Ref NR/SP/TRK/OO II

Issue OS
Date June 2006
Endorsement & Authorisation
Endorsed by:
E R Cummings, Head of Track Engineering
A McNaup;nton, Chief Engineer
Accepted for issue by:
~ ~~~~~~~ ~ .
M McManus, National Standards Manager
This document is the property of Network Rail. It shall not be reproduced in whole or part nor disclosed to a third party
without the written permission of the Standard Owner.
@ Copyright 2006 Network Rail
Uncontrolled copy once printed from its electronic source.
Published & Issued by: Network Rail 40 Melton Street, London NW I 2EE
Network Rail
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Issue record
Issue Date Comments
4 Re-badge of RT/CE/S/011 into new numbering system
5 June 2006 Supersedes NR/SP/TRK/0011 Issue 4 with various minor
amendments.



Implementation
The provisions of this specification shall be implemented from June 2006.
Compliance
This Network Rail Specification is mandatory and must be complied with by Network Rail
and Contractors from August 2006. The provisions are not retrospective except for section
8.2.2 with regard to the provision of lateral resistance end plates and section 9.16 Records.
Compliance with the retrospective requirements of section 8.2.2 is required by May 2007.
Compliance with the retrospective requirements of section 9.16 is required by May 2007 for
category 1A,1 and 2 lines. By May 2008 for category 3 and 4 lines and by May 2009 for
category 5 and 6 lines.
When this Specification is implemented, it is permissible for all projects, which have formally
completed GRIP Level 4, to continue to comply with the Issue of any relevant Network Rail
Standards current when GRIP Level 4 was reached and not to comply with requirements
contained herein unless the Head of Track Engineering has stipulated otherwise in the
accompanying Briefing Note.
Where the Head of Track Engineering has specified that all projects will comply with the
requirements, specific authority not to comply can be sought in the usual manner using the
appropriate non-compliance authority processes described in Network Rail Standard,
NR/SP/STP/045 Managing the Process for Non-compliance Authority (formerly
RT/LS/P/045).
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Disclaimer
In issuing this document for its stated purpose, Network Rail makes no warranties, express
or implied, that compliance with all or any documents it issues is sufficient on its own to
ensure safe systems of work or operation. Users are reminded of their own duties under
health and safety legislation.
Supply
Copies of documents are available electronically, within Network Rail’s organisation. Hard
copies of this document will be available to Network Rail employees on request to the
Document Controller and to other organisations from IHS Technical Indexes (01344
404409)

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Contents
1 Purpose 8
2 Scope 8
3 Definitions 8
4 Design of new plain line CWR 11
5 Design of plain line CWR converted from jointed track 11
5.1 Approval by Network Rail 11
5.2 Rails for conversion by re-railing 11
5.3 Rails for conversion by welding in-situ 11
5.4 Welds and insulated joints 12
5.5 Sleepers, rail pads and longitudinal timbers 12
5.6 Rail fastenings 13
5.7 Ballast 13
6 Design of plain line CWR: Use of CWR on curves 14
6.1 Minimum radius of curvature at which CWR may be installed 14
6.2 Alignment and longitudinal level 14
7 Design of plain line CWR: Adjustment switches 14
7.1 Provision, siting and expansion gap 14
7.2 Removal of adjustment switches 14
8 Design of switches and crossings for use In CWR 14
8.1 General 14
8.2 Switches 15
8.3 CWR trap and catch points 16
8.4 Fixed crossings 16
8.5 Swing-nose crossings 17
8.6 Switch diamonds 17
8.7 Use of adjustment switches 17
8.8 Short lengths (less than 180m) of plain line between items of S&C 17
8.9 Minimum rail lengths and location of joints in S&C 17
9 Stressing of CWR - Plain line 17
9.1 Person in charge of stressing 18
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9.2 Stress free temperature 18
9.3 Temperature and curvature effects 19
9.4 Plain line stressing - General 20
9.5 Preliminary site survey 21
9.6 Anchors, tell tale points and pulling points 21
9.7 Cutting the rails 22
9.8 Rail supports during the stressing procedure 22
9.9 Movement of rails at the tell-tales 23
9.10 Measurement of rail temperature 23
9.11 Calculation of rail extension 24
9.12 Rail extension at reference points 25
9.13 Tensor stressing 25
9.14 Natural stressing 29
9.15 Thermal Stressing 30
9.16 Records 30
9.17 Review of SFT 31
9.18 Sites where no stressing records exist 31
9.19 Sites where the stress free temperature is known to have been disturbed 31
10 Replacement of broken, cracked or defective rails, welds or insulated joints 31
10.1. General 31
10.2. Replacement of a defective insulated joint or rail when the rail temperature is
below 21C 33
10.3. Replacement of a broken rail when rail temperature is below 21C 33
10.4. Replacement of a defective rail within tensor extension bars 33
11 Stressing of S&C within CWR 34
11.1 General 34
11.2 Anchor lengths and tell tales 35
11.3 Preliminary survey and considerations 35
11.4 Tensor equipment 35
11.5 General site procedure for stressing S&C with stress transfer blocks 36
11.6 General site procedure for stressing S&C with creep monitors 37
11.7 Procedure for stressing common S&C units 37
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11.8 Sequence for stressing common S&C layouts 50
12 Work which reduces the stability of CWR 51
12.1 General 51
12.2 Reduction in SFT 51
12.3 Reduction in lateral resistance 53
13 Precautions to be taken before the onset of hot weather 55
13.1. Track condition and buckling 55
13.2. CWR with incorrect or unknown stress-free temperature 55
13.3. Specific items to be checked and rectified 55
14 Critical rail temperature 57
14.1 Definition of three levels of CRT 57
14.2 Assessment of CRT 57
15 Precautions during hot weather 60
15.1 Watchmen 60
15.2 Speed restrictions 61
15.3 Additional precautions during exceptionally hot weather 61
15.4 Limits on work during hot weather 61
16 Preparation for and precautions during cold weather 62
16.1 Insulated joints 62
16.2 Monitoring alignment 62
16.3 Limits on work during cold weather 62
17 Track buckling 62
17.1 Definition of a track buckle requiring formal reporting 62
17.2 Track safety at buckle sites 63
17.3 Hazard reporting 63
18 Reference documentation 63
Appendix A: Minimum competence requirements for person in charge of stressing 64
Appendix B: Extension table 65
Appendix C: Relationship between temperature difference, rail weight, pull force and tensor
gauge pressure reading 67
Appendix D: Stressing and stress restoration forms 68
Appendix E: CWR disturbance and Verse test forms 69
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Appendix F: Stressing priority for locations with unknown SFT 70
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1 Purpose
This specification defines the requirements for the design, installation and maintenance of
continuous welded rail (CWR) track (for the purposes of this specification “design” means
“configuration”). It also specifies the methods to be used when stressing CWR in plain line
and switches and crossings.
2 Scope
This specification applies to all continuously welded rail track whether:
• designed and installed as such (including any subsequent re-railing) or
• converted from jointed track by either in-situ welding of the existing rails or re-
railing, in both cases using existing sleepers and ballast.
3 Definitions
Adjustment switches
Joints with overlapping rail ends, allowing longitudinal rail movement and so dissipating
thermal forces when CWR abuts jointed track or other features not designed to withstand
thermal forces. Also used when thermal forces, additional to those in CWR, may be
encountered, such as at long underbridges which are themselves subject to thermal
movement.
Anchor (length)
The length of CWR track that is left clipped down during the stressing operation to ensure
that no movement occurs at the fixed ends of the length being stressed.
Certificate of competence
Held by the Person in Charge of Stressing. There are three levels:
1. Level i (Basic) is the ability to replace plain rails/insulated joints in existing CWR
including restoring stress.
2. Level ii (Intermediate) includes Level i, plus stressing plain line lengths of
CWR including longitudinal timbers and tunnels, but excluding natural or thermal
stressing.
3. Level iii (Advanced) includes Level ii, plus stressing through S&C layouts and
natural and thermal stressing.
The Certificate of Competence is valid for five years (Note: the correct assembly, operation
and care of the tensor equipment is subject to separate training and certification). For
minimum competence requirements for stressing certification see Appendix A
Continuous welded rail (CWR)
Comprises rails welded together to form a single rail length over 37m (120ft), or 55m (180ft)
in tunnels with a limited temperature range.
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Creep monitor
A device for monitoring creep of the heel of the switch blades on switches so fitted. The type
in normal use is known as “ball and claw”. These are not a stress transfer devices.
Crimp ended steel sleepers
A type of steel sleeper, now obsolete, where the sleeper end was formed by pressing down
the centre of the top surface of the sleeper, thus giving the end profile a characteristic “M”
shape when viewed from the end. (see also spade ended steel sleepers)
Critical rail temperature (CRT)
The rail temperature to which CWR may be allowed to rise before measures to protect
traffic shall be taken. The CRT will depend on the stress-free temperature of the rail and the
quantity and degree of consolidation of the ballast.
Crossings
Suitable for incorporation in CWR are of two types:
1. Cast: are manufactured from cast steel either as a complete unit (i.e. monobloc)
or as a cast centre bloc crossing with welded-on leg ends.
2. Part-fabricated (or semi- or part-welded): have welded or cast vees, or cast
noses. An electro-slag welded vee is produced by machining rolled rails and
electro-slag welding them together. The wing rails are produced from rolled rail
and bolted or MGL-pinned to the vee.
Pull force
The force applied to a rail in order to extend it.
Pulling point
The location at which the rail is to be cut, tension applied and extension calculated.
Rail tensors
Hydraulic devices for extending CWR during stressing. In this specification a set of tensors
refers to sufficient equipment to tension both rails at the same time.
Reference points
Marks on each rail in line with a suitable reference mark on an adjacent unclipped sleeper at
equal intervals, e.g. 100m, in order to ensure that the calculated extension is obtained
uniformly throughout the length of free rail being stressed. They are numbered 1, 2, 3, etc.
consecutively from the inner tell tale point towards the pulling point (see diagram in para.
9.6).
Rollers
Devices used to support CWR clear of the sleepers so as to allow its free longitudinal
movement during stressing.
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Side rollers
(Support arms) are devices used to prevent lateral movement of CWR during stressing.
Their design varies to suit the sleeper and fastening type.
Spade ended steel sleepers
Steel sleepers where the whole sleeper end is forged down forming a broad “spade” end that
projects below the sleeper bottom. These are replacements for the now obsolete crimp
ended sleepers (which see).
Stress-free temperature (SFT)
The rail temperature at which the rail is the same length as it would be in an unrestrained
state and at which, therefore, there is no thermal force present. The permitted range of SFT
is 21C to 27C (27C to 32C for crimp ended steel sleepers).
Tensor stressing
The process of stretching CWR with hydraulic tensors so that the stress-free temperature of
the rails is at the upper permitted limit for SFT.
Stressing naturally
The clipping down of CWR, without tensors being used, when the rail temperature is within
the permitted limits for SFT.
Stress restoration
The process of stretching CWR so that the SFT of the rails is the same as it was before the
CWR was disturbed.
Stress transfer blocks
In a switch, the cast iron blocks fitted between the stock rail and the switch rail for the
purpose of transferring stress from the former into the latter during the stressing process.
To be classed as stress transfer block the blocks must be secured to both stock rail and
switch rail by a minimum of two bolts.
Stress transition length
The length of track at each end of a length of CWR between the point of zero stress (the
Adjustment Switch) and the point of full stress (i.e. stress free when the rail temperature
equals the SFT). Note: a stress transition length may be used as an anchor for stressing
purposes but shall not contain any S&C even if that S&C is CWR-compatible.
S&C
Switches and crossings, either individual built-up components or complete layouts.
Tell-tales
Marks made on each rail in line with a suitable reference mark on an adjacent unclipped
sleeper, in order to monitor the effectiveness of the anchor length. A tell-tale is required at
each end of each anchor length: that adjoining the free rail is the inner tell-tale, the other is the
outer tell-tale (see diagram in para. 9.6).
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Thermal stressing
Method of stressing where the rails are heated to the upper permitted limit for stress free
temperature and secured.
Watchman
A person appointed to monitor the track when the rail temperature exceeds the CRT(W).
He shall be equipped and competent to block the line in an emergency.
4 Design of new plain line CWR
New CWR track shall comprise materials selected according to Track Category, in
accordance with RT/CE/S/102.
5 Design of plain line CWR converted from jointed track
5.1 Approval by Network Rail
All proposals to convert jointed track to CWR shall be subject to approval by the
Network Rail Territory Engineer (Track). Such approval will depend on adequate
arrangements being made for anchor lengths and lateral stability.
5.2 Rails for conversion by re-railing
The requirements are as in RT/CE/S/102.
5.3 Rails for conversion by welding in-situ
5.3.1 Rail depth, gall and sidewear
Jointed rails may be converted to CWR only if
• the rail depths are at least 2mm greater than the minimum shown in
NR/SP/TRK/001, and
• there is no measurable gall, and
• the rail has a residual life based upon sidewear considerations of at least 5
years.
5.3.2 Rail defects
The history of rail defects within the length concerned shall be taken into
account prior to taking the decision to convert the length. Prior to conversion,
rails shall be visually and ultrasonically examined to ensure that they are free
from defects which would require replacement within 13 weeks following
conversion(see NR/SP/TRK/001). Such defective rails shall be replaced prior to
conversion.
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5.3.3 Existing bolted joints: preparation for alumino-thermic
welding
In Track Categories 1A, 1, 2 and 3, existing bolted joints shall be removed by
cutting back beyond the bolt holes. In Track Categories 4, 5 and 6, bolt holes
may be left in position as long as any rail-end dip or batter will not prevent the
weld geometry requirements of RT/CE/S/032 being achieved. If bolt holes are
left in position they shall not be within 30mm of the rail end.
Bond holes are not permitted within 30mm of the rail end.
5.3.4 Existing bolted joints: preparation for site flash-welding
Existing bolted joints shall be removed by cutting back beyond the bolt holes.
Minimum distances between bond holes or any other bolt holes, and the weld,
shall comply with RT/CE/S/130 and 131.
5.3.5 Rail lengths
CWR produced by in-situ welding may be formed initially from rails of any
length over 12m (Note: this allows for the cropping of existing 45-ft rails).
5.4 Welds and insulated joints
The requirements are as in RT/CE/S/102. Where existing rails are to be welded in-situ,
flash-welding is to be used in preference to alumino-thermic.
5.5 Sleepers, rail pads and longitudinal timbers
Softwood sleepers for FB rail, spaced at a minimum of 24 per length, are acceptable in
Track Categories 4, 5 and 6, subject to:
• CRT being appropriately assessed (section 14);
• all sleepers being free of internal decay and of splits extending into the
baseplate area.

Decayed or ineffective sleepers and concrete sleepers with cracking or damage in the
rail seat area shall be replaced prior to conversion. The replacement sleepers and
fastenings shall be of the same general type as those remaining in the track, unless
approved otherwise by the Network Rail Territory Engineer (Track). Sleepers existing
or installed into jointed track prior to conversion shall be capable of retaining the
fastenings listed in para. 5.6.
The two sleepers each side of a weld (i.e. four in total) shall be of the same material and
depth.
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Rail pads shall be renewed.
The requirements for longitudinal timbers are as in RT/CE/S/102.
5.6 Rail fastenings
The fastenings approved for the conversion of jointed track to CWR are shown in
Table 1.


