& begins to come into heat again# She is usually
inseminated about 3 months after calving so as to come into a yearly calving cycle# .eifers
are normally first inseminated at %! months so she/s ( &hen the first calf is born# -bout ,
days before the ne0t calving, the co& is dried off# There is no milking during this stage for
t&o reasons1
1. mil% has tapere- off because of maternal nee-s of the fetus
2. u--er nee-s time to prepare for the ne:t mil%in! c)cle
&he life of a female cow can be summerie- as follows:
) Cal! "orn
15 mos Hei!er inseminated !or !irst cal!
28 mos ,irst cal! "orn # starts milking
27 mos Inseminated !or second cal!
;8 mos Dried o!!
;( mos Second cal! "orn # starts milking
Cycle repeats !or 5#( lactations
Automatic Milking
Effects of Milk Handling on Quality and Hygiene
The environment of production has a great effect on the $uality of milk produced# 2rom the
food science perspective, the production of the highest $uality milk should be the goal#
.o&ever, this is sometimes not the greatest concern of those involved in milk production#
.ygienic $uality assessment tests include sensory tests, dye reduction tests for microbial
activity, total bacterial count 3standard plate count4, sediment, titratable acidity, somatic cell
count, antibiotic residues, and added &ater#
The t&o common dye reduction tests are methylene blue and resa5urin# These are both
synthetic compounds &hich accept electrons and change colour as a result of this
reduction# -s part of natural metabolism, active microorganisms transfer electrons, and
thus rate at &hich dyes added to milk are reduced is an indication of the level of microbial
activity# 6ethylene blue turns from blue to colorless, &hile resa5urin turns from blue to
violet to pink to colourless# The reduction time is inversely correlated to bacterial numbers#
.o&ever, different species react differently# 6esophilics are favoured over psychrotrophs,
but psychrotrophic organisms tend to be more numerous and active in cooled milk#
6ilk production and distribution in the tropical regions of the &orld is more challenging due
to the re$uirements for lo&-temperature for milk stability# Consider the follo&ing chart
illustraing the numbers of bacteria per millilitre of milk after () hours1
5HC 2,())
1)HC 11,())
127HC 1*,*))
155HC 1*),)))
2)HC 85),)))
&ra-itionall)/ this has been o#ercome in tropical countries b) stabiliin! mil% throu!h means other
than refri!eration/ inclu-in! imme-iate consumption of warm mil% after mil%in!/ b) boilin! mil%/
or b) con#ersion into more stable pro-ucts such as fermente- mil%s.
6astitis and -ntibiotics
6astitis is a bacterial and yeast infection of the udder# 6ilk from mastitic co&s is termed
abnormal# 7ts S82, especially lactose, content is decreased, &hile 8a and Cl levels are
increased, often giving mastitic milk a salty flavour# The presence of mastitis is also
accompanied by increases in bacterial numbers, including the possibility of human
pathogens, and by a dramatic increase in somatic cells# These are comprised of
leukocytes 3&hite blood cells4 and epithelial cells from the udder lining# 7ncreased somatic
cell counts are therefore indicative of the presence of mastitis# 9nce the infection reaches
the level kno&n as :clinical/ mastitis, pus can be observed in the teat canal ;ust prior to
milking, but at sub-clinical levels, the presence of mastitis is not obvious#
Somatic Cell Count %)))As/ml& Daily Milk Cield %kg&: 1st 6actation Ilder
)#17 2;1 2:;
1*#;8 2;) 2*7
;5#7) 22( 2*)
71#18) 228 278
181#2*2 221 27)
2*2#5(5 21: 2(;
5((#11;) 218 258
11;1#22(2 2)7 28(
22(;#8525 2)) 2;(
J852( 1:) 225
-ntibiotics are fre$uently used to control mastitis in dairy cattle# .o&ever, the presence of
antibiotic residues in milk is very problematic, for at least three reasons# 7n the production
of fermented milks, antibiotic residues can slo& or destroy the gro&th of the fermentation
bacteria# 2rom a human health point of vie&, some people are allergic to specific
antibiotics, and their presence in food consumed can have severe conse$uences# -lso,
fre$uent e0posure to lo& level antibiotics can cause microorganisms to become resistant
to them, through mutation, so that they are ineffective &hen needed to fight a human
infection# 2or these reasons, it is e0tremely important that milk from co&s being treated
&ith antibiotics is &ithheld from the milk supply#
The &ithdra&al time after final treatment for various antibiotics is sho&n belo&1
-mo0cillin , hrs#
Clo0acillin )< hrs#
=rythromicin 3, hrs#
8ovobiocin "( hrs#
Penicillin <) hrs#
Sulfadimetho5ine , hrs#
Sulfabromometho5ine >, hrs#
Sulfaetho0ypyrido5ine "( hrs#
-nti-6icrobial Systems in Ra& 6ilk
There e0ists in milk a number of natural anti-microbial defense mechanisms# These include1
• l)so)me - an en)me that h)-rol)ses !l)cosi-ic bon-s in !ram positi#e cell walls.
