Aarnio M, Winter T, Kujala U, Kaprio J (2002) Associations of health related behaviour,
social relationships, and health status with persistent physical activity and inactivity: a
study of Finnish adolescent twins. Br J Sports Med 36: 360-364.
Adelman RD, Restaino IG, Alon US, Blowey DL (2001) Proteinuria and focal segmental
glomerulosclerosis in severely obese adolescents. J Pediatr 138: 481-485.
Almén MS, Jacobsson JA, Shaik JH, Olszewski PK, Cedernaes J, Alsiö J, Sreedharan S,
Levine AS, Fredriksson R, Marcus C, Schiöth HB (2010) The obesity gene,
TMEM18, is of ancient origin, found in majority of neuronal cells in all major brain
regions and associated with obesity in severely obese children. BMC Med Genet 11:
Anderson PM, Butcher KF (2006) Childhood obesity: trends and potential causes. Future
Child 16: 19-45.
Arenz S, Rückerl R, Koletzko B, von Kries R (2004) Breast-feeding and childhood
obesity—a systematic review. Int J Obesity 28: 1247-1256.
Armstrong J, Reilly JJ (2002) Breastfeeding and lowering the risk of childhood obesity.
Lancet 359: 2003-2004.
Arslan N, Erdur B, Aydin A (2010) Hormones and cytokines in childhood obesity. Indian
Pediatr 47: 829-839.
Bauer F, Elbers CC, Adan RA, Loos RJ, Onland-Moret NC, Grobbee DE, van Vliet-
Ostaptchouk JV, Wijmenga C, van der Schouw YT (2009) Obesity genes identified in
genome-wide association studies are associated with adiposity measures and
potentially with nutrient-specific food preference. Am J Clin Nutr 90: 951-959.
Bellissimo N, Pencharz PB, Thomas SG, Anderson GH (2007) Effect of television viewing at
mealtime on food intake after a glucose preload in boys. Pediatr Res 61: 745-749.
Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA (1998)
Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in
children and young adults. N Engl J Med 338: 1650-1656.
Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Field AE, Gillman MW, Colditz GA (2004) Sugar‐added beverages
and adolescent weight change. Obes Res 12: 778-788.
Birch LL, Fisher JO, Grimm-Thomas K, Markey CN, Sawyer R, Johnson SL (2001)
Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: a measure of
parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity
proneness. Appetite 36: 201-210.
Bird A (2002) DNA methylation patterns and epigenetic memory. Gene Dev 16: 6-21.
Bird A (2007) Perceptions of epigenetics. Nature 447: 396-398.
Black MH, Zhou H, Takayanagi M, Jacobsen SJ, Koebnick C (2013) Increased asthma risk
and asthma-related health care complications associated with childhood obesity. Am J
Epidemiol 178: 1120-1128.
Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Grantham-
McGregor S, Katz J, Martorell R, Uauy R (2013) Maternal and child undernutrition
and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382: 427-451.
Blum JW, Jacobsen DJ, Donnelly JE (2005) Beverage consumption patterns in elementary
school aged children across a two-year period. J Am Coll Nutr 24: 93-98.
Bochukova EG, Huang NI, Keogh J, Henning E, Purmann C, Blaszczyk K, Saeed S,
Hamilton-Shield J, Clayton-Smith J, O’Rahilly S, Hurles ME, Farooqi IS (2009) Large,
rare chromosomal deletions associated with severe early-onset obesity. Nature 463: 666-
Boutelle K, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick M (2002) Weight control behaviors
among obese, overweight, and nonoverweight adolescents. J Pediatr
Psychol 27: 531-540.
Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS (2004) Effects of fast-
food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national
household survey. Pediatrics 113(1): 112-118.
Branca F, Nikogosian H, Lobstein T (eds) The challenge of obesity in the WHO European
Region and the strategies for response, Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for
Europe 2007.
Brara SM, Koebnick C, Porter AH, Langer-Gould A (2012) Pediatric idiopathic intracranial
hypertension and extreme childhood obesity. J Pediatr 161: 602-607.