Table 1 : Fastenings approved for conversion of jointed track to CWR


Concrete sleepers


• cast-in housings
• ‘shop’ converted F10 sleepers, with PR401A or e clips
• Pan9 conversion of E1 sleepers, with PR401A clips
• converted F16 sleepers, with PR401A or e clips
• E1 sleepers with BH chairs and steel keys (but use wood keys in tunnels)


See RT/CE/S/062 for restrictions on use of serviceable concrete sleepers


Wood sleepers and longitudinal timbers


• screw-fastened Pandrol baseplates with appropriate pads and clips (e clips may be used in
SG iron baseplates)
• BH chairs in tunnels with wood keys


Steel sleepers


• All spade ended steel sleepers are suitable for use in CWR
• Crimp ended sleepers require special precautions and their use is subject to approval by
the Territory Engineer (Track)

Note: Certain Pandrol-type clips are now supplied by other manufacturers: these may be used
where Network Rail product acceptance has been granted.
5.7 Ballast
Prior to conversion, the ballast quality and depth shall be verified. If these do not
comply with RT/CE/S/102 for the Track Category concerned, remedial work may be
required, e.g. ballast cleaning, excavation or track lifting.
Ballast shoulders shall be provided as for new CWR track: see RT/CE/S/102.
All ballast, including shoulder ballast, must be free of wet beds and able to permit free
drainage.
Voided sleepers shall be hand tamped/packed or hand held stoneblown prior to
welding, or as soon as practicable after, to remove voids and to increase the track's
resistance to buckling. Follow-up tamping shall be undertaken as soon as practicable
after completion of welding.
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6 Design of plain line CWR: Use of CWR on curves
6.1 Minimum radius of curvature at which CWR may be installed
See RT/CE/S/102.
6.2 Alignment and longitudinal level
CWR shall be installed and maintained to a designed alignment and longitudinal level.
Records of these designs shall be kept up to date.
7 Design of plain line CWR: Adjustment switches
7.1 Provision, siting and expansion gap
See RT/CE/S/102.
7.2 Removal of adjustment switches
When an adjustment switch is removed stressing shall be carried back 180m into the
existing CWR beyond the welded joint on the CWR side of the adjustment switch rail.
8 Design of switches and crossings for use In CWR
8.1 General
Any S&C unit to be incorporated in CWR shall be capable of withstanding longitudinal
thermal tensile and compressive forces. Approved CWR-compatible designs are
shown in para. 8.2.
CWR-compatible S&C designs are of two types:
1. With stress transfer blocks and bolts connecting the switch to the stock rail.
Eight 25mm (1in) diameter High Tensile Steel (HTS) bolts, tightened to a
torque of 880 Nm (650 lb-ft), allow transfer of 70-tonne thermal force.
(Note: only those heel blocks with two bolts, or two pairs of bolts, are
deemed to be stress transfer blocks; they are supplemented in DV-HV and
EVS-HVS switches by single-bolt distance blocks which do not transfer
significant longitudinal force.) This design is also found in some RT60 & NR60
C switches.
2. With creep monitors. Thermal forces in the stock rails are accommodated
as in plain rail, and those in the closure rails are deemed to dissipate in the
same manner as at the free end of a length of CWR. Longitudinal thermal
movement occurs at the heel of the switch rail; this is indicated by a “ball-
and-claw” creep monitor device, which is not intended to transfer thermal
force.
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CWR-compatible S&C shall be welded or fitted with tight-joint or insulated fishplates
approved for use in CWR. Where practicable, crossings shall be welded in preference
to tight-jointed. Units installed with tight-joint fishplates may be subject to limited
expansion and contraction but shall be assumed to experience the same thermal forces
as units that are welded in.
S&C shall not be present within the stress transition length at the end of a section of
CWR. S&C not isolated from CWR by adjustment switches must be fully stressed and
any stress transition length must commence clear of the S&C. All unstressed S&C must
be isolated from CWR by adjustment switches.
S&C units not approved (see following paragraphs) for use in CWR, because they have
not been designed to withstand the longitudinal forces produced by CWR, shall be
isolated from adjacent CWR by adjustment switches positioned not more than 40m
distant, or replaced by CWR-compatible units.
8.2 Switches
8.2.1 Designs suitable for use in CWR
The following designs of switch are suitable for use in CWR:
• 113A FB vertical design, full depth:
• BV reinforced
• CV to HV inclusive
• Catch points (strengthened)
• 113A FB vertical design, shallow-depth:
• BVS to HVS inclusive
• 113A FB inclined design catchpoint
• 110A/109 FB inclined design catch point.
• All RT60 B to H switches
• All NR60 C to H switches
Older inclined FB switch designs are not suitable for use in CWR, neither are
single and double slips nor any bull head designs.
8.2.2 Construction and installation
Switch and stock rails are intended to be kept together as a half-set. Units
incorporating stress transfer blocks shall therefore be either
• installed as pre-assembled half-sets, or
• trial-assembled, without glue, then separated and subsequently
reassembled at site, again without glue, with gluing and final
tightening of the heel block bolts being done only when line and level
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are fully established (Note: this method is suggested as a means of
minimising misalignment in the area of the heel blocks).

Units without heel blocks shall be strapped together until installation.
The lateral resistance of short (BV, CV and DV) full depth timbered switches
should be supplemented, e.g. either by fitting lateral resistance end-plates to
each end of each timber over the length of the stock rail from the first heel
block to two timbers beyond the stock rail front or by the installation of
castellated beams. This requirement is compulsory for these switches when
installed in lines with a speed of 100mph or higher.
8.3 CWR trap and catch points
Trap points in CWR shall comprise a standard CWR-compatible facing switch.
Catch points that require renewal, shall be to the CWR-compatible BV or CV design,
with concrete bearers or hardwood timbers 170mm deep. Trailing, unworked catch
points shall be strapped in accordance with drawings (worked catch points are subject
to less lateral thrust and need not be strapped).
8.4 Fixed crossings
See RT/CE/S/102 for the selection of fixed crossings.
When a crossing is replaced, any adjacent rails which are head-worn should be
replaced at the same time, since the use of lift-plates may induce bending in the bearers.
8.4.1 Cast crossings
All cast common or obtuse monobloc crossings or crossings with a cast centre
and welded-on legs are suitable for use in CWR.
Unless the crossing has welded-on legs, the joints between the casting and the
adjacent rails shall be formed by tight-joint fishplates with four 29mm (1 1/8")
diameter HTS fishbolts torqued to 1020 Nm (750 lb-ft). These joints shall not
be lubricated.
8.4.2 Part-fabricated common crossings
These types of common crossings shall have extended wings with each wing rail
being secured to the adjacent vee rail by at least eight 25.4mm (1") diameter
MGL pins or HTS bolts when used in CWR.
The materials of the crossings shall be compatible with the material to which
they are being welded and the correct welding process must be used.
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8.4.3 Fully-fabricated crossings
Fully-fabricated common crossings are not suitable for use in CWR. Fully-
fabricated obtuse crossings are suitable if strengthened for the purpose.
8.5 Swing-nose crossings
Mk Vl and VII types and all RT60 types are suitable for use in CWR.
8.6 Switch diamonds
Types of switch diamonds that are not CWR-compatible shall be protected by
adjustment switches on all sides, not more than 40m from the knuckle. (Note: If a
switch diamond not approved for use in CWR is not protected by adjustment switches,
installed within 40m of the knuckle, then thermal forces will alter the position of the
knuckle or setting of the point rails causing failure of the switch detection.)
Switch-diamond point rails shall be of the correct length so that the toes are 115mm
from the knuckle when the rail temperature is 20C.
8.7 Use of adjustment switches
The requirements for adjustment switches between CWR-compatible S&C and plain
line are given in RT/CE/S/102. The length of the stress transition adjacent to adjustment
switches shall be taken as 180m for standard and low resistance situations or 90m for
high resistance situations (as detailed in table 2).
8.8 Short lengths (less than 180m) of plain line between items of S&C
Plain line between S&C may be welded or fitted with tight-joint or insulated fishplates
and as such shall be stressed. S&C suitable for use with CWR may be used as part of
an anchor length (but not within a stress transition length) for stressing the length of
plain line. If the recommended anchor lengths are not available the length of track shall
be stressed naturally (see para. 9.14 and 9.15).
8.9 Minimum rail lengths and location of joints in S&C
See RT/CE/S/102.
9 Stressing of CWR - Plain line
Except for para. 9.1 and the requirements for cutting of CWR in 9.7, the requirements
of this section do not apply to the localised replacement of defective or broken rails or
insulated joints (not exceeding 36m in length), where the provisions of section 10 shall
apply.
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9.1 Person in charge of stressing
All stressing shall be supervised by the Person in Charge of Stressing who, immediately
on completion of the work, shall complete and sign a stressing certificate (Appendix D)
recording details of the work done, in particular highlighting any failure to carry out the
correct stressing procedure. Where the stress condition is restored without resort to
the full stressing procedures, the Person in Charge of Stressing shall complete a stress
restoration certificate which shall be kept with the original stressing certificates for
record purposes.
The Person in Charge of Stressing shall be in possession of a valid Certificate of
Competence.
9.2 Stress free temperature
9.2.1 Track not in tunnel, or in tunnels less than 180m long
Except on crimp-ended steel sleepers, CWR shall be stressed so as to achieve
an SFT of 27C. However, natural stressing is permitted if the rail temperature
at clipping down is within the range 24C and 30C.
On crimp-ended steel sleepers, CWR shall be stressed to an SFT of 32C, with
natural stressing permitted within the range 27C and 32C.
9.2.2 Track in tunnels more than 180m long
Rollers shall be used in tunnels more than 180m long unless the rail has time to
acclimatise to the tunnel temperature in advance of the work. The rail
temperature at which the rail was clipped down shall be taken as the SFT. CWR
stressed to this temperature shall be confined to the length between two points
each of which is 40m inside the tunnel portals.
9.2.3 Equality of SFT between rails
The SFTs of the two rails of the track shall be within the range given in the
definition of SFT. Where only one rail is being replaced but the other rail has a
history of disturbance or stress restoration then both rails shall be re-stressed.
If, however, the SFT of the other rail can be measured in advance of the work,
and shown to be within the specified limits, then the other rail need not be re-
stressed.
9.2.4 Failure to achieve or restore SFT within permitted limits
When the SFT of a length of CWR is or has been disturbed then, in the event of
failure to achieve or restore a stress free temperature within the permitted
range, a CWR disturbance form shall be completed.
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9.2.5 Track with SFT above specified values
If there is evidence to suggest that the SFT is above 30C (or 32C for crimp
ended steel sleepers), then the section of track concerned should be re-stressed
before the onset of cold weather.
9.3 Temperature and curvature effects
9.3.1 High installation temperature
In summer, the rail temperature may rise fairly early in the day, and it is
desirable to complete stressing before 10.00 hours. If, however, the rail
temperature does rise above the upper limit given in 9.2.1 before fastening
down, the work should be completed in the usual way, the temperature
recorded and arrangements made for re-stressing when the temperature has
fallen sufficiently and before the onset of cold weather.
9.3.2 Low installation temperature and/or low SFT
If any portion of CWR track has an SFT below 21C (whether because of failure
to stress, low temperature, or track curvature (see below)) it shall be re-
stressed before the onset of hot weather.
9.3.3 Stressing of CWR on curves
Stressing of rail on curves may induce a lateral shift of the track and for this
reason the maximum pull applied shall be limited as follows:
• Curves of radius 600 -500m
Maximum pull not to exceed 58 tonnes – equivalent to raising the
SFT by 34C for 113A or 31C for CEN60 rail.
• Curves of radius below 500m
Maximum pull not to exceed 46 tonnes – equivalent to raising the
SFT by 27C for 113A or 25C for CEN60 rail.
Note: lateral resistance end plates shall also be fitted at radii below
400m.
In cold weather these limits may preclude the achievement of the desired SFT,
in which case the rail shall be re-stressed in warmer weather.
• Reverse curves - any radius
Stressing should be carried out in stages, and ideally with the length
of rail being pulled at any time contained fully within one curve or
the other, not straddling the point of reversal (i.e. when “pulling
both ways” from a central pulling point, the pulling point shall be
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located at the point of reversal). Side rollers shall be used on both
sides of the rail.
9.4 Plain line stressing - General
The term “stressing pull” applies to the stressing operation whether carried out using
hydraulic tensors or by other approved methods.
During the stressing pull, simple under rollers will displace by an amount equal to half
the extension effective at their position. In order to avoid those nearest the pulling
point rolling off the sleeper top, it may be necessary to limit the maximum extension by
limiting the length of pull.
If rail laid in an earlier shift is to be stressed, it is possible that the SFT of the existing
adjacent rail may have fallen in the vicinity of the join as a result of movement at the
join. Where the inner tell tale from stressing the ajacent rail is available and can be
returned to zero the multiple pull method in 9.13.4 may be used. Where no tell tale is
available the stressing length shall include at least an anchor length of the adjacent rail.
9.4.1 Method of stressing
The normal method of stressing is by the use of hydraulic tensors.
During warm/hot weather periods stressing work should be planned for
completion in early morning, before rail temperatures approach the required
SFT, or in the evening after rail temperatures have fallen below the SFT.
Where, during warm/hot weather periods, it is not physically possible to plan
the work for completion during times of lower rail temperature, then the
natural stressing process may be employed.
Where the required anchor lengths cannot be achieved then stressing should be
planned for warmer weather and the natural stressing process employed.
Where it is physically difficult to accommodate hydraulic tensors or in other
approved situations natural stressing or an approved process of thermal
stressing may be used.
For alternative methods the maximum length of free rail shall be limited to that
given for a single pull when stressing with tensors.
9.4.2 Stressing of plain line adjacent to switches
The plain line within one anchor length of the toes of switches shall be treated
as S&C for the purposes of stressing.
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When stressing plain line adjacent to switches the anchor length shall not
extend into the switches and at least one anchor length from the toes of the
switches shall remain fully clipped down.
9.5 Preliminary site survey
Before the planned date for stressing the following shall be checked through the length
to be stressed and the anchor lengths (in some cases the items may be attended to
during the stressing operation, rather than beforehand):
• that the track is to the appropriate construction standard and fully ballasted;
• rail fastening type(s) shall be identified, any seized fastenings freed and any
missing or defective fastenings replaced;
• worn pads and insulators shall be renewed;
• any potential obstruction to the free movement of the unclipped rail and
rollers shall be removed;
• the correct high tensile steel bolts (to insulated joints, stress transfer
blocks, etc.) shall be fitted and tightened to the correct torque;
• defective rails or defective insulated joints shall be replaced;
• expansion gaps in adjoining jointed track shall be adjusted;
• adjustment switches shall be checked for lubrication and overlap.
The position of anchor lengths, lengths of rails to be pulled and the location of closing
welds shall be selected. Account should be taken of the influence which cuttings,
embankments, the period of the year and the time of day, may have on rail
temperatures during the stressing operation.
9.6 Anchors, tell tale points and pulling points
The minimum length of CWR to be fastened down to form an anchor shall be as in
Table 2:

Table 2 : Anchor lengths


Track conditions Minimum anchor length


High resistance - where all fastenings are new e2000-series, e-
plus, Fastclip or Vossloh, all present, installed with the correct
tools and in good condition with all pads and insulators in
place and good consolidated ballast conditions
30m or three sleepers per degC
temperature difference from the
proposed SFT, whichever is greater


Standard resistance - other sleepers with integral housings
and good consolidated ballast conditions
90m


Low resistance – baseplated sleepers and early designs with
screw fastenings, or where ballast conditions poor or where
adjustment switches exist (Note: para. 9.5 requires
inadequacies in fastenings, rail pads or insulators to be made
good prior to stressing)
135m


Cast common or obtuse crossing welded or tight jointed to Anchor point

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its adjacent rails

No inner tell tale shall be located within a stress transition length .
Tell tale points shall be marked (on both rail and sleeper) at each end of each anchor
length in order to monitor the effectiveness of the anchor. The sleepers used shall be
freed from all rails.
The relationship between the pulling point, the length of free rail to be pulled and the
anchors is shown below.
OTT ITT RP
1
RP
2
X RP
2
RP
1
ITT OTT

↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
→ ←
anchor L
1
unclip L
1
unclip anchor

OTT = outer tell-tale ITT = inner tell-tale RP = reference point X = pulling point

L
1
= 90m minimum, but 180m minimum if adjustment switches have been removed at X.
= 900m maximum on straight track (but less on curves - see para. 9.13.4)
Anchor: see table above.