"owe#er/ its effect as a bacteriostatic mechanism in mil% is probabl) ne!li!ible.
• lactoferrin - an iron bin-in! protein that se9uesters iron from microor!anisms/ thus ta%in!
awa) one of their !rowth factors. 8ts effect as a bacteriostatic mechanism in mil% is also
probabl) ne!li!ible.
• lactopero:i-ase - an en)me naturall) present in raw mil% that catal)es the con#ersion of
h)-ro!en pero:i-e to water. ;hen h)-ro!en pero:i-e an- thioc)anate are a--e- to raw
mil%/ the thioc)anate is o:i-ie- b) the en)me/ h)-ro!en pero:i-e comple: pro-ucin!
bacteriostatic compoun-s that inhibit Gram ne!ati#e bacteria/ =. coli / Salmonella spp / an-
streptococci. &his techni9ue is bein! use- in man) parts of the worl-/ especiall) where
refri!eration for raw mil% is not rea-il) a#ailable/ as a means of increasin! the shelf life of
raw mil%.
Milk Biosynthesis
$il% is s)nthesie- in the (a((ar gland. ;ithin the mammar) !lan- is the mil% pro-ucin! unit/
the alveol%s. 8t contains a sin!le la)er of epithelial secretor) cells surroun-in! a central stora!e area
calle- the l%(en/ which is connecte- to a -uct s)stem. &he secretor) cells are/ in turn/ surroun-e-
b) a la)er of m)oepithelial cells an- bloo- capillaries.
The ra& materials for milk production are transported via
the bloodstream to the secretory cells# 7t takes )-< * of blood to deliver components for % * of milk#
• "roteins) buil-in! bloc%s are amino aci-s in the bloo-.
Casein micelles
/ or small a!!re!ates
thereof/ ma) be!in a!!re!ation in Gol!i #esicles within the secretor) cell.
• Lipids)
C4-C14 fatt) aci-s are s)nthesie- in the cells
C1* an- !reater fatt) aci-s are preforme- as a result of rumen h)-ro!enation an- are
transporte- -irectl) in the bloo-
• La#tose) mil% is in osmotic e9uilibrium with the bloo- an- is controlle- b) lactose/ @/ 2a/
Cl< lactose s)nthesis re!ulates the #olume of mil% secrete-
&he mil% components are s)nthesie- within the cells/ mainl) b) the endoplas(i# reti#%l%( *+,-
an- its attache- ribosomes. &he ener!) for the =A is supplie- b) the mitochon-ria. &he components
are then passe- alon! to the Golgi apparat%s/ which is responsible for their e#entual mo#ement out
of the cell in the form of #esicles. Both #esicles containin! a9ueous non-fat components/ as well as
li9ui- -roplets 0s)nthesie- b) the =A1 must pass throu!h the c)toplasm an- the apical plasma
membrane to be -eposite- in the lumen. 8t is thou!ht that the mil%
fat globule membrane
is comprise-
of the apical plasma membrane of the secretor) cell.
6ilking stimuli, such as a sucking calf, a &arm &ash cloth, the regime of parlour etc#,
causes the release of a hormone called oxytocin# 90ytocin is relased from the pituitary
gland, belo& the brain, to begin the process of milk let-down# -s a result of this hormone
stimulation, the muscles begin to compress the alveoli, causing a pressure in the udder
kno&n as letdo&n refle0, and the milk components stored in the lumen are released into
the duct system# The milk is forced do&n into the teat cistern from &hich it is milked# The
let-do&n refle0 fades as the o0ytocin is degraded, &ithin )-" minutes# 7t is very difficult to
milk after this time#