ButlandB,Jebb S, Kopelman P, McPhersonK, Thomas S, MardellJ(2008) Tackling Obesities:
Future Choices (Foresight Project Report). 2008. Available at: URL:
Cairns G, Angus K, Hastings G (2009). The extent, nature and effects of food promotion to
children: a review of the evidence to December 2008. Geneva: World Health
Campión J, Milagro FI, Martinez JA (2009) Individuality and epigenetics in obesity. Obes
Rev 10: 383-392.
Caroli M, Argentieri L, Cardone M, Masi A (2004) Role of television in childhood obesity
prevention. Int J Obesity 28: S104-S108.
Carwile JL, Michels KB (2011) Urinary bisphenol A and obesity: NHANES 2003–
2006. Environ Res 111: 825-830.
Cecil JE, Tavendale R, Watt P, Hetherington MM, Palmer CN (2008) An obesity-associated
FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children. N Engl J Med 359: 2558-
Chen L, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ (2011) The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes
mellitus—present and future perspectives. Nat Rev Endocrinol 8: 228–236.
Choy JS, Wei S, Lee JY, Tan S, Chu S, Lee TH (2010) DNA methylation increases
nucleosome compaction and rigidity. J Am Chem Soc 132: 1782-1783.
Cole SA, Butte NF, Voruganti VS, Cai G, Haack K, Kent JW, Blangero J, Comuzzie AG,
McPherson JD, Gibbs RA (2010) Evidence that multiple genetic variants of MC4R
play a functional role in the regulation of energy expenditure and appetite in Hispanic
children. Am J Clin Nutr 91: 191-199.
Coppinger T, Jeanes YM, Mitchell M, Reeves S (2013) Beverage consumption and BMI of
British schoolchildren aged 9–13 years. Public Health Nutr 16: 1244-1249.
Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ, Lamichhane AP, D'Agostino RB, Liese AD, Vehik KS, Venkat
Narayan KM, Zeitler P, Hamman RF (2008) Association of intrauterine exposure to
maternal diabetes and obesity with type 2 diabetes in youth the SEARCH case-control
study. Diabetes Care 31: 1422-1426.
Daniels SR (2009) Complications of obesity in children and adolescents. Int J Obesity 33:
Davison KK, Birch LL (2001) Childhood overweight: a contextual model and
recommendations for future research. Obes Rev 2: 159-171.
Dean HJ, Sellers EA (2007) Comorbidities and microvascular complications of type 2
diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes 8: 35-41.
den Hoed M, Ekelund U, Brage S, Grontved A, Zhao JH, Sharp SJ, Ong KK, Wareham NJ,
Loos RJ (2010) Genetic Susceptibility to Obesity and Related Traits in Childhood and
Adolescence Influence of Loci Identified by Genome-Wide Association
Studies. Diabetes 59: 2980-2988.
Dennison BA, Erb TA, Jenkins PL (2002) Television viewing and television in bedroom
associated with overweight risk among low-income preschool
children. Pediatrics 109: 1028-1035.
de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E (2010) Global prevalence and trends of overweight and
obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr 92: 1257-1264.
de Ruyter JC, Olthof MR, Seidell JC, Katan MB (2012) A trial of sugar-free or sugar-
sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N Engl J Med 367: 1397-1406.
Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lönnerdal B (1993) Breast-fed infants
are leaner than formula-fed infants at 1 y of age: the DARLING study. Am J Clin Nutr
57: 140-145.
Dolinoy DC, Jirtle RL (2008) Environmental epigenomics in human health and
disease. Environ Mol Mutagen 49: 4-8.
Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS (2002) Childhood obesity: public-health crisis,
common sense cure. Lancet 360: 473-482.
Ebbeling CB, Sinclair KB, Pereira MA, Garcia-Lago E, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS (2004)
Compensation for energy intake from fast food among overweight and lean
adolescents. JAMA 291: 2828-2833.
Farooqi IS, Keogh JM, Yeo GS, Lank EJ, Cheetham T, O'Rahilly S (2003) Clinical spectrum
of obesity and mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene. N Engl J Med 348:
Farooqi IS, Wangensteen T, Collins S, Kimber W, Matarese G, Keogh JM, et al. (2007)
Clinical and molecular genetic spectrum of congenital deficiency of the leptin
receptor. N Engl J Med 356: 237-247.
Ferguson MA, Gutin B, Owens S, Litaker M, Tracy RP, Allison J (1998) Fat distribution and
hemostatic measures in obese children. Am J Clin Nutr 67: 1136-1140.