The pulling point shall be at least 4.5m from another weld or joint, mid-way between two
sleepers and where possible should be the mid-point of the length of rail being stressed.
9.7 Cutting the rails
The first cut into CWR shall be by flame cutting. Subsequent cuts shall be made by a
method approved for the rail steel concerned.
When cutting the rails for the extension, the required total extension shall be marked
on the rail at the pulling point and allowance made for
• the calculated extension;
• a working gap between the extended rails of 5mm (the correct welding gap
should be cut after the correct extension has been achieved);
• any movement of the rail at the inner tell tale away from the pulling point.
If, on making the first cut into installed CWR, an unexpectedly large gap opens, then
the reason for this shall be thoroughly investigated and action taken accordingly.
9.8 Rail supports during the stressing procedure
Fastenings shall be released commencing from the cut or free end and the rails lifted
clear of all obstructions and placed on solid rollers positioned at intervals not
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exceeding 12 sleepers. Correct positioning of the rollers between the rail foot and the
rail seat is shown below:

direction of pull
roller
sleeper
The rail pads on the sleepers where the
rollers are located must be temporarily
removed to reduce resistance to
rolling.


Side rollers or support arms shall be used on the inside of curved track at the intervals
in Table 3. They should be staggered so that there is only one roller per sleeper.
Table 3 : Side roller intervals (maxima)
Radius (m) Interval Radius (m) Interval
> 2000
2000 - 1001
1000 - 801
12 sleepers
10 sleepers
8 sleepers
800 - 601
600 - 400
< 400
6 sleepers
4 sleepers
2 sleepers

When natural or thermal stressing, side rollers shall be used on alternate sides of the
rail throughout the length of pull.
When tensor stressing, consideration shall be given to the risk of tipping of the rail.
Where such a risk exists, side rollers shall be fitted on both sides throughout.
9.9 Movement of rails at the tell-tales
Any movement of the rail at the tell-tales, when the fastenings are released, shall be
noted.
Movement at the outer tell-tale indicates that the anchor is not satisfactory and a new
anchor length shall be established.
Movement of the inner tell-tale may be towards or away from the pulling point,
depending upon the SFT of the anchor. Movement towards the pulling point should be
ignored; movement away shall be added to the calculated extension (see Appendix B).
9.10 Measurement of rail temperature
9.10.1 Thermometers
Thermometers shall be of magnetic dial or contact reading digital display types
with individual serial numbers. They shall be checked visually for condition on
each occasion of use, and shall be verified annually for accuracy to within +2C
against a master thermometer.
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9.10.2 Taking readings with thermometers
Rail temperature will vary according to location (cutting or embankment) and
weather conditions. Readings should be taken at as many locations as necessary
to allow for these variations.
Thermometers shall be placed at the centre of the rail web on the shaded side
of each rail. At least three thermometers (3 reading locations for digital
thermometers) should be used on each rail, located
• near to the pulling point;
• at the mid-point of the free rail;
• near to the anchor length.
Sufficient thermometers shall be used to achieve a maximum spacing of 200m
between readings.
When the readings of all thermometers are reasonably uniform, and after not
less than ten minutes (except for the digital contact type), an average shall be
taken. If any reading is obviously inconsistent with the remainder a check should
be made by changing the thermometer(s) concerned. The readings used to
calculate the extension shall be taken at the last possible moment before
marking the reference points.
9.11 Calculation of rail extension
The calculation of rail extension shall be based on the average rail temperature over
the length of the rail to be stressed or re-stressed. The rail extension required, to
produce a stress free condition at the rail temperature specified below, shall be
calculated by the formula e = 1000 LXt, where
e = extension in millimetres
L = the length of free rail in metres
X = coefficient of expansion of steel (0.0000115 per °C for normal grade rail)
t = difference between actual average rail temperature and required SFT.

Calculated extensions for various lengths of free rail for rail temperatures in the range
- 8C to 27C, and examples showing how extensions are calculated, are given in
Appendix B.
Where rail temperatures are changing rapidly it will be necessary to repeat the
calculations unless they differ by no more than 2C from the previous reading.
The SFT shall be 27C except for crimp ended steel sleepers which shall be stressed to
32C, and rail in tunnels more than 180m long where the SFT shall fall within the
ambient temperature range of the tunnel in question.
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9.12 Rail extension at reference points
The full calculated extension shall be marked accurately at the free end (pulling point)
and the proportional movement marked at regularly-spaced (e.g. 100m apart)
intermediate reference points so that the rail movement may be monitored during
tensioning. The marking shall be carried out in such a way that the movement can be
measured to an accuracy of one millimetre. At the reference points any sticking pads
shall be freed in order to prevent movement of the sleeper with the rail.
The intermediate extensions should be within 5% or 1mm of the correct figure. If this
is not achieved then the cause shall be investigated and any identified problems
corrected. If the figures still cannot be achieved then this fact shall be recorded and
arrangements made for a detailed analysis to determine a further course of action.
9.13 Tensor stressing
9.13.1 General
Tensor stressing must be planned for times such that it can be completed before
rail temperatures reach the required SFT.
Tensors shall be used in accordance with the operating instructions and
operated only by persons suitably trained and certificated.
Tensor pressure gauges shall be checked for function and accuracy before issue
and be re-calibrated during regular servicing of tensors.
With the exception of an un-powered trolley, no rail vehicle may pass over
"obstructionless" tensors which are under pressure.
During tensioning, the rails shall be extended to the reference marks at the
pulling point and the movement checked at any intermediate reference points.
The force applied by the tensor shall be monitored during tensioning to ensure
that it is reasonably related to the required temperature difference. If this is not
so, it is likely that uniform extension has not been achieved and the rail shall be
checked for possible obstructions to free movement. The tensors shall be
checked for slippage of the clamps or for defects in the tensor dial pressure
gauge.
Appendix C shows the relationship between temperature difference, pull force
and tensor gauge pressure reading for each rail section.
The maximum pull to be applied shall not exceed the lesser of
• 60 tonnes;
• 10 tonnes less than the maximum capacity of the tensors.
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When this maximum pull is insufficient to achieve the full rail extension, an
extension equivalent to the maximum pull shall be calculated and applied. In
such cases the required SFT will not be obtained and it may be necessary for the
CWR length to be re-stressed.
Where unforeseen delays mean that a tensor stressing operation, including
clipping down, cannot be completed before the rail temperatures are likely to
exceed the required SFT, then careful consideration must be given to the risk of
buckling of the unclipped rail.
Where rail temperatures are approaching the required SFT and the closing
welds have not been made, then the tensors must be removed and the process
completed as for natural stressing (allowable under level(ii) competency in this
case only). Where the closing welds have been made then clipping down at rail
temperatures above the required SFT shall only continue provided that either
• the unclipped rail can be clipped down at intervals not exceeding
those given in Table 3 para 9.8 before the rail temperature exceeds
the required SFT, or
• side rollers in accordance with Table 3 are present, on both sides,
throughout the unclipped length of rail (including the straight), or
• the unclipped rail is cut and splayed to release compressive forces.
(In this case all rail clipped down above the required SFT will need
to be re-stressed)
If none of the above precautions has been carried out, then clipping down shall
cease, and all persons shall be kept clear of the unclipped rail until rail
temperatures drop back to the required SFT.
9.13.2 Method
Tensor stressing of plain line CWR should normally be carried out as follows:
i. Identify the positions and lengths of the anchors, lengths to be pulled, and
pulling points (from site survey para. 9.5).
ii. Mark the outer and inner tell tales, any reference points and the pulling
point (para. 9.6). Unclip tell tales and reference points.
iii. Cut the CWR at the pulling point (para. 9.7).
iv. Unclip the rails from the pulling point towards the inner tell tales.
v. Place unclipped rails on rollers and position side rollers as necessary (para.
9.8).
vi. Check any movement at the tell tales (para. 9.9).
vii. Measure rail temperature (para. 9.10).
viii. Calculate the extension(s) of the rails (para. 9.11).
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ix. Mark the calculated extensions at the pulling point and at any reference
points (para. 9.12).
x. Cut the rails again at the pulling point to allow for the calculated extension,
a 5mm working gap and any movement at the inner tell tale (para. 9.7).
xi. Fit tensors and apply tension to both rails until the required extension is
achieved (para. 9.13).
xii. Check any further movement of the inner tell tale to ensure that the
anchors have held, and take the appropriate action (para. 9.9).
xiii. Fasten down 40m of rail on each side of the pulling point, outside the
tensors. Cut the rail(s) again if necessary to produce the correct welding
gap and complete the welds at the pulling point, with the tensors in position
(para. 9.13.6).
xiv. Remove all rollers. Replace all pads, insulators and clips.
xv. Remove tensors (para. 9.13.7). Remove welding debris. Fill cribs with
ballast. Pack all sleepers.
xvi. Fill out stressing certificate (para. 9.16).

9.13.3 Single pull
In order to reduce the effect of frictional resistance and to ensure adequate
stability during stressing, the maximum lengths of CWR to be tensioned in one
direction (i.e. measured between the pulling point and the inner tell tale) shall be
as in Table 4.

Table 4 : Tension length and track curvature
Radius of curvature
(m)
Maximum length to
be tensioned (m)
Radius of curvature
(m)
Maximum length to
be tensioned (m)
> 4000
4000 - 2001
2000 - 1601
1600 – 1201
900
600
500
400
1200 - 801
800 - 601
600 - 401
< 400
300
225
150
100

Where the radius changes through the pulling length, the maximum length to be
pulled in one direction shall be determined by the minimum radius.
Provided that the overall length to be stressed does not exceed double the
lengths in Table 4 and the tensor capability (load and extension) is adequate, the
required extension should be obtained over the whole length by “pulling both
ways” from a central pulling point: see diagram in para. 9.6. When pulling both
ways the lengths to be pulled should be as nearly equal as possible.
9.13.4 Multiple pulls
The recommended sequence for tensioning rails longer than 1800m is shown
below.
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anchor
clip
OTT ITT
ITT adjacent to
X
1
and X
2

existing CWR unstressed CWR
anchor
clip unclip
maximum pulling length 900m
1. First and intermediate operations
X
2

X
1

OTT not
required
starting
anchor
This ITT may be used as the first ITT for
the following shift as work progresses



X
4

clip
anchor
unclip
maximum pulling length 1800m (2 x 900m)
clip
anchor
X
3

ITT OTT ITT
2. Final operation
OTT
intermediate anchor existing CWR
final anchor
Tell-tale
Welded joint Pulling point and weld
X
(ITT = Inner Tell-tale; OTT = Outer Tell-tale)


9.13.5 Effect of tensioning on insulated joints
Tensioning may be carried through insulated joints if they are approved for use
in CWR and are in good order. Anchor lengths should be positioned close to
insulated joints in order to minimise their longitudinal movement. If a joint
cannot be kept located centrally between sleepers, any movement of the joint
may require the sleepers on each side to be re-spaced and re-packed. This
applies particularly to 6-hole 113A joints which shall be positioned centrally, the
sleepers being at 630 +/- 5mm centres.
9.13.6 Welding the final joint and fastening down
When the required total extension in each rail has been obtained, at least 40m
of rail on each side of the tensors shall be fastened down. The welder shall
check that the welding gap is correct for the type of weld to be made, and re-
cut the gap if necessary. Once a weld is started there shall be no disturbance to
that rail or the opposite rail of the same line until the weld is completed and the
cooling period has elapsed.
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On sharp curves fastening down shall follow within 10 sleepers of the removal
of each side roller, in order to minimise the tendency of the stressed rail to
leave the rail seating.
9.13.7 Release and removal of tensors
The tensors shall remain in position for the minimum time specified in
RT/CE/S/032, after the weld has been made, in order to avoid hot tears.
9.14 Natural stressing
Natural stressing is achieved when, having had the rail free on rollers, it is clipped down
at a rail temperature between 24C and 30C (27C and 32C for crimp ended steel
sleepers).
Intermediate reference points shall be used during natural stressing to monitor
expansion.
Clipping down shall commence at the anchor and finish at the free end, care being
taken to ensure that the free end is not obstructed.
Method
i. Identify the positions and lengths of the anchors, lengths to be pulled, and
pulling points (from site survey para. 9.5).
ii. Mark the outer and inner tell tales, any reference points and the pulling
point (para. 9.6). Unclip tell tales and reference points.
iii. Cut the CWR at the pulling point (para. 9.7).
iv. Unclip the rails from the pulling point towards the inner tell tales.
v. Place unclipped rails on rollers and position side rollers (para. 9.8). Splay the
rail ends to ensure that they can pass during the natural stressing process
vi. Check any movement at the tell tales (para. 9.9).
vii. Measure and monitor rail temperature (para. 9.10).
viii. When rail temperature reaches the minimum specified temperature ensure
that the rail is free and then commence removal of rollers and clipping
down, commencing from the anchor and working towards the free end.
ix. Monitor rail temperature and continue to clip down until the pulling point is
reached.
x. Cut the rail(s) to produce the correct welding gap and complete the welds
at the pulling point.
xi. Remove welding debris. Fill cribs with ballast. Pack all sleepers.
xii. Fill out stressing certificate (para. 9.16).