Fogelholm M (2010) Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity
and disease risk factors. A systematic review. Obes Rev 11: 202-221.
Foster-Powell K, Miller JB (1995) International tables of glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 62:
Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN, Zeggini E, Freathy RM, Lindgren CM, et al. (2007)
A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and
predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science 316: 889-894.
Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS( 1999) The relation of overweight to
cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart
Study. Pediatrics 103: 1175-1182.
Gerken T, Girard CA, Tung YCL, Webby CJ, Saudek V, Hewitson KS, et al (2007) The
obesity-associated FTO gene encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid
demethylase. Science 318: 1469-1472.
Giammattei J, Blix G, Marshak HH, Wollitzer AO, Pettitt DJ (2003) Television watching and
soft drink consumption: associations with obesity in 11- to 13-year-old
schoolchildren. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157: 882-886.
Giorgio V, Prono F, Graziano F, Nobili V (2013) Pediatric non alcoholic fatty liver disease:
old and new concepts on development, progression, metabolic insight and potential
treatment targets. BMC Pediatrics 13: 40.
Gortmaker SL, Must A, Perrin JM, Sobol AM, Dietz WH (1993) Social and economic
consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. N Engl J Med 329:
Günther AL, Remer T, Kroke A, Buyken AE (2007) Early protein intake and later obesity
risk: which protein sources at which time points throughout infancy and childhood are
important for body mass index and body fat percentage at 7 y of age?. Am J Clin
Nutr 86: 1765-1772.
Gray J, Yeo GS, Cox JJ, Morton J, Adlam A-L R, Keogh JM, et al (2006) Hyperphagia,
severe obesity, impaired cognitive function, and hyperactivity associated with
functional loss of one copy of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
gene. Diabetes 55: 3366-3371.
Griffiths LJ, Wolke D, Page AS, Horwood JP (2006) Obesity and bullying: different effects
for boys and girls. Arch Dis Child 91: 121-125.
Griffiths LJ, Parsons TJ, Hill AJ (2010) Self‐esteem and quality of life in obese children and
adolescents: A systematic review. Int J Pediatr Obes 5: 282-304.
Gungor N, Arslanian S (2004) Progressive beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus of
youth. J Pediatr 144: 656-659.
Gungor N, Thompson T, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Janosky J, Arslanian S (2005) Early signs of
cardiovascular disease in youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 28:
Gupta N, Goel K, Shah P, Misra A (2012) Childhood obesity in developing countries:
epidemiology, determinants, and prevention. Endocr Rev 33: 48-70.
Haines L, Wan KC, Lynn R, Barrett TG, Shield JPH (2007) Rising incidence of type 2
diabetes in children in the U.K. Diabetes Care 30: 1097-101.
Hall KD, Sacks G, Chandramohan D, Chow CC, Wang YC, Gortmaker SL, Swinburn BA
(2011) Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. Lancet 378:
Hancox RJ, Poulton R (2005) Watching television is associated with childhood obesity: but is
it clinically important?. Int J Obesity 30: 171-175.
Haworth C, Carnell S, Meaburn EL, Davis OS, Plomin R, Wardle J (2008) Increasing
heritability of BMI and stronger associations with the FTO gene over
childhood. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16: 2663-2668.
Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG (1993) Energy and protein
intakes of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first year of life and their
association with growth velocity: the DARLING Study. Am J Clin Nutr 58: 152-161.
Hermanussen M, Sichert-Hellert W, Kersting M (2008) Nutritional protein and body mass
index, the neglected correlation. Acta Medica Lituanica 15: 9-15
Herrera BM, Keildson S, Lindgren CM (2011) Genetics and epigenetics of obesity.
Maturitas 69: 41-49.
Hills AP, Andersen LB, Byrne NM (2011) Physical activity and obesity in children. Br J
Sports Med 45: 866-870.
Institute for Public Health (2008) Nutritional Status. Report of the Third National Health and
Morbidity Survey 2006 (NHMS III). Kuala Lumpur: IPH, Ministry of Health.
Institute for Public Health (2011) Non Communicable Diseases. Report of the National
Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (Volume II). Kuala Lumpur: IPH, Ministry of `
Janesick A, Blumberg B (2012) Obesogens, stem cells and the developmental programming
of obesity. Int J Androl 35: 437-448.
Jebb, SA (2005) Dietary strategies for the prevention of obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 64: 217-227.
Jeffery RW, Baxter J, McGuire M, Linde J (2006) Are fast food restaurants an environmental
risk factor for obesity?. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3: 2.
Juier s at intae a ris ator or at ain in hilren J Clin Endocr Metab 86:
Kang KT, Lee PL, Weng WC, Hsu WC (2012) Body weight status and obstructive sleep
apnea in children. Int J Obesity 36: 920-924.
Kelly T, Yang W, Chen CS, Reynolds K, He J (2008) Global burden of obesity in 2005 and
projections to 2030. Int J Obesity 32: 1431-1437.
Keski-Rahkonen A, Kaprio J, Rissanen A, Virkkunen M, Rose RJ (2003) Breakfast skipping
and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 57:
Koletzko B, Girardet JP, Klish W, Tabacco O (2002) Obesity in children and adolescents
worldwide: current views and future directions-Working Group Report of the First
World Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. J Pediatr
Gastroenterol Nutr 35: S205-S212.
Kopelman PG (2000) Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 404: 635-643.
rue H, ieermann H, Shnael , Tanse , Theunissen P, ullis P, rters
(2003) Obesity due to proopiomelanocortin deficiency: three new cases and treatment
trials with thyroid hormone and ACTH4–10. J Clin Endocr Metab 88: 4633-4640.
Labayen I, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Dallongeville J, Jiménez-Pavón D, Castillo MJ, et al
(2011) Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and leptin in
European adolescents: a possible link with energy balance control. The HELENA
study. Int J Obesity 35: 66-71.
Lakshman R, Elks CE, Ong KK (2012) Childhood obesity. Circulation 126: 1770-1779.
La Merrill M, Birnbaum LS (2011) Childhood obesity and environmental chemicals. Mt Sinai
J Med 78: 22-48.
Lee P (2014) Malaysia is fattest country in South-East Asia. The Star. Published January 16,
Liang T, Kuhle S, Veugelers PJ (2009) Nutrition and body weights of Canadian children
watching television and eating while watching television. Public Health Nutr 12:
Lillycrop KA, Phillips ES, Jackson AA, Hanson MA, Burdge GC (2005) Dietary protein
restriction of pregnant rats induces and folic acid supplementation prevents epigenetic
modification of hepatic gene expression in the offspring. J Nutr 135: 1382-1386.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. (2012) A comparative risk assessment of burden of
disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions,
1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Lancet 380: 2224–60.
Lim, SS (2014) Obesity and dining out: An exploration of dietary trends in urban
Malaysia (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida).
Littlejohn EE, Weiss RE, Deplewski D, Edidin DV, Rosenfield R (2007) Intractable early
childhood obesity as the initial sign of insulin resistant hyperinsulinism and precursor
of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Pediatr Endocr Metab 20: 41-52.
Liu A, Byrne NM, Kagawa M, Ma G, Poh BK, Ismail MN, Kijboonchoo K, Nasreddine L,
Trinidad TP, Hills AP (2011) Ethnic differences in the relationship between body
mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different
backgrounds. Br J Nutr 106: 1390-1397.
Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R (2004) Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public
health. Obes Rev 5: 4-85.

Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB (1999) High
glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics 103: e26
Ludwig DS (2002) The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity,
diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 287: 2414-2423.
Maffeis C, Provera S, Filippi L, Sidoti G, Schena S, Pinelli L, Tatò L (2000) Distribution of
food intake as a risk factor for childhood obesity. Int J Obesity 24: 75-80.
Maffeis C, Schutz Y, Grezzani A, Provera S, Piacentini G, Tatò L (2001) Meal-induced
thermogenesis and obesity: is a fat meal a risk factor for fat gain in children? J Clin
Endocrinol Metab 86: 214 –219.
Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB (2006) Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain:
a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 84: 274-288.
Manco M, Dallapiccola B (2012) Genetics of pediatric obesity. Pediatrics 130: 123-133.