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9.15 Thermal Stressing
During cold weather thermal stressing using rail warmers may be used as an alternative
to tensors, subject to Network Rail approval of the equipment and process.
Intermediate reference points shall be used in association with rail warmers to allow
the monitoring of uniform expansion.
The rail warmers shall be used to obtain and maintain a rail temperature of 27C (32C
for crimp ended steel sleepers), with the rail free on rollers.
The process shall detail the sequence of events and the precautions necessary to
ensure that the correct stress free temperature is retained within the rail as the
process proceeds.
9.16 Records
A register of CWR shall be kept in an approved form (StressRoute NR), containing
complete current records for all CWR track (including CWR in tunnels), giving the SFT
values. The register shall be held by, or be available to, the person with current
responsibility for maintenance of the track. Except where specifically agreed
otherwise, for contract purposes, certificates and all relevant information concerning
stressing (including details of achieved SFT and site conditions, see Appendices D and
E) shall be passed to the holder of the register within seven days of any disturbance to,
or any re-stressing of the track.
Valid stressing records shall be recorded on an approved form and shall indicate the
SFT that has been achieved. They shall be obtained by one of the following processes:-
stressing using hydraulic tensors, natural stressing, the use of approved rail warmers, or
a valid test result obtained using an approved direct measurement method.
If the stress free temperature that has been achieved/obtained is not within the
specified range then the site shall be clearly marked as a stress required site.
The person in charge of stressing shall produce the records at the same time as the
process is carried out with the exception of those derived from VERSE tests. Stressing
records derived from VERSE tests shall be produced from a detailed analysis of the
VERSE results on the next working day following the test.
Except where GEOGIS changes are required in advance, StressRoute shall be updated
within 7 days of receipt of the stressing or disturbance records.
Details of the stress free temperature shall be passed to the person responsible for hot
weather precautions for the site within 24 hours
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9.17 Review of SFT
Consideration shall be given to re-measuring the SFT where the record is more than
20 years old. Where there are reasons to expect that the original stress condition has
changed, e.g. where rail creep has occurred, the SFT should be re-measured.
9.18 Sites where no stressing records exist
CWR sites for which no historical stressing records exist, but which are reasonably
believed to have been stressed and which have no history of stress disturbance shall be
classified as “stress unknown” sites.
Stress unknown sites shall be programmed for work to enable valid stressing records
to be obtained. The prioritisation shall be carried out using the method detailed in
Appendix F.
9.19 Sites where the stress free temperature is known to have been
disturbed
CWR sites where the stress free temperature is known to have been disturbed and
where stress restoration or re-stressing has not been carried out, and all sites where
the SFT is known to be outside the permitted range shall be classified as “stress
required” sites.
Stress required sites shall be programmed for work to enable valid stressing records to
be obtained. The prioritisation of stress required sites shall be based on the known SFT
or on the likely SFT (dependant on the time of the year that the track was disturbed).
Sites having the lowest CRT shall have the highest priority.
Obtaining valid stressing records for stress required sites shall normally take priority
over similar work on stress unknown sites.
10 Replacement of broken, cracked or defective rails, welds or insulated joints
10.1. General
The following paragraphs set out the requirements for “stress restoration” when the
replacement work is carried out. They apply principally to plain line. However, in
S&C, where for example a switch half-set is being replaced, the stress shall be restored,
and equalised as far as possible between the rails.
The minimum length of rail which may be inserted into CWR is 4.5m (or 3m in cases of
particular difficulty and subject to approval by the Territory Engineer (Track). In the
event of a defect of a multiple type, the whole 18m or 36m (60ft or 120ft) length of rail
shall be replaced. The stress restoration process shall not be applied to replacement
rails exceeding 36m which shall be subject to full stressing as detailed in section 9.
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For stress restoration in S&C the stressing plan shall be approved in advance of the
work by a holder of level (iii) stressing competency. The plan shall be initialled to
indicate approval of the proposals and the stress restoration certificate reviewed and
initialled to indicate that the correct procedure was followed.
Any movement of the rail relative to the sleepers which occurred following the break
or when the rail was cut shall be measured and recorded and action taken as in Table 5.
Note: Table 5 and paras 10.2 and 10.3 refer to other than crimp-ended steel sleepers:
in the case of crimp-ended sleepers the rail temperature values quoted must be
increased by 5C.

Table 5 : Action following movement at rail gaps
Rail
temperature
Movement of rail Action
Gap closes
(SFT is below rail temperature)
Use tensors at 1000 lb/in
2
Re-stress fully before hot weather
below 15C No movement
(SFT approximately equal to rail temp.)
No tensors required
Re-stress fully before hot weather
Gap opens
(SFT is above rail temperature)
Use tensors to restore original stress
Record as stress restored
Gap closes
(SFT is below rail temperature)
Use tensors at 1000 lb/in
2
Re-stress fully before hot weather
between 15C and
21C
No movement
(SFT approximately equal to rail temp.)
Pull to tensor pressure for 27C
Record as stress restored (see note)
Gap opens
(SFT is above rail temperature)
Use tensors to restore original stress
Record as stress restored


Gap closes
(SFT is below rail temperature)
No tensors required
Re-stress fully before hot weather
between 21C and
27C
No movement
(SFT approximately equal to rail temp.)
No tensors required
Gap opens
(SFT is above rail temperature)
Use tensors to restore original stress
Gap closes
(SFT is below rail temperature)
No tensors required
above 27C No movement
(SFT approximately equal to rail temp.)
No tensors required
Re-stress fully before cold weather
Gap opens
(SFT is above rail temperature)
No tensors required
Re-stress fully before cold weather

Note – the actions for rails between 15C and 21C applies only to rails of 13716mm
length or less. For longer rails use the action plan given for rail temperatures below
15C

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10.2. Replacement of a defective insulated joint or rail when the rail
temperature is below 21C
i. Mark on the existing rail both cutting points for the replacement rail.
ii. Mark reference points on both the existing rail and corresponding
unfastened sleepers/housings (with any sticking pads freed) clear of
where the tensors will be located.
iii. Cut out the defective rail. Check any movement of the rail and take
the appropriate action (see para. 10.1).
iv. Weld in the replacement rail at one end, and when the weld has
cooled for the period of time as specified in RT/CE/S/032 for welding
between tensors, fit the tensors and pull the rails until the reference
marks on both the rails and the sleepers correspond again.
v. Make the final cut for the welding gap and weld.
vi. Release and remove tensors. Replace pads, insulators and fastenings.
Ensure all cribs are filled with ballast and sleepers packed. Remove
weld debris from site.
vii. Fill out stressing certificate.

10.3. Replacement of a broken rail when rail temperature is below 21C
i. Measure the gap between the rail ends and take the appropriate action
(see para. 10.1).
ii. Mark on the existing rail both cutting points for the replacement rail.
iii. Mark reference points on both the existing rail and corresponding
unfastened sleepers/housings (with any sticking pads freed) clear of
where the tensors will be located.
iv. Cut out the defective rail. Weld in the replacement rail at one end.
v. Position the tensors and, after the first weld has cooled for the period
of time as specified in RT/CE/S/032 for welding between tensors, pull
the rails until the reference marks on the rails have moved inward
from the reference marks on the sleepers by a combined amount equal
to the original rail gap.

Then as v, vi and vii in para. 10.2.
10.4. Replacement of a defective rail within tensor extension bars
i. Mark on the existing rail both cutting points for the replacement rail.
ii. Mark reference points on both the existing rail and corresponding
unfastened sleepers/housings (with any sticking pads freed) clear of
where the tensors will be located.
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iii. Position the tensors with the extension bars spanning the portion of
rail to be removed and apply a pull force appropriate to the rail
temperature (see Appendix C).
iv. Flame cut the rail to be replaced.
v. Check the reference points and if necessary pull the rails until the
reference marks correspond with the reference marks on the sleepers.
vi. Weld in the closure rail.
Then as vi and vii in para. 10.2.
Notes:
• The maximum length of rail that can be replaced using this method is 6m.
This precludes replacement of a normal glued insulated rail joint assembly
but does permit the re-plating/re-bolting of a non-glued joint where the rails
are to remain.
• This method may be used only when all rail cuts may be made using oxy-fuel
gas, since disc cutting of rail between tensors is prohibited.
11 Stressing of S&C within CWR
11.1 General
CWR-compatible S&C (see section 8) shall be installed (or subsequently adjusted) to
an SFT in the range 21C to 27C. The correct SFT can normally be obtained by applying
a calculated extension or a calculated force.
In stress-block layouts the closure rails (between the switch heel and the crossing) shall
be stressed to the extent practicable. This will depend upon the practicability of
installing tensors and upon the need to maintain adequate weld-to-weld distances.
(Note: although buckling in the closure area, where there are four or more rails
continuously fastened to bearers, is unlikely, the risk of misalignment in the heel block
area will be minimised if all rails in the S&C have similar SFTs.)
Where cast common or obtuse crossings are being used as anchor points they shall be
welded or tight jointed to their adjacent closure rails and shall have all pads and clips
installed and be in good condition.
In layouts with creep monitors, thermal force is assumed to “ramp up” along the
closures from the heel towards the crossing, with the maximum tolerable force
occurring after approximately 40m. Closures longer than this should therefore be
stressed (see para. 11.7.3b).
All joints within the anchor length and the length to be pulled shall
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• be welded, or
• be fitted with tight-joint fishplates and 29mm (1 1/8 in) dia. high-tensile
fishbolts, or
• be insulated joints approved for use in CWR.
• Intermediate closure rails between separate units of S&C shall be stressed.
11.2 Anchor lengths and tell tales
S&C layouts may be used to form part of an anchor length provided that all S&C units
are of an approved design (see section 8). Movement of switch tips and crossings shall
be minimised by selecting appropriate pulling points. Subsequent testing and adjustment
of any switch detection shall be carried out.
Anchor lengths and tell-tales shall be established as described in the detailed
procedures in para. 11.7.
11.3 Preliminary survey and considerations
The layout shall be to the design line and level and shall be packed and correctly
ballasted.
High-tensile bolts shall be torqued as in Table 6.

Table 6 : Bolt diameters and torques
Location Bolt diameter Torque
In blocks at the heel of switches and in crossings 25mm (1 in) or 29mm (1 1/8 in) 880Nm (650 lb-ft)
In insulated and 25mm (1 in) 880Nm (650 lb-ft)
tight-joint fishplates 29mm (1 1/8 in) 1020Nm (750 lb-ft)

Whenever possible, pulling points should be in plain track and approximately 18m away
from any S&C element.
The positions of existing welds and insulated joints shall be checked to ensure that at
least 4.5m is maintained between welds/joints.
11.4 Tensor equipment
The distance between switches installed toe-to-toe may cause problems in the fitting of
tensors. For example, switches with short fronts of 1650 mm, and with signalling
equipment in the bed immediately in front of the switches towards the stock rail end,
provide a clearance for the tensors of just 2600mm. The site shall be examined prior
to stressing to ensure that appropriate tie bars are supplied with the tensor equipment.
The following arrangements of tensor equipment are possible:
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• Short tie bar 380mm long gives overall length of tensor equipment of
1860mm and the tensors can be positioned with the weld at the centre of
the equipment;
• Standard tie bar 1525mm long gives overall length of tensor equipment of
3000mm and tensors can be positioned with the weld at the centre of the
equipment;
• Horseshoe beam 915mm long gives overall length of tensor equipment of
2390mm but equipment shall be positioned off centre with respect to the
weld, i.e. 1760mm to one side of the weld and 630m to the other side.
11.5 General site procedure for stressing S&C with stress transfer blocks
Unless the S&C is recorded as having been correctly stressed, it shall be assumed to
have a low SFT.
Where possible all lengths to be stressed should be done at the same time. Where this
is not possible the procedure below takes this into account.
i. Cut both rails approximately 18m from the unit to be stressed.
ii. To stress stock rails, release fastenings from the plain track up to the switch
toes. Do not disturb the ballast, bearers or fastenings of the stock rails.
iii. To stress CWR to the heel of a crossing, release fastenings up to the third
bearer from the crossing joint/weld. Do not disturb the ballast, bearers or
fastenings of the crossing.
iv. If it is not possible to stress all lengths of track at the same time, the toes of
switches should be stressed first and short lengths (less than 55m) should
be stressed last, e.g. heel to heel.
v. Mark the rails of the plain line clear of where the tensors will be located and
provide any necessary reference points on unfastened sleepers/housings
corresponding to the marks. Any sticking pads shall be freed, to prevent
the reference sleepers moving with the rail.
vi. Apply tension until the required extension of the plain track is achieved (but
if this is less than 5mm, pressure shall be applied to the tensors until either
the required extension is achieved or the calculated pressure is shown on
the pressure gauge, whichever is reached first).
vii. Check for any movement of the tell tales.
viii. Fasten down and complete the closing weld in the normal way. After
switches have been stressed, arrange for any switch detection to be
checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
ix. Fill out stressing certificate (Appendix D).

Care shall be taken to preserve the correct crossing nose to toe dimensions.
Procedures for stressing common S&C units and layouts are given in paras 11.7 and
11.8 respectively.
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11.6 General site procedure for stressing S&C with creep monitors
The procedure in para. 11.5 applies, except that the stock rails shall be stressed as if
they were plain rails, with fastenings released (as shown in para. 11.7.2b). However,
movement of the stock rails at the switch toes shall be minimised.
11.7 Procedure for stressing common S&C units
The following instructions are additional to the general procedures for stressing given
above.
• Para. 11.7.1: Stressing at switch toes
(a) With stress transfer blocks; (b) With creep monitors
• Para. 11.7.2: Stressing at a crossing vee
(a) With stress transfer blocks; (b) With creep monitors
• Para. 11.7.3: Stressing between switch heel and crossing vee
(a) With stress transfer blocks; (b) With creep monitors
• Para. 11.7.4: Stressing between toe to toe switches
• Para. 11.7.5: Stressing between following–on crossing vee and switch toe
(a) With stress transfer blocks; (b) With creep monitors
• Para. 11.7.6: Removing an adjustment switch next to switch toes
• Para. 11.7.7: Removing an adjustment switch next to a crossing vee
• Para. 11.7.8: Stressing back to back crossing vees
• Para. 11.7.9: Stressing between 'toe to toe' switches where stock rails are
directly joined by an insulated rail joint or tight joint
In all the examples the adjoining plain line CWR is assumed to be correctly stressed. If
it is not known to be correctly stressed then stressing of the plain line should be
carried out at the same time as the stressing of the S&C or, failing that, before the
onset of hot weather. The length of plain line stressed in association with switch toes
shall not exceed 180m.
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11.7.1 Stressing at switch toes
11.7.1a With stress transfer blocks
Anchor
clip
L2
unclip
L1
unclip
L3
clip
Anchor
clip
OTT ITT
X2
X1 ITT (see note 2) OTT
X1 and X2 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
L1 =18m approx
L2 =90m
L3 =distance from toe to first stress transfer block (where fitted)
Notes
(1) The ITT next to the switch toe shall be on the first plain sleeper, which shall be unclipped
(2) Switch toes must be maintained square, it may therefore be necessary to stress both half sets
Diagram 11.7.1 Stressing at switch toes
(no adjustment switches removed)


Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors, X1X2, approximately 18m (L1)
from the switch toes and mark the tell tale points for each anchor
length.
ii. Cut both rails at X1X2.
iii. Unclip both rails and place on rollers from the switch toes for a
distance of L1+L2.
iv. Mark both rails clear of the tensor positions and, when necessary,
provide reference points on unfastened sleepers/housings in the plain
line corresponding to the marks.
v. Calculate the extension required for L1+L2+L3 (see Appendix B), and
the pull force (see Appendix C).
vi. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
vii. Fit the tensors at X1X2 and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
viii. Check tell tale points to ensure that the anchors have held and check
the switch toe dimensions.
ix. Complete the welds, remove all rollers and replace pads, insulators
and clips. Remove tensors, ensure that all cribs are filled with ballast,
sleepers / bearers packed and welding debris removed.
x. Arrange for switch detection to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
xi. Fill out stressing certificate.

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11.7.1b With creep monitors
See para. 11.7.1a, but with L3 included within the anchor and excluded
from the calculation in part v of the method.
11.7.2 Stressing at a crossing vee
(through line shown, but method is the same for turnout line provided that
turnout radius exceeds minimum specified for CWR in RT/CE/S/102)
11.7.2a With stress transfer blocks
Anchor
clip
L1
unclip
L2
unclip
Anchor
clip
OTT
X2
X1 OTT
X1 and X2 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
Notes
ITT (see note 2) ITT
L1 =18m min, but ideally equal to L2
L2 =90m min
(1) Reference points required in L1 or L2 if the length excedes 90m
(2) ITT to be on the 3rd through bearer outside the crossing joint/weld, unclipped from all rails
(3) For anchor lengths see table 2
(4) Both rails to be stressed on each road on which CWR exists. Through road stressed first
Diagram 11.7.2a - Stressing at crossing nose -switches with stress transfer bloc
(no adjustment switches removed)

Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors, X1X2, approximately 18m (L1)
from the crossing joint/weld and mark tell tale points for each anchor
length.
ii. Cut both rails at X1X2.
iii. Unclip both rails and place on rollers from the third bearer from the
crossing joint/weld for a distance of L1+L2.
iv. Mark both rails clear of the tensors and, when necessary, provide
reference points on unfastened sleepers/housings corresponding to the
marks. Provide tell tale marks for each anchor length.
v. Calculate the extension required for L1+L2 (Appendix B), and the pull
force (Appendix C).
vi. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
vii. Fit the tensors at X1X2 and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
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viii. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchors have held.
ix. Complete the welds, remove all rollers and replace pads, insulators
and clips. Remove tensors, ensure that all cribs are filled with ballast,
sleepers and bearers packed and that all welding debris is removed.
x. Fill out stressing certificate.

11.7.2b With creep monitors
The rails attached to the back of the crossing shall be stressed as follows:
L2
unclip
Anchor
clip
X1 pulling point
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
Notes
L1 =18m min, but ideally equal to L2
L2 =90m min
(1) Reference points required in L1 or L2 if the length excedes 90m
(2) OTT nearest the switches to be on the switch heel bearer, bearer unclipped from all rails
(3) For anchor lengths see table 2
(4) If the crossing has been installed/replaced then both rails on both roads shall be stressed
OTT (see note 2)
L1
unclip
Anchor
clip
Diagram 11.7.2b - Stressing at crossing nose -switches with creep monitors
(no adjustment switches removed)
X1
ITT ITT OTT

Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors, X1, and mark tell tale points for
each anchor length.
xi. Cut both rails at X1.
xii. Unclip both rails and place on rollers for a distance of L = L1 + L2.
xiii. Mark both rails clear of the tensors and, when necessary, provide
reference points on unfastened sleepers/housings corresponding to the
marks. Provide tell tale marks for each anchor length.
xiv. Calculate the extension required for L (Appendix B), and the pull force
(Appendix C).
xv. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
xvi. Fit the tensors at X1 and apply tension to both rails until the required
extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para. 11.5.vi).
xvii. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchors have held.
xviii. Complete the welds, remove rollers, replace pads, insulators and clips.
Remove tensors, ensure all cribs are filled with ballast, sleepers and
bearers packed and that all welding debris is removed.
xix. Fill out stressing certificate.

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11.7.2c With creep monitors - stock rail extensions

L2
unclip
Anchor
clip
OTT
X1 and X2 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
Notes
L1 =ideally equal to L2
(1) The ITT at the back of the crossing should be the same as used for stressing at the crossing ve
(2) The ITT at the switch toes shall be on the first plain sleeper, sleeper unclipped from both rails
(3) For anchor lengths see table 2
(4) Through road shown, same method applies to turnout road
L1
unclip
Anchor
clip
Diagram 11.7.2c - Stock rail extensions -switches with creep monitors
OTT
X2
X1
ITT (see note 2)
ITT (see note 1)


11.7.3 Stressing between switch heel and crossing vee
11.7.3a With stress transfer blocks
Stressing is mandatory between the last distance block from the switch and the
wing rail joint/weld of the crossing for EV switches and flatter. However,
stressing should be carried out also in shorter turnouts where misalignment in
the heel block area can result from excessive thermal forces.
Diagram 11.7.3a - Between switch heel and crossing vee
(switches with stress transfer blocks)
Anchor
clip
L2
unclip
L1
unclip
Anchor
clip
ITT (see note 2) ITT (see note 1) OTT OTT
X1 X2 X3 X4 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
L1 =L2 ideally
Notes
(1) ITT on bearer next to wing rail joints/welds, bearer unclipped from all rails
(2) ITT on bearer next to last stress transfer block from toes, bearer unclipped from all rails
(3) For anchor lengths see table 2
(4) Through road shown, turnout road is the same method
X3 X1
X2 X4

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The following method provides for all four rails to be stressed during the same
shift.
Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors, X
1
X
2
X
3
X
4
, approximately
midway between the wing rail joint/weld of the crossing and the last
distance/stress transfer block from the switch.
ii. Cut rails at X
1
X
2
X
3
X
4
.
iii. Unclip all four rails between the wing rail joint/weld of the crossing and
the last distance/stress transfer block from the switch toes, L and place
on rollers.
iv. Mark all four rails clear of the tensors and provide reference points on
unfastened sleepers/housings corresponding to the marks. Also
provide tell tale marks on each anchor length, including through the
switches.
v. Calculate the extension required for L (see Appendix B), and the pull
force (see Appendix C).
vi. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
vii. Fit the tensors at X
1
X
2
and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
viii. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchor has held and check
the switch toe dimensions .
ix. Complete welds, remove rollers, replace pads, clips and insulators.
Remove the tensors.
x. Repeat items (vii) to (ix) for X
3
X
4
.
xi. Ensure all cribs are filled with ballast, sleepers and bearers are packed.
Remove all welding debris.
xii. Arrange for switch detection to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
xiii. Fill out stressing certificate.

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11.7.3b With creep monitors
Diagram 11.7.3b - Between switch heel and crossing vee
(switches with creep monitors)
Anchor
2 clip
L2
unclip
L1
unclip
Anchor
1 clip
ITT (see note 1) OTT
X1 and X2 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
L1 =L2 ideally
Notes
(1) ITT on bearer next to wing rail joints/welds, bearer unclipped from all rails
(2) ITT at an anchor length of 3 bearers per degree or 30m from OTT
X1
X2
OTT (see note 3) ITT (see note 2)
(4) Through road shown, turnout road is the same method
(3) For anchor lengths see table 2
(3) OTT on the first fastening at the switch heel

After the stock rails have been stressed (paras 11.7.1b and 11.7.2b), the switch
rails shall be set to the correct position relative to the stock rails. With a
welding gap at a suitable position in each closure rail, and all fastenings on the
toe side of that gap released, the switch rails shall be adjusted longitudinally so
that the ball (assumed to be fitted to the switch rail) of the anti-creep device is
central within the claw at a rail temperature of 27C, and is just contacting the
“heel” side of the claw at 0C, and the “toe” side at 53C. Interpolation shall be
made for intermediate temperatures.
In layouts with creep monitors, thermal force “ramps up” along the closures
from the heel towards the crossing. The maximum tolerable force occurs after
approximately 40m, so closures longer than this should be stressed (G switch
turnouts and longer). If distance L1+L2 in the diagram precludes the use of
tensors, rollers, and suitable weld-to-weld distances, warmers or natural
stressing shall be used.
Both rails shall be stressed during the same shift.
Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors, X1 and X2, approximately
midway between the two ITTs.
ii. Cut rails at X1 and X2.
iii. Check setting of anti-creep device: if necessary, adjust as above. Re-
clip anchor 1, leaving length L unclipped, and place L on rollers.
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iv. Mark both rails clear of the tensors and provide reference points on
unfastened sleepers/housings corresponding to the marks. Provide tell
tale marks on each anchor length.
v. Calculate the extension required for L (see Appendix B), and the pull
force (see Appendix C).
vi. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
vii. Fit the tensors at X1 and X2 and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
viii. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchor has held and check
the switch toe dimensions.
ix. Complete welds, remove rollers, replace pads, clips and insulators.
Remove the tensors. Ensure all cribs are filled with ballast, sleepers
and bearers are packed. Remove all welding debris.
x. Arrange for switch detection to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
xi. Fill out stressing certificate.

11.7.4 Stressing between two toe-to-toe switches

Anchor
clip
L1
unclip
L2
unclip
L4
clip
Anchor
clip
OTT
X2
X1 ITT OTT
X1 and X2 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
L1 =L2 (L1 +L2 =distance between switch toes)
L3 =distance from toe to first stress transfer block (where fitted)
L4 =distance from toe to first stress transfer block (where fitted)
Notes
(1) The ITTs next to the switch toes shall be on the first plain sleeper, which shall be unclipped
(2) Switch toes must be maintained square, it may therefore be necessary to stress both half sets
ITT
L3
clip
Diagram 11.7.4 Stressing between toe to toe switches
(3) Through road shown. Same method applies to turnout road


Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors X1X2, ideally midway between
the switch toes.
ii. Cut both rails at X1X2.
iii. Unclip both rails and place on rollers between switch toes, L1.
iv. Mark both rails clear of the tensors and provide tell tale marks for the
anchor lengths including the switches.
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v. For layouts with stress transfer blocks, calculate the extension
required for L1+L2+L3+L4 (see Appendix B), and the pull force (see
Appendix C). For layouts with creep monitors ignore L3 or L4 or
both as appropriate.
vi. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
vii. Fit the tensors at X1X2 and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
viii. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchors have held and
check the switch toe dimensions.
ix. Complete the welds, remove all rollers and replace pads, clips and
insulators. Remove the tensors, ensure that all cribs are filled with
ballast, sleepers and bearers packed and that all welding debris is
removed.
x. Arrange for switch detection to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
xi. Fill out stressing certificate.

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11.7.5 Stressing between following-on crossing vee and switch toes

Anchor
clip
L1
unclip
L2
unclip
L3
clip
Anchor
clip
X2
X1 ITT (see note 7) OTT
X1 and X2 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
Notes
Diagram 11.7.5 Stressing between crossing vee and follow on switch toes
ITT (see notes 3 - 5)
L1 =L2 ideally (L1 +L2 <180m)
L3 =distance toe to first stress transfer block or creep monitor
Lead 1 Lead 2
(1) Follow on applies where the distance between iTTs is less than 180m
(2) For anchor lengths see table 2
Lead 1
(4) For switches with stress transfer blocks see diagram 11.7.2a for OTT and ITT locations
(3) OTT and ITT position shown for switches with stress transfer blocks
(5) For switches with creep monitors see diagram 11.7.2b for OTT and ITT locations
Lead 2
(6) Lead 2 is shown for switches with stress transfer blocks, for creep monitors include L3 in ancho
(7) ITT located on first plain sleeper from switch toes, sleeper unclipped from both rails
OTT (see notes 3 - 5)

If the distance precludes the use of tensors, stressing naturally will have to be used.
Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors X
1
X
2
, ideally midway between
the switch toes and the crossing vee.
i. Cut both rails at X
1
X
2
.
ii. Unclip both rails and place on rollers between the switch toes and the
third bearer from the crossing joint/weld (L
1
).
iii. Mark both rails clear of the tensors and provide tell tale marks for
each anchor length.
iv. Calculate the extension required for L
1
+L
2
+L3 (Appendix B), and the
pull force (Appendix C). For switches with creep monitors ignore L3.
v. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
vi. Fit the tensors at X
1
X
2
and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
vii. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchors have held and
check the switch toe dimensions.
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viii. Complete the welds, remove all rollers and replace pads, clips and
insulators. Remove the tensors, ensure that all cribs are filled with
ballast, sleepers and bearers packed and that all welding debris is
removed.
ix. Arrange for switch detection to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
x. Fill out stressing certificate.

11.7.6 Removing an adjustment switch next to switch toes
Diagram 11.7.1 applies but with L2 equal to180m and reference points provided
within L2.
11.7.6.a Switches with stress transfer blocks
Method:
i. Remove adjustment switch, A, and replace with plain line. (Note: New
sleepers shall be of a type similar to those present on the adjacent plain
line.)
ii. Choose the position for the tensors, X
1
X
2
, normally at one end of the
new closure rail.
iii. Unclip 180m from X
1
X
2
into the existing CWR, L
2
, and from X
1
X
2

to the switch toes, L
1
, and place rails on rollers.
iv. Weld up all joints except at X
1
and X
2
.
v. Mark both rails clear of the tensor positions and provide reference
points on unfastened sleepers/housings corresponding to the marks.
Also provide tell tale marks for each anchor length, including the
switches.
vi. For layouts with stress transfer blocks, calculate the extension
required for L
1
+L
2
+L
3
(Appendix B), and the pull force (Appendix C).
For layouts without stress transfer blocks ignore L
3
.
vii. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
viii. Fit the tensors at X
1
X
2
and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
ix. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchors have held and
check the switch toe dimensions.
x. Complete the welds, remove all rollers and replace pads, clips and
insulators. Remove the tensors, ensure that all cribs are filled with
ballast, sleepers and bearers packed and that all welding debris is
removed.
xi. Arrange for switch detection to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted.
xii. Fill out stressing certificate.

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11.7.6.b Switches with creep monitors

Method:
The same method applies as for 11.7.6.a but with L3 included in the anchor and
excluded from the calculation in part vi of the method

11.7.7 Removing an adjustment switch next to a crossing vee

Diagrams 11.7.2a and 11.7.2b apply depending on switch type but with L2 equal
to180m and reference points provided within L2.
Method:
i. Remove adjustment switch and replace with plain line (Note: new
sleepers shall be of a type similar to those present on the adjacent plain
line).
ii. Choose the position for the tensors, X
1
X
2
, normally at one end of the
new closure rail.
iii. Unclip 180m from X
1
X
2
into CWR, L
2
, and from X
1
X
2
to the third
bearer from the crossing joint/weld, L
1
, and place rail on rollers.
iv. Weld up all joints except at X
1
X
2
.
v. Mark both rails clear of the tensors and provide reference points on
unfastened sleepers/housings corresponding to the marks. Also
provide tell tale marks for each anchor length.
vi. Calculate the extension required for L
1
+L
2
(Appendix B), and the pull
force (Appendix C).
vii. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
viii. Fit the tensors at X
1
X
2
and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension is achieved (see para. 11.5. vi).
ix. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchors have held.
x. Complete the welds, remove all rollers and replace pads, clips and
insulators. Remove the tensors and ensure that all cribs are filled with
ballast, sleepers and bearers packed and that all welding debris is
removed.
xi. Fill out stressing certificate.
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11.7.8 Stressing between 'back to back' crossing vees
Anchor
clip
L1
unclip
L2
unclip
Anchor
clip
OTT
X2
X1 OTT
X1 and X2 are pulling points
OTT =Outer tell tale
ITT =Inner tell tale
Notes
ITT (see notes 3 - 5)
L1 =L2 ideally (L1 +L2 <180m)
(1) Applies when L1 +L2 <180m
Diagram 11.7.8 - Stressing between back to back crossing vees
Lead 1 Lead 2
Lead 1 and Lead 2
(2) For anchor lengths see table 2
(3) OTT and ITT position shown for switches with stress transfer blocks
(4) For switches with stress transfer blocks see diagram 11.7.2a for OTT and ITT locations
(5) For switches with creep monitors see diagram 11.7.2b for OTT and ITT locations
ITT (see notes 3 - 5)


Method:
i. Choose the position for the tensors, X
1
X
2
at an existing weld or joint,
ideally midway between the crossing vees.
ii. Cut both rails at X
1
X
2
.
iii. Unclip both rails between the third bearers from each crossing
joint/weld (L) and place on rollers.
iv. Mark both rails clear of the tensors and provide tell tale marks for
each anchor length.
v. Calculate the extension required for L (see Appendix B) and the pull
force (Appendix C).
vi. Cut again, allowing for the extension and the welding gap.
vii. Fit the tensors at X
1
X
2
and apply tension to both rails until the
required extension or calculated pressure is achieved (see para.
11.5.vi).
viii. Check the tell tale marks to ensure that the anchors have held.
ix. Complete the welds, remove all rollers and replace pads, clips and
insulators. Remove the tensors, ensure that all cribs are filled with
ballast, sleepers and bearers packed and that all welding debris is
removed.
x. Fill out stressing certificate.