McGloin AF, Livingstone MB, Greene LC, Webb SE, Gibson JM, Jebb SA, Cole TJ, Coward
WA, Wright A, Prentice AM (2002) Energy and fat intake in obese and lean children
at varying risk of obesity. Int J Obesity 26: 200-207.
McMillen IC, Robinson JS (2005) Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome:
prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 85: 571-633.
Milagro FI, Campion J, Garcia-Diaz DF, Goyenechea E, Paternain L, Martinez JA (2009)
High fat diet-induced obesity modifies the methylation pattern of leptin promoter in
rats. J Physiol Biochem 65: 1-9.
Montague CT, Farooqi IS, Whitehead JP, Soos MA, Rau H, Wareham NJ, et al (1997)
Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in
humans. Nature 387: 903-908.
Moore LL, Gao D, Bradlee ML, Cupples LA, Sundarajan-Ramamurti A, Proctor MH, Hood
MY, Singer MR, Ellison RC (2003) Does early physical activity predict body fat
change throughout childhood?. Prev Med 37: 10-17.
Moy FM, Gan CY, Zaleha MK (2004) Body mass status of school children and adolescents
in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 13: 324-329.
Must A (1996) Morbidity and mortality associated with elevated body weight in children and
adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 63: 445S-447S.
Naer PR, raley RH, Houts R, Rithie SL, O’rien 8 oerate-to-vigorous
physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA 300: 295-305.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute& National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and
Kidney Diseases (U.S.) (1998) Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation,
and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report’ National
Institutes of Health Publication 98-4083.
Nestler JE (2000) Obesity, insulin, sex steroids and ovulation. Int J Obesity 24: S71-3.
Norman AC, Drinkard B, McDuffie JR, Ghorbani S, Yanoff LB, Yanovski JA (2005)
Influence of excess adiposity on exercise fitness and performance in overweight
children and adolescents. Pediatrics 115: e690-e696.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM (2012) Prevalence of obesity and trends in body
mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA 307: 483-490.
Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Smith GD, Cook DG (2005) Effect of infant feeding on
the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published
evidence. Pediatrics 115: 1367-1377.
Poh, BK, Ng BK, Siti Haslinda MD, et al. (2013) Nutritional status and dietary intakes of
children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian
Children (SEANUTS Malaysia). Br J Nutr 110: S21-S35.
Popkin BM (1994) The nutrition transition in low‐income countries: an emerging crisis.
Nutr Rev 52: 285-298.
Popkin BM (2001) The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. J Nutr 131:
Popkin BM (2002) The shift in stages of the nutrition transition in the developing world
differs from past experiences. Mal J Nutr 8: 109-124.
Procter KL (2007) The aetiology of childhood obesity: a review. Nutr Res Rev 20: 29-45.
Ramachandrappa S, Farooqi IS (2011) Genetic approaches to understanding human
obesity. J Clin Invest 121: 2080-2086.
Rampersaud GC, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD (2005) Breakfast habits,
nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and
adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 105: 743-760.
Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM (2010) Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars
among children and adolescents in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 110: 1477-
Reilly JJ, Methven E, McDowell ZC, Hacking B, Alexander D, Stewart, L, Kelnar CJ (2003)
Health consequences of obesity. Arch Dis Child 88: 748-752.
Reinehr T, Kiess W, de Sousa G, Stoffel-Wagner B, Wunsch R (2006) Intima media
thickness in childhood obesity: relations to inflammatory marker, glucose
metabolism, and blood pressure. Metabolism 55: 113-118.
Rees R, Oliver K, Woodman J, Thomas J (2011) The views of young children in the UK
about obesity, body size, shape and weight: a systematic review. BMC Public
Health 11: 188.
Rennie KL, Johnson L, Jebb SA (2005) Behavioural determinants of obesity. Best Pract Res
Clin Endocrinol Metab 19: 343-358.
Reybrouck T, Mertens L, Schepers D, Vinckx J, Gewillig M (1997) Assessment of
cardiorespiratory exercise function in obese children and adolescents by body mass-in
dependent parameters’, Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 75: 478-483.
Rey-López JP, Vicente-Rodríguez G, Répásy J, Mesana MI, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, et al (2011)
Food and drink intake during television viewing in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle
in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Public Health Nutr 14:
Rhee KE, Phelan S, McCaffery J (2012) Early determinants of obesity: genetic, epigenetic,
and in utero influences. Int J Pediatr 2012.