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11.7.9 Stressing between 'toe to toe' switches where stock rails are
directly joined by an insulated rail joint or tight joint
This example applies where a half-set of switches requires replacing. The
correct lift fishplates shall be ordered with the new switches. The switches shall
be ordered with the stock rail ends un-drilled.
Method:
i. Remove the insulated rail joint (IRJ) or tight-joint fishplates.
ii. Unclip the rail, unfasten slide chairs, baseplates and stretcher bars.
iii. Cut rails at the heel of the switch and remove the defective half-set.
iv. Measure the new half-set and disc cut to fit in tight (ensure the switch
toes are square).
v. Fasten down the slide chairs and baseplates and weld joints at the heel
of the switch.
vi. Calculate the extension required for the free rail only. In the case of
an IRJ add 6mm for the end post.
vii. Disc cut the stock rail front to create the calculated gap (Note:
minimum amount to be cut off = 6mm (for safety)).
viii. Drill the stock rail front to suit the fishplates.
ix. Assemble and fit the tensors on the stock rail fronts.
x. Pull to close the gap. Assemble the joint.
xi. Remove tensors and clip down the rail.
xii. Arrange for switch detection to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted.

Where welded or tight-jointed switches are joined toe-to-toe at a common
stock rail joint and it is required to change a half set of switches, then the
requirement to install a switch to an SFT in the range 21C to 27C may
necessitate that a half-set in the opposite rail is also changed, so as to achieve a
equal stress condition in both rails. Where the common joint is insulated it will
also be necessary to change the adjacent half-set if there is more than 2mm
difference in headwear, since there is currently no approved design of lift
insulated joint.
11.8 Sequence for stressing common S&C layouts
11.8.1 Isolated turnout
The front of the switches shall be stressed first (see para. 11.7.1), followed by
the heel of the crossing on the through leg and then, if appropriate, the heel of
the crossing on the turnout leg (see para. 11.7.2). Finally, the closure rails shall
be stressed (see para. 11.7.3). The sequence is shown below:
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1 2
3

11.8.2 Crossovers and double junctions
The sequences shown below minimise any variation of nose-to-nose dimensions
due to tensioning.
3
5
6
2
4
1
3
2
4
1
Double junction (for one set of tensors)
Crossover (for one set of tensors)


12 Work which reduces the stability of CWR
12.1 General
The stability of CWR will be reduced if the SFT is reduced (para. 12.2) or the lateral
resistance is reduced (paras 12.3).
12.2 Reduction in SFT
12.2.1 Causes of reduction in SFT
Reduction in SFT shall be assumed to occur if
• the rail is broken, or
• the rail is cut, e.g. for the purpose of renewing or replacing insulated joints,
catch points or S&C components (e.g. switches), or
• the track is slued inwards on a horizontal curve, lifted in a concave vertical
curve (trough) or lowered on a convex vertical curve (summit), or
• the track is re-ballasted, re-sleepered or re-laid, or
• an underline bridge or level crossing is reconstructed or repaired, if this
requires the track to be removed or its alignment disturbed.
(Note: slueing outward on a horizontal curve, lowering a concave vertical curve
or lifting a convex vertical curve will increase SFT.)
For a particular value of slue/lift/lower the effect on SFT is most pronounced
over small wavelengths on small radius curves and least pronounced over long
wavelengths on large radius curves.
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Normal tamping, packing/straightening of dipped welds, fine lining, the treatment
of wet spots, the installation or replacement of insulated joints carried out with
the use of tensors should not cause significant change in the SFT.
12.2.2 When to re-stress after lifting, lowering, re-canting and re-
aligning CWR
Re-stressing is not necessary when:
• the line and level were previously determined by fixed references and the
original line and level are restored to within acceptable limits (see a) to e)
below), and
• the CWR was previously correctly stressed and has not been cut, and
• adjustment switches are absent or confirmed not to have been affected.
Where the design line and level is not established by fixed references, or an
established design line and level is to be altered, re-stressing is required as
follows (slues, lifts etc are from the position at previous stressing):
a) Alteration to line: sluing inward on horizontal curves
• Curve radius 750m or less: re-stress when maximum slue is 30mm or
more.
• Curve radius over 750m: re-stress when maximum slue in mm exceeds
0.04 times radius in m.
b) Alteration to line: sluing outward on horizontal curves
• Re-stress when maximum slue in mm exceeds 0.08 times curve radius in
m.
c) Alteration to level: lifting and/or increasing cant through concave
vertical curves or lowering and/or reducing cant over convex vertical
curves
• Vertical curve radius 1875m or less: re-stress when maximum
lift/lower/re-cant is 75mm or more.
• Vertical curve radius over 1875m: re-stress when maximum lift/lower/re-
cant in mm exceeds 0.04 times vertical curve radius in m.
d) Alteration to level: lifting and/or increasing cant over convex vertical
curves, or lowering and/or reducing cant through concave vertical
curves
• Re-stress when maximum lift/lower/re-cant in mm exceeds 0.08 times
vertical curve radius in m.
e) Alteration to level and line (in combination)
• Add together the individual values of alteration to line and level at each
design station and determine the maximum combined value for each
radius. Compare these combined values with the limits set for alterations
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to line or level appropriate to the curve radii. If in any single case the limit
is exceeded, re-stressing shall be carried out.
12.2.3 Re-stressing after the SFT has been altered
Whenever CWR has been disturbed such that the SFT has been altered, and/or
any lifting/lining/recanting is outside the above limits, either
• stress restoration shall be carried out according to section 10, or
• re-stressing shall be carried out to cover at least 90m on each side
of the disturbance.

12.3 Reduction in lateral resistance
12.3.1 General
The lateral resistance of the track will be reduced by any work which moves or
removes sleepers, or removes or loosens the ballast, including tamping/lining of
undisturbed track.
12.3.2 Temperature limits – lines open to traffic
Work which may reduce the stability of track which is open to traffic
• shall not be started when the rail temperature exceeds 32C;
• should not take place when the rail temperature is likely to exceed
32C during the work;
• should not take place when the rail temperature is likely to exceed
38C within the next three days.
If the rail temperature rises above 32C after work has commenced the work
shall be stopped as soon as possible, leaving the track in the most stable
condition possible.
Persons in charge of work shall carry rail thermometers and take rail
temperatures frequently when these are approaching the specified limit. The
organisation carrying out the work shall check rail temperatures for the three
days after the work is done.
Work which may reduce the stability of track shall not carried out when the rail
temperature is below –7C, except that in the following locations a limit of 0C
shall apply:
• within 90m of adjustment switches;
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• on stressed curves having 90mm cant or more;
• on stressed curves of radius below 600m;
• on curves where cant deficiency exceeds 150mm
• on curves where cant exceeds 150mm.
12.3.3 Temperature limits – lines under possession
Tamping/lining of undisturbed track (i.e. not associated with renewals work or
with any other work which has disturbed the track) shall not be carried out
when the rail temperature is above 32C. Otherwise, there is no restriction but
on re-opening of the line to traffic the CRT values from section 14 and the
precautions in paras 15.1 and 15.2 shall apply.
12.3.4 Opening out
If sleepers are to be packed manually, or require to be squared, not more than
six alternate half beds or two consecutive full beds may be opened out at one
time. Care shall be taken to retain the top and line, and to restore the ballast
profile before opening out adjacent sleepers.
12.3.5 Changing defective sleepers
Defective sleepers shall be changed singly and on completion the new and
adjoining sleepers shall be packed, the ballast between the sleepers and on the
ballast shoulders shall be replaced to the correct profile, and the ballast
consolidated or other appropriate precautions taken.
12.3.6 Slurried ballast
Where there are wet and slurried ballast conditions the foul ballast shall be
removed from around the sleepers and a graded slope created for drainage
purposes. Fresh ballast shall then be placed, packed and compacted. Not more
than six alternate half beds or two consecutive full beds should be opened out at
one time.
12.3.7 Non standard/ temporarily non compliant track conditions
The temperature limitations on disturbance of track presented in section 12
apply to standard compliant track and good clean ballast only. For non standard
or temporarily non compliant track, consideration should be given to further
reducing the limiting temperatures above which disturbance of the track is not
permitted (consider factors in tables 7 and 8).

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13 Precautions to be taken before the onset of hot weather
13.1. Track condition and buckling
A buckle in CWR track is not created solely by very hot weather but requires
the presence of at least one other factor, the most common being:
• ballast disturbance, e.g. tamping, opening out;
• ballast shortage, e.g. voided sleepers, insufficient ballast shoulder;
• poor top and/or line;
• low SFT.

A low SFT may be associated with a build-up of non thermal compressive stress
in the rail. This will occur where rail creep encounters a resistant feature such
as S&C or a change of fastening type. Attention shall be paid to any rail creep
and ballast deficiency prior to the onset of hot weather.
13.2. CWR with incorrect or unknown stress-free temperature
13.2.1 When stress-free temperature is known to be below 21C
All sections of CWR shall be re-stressed where the SFT is known to be, or can
be expected to be, less than 21C. This may be as a result of disturbance of the
track, including where defects have been cut out without stress restoration.
13.2.2 When stress-free temperature is unknown
Appendix F, which defines a risk scoring system, shall be used to assess the need
for and prioritisation of re-stressing.
Use of the risk scoring system in Appendix F does not remove the requirement
to create a stressing record. Even if no stressing is required, a record must be
created: this may be by the use of an approved direct SFT measurement
method.
A resourced plan shall be in place to re-stress or measure all CWR where the
SFT is unknown. This shall meet with the approval of the Network Rail Head of
Track Engineering.
13.3. Specific items to be checked and rectified
13.3.1 Adjustment switch gaps and overlaps
Adjustment switch gaps and overlaps shall be checked against the values in
NR/SP/TRK/001 and reset if required. Any gap of 60mm or less shall be
recorded with the rail temperature, and the record retained until the gap is
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reset. The end of each switch rail shall be within the clamp plate by not less
than 60mm. Accessible sliding contact surfaces shall be lubricated once a year.
13.3.2 S&C or jointed plain line abutting CWR at an adjustment
switch
Where jointed plain line or S&C layouts abut CWR at an adjustment switch,
fastenings shall be maintained in good order, expansion gaps adjusted, fishplates
oiled, and ballast shoulders and cribs fully made up for at least 90m into the
jointed track. Where rail creep in jointed track adjoining CWR is known to
occur, rail anchors shall be provided.
13.3.3 Voids and minor misalignments
Voids and minor misalignments shall be eliminated particularly in or adjacent to
welded joints, insulated joints, catch points, S&C, underline bridges (especially
those with longitudinal timbers) and level crossings.
13.3.4 Ballast shoulders
The ballast shoulders shall be checked and corrected if necessary.
13.3.5 Fastenings, insulators and rail pads
Fastenings shall be examined periodically for rail pad movement and for
distortion or excessive wear on insulators or other components. If loss of toe
load (which can cause track instability if over several consecutive sleepers) is
suspected, the defective components shall be changed. Badly-worn insulators
and pads shall also be changed before excessive wear results in track circuit
failure. Worn or damaged rail pads shall be replaced and displaced pads
repositioned.
Individual pads may be replaced during traffic provided that not more than three
consecutive pairs of clips on one rail are released at once.
13.3.6 Insulated joints
Insulated joints shall be inspected. Any rail-end lipping shall be removed, worn
insulation shall be renewed and damaged end-posts replaced. The correct high-
tensile bolts shall be fitted and torqued to at least 880 Nm (650 lb-ft)
13.3.7 Switch diamonds
Switch diamonds shall be inspected. Switch rails shall be 115 + 3 mm from the
knuckle when the rail temperature is 20C.
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A change in rail temperature of 15C will alter the length of the switch rail and its
clearance to the knuckle by 1mm for normal grade steels and 1.5mm for
manganese steels. Where switch diamonds have a history of detection failure
and the clearance at the knuckle varies substantially with changes in rail
temperature, precautions (e.g. installation of adjustment switches or painting the
rails white) shall be taken to reduce the thermal forces and limit switch rail
movement relative to the knuckle.
14 Critical rail temperature
This section shall be read as referring to the switch areas of S&C, as well as to plain line.
14.1 Definition of three levels of CRT
Three CRT levels are to be used:
• CRT(W) : a Watchman shall be placed to monitor the length of track
concerned
• CRT(30/60) : a 30/60mph speed restriction shall be applied
• CRT(20) : a 20mph speed restriction shall be applied.

14.2 Assessment of CRT
14.2.1 Methodology
i. Assess the SFT (see para. 14.2.2)
ii. Read the lowest applicable value from Table 7, which provides for
various conditions of “standard” track, defined as 26 concrete or spade-
ended steel sleepers per 60ft (18.3m) length, or concrete bearers at
710mm centres (i.e. 113A vertical design); flat bottom rail; track radius
exceeding 1500m
iii. adjust this value using Table 8, which provides for alternative
configurations.

Note “standard” track may include up to four consecutive hardwood
timber sleepers such as are required between concrete and steel
sleepers

14.2.2 Assessment of SFT
The original SFT value of CWR shall not be assumed as exceeding 21C unless
valid stressing records (para 9.16) are available to clearly indicate otherwise.
Sites of unknown stress (see para 9.18), that have been entered into an agreed
compliant program for re-stressing or direct measurement of stress free
temperature (see page 2), may be assumed to have an original stress free
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temperature of 21C. Those sites not so programmed shall be assumed to have
an SFT not exceeding 11C.
For stress required sites (see para 9.19) the selection of SFT value shall take
account of factors such as the time of year when the rail was disturbed, and any
buckling history. The SFT for stress required sites shall not be assumed as
exceeding 11C unless some record exists clearly indicating otherwise.
Unless a section of CWR can be shown to have been stressed more than once
during the life of the rail, then a one time loss of Original SFT of 3C shall be
applied. However this loss does not apply to stress required sites or to sites
where the original SFT has been obtained by direct measurement.


14.2.3 CRT values for “standard” track
“Standard” track is flat bottom CWR on spade ended steel sleepers or concrete
sleepers or bearers at 26 per length.
Table 7 : Critical Rail Temperatures for “standard” track (°C)
Track condition CRT(W) CRT(30/60)
= CRT(W) +
CRT(20)
= CRT(W) +
Period for
which CRT
shall apply
Undisturbed, fully ballasted and
consolidated
SFT + 32 5 10 Permanently
Re-railed only (no other disturbance or
deficiency)
SFT + 32 5 10 Permanently
No ballast shoulder: level with sleeper
top (no other disturbance or deficiency)
SFT + 27 5 8 Until shoulder is
restored
Tamped/lined with slues/lifts up to 25mm SFT + 22 4 7 3 days
Tamped/lined with slues/lifts > 25mm SFT + 20 * 3 6 5 days
Mechanised stoneblown SFT + 20 3 6 5 days
Tamped or stoneblown S&C SFT + 20 3 6 7 days

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Table 7 : Critical Rail Temperatures for “standard” track (°C), cont’d
Track condition CRT(W) CRT(30/60)
= CRT(W) +
CRT(20)
= CRT(W) +
Period for
which CRT
shall apply
Measured shovel packed/hand-held
stoneblown
SFT + 17 3 5 3 days
Ballast generally full between sleepers and
on shoulders, but not consolidated (8
beds or more)
SFT + 15 * 3 5 As Note below
Ballast generally full between sleepers and
on shoulders, but not consolidated (less
than 8 beds)
SFT + 15 3 5 5 days
3 or more consecutive slurried beds,
where ballast is not compacted against
the sleeper ends
SFT + 10 3 5 Until packed and
stable
Severe shortage of ballast between
sleepers and/or part sleeper ends
exposed, extending 8 beds or more
SFT + 10 N/A
(apply 20 ESR
at SFT+13)
3 Until fully
ballasted, then as
Note below
Severe shortage of ballast between
sleepers and/or part sleeper ends
exposed, extending less than 8 beds
SFT + 10 N/A
(apply 20 ESR
at SFT+13)
3 Until fully
ballasted, then 5
days
3 Consecutive sleepers voided at 15mm
or more
SFT + 17 3 5 Until packed and
stable
* these CRTs may be increased by 5° if the Dynamic Track Stabiliser is used
Note: For fully ballasted track the CRT(W) may be assumed to rise as follows after ballast disturbance, based on
actual tonnage:
• where traffic is less than 2 million tonnes per year: 1° per two weeks;
• where traffic is 2 million tonnes or more per year: 1° per week;
• where traffic is 4 million tonnes or more per year: 2° per week
• subject to CRT(W) not exceeding SFT+32.

14.2.4 Adjustments for other track configurations
A suitable adjustment shall be selected for each of the three categories in Table
8. The net sum of the three adjustments shall then be applied to the value
obtained from Table 7 to produce a final CRT(W) value. The final CRT(W)
value shall not be taken as less than the SFT.
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Table 8 : CRT(W) adjustments for various track configurations (°C)
Change to “standard” configuration Change to CRT(W) shown in Table 7
Track curvature
radius between 1500m and 800m subtract 4
radius between 800m and 400m subtract 7
radius below 400m subtract 9 (but 7 if lateral resistance plates are
fitted or if ballast is glued)
Sleeper/bearer spacing (no. per 60ft (18m)
length)

24 subtract 2
28 (applicable to RT60 and NR60 S&C) add 2
30 add 4
Rail and sleeper/bearer type
FB on hardwood or softwood subtract 9 in plain line, or 5 in S&C
BH on concrete subtract 5
BH on timber subtract 9
crimp-ended steel subtract 27: CRT(W) not to exceed SFT+5,
CRT (30/60) not to exceed SFT+8, and
CRT(20) not to exceed SFT+11
Other
catch points (where not clipped out of use) subtract 15

14.2.5 Other considerations
Consideration shall be given to limiting the CRT(W) to SFT + 17C where there
is/are
• unconsolidated lineside drainage works
• active subsidence
• misalignments (L2 alignment defects) particularly at welded or
insulated joints (does not apply to the turnout road of S&C)
• sites of known rail creep
• level crossings where voided sleepers are present.
Local circumstances will dictate whether the CRT(W) should be reduced
further at such features.
15 Precautions during hot weather
15.1 Watchmen
When the rail temperature is expected to exceed the CRT(W) (section 14), watchmen
shall be placed to monitor the length of track concerned. They shall remain on site
whether or not speed restrictions are imposed, to take rail temperatures, monitor any
known “trigger” points and observe for early indications of movement. They shall
continue to do so until the rail temperature falls to, and can be expected to remain for
that day, below the CRT(W).
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The watchman must be able to continuously observe the length of track concerned, as
would be done for normal track patrol. Where the watchman cannot do so, or a
watchman cannot be provided then alternative control measures shall be applied.
Watchmen shall block the line or impose a speed restriction if a buckle occurs, and
shall be equipped and competent to do so.
15.2 Speed restrictions
Where the CRT(30/60) or CRT(20) are exceeded, emergency speed restrictions of
30/60 or 20 mph shall be imposed over the affected track and maintained until the rail
temperature falls to, and can be expected to remain for that day, below these CRTs.
Where a watchman cannot continuously monitor the track as in 15.1 or cannot be
provided then the level of precautions applied shall be raised by one level as detailed
below. In this case, although the rail temperature may have fallen the restrictions shall
not be removed until the track has received a thorough visual examination.
Precautions that shall be applied when no watchman is present on site:
• CRT(W) expected to be reached or exceeded then apply 30/60 mph ESR
• CRT(30/60) expected to be reached or exceeded then apply 20 mph ESR
• CRT(20) expected to be reached or exceeded then impose 20 mph ESR on
adjoining lines as well or block the line to traffic
These restrictions shall be applied before the temperature in question is reached. If
sufficient resources are unavailable to impose emergency speed restrictions, either
blanket speed restrictions shall be imposed or the line shall be blocked.
15.3 Additional precautions during exceptionally hot weather
Even if the above restrictions have not already been applied, differential speed
restrictions (as defined in the Rule Book Section U) shall be imposed as follows:
• when the forecast air temperature is over 36C (equivalent to possible rail
temperatures over 54C): 45/90mph between the hours of 12.00 and 20.00;
• additionally, when the forecast air temperature is 41C or more (equivalent
to possible rail temperatures in excess of 58C): 30/60mph between the
hours of 14.00 and 18.00.

These shall be imposed by Territory Control offices on the basis of weather forecasts
provided on the previous day. These precautions should be reviewed on the actual day
and may be withdrawn if forecast air temperatures are clearly not being achieved.
15.4 Limits on work during hot weather
See paras 12.3.2 and 12.3.3.
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16 Preparation for and precautions during cold weather
16.1 Insulated joints
Insulated joints shall be maintained/replaced so as to resist rail tensile forces.
16.2 Monitoring alignment
Alignment shall be monitored, against fixed references, where there is known to be a
history of lateral movement (Note: movement is likely to be when the rail temperature
is below 0°C, or where the track radius is below 600m or where the cant is 100mm or
more).
When inward movement of a curve occurs there will be a reduction in SFT. The
alignment should be restored and if necessary (see paras 12.2 and 12.3) the CWR re-
stressed before the onset of hot weather. When structural, OLE and/or passing
clearances are unacceptable immediate action shall be taken to restore and hold the
original alignment.
16.3 Limits on work during cold weather
See para. 12.3.2.
17 Track buckling
17.1 Definition of a track buckle requiring formal reporting
The extent of track deformation constituting a reportable buckle is that which would
render the line unfit for the passage of trains at line speed and/or necessitates
emergency remedial work to a running line under cover of either a temporary
restriction of speed or closure of the line. The remedial work may consist of adjusting
or cutting rails or slueing the track.
The following circumstances do not constitute a reportable buckle:
• a misalignment that occurs during work whilst under a possession of the
line;
• the imposition of a precautionary restriction of speed where no track
deformation actually occurs;
• a misalignment in a siding.
A reportable buckle shall be reported to Network Rail HQ on the Track Buckle Form
(see NR/SP/TRK/001) within five working days of the buckle occurring. Initial
information on the location, line and mileage shall be provided within one working day.
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17.2 Track safety at buckle sites
If a track buckle occurs the first requirement is to safeguard traffic and advise the
controlling signalbox or signalling centre. Before any traffic is allowed to pass over the
buckled length the track may first need to be slued, preferably outwards on a curve or
to an easy curvature on the straight, and a speed restriction imposed. Structural
clearances and the track position relative to any OLE equipment shall be checked. An
adjacent track may need to be temporarily slued to provide satisfactory clearances and
a speed restriction imposed. Adjustment of the track to treat the cause of the buckle
and to restore the original alignment shall not be made until the rail temperature is less
than 32C.
17.3 Hazard reporting
In addition to reporting via the Track Buckle Report Form, buckles shall be reported
under the national hazard reporting system, to the timescales required for that system.
18 Reference documentation
Railway Group Standards
GO/RT8000 Rule Book
Network Rail Company standards
RT/CE/S/002 Serviceable rail for use in running lines and sidings
RT/CE/S/032 Joining of rails by alumino-thermic welding
RT/CE/S/062 Serviceable concrete sleepers for use in running lines and sidings
RT/CE/S/102 Track construction standards
NR/SP/TRK/001 Inspection and maintenance of permanent way
Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 64 of 72

Appendix A: Minimum competence requirements for person in charge of
stressing
The minimum competence requirements for stressing certification are as follows.

Level i (Basic)
The person shall know and understand:
• the reasons for stressing CWR
• relevant terminology (including the definitions in this specification)
• how to restore stress when removing defective or broken rails
• how to install insulated rail joints
• how to calculate pull force in relation to temperature difference
• how to complete the stress restoration certificate

Level ii (Intermediate)
In addition to the requirements for Level i the person shall know and understand how to stress
existing and new plain line CWR using tensors, including
• how to undertake a site survey, and collect relevant data
• marking and monitoring of tell-tales and reference points
• the relationships between rail extension, pull force, pressure reading and rail temperature
• how to calculate rail extension, pull force, pressure reading and original SFT
• pulling parameters
• application to straight and curved track, tunnels and longitudinal timbers

Level iii (Advanced)
In addition to the requirements for Level ii the person shall know and understand how to stress S&C,
including
• how to undertake a site survey, and collect relevant data
• pulling parameters
• correct siting of adjustment switches
• renewal of components within S&C
• correct stressing sequence
• natural and thermal stressing
Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 65 of 72

Appendix B: Extension table

The extension (in mm) for various pulling lengths is as follows (for an SFT of 27C):

Rail temp T ---------- Length to be pulled (m) -------------
°C 5 10 50 100 200 500 1000
________________________________________________________________
27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 0.1 0.1 0.6 1.2 2.3 5.8 11.5
25 0.1 0.2 1.2 2.3 4.6 11.5 23.0
24 0.2 0.3 1.7 3.5 6.9 17.3 34.5
23 0.2 0.5 2.3 4.6 9.2 23.0 46.0
22 0.3 0.6 2.9 5.8 11.5 28.8 57.5
21 0.3 0.7 3.5 6.9 13.8 34.5 69.0
20 0.4 0.8 4.0 8.1 16.1 40.3 80.5
19 0.5 0.9 4.6 9.2 18.4 46.0 92.0
18 0.5 1.0 5.2 10.4 20.7 51.8 103.5
17 0.6 1.2 5.8 11.5 23.0 57.5 115.0
16 0.6 1.3 6.3 12.7 25.3 63.3 126.5
15 0.7 1.4 6.9 13.8 27.6 69.0 138.0
14 0.7 1.5 7.5 15.0 29.9 74.8 149.5
13 0.8 1.6 8.1 16.1 32.2 80.5 161.0
12 0.9 1.7 8.6 17.3 34.5 86.3 172.5
11 0.9 1.8 9.2 18.4 36.8 92.0 184.0
10 1.0 2.0 9.8 19.6 39.1 97.8 195.5
9 1.0 2.1 10.4 20.7 41.4 103.5 207.0
8 1.1 2.2 10.9 21.9 43.7 109.3 218.5
7 1.2 2.3 11.5 23.8 46.0 115.0 230.0
6 1.2 2.4 12.1 24.2 48.3 120.8 241.5
5 1.3 2.5 12.7 25.3 50.6 126.5 253.0
4 1.3 2.6 13.2 26.5 52.9 132.3 264.5
3 1.4 2.8 13.8 27.6 55.2 138.0 276.0
2 1.4 2.9 14.4 28.8 57.5 143.8 287.5
1 1.5 3.0 15.0 29.9 59.8 149.5 299.0
0 1.6 3.1 15.5 31.1 62.1 155.3 310.5
-1 1.6 3.2 16.1 32.2 64.4 161.0 322.0
-2 1.7 3.3 16.7 33.4 66.7 166.8 333.5
-3 1.7 3.5 17.3 34.5 69.0 172.5 345.0
-4 1.8 3.6 17.8 35.7 71.3 178.3 356.5
-5 1.8 3.7 18.4 36.8 73.6 184.0 368.0
-6 1.9 3.8 19.0 38.0 75.9 189.8 379.5
-7 2.0 3.9 19.6 39.1 78.2 195.5 391.0
-8 2.0 4.0 20.1 40.3 80.5 201.3 402.5
Total extension to be rounded off to the nearest millimetre.

At lower temperatures the extensions for -8C shall be used (to avoid overstressing the tensors). A
lower SFT will be achieved. See also Appendix C.
Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 66 of 72

Examples


Numerical example No. 1

Rail temperature T = 11C
Length to be pulled = 300 m
Calculated extension = 55 mm
Movement at inner tell tale towards the pulling point
(see para. 9.8.2) = 8 mm
but since this movement occurs before the marking of the reference points it shall be ignored in the
calculations
Proportional extension for each 100 metres = 18 mm
Required extension at
Reference Point 1 = 18 mm
Reference Point 2 = 37 mm
Pulling point = 55 mm


Numerical example No. 2

Rail temperature T = 13C
Length to be pulled = 300 m
Calculated extension = 48 mm
Movement at inner tell tale away from pulling point
(see para. 9.8.2) = 7 mm
this movement shall be added to the calculated extension at each reference point, including the pulling
point, in order to restore the stress free condition in the anchor length
Proportional extension for each 100 metres = 16 mm
Required extension at
Reference Point 1 = 16mm + 7mm = 23mm
Reference Point 2 = 32mm + 7mm = 39mm
Pulling point = 48mm + 7mm = 55mm
Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 67 of 72

Appendix C: Relationship between temperature difference, rail weight, pull
force and tensor gauge pressure reading
This Appendix assumes the use of other than crimp-ended steel sleepers. In the case of crimp-ended
sleepers the SFT shall be 32C and the calculations shall be adjusted accordingly.