Rhodes SK, Shimoda KC, Waid LR, O'Neil PM, Oexmann MJ, Collop NA, Willi SM (1995)
Neurocognitive deficits in morbidly obese children with obstructive sleep apnea. J
Pediatr 127: 741-744.
Rokholm B, Andersen CS, Sørensen TI (2011) Developmental origins of obesity—genetic
and epigenetic determinants. TOOBESJ 3: 27-33.
Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Bellisle F, Sempe M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Patois E
(1984) Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity. Am J
Clin Nutr 39: 129-135.
Rolls BJ, Engell D, Birch LL (2000) Serving portion size influences 5-year-old but not 3-
year-ol hilren’s oo intaes J Am Dietetic Assoc 100 (2): 232-234.
Rubin BS, Murray MK, Damassa DA, King JC, Soto AM (2001) Perinatal exposure to low
doses of bisphenol A affects body weight, patterns of estrous cyclicity, and plasma
LH levels. Environ Health Persp 109: 675.
Rubin BS (2011) Bisphenol A: an endocrine disruptor with widespread exposure and multiple
effects. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 127: 27-34.
Ruiz JR, Labayen I, OrtegaFB, Legry V, Moreno LA, Dallongeville J, et al (2010)
Attenuation of the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on total and central
body fat by physical activity in adolescents: the HELENA study. Arch Pediatr
Adolesc Med 164: 328-333.
Ruzita AT, Nurunnajiha N, Wong JE, et al. (2009) Nutritional Status and Dietary Habits of
Primary School Children in Peninsular Malaysia: Comparison of the 2001/02 Survey
with the 2007/08 Survey. Report for UKM-Nestle Research
Santoro N (2013) Childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes: the frightening epidemic.
World J Pediatr 9: 101-102.
Scaglioni S, Agostoni C, De Notaris R, Radaelli G, Radice N, Valenti M, Giovannini M, Riva
E (2000) Early macronutrient intake and overweight at five years of age. Int J
Obesity 24: 777-781.
Scaglioni S, Arrizza C, Vecchi F, Tedeschi S (2011) Determinants of children's eating
behavior. Am J Clin Nutr 94: 2006S-2011S.
Schwimmer JB, Deutsch R, Rauch JB, Behling C, Newbury R, Lavine JE (2003) Obesity,
insulin resistance, and other clinicopathological correlates of pediatric nonalcoholic
fatty liver disease. J Pediatr 143: 500-505.
Schwimmer JB, Deutsch R, Kahen T, Lavine JE, Stanley C, Behling C (2006) Prevalence of
fatty liver in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 118: 1388-1393.
Sjöberg A, Hallberg L, Höglund D, Hulthén L (2003) Meal pattern, food choice, nutrient
intake and lifestyle factors in The Göteborg Adolescence Study. Eur J Clin
Nutr 57: 1569-1578.
Smith J, Cianflone K, Biron S, Hould FS, Lebel S, Marceau S, Lescelleur O, Biertho L,
Simard S, Kral JG, Marceau P (2009) Effects of maternal surgical weight loss in
mothers on intergenerational transmission of obesity. J Clin Endocr Metab 94: 4275-
Soo KL, Wan AM, Abdul MH, Lee YY (2011) Dietary practices among overweight and
obese Chinese children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Mal J Nutr 17: 87-95.
Speakman JR, Rance KA, Johnstone AM (2008) Polymorphisms of the FTO gene are
associated with variation in energy intake, but not energy expenditure. Obesity 16:
Strauss RS (2000) Childhood obesity and self-esteem. Pediatrics 105: e15.
Sumarni Mohd G, Muhammad Amir K, Ibrahim Md S, Mohd Rodi I, Izzuna Mudla MG,
Nurziyana I (2006) Obesity among schoolchildren in Kuala Selangor: a cross-
sectional study. Trop Biomed 23:148-54.
Takahashi E, Yoshida K, Sugimori H, Miyakawa M, Izuno T, Yamagami T, Kagamimori S
(1999) Influence factors on the development of obesity in 3-year-old children based
on the Toyama study. Prev Med 28: 293-296.