Equation 1:
Tensor pull force (tonnes) = rail weight per yard (lbs) x (27 – T) x 0.01543
where T = rail temperature

Equation 2:
Pressure reading (lb/sq.in) = 110 x Tensor pull force (tonnes)
(for 70T Permaquip Tensors)

Examples

For numerical example No. 1 (see Appendix B); assume 109 lb FB rail
• Tensor pull force = 109 x (27 - 11) x 0.01543 = 26.9 tonnes
• Pressure reading = 110 x 26.9 = 2960 lb/sq.in.

For numerical example No. 2 (see Appendix B); assume 113 lb FB rail
• Tensor pull force = 113 x (27 - 13) x 0.01543 = 24.4 tonnes
• Pressure reading = 110 x 24.4 = 2685 lb/sq.in.

In both the above examples there will be adequate capacity in 70T Permaquip tensors.

Numerical example No. 3: 110lb FB rail
• Rail temperature T = –9C
• Pull force = 110 x (27 + 9) x 0.01543 = 61.2 tonnes
which is in excess of the maximum pull of 60 tonnes

Difference between T and 27C for a pull force of 60 tonnes = 35C, so tension rail to a SFT of (35 - 9)C = 26C,
which is within the allowed range of 21 to 27C (Note: Unless rail temperature is below –14C it will be possible
to tension to a SFT of at least 21C without exceeding the limit of pull force of 60 tonnes).

Values of pull force and pressure gauge reading for the more common rail sections, including CEN60E1, are
shown below (multiply the 113A value by 0.84 for 95lb bullhead rail, and by 0.87 for 98lb FB rail):

Temp. 109-lb/110A rail 113A rail CEN60E1 rail
difference
(27 - T)
Pull force
(tonnes)
Pressure
(lb/sq in)
Pull force
(tonnes)
Pressure
(lb/sq in)
Pull force
(tonnes)
Pressure
(lb/sq in)
5C
7C
8C
9C
10C
11C
12C
15C
20C
25C
30C
35C
8.5
11.9
13.6
15.3
17.0
18.6
20.3
25.4
33.9
42.4
50.9
59.4
930
1310
1490
1680
1870
2050
2240
2800
3730
4660
5600
6530
8.7
12.2
14.0
15.7
17.5
19.2
21.0
26.2
34.9
43.7
52.4
61.2
960
1350
1540
1730
1920
2120
2310
2890
3850
4810
5770
6730
9.4
13.1
15.0
16.9
18.7
20.6
22.5
28.1
37.5
46.8
56.2
65.6
1030
1440
1650
1850
2060
2270
2470
3090
4120
5150
6180
7210
= 1.695 x
(27 – T)
= 186.7 x
(27 – T)
= 1.748 x
(27 – T)
= 192.3 x
(27 – T)
= 1.873 x
(27 – T)
= 206.0 x
(27 – T)
Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 68 of 72

Appendix D: Stressing and stress restoration forms



For Stressing / Re-stressing Form see Track Engineering Form No. TEF/3010

For Stress Restoration Form see Track Engineering Form No. TEF/3011



Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 69 of 72

Appendix E: CWR disturbance and Verse test forms



For Disturbance of CWR Form see Track Engineering Form No. TEF/3012

For Verse Test Results Form see Track Engineering Form No. TEF/3013

Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 70 of 72

Appendix F: Stressing priority for locations with unknown SFT

This appendix describes how to conduct an assessment of track having no record of SFT, i.e. where
there is neither a stressing record nor a direct measurement. It takes account of the three
contributions to total risk, i.e. rail stress (A), lateral resistance (B) and consequences of buckle (C).

A stressing priority assessment shall be made for each length of track without stressing records. The
maximum continuous length of track in one assessment shall be one mile, this being shortened if
conditions along the length vary significantly.

Scores shall be attributed against the assessment parameters in the table.

Section A: rail stress

A1, Years since installation SFT tends to fall with time, particularly where there are other
contributory factors. One point is awarded for each year (maximum ten) since installation.

A2, Curvature SFT is lost through pulling-in of curves in winter, particularly where smooth lining is
carried out without reference to datum pegs. A zero score may be awarded if the track position is
known to be as at installation.

A3, Discontinuities not protected by expansion switches These include significant changes of
sleeper type (timber to concrete) or significant change of rail section (e.g. FB98 to FB113A). A higher
score applies to semi-fixed points such as direct-fastened bridges, level crossings or S&C.

A4, Rail creep Rail creep is a significant contributor to changes in SFT. Points shall be awarded
additively for
• poor fastenings or pads (where lack of toe load is suspected);
• situations at the bottom of an incline where traction or braking may cause bunching;
• locations where repeated braking or acceleration occurs (stations, signals, junctions etc.).

A5, Maintenance history Points shall be awarded if rail defects have been repaired without
restoration of stress.

A6, Track subsidence This can significantly alter the SFT and such sites are normally specially
monitored. Unstable formation where large settlements occur, generally or locally, shall also be
taken into consideration.

The rail stress scores are summed to obtain the rail stress total A.

Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 71 of 72

Section B: lateral resistance

B1, Ballast shoulders ) Assessment shall be based
) on the worst portion
B2, Ballast cribs ) of the section being assessed.

B3, Ballast condition A general assessment shall be made, to determine lateral resistance to
sleeper movement. Clogged ballast need not necessarily be considered poor from this point of view.

B4, Track alignment This shall be based on the worst eighth mile of track geometry recording
data, excluding S&C.

B5, Sleeper type Points shall be awarded where timber sleepers exist in significant consecutive
numbers, excluding S&C.

B6, Exposure Assessment shall be made of the degree of exposure to the sun. Shaded or windy
sites shall score low. Sheltered sites in cuttings exposed to afternoon sun, and other such hot spots,
will score high.

The lateral resistance scores are summed to obtain the lateral resistance total B.

Section C: consequence of buckle

C1, Linespeed Linespeed will determine the derailment probability if a buckle occurs, and the
potential for injury. This is disproportionately higher at higher linespeeds.

C2, Traffic The derailment risk may be considered to be proportional to the total traffic.

C3, Cutting/embankment The consequences of a derailment will be greater, hence attracting a
higher score, if the track is mainly on embankment or if there is a significant number of structures
(bridges, stations, tunnels).

C4, Number of tracks The consequences of a derailment will be related to the number of
adjacent tracks, which will determine the collision risk.

The consequence scores are multiplied to obtain the consequence total C.

Assessment of final score

Track buckling probability is governed by the sum of the partial totals A and B. Consequence of
buckling is given by the consequence total C. Buckling risk is therefore expressed as (A + B) x C.
The resulting score can be used to prioritise sites for stressing. A high score will indicate a high risk.

Assessment of the lateral resistance total B may be used also to indicate where other action may be
needed, e.g. the placing of extra ballast.
Ref: NR/SP/TRK/0011
Issue: 05
Date: June 2006



Page 72 of 72


Table : Priority rating for stressing
Section A: rail stress

Section B: lateral resistance

Section C: consequence of
buckle
Condition Score Condition Score Condition Score
A1, Years since install’n B1, Ballast shoulders C1, Linespeed
Number of years
award one point/year
In accordance with
this spec.
0 < 50 mph 1
(Limit = 10 points) 50% of this spec. 25 50 - 85 mph 2
No shoulder above
sleeper
50 > 90 mph 3
A2, Curvature B2, Ballast cribs C2, Traffic
>2000 m 0 Full 0 < 5 MGT 1
2000 - 500 m 10 50% 10 5 - 15 MGT 2
<500 m 20 Empty 20 > 15 MGT 3
A3, Discontinuities not
protected by exp switches
B3, Ballast condition

C3, Cutting or
embankment

Change of track type 10 Good 0 At grade/in cutt’g 1
Bridges, LCs, S&C 20 Poor 10 Embankment or
structures
2
A4, Rail creep (add scores) B4, Track alignment C4, No. of tracks
Poor fastenings 10 Max SD > 3 mm 30 1 1
Bottom of incline 5 Max SD 2.5 - 3 mm 15 2 2
Repeated braking/accel 5 Max SD < 2.5 mm 0 > 2 3
A5, Maintenance history B5, Sleeper type
Defects removed and
stress restored
0 Concrete or spade-
end steel
0
>2 defects/mile
removed and stress
not restored
20 Timber 20
A6, Track subsidence B6, Exposure
Settlements >100 mm 20 Majority shaded 0
Severe subsidence 50 Normal exposure 10
High exposure,
sheltered from wind
20
Sum of values A Sum of values B Product of values C
Risk factor (A + B) x C

If sections A3, A4 and A6 are not applicable then score the respective section zero.

Action to be taken

Completion of this risk assessment is for the purposes of prioritising stress unknown sites for the
work necessary to obtain valid stressing records. Completion of this risk assessment does not
constitute a stressing record. Regardless of the score a stressing record must be created.
NETWORK RA I L
Track Engineering
BRIEFING NOTE

NR/SP/TRK/0011 Issue 5
Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) Track June 2006
Compliance Date: Various
Standard Owner: Track Engineering (See Compliance section of
Briefing Note)

Standard Type: Business Process Document

Business Unit Owner: Engineering

Executive Summary
This specification defines the requirements for the configuration, installation and maintenance
of continuous welded rail (CWR) track. It has been amended to simplify the presentation of
the standard, to improve the management of CWR in the light of recent experience and to
remove areas of dubiety and differing interpretation. The key changes are:

Clear definitions of ‘stress unknown’ and ‘stress required’;
Revised requirements for placement of Watchman during hot weather;
Detailed method for natural stressing.

Detailed description of the changes
A number of additions have been made to section 3 – definitions to improve the clarity of
certain terminology used in the standard.

5.3.2 Rails for conversion in situ – Rail defects - has been amended to indicate that rails with
a consistent history of defects are unsuitable for conversion to CWR and to clarify the
immediate inspection requirements for converted rails.

5.5 and 5.6 Sleepers, rail pads and longitudinal timbers and rail fastenings – have been
revised to indicate clearly the supplementary work that is required in conjunction with
conversion to CWR and the types of sleepers that are suitable for conversion.

8.1 Design of switches and crossings for use in CWR – General – The wording has been
amended to clarify and reinforce the previous requirement that S&C shall not form part of a
CWR stress transition length.

8.2.2 Design of switches and crossings for use in CWR – Switches – Construction and
installation – Amended to indicate more clearly exactly which switches need fitments to
supplement the lateral resistance of the switch panels and the type of fitments approved.

9.2.3 Equality of SFT between rails – Amended to clarify situations where it is or is not
necessary to re-stress the other rail.

9.4.1 Methods of stressing – Amended to indicate that the preferred process is one of tensor
stressing, to reinforce when it should be planned and to clarify requirements for alternative
processes.

9.4.2 Stressing of plain line adjacent to switches – Amended to classify the plain line within
one anchor length of the switch toes as S&C for the purposes of stressing.

9.6 Anchors, tell tale points and pulling points – Amended to indicate that a cast crossing,
welded or tight jointed to its adjacent rails may be used as an anchor point.

Amended to increase anchor lengths with high resistance fastenings in the light of experience
and to define three standard resistance conditions for determining anchor length e.g. High,
Standard and Low.

Amended to specify clearly that stressing pulls must not extend into stress transition lengths.

9.10 Measurement of rail temperature – Amended to discontinue the use of mercury in glass
thermometers, to prohibit the use of non contact digital thermometers and to change the
location on the rail where the temperature is to be measured.

9.12 Rail extension at reference points – Amended to require that these are marked in a way
that permits the reading of the extension to an accuracy of one millimetre and to specify that
intermediate extensions shall be within 1mm or 5% of the correct figure.

9.13, 9.14, and 9.15 – Specific separate sections have been introduced covering tensor
stressing, natural stressing and thermal stressing respectively. The section on tensor
stressing in particular highlights the risks arising when completion of tensor stressing is
delayed in a situation of rising rail temperatures and gives clear instruction as to how these
risks must be dealt with.

9.16 Records – Amended to state that the only approved method for storing non paper
stressing records is the StressRoute programme. The section gives the approved methods
that may be used to create stressing records, when they shall be created and who is
responsible for their creation. The requirements of this section to hold valid records for all
CWR have been made retrospective with specific compliance dates depending on track
category.

9.18 Sites where no stressing records exist – Introduces formally the term “stress unknown”
as now defined in the definitions section, specifies the requirements for a piece of track to be
identified as stress unknown and the subsequent action required.

9.19 Sites where the stress free temperature is known to have been disturbed - introduces
formally the term “stress required” as now defined in the definitions section, specifies clearly
the sites that fall within this category and the subsequent action required.

10.1 Replacement of broken, cracked or defective rails, welds or insulated joints – General –
Amended to clearly indicate that the maximum length of rail that may be replaced using this
procedure is 36m (120ft).

Formally permits stress restoration in S&C provided that the stressing plan is approved in
advance by a level (iii) certificate holder.

Table 5 has been amended to permit stress restoration by pulling to a determined tensor
pressure for rail temperatures between 15C and 21C.

11. Stressing of S&C within CWR – This section has been heavily edited with improved and
simplified diagrams and a change of terminology from “switches without stress transfer
blocks” to “switches with creep monitors”. The alterations have been made to clarify the
requirements of this section and to remove a possible implication that unsuitable S&C could
be stressed. Clarification that intermediate closure rails between separate units of S&C are to
be stressed.

14 Critical rail temperature – Tables 7 and 8 have been amended to reduce the number of
items in “other considerations”

15 Precautions during hot weather – the requirements for having a watchman on site and the
actions to be taken where one cannot be provided have been clarified.

Appendix C – The pull force and tensor pressure table has been expanded to assist in its use
in conjunction with the revised table 5.

Appendix D and E – The forms are no longer included in the standard but are referenced
within it. The new forms will in future be available via connect.

Compliance
This Network Rail Specification is mandatory and must be complied with by Network Rail and
Contractors from August 2006. The provisions are not retrospective except for section 8.2.2
with regard to the provision of lateral resistance end plates and section 9.16 Records.
Compliance with the retrospective requirements of section 8.2.2 is required by May 2007.
Compliance with the retrospective requirements of section 9.16 is required by May 2007 for
category 1A,1 and 2 lines. By May 2008 for category 3 and 4 lines and by May 2009 for
category 5 and 6 lines.
Implementation
The provisions of this document shall be applied from August 2006.

Applicability
The provisions of this document are of relevance to the following functions:

Function Applicable
(please tick
relevant boxes)
Contracts & Procurement
Corporate Change
Corporate Planning & Regulatory Affairs
Engineering √
Finance
Government & Corporate Affairs
Human Resources
Information Management
Legal Services
Maintenance √
Network Development
Major Projects & Investment √
Major Projects & Telecoms
National Delivery Service
Operations & Customer Services
Railway Estates
Safety & Compliance
Strategic Analysis














Technical Workscope Applicability

Design Equipment Construction Technical Workscope Applicability
(Please tick relevant boxes)

Key:
M, I & T = Manufacture, Inspection & Test at Works
Comm. = Commis ioning s
Inst. = Installation
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A – All
C&S –Civil & Structural
E&P – Electrification (AC and/or DC) & Plant
M – Maintenance √ √ √ √ √ √
P – Track √ √ √ √ √ √
S – Signalling
T – Telecoms
H – Safety & Site Working
RS&VE – Railway System & Vehicle
Engineering/Rail Vehicle Engineering


Contact Name
Further information or enquiries may be directed to Adrian Browne 085 33828