Tao YX, Segaloff DL (2003) Functional characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor
mutations associated with childhood obesity. Endocrinology 144: 4544-4551.
Teachman BA, Brownell KD (2001) Implicit anti-fat bias among health professionals: is
anyone immune?. Int J Obesity 25: 1525-1531.
Tee ES (1999) Nutrition of Malaysians: where are we heading. Mal J Nutr 5: 87-109.
Tee ES, Khor SC, Ooi HE, Young SI, Zakiyah O, Zulkafli H (2002) Regional study of
nutritional status of urban primary schoolchildren. 3. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Food
Nutr Bull 23:41-7
Temple JL, Giacomelli AM, Kent KM, Roemmich JN, Epstein LH (2007) Television
watching increases motivated responding for food and energy intake in children. Am J
Clin Nutr 85: 355-361.
Tieh P, Dreimane D (2014) Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Indian J
Pediatr 81: 165-169.
Thompson OM, Ballew C, Resnicow K, Gillespie C, Must A, Bandini LG, Cyr H, Dietz WH
(2006) Dietary pattern as a predictor of change in BMI z-score among girls. Int J
Obesity 30: 176-182.
Tfayli H, Arslanian S (2008) Menstrual health and the metabolic syndrome in adolescents.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1135: 85-94.
van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Snieder H, Lagou V (2012) Gene–lifestyle interactions in
obesity. Curr Nutr Rep 1: 184-196.
Verbeeten KC, Elks CE, Daneman D, Ong KK (2011) Association between childhood
obesity and subsequent Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta‐analysis.
Diabetic Med 28: 10-18.
von Kries R, Koletzko B, Sauerwald T, von Mutius E, Barnert D, Grunert V, von Voss H
(1999). Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. BMJ 319: 147-150.
Wan AM, Norazawati AK, Lee YY (2012) Overweight and obesity among Malay primary
school children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan: parental beliefs, attitudes and child feeding
practices. Mal J Nutr 18: 27-36.
Wang X, Zhu H, Snieder H, Su S, Munn D, Harshfield G, Maria BL, Dong Y, Treiber F,
Gutin B, Shi H (2010) Obesity related methylation changes in DNA of peripheral
blood leukocytes. BMC Medicine 8: 87.
Wardle J, Carnell S, Haworth CM, Farooqi IS, O'Rahilly S, PlominR (2008) Obesity
associated genetic variation in FTO is associated with diminished satiety. J Clin
Endocrinol Metab 93: 3640-3643.
Waterland RA, Jirtle RL (2003) Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on
epigenetic gene regulation. Mol Cell Biol 23: 5293-5300.
Weiss R, Bremer AA, Lustig RH (2013) What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children
getting it?. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1281: 123-140.
Widiker S, Kärst S, Wagener A, Brockmann GA (2010) High-fat diet leads to a decreased
methylation of theMc4r gene in the obese BFMI and the lean B6 mouse lines. J Appl
Genet 51: 193-197.
World Health Organization (2006) Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health: a
framework to monitor and evaluate implementation. Geneva: WHO, 2006.
World Health Organization (2010). Global recommendations for physical activity and
health. Geneva: WHO, 2010.
World Health Organization (2014a) Obesity and overweight. Reviewed May 2014.Assessed
23 July 2014.
World Health Organization (2014b) Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health -
Childhood overweight and obesity. Assessed 23 July 2014.
Whitaker RC, Pepe MS, Wright JA, Seidel KD, Dietz WH (1998) Early adiposity rebound
and the risk of adult obesity. Pediatrics 101: e5-e5.
Young-Hyman D, Schlundt DG, Herman L, De Luca F, Counts D (2001) Evaluation of the
insulin resistance syndrome in 5-to 10-year-old overweight/obese African-American
children. Diabetes Care 24: 1359-1364.
Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC (2000) Regulation of adiposity by dietary
calcium. The FASEB Journal 14: 1132-1138.
Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF (2010) Associations of television content type and obesity in
children. Am J Public Health 100: 334-340
Zhao J, Bradfield JP, Li M, Wang K, Zhang H, Kim CE, et al (2009) The Role of Obesity‐
associated Loci Identified in Genome‐wide Association Studies in the Determination
of Pediatric BMI. Obesity 17: 2254-2257.