In Thermal Power Station fuel burns & use the resultant to make the steam

,
which derives the turbo generator. The Fuel i.e. coal is burnt in pulverized
from. The pressure energ of the steam produce is converted into
mechanical energ with the help of turbine. The mechanical energ is fed
to the generator where the magnet rotate inside a set of stator winding &
thus electricit is produced in India !"# of total power is generated b
thermal power stations. To understand the working of the Thermal Power
Station plant, we can divide the whole process into following parts.
$. %&'( F(&) * In coal fired plants, raw material are air & water in
PTPS, coal is transported through +ailwa wagons from ,or-ora coal fields
and +anigan- and is kept reserved on a buffer stock. The brought out to the
station is unloaded with the help of wagon tippler. 'fter unloading, the coal
is sent to crusher house with the help of conveor belts. The coal which is
now reduced to ver small pieces is sent to the coal bunkers with the help
of conveor belt. The raw coal is fed to coal mills through raw coal feeders
raw coal feeders basicall regulate raw coal to pulverized coal pipes. '
position of the primar air is heated utilizing the heat of the fuel gases &
then mi.ed with the cold air as per re/uirement b the pulverized coal.
0ormall the temperature is maintained at !1 to 21 degrees. The coal is
now burnt in the furnace using oil in the beginning showered through the
nozzles at different elevations in the furnace. To provide air for
combustion, the heat of the flue gases also heat it the heat produced due to
combustion is utilized for the conversion of water into steam. This water is
stored in the boiler drum. There are two sets of pipes attached to the drum,
one called riser & other known as down corner through which the water
comes to the ring header & steam moves up due to the densit difference of
water & steam. Its steam is super heated using super heaters & meanwhile
the flue gases are through out in the atmosphere through chimne.
3. ST4'5 F(&)* The super heated steam is sent to the turbine through
pipelines there are three turbines in the units, using this steam at different
temperature & pressures. 'fter passing through high pressure turbine the
steam is send to the reheater for rising the temperature of the steam. 'fter
reheating the steam is sent to the intermediate pressure turbine through
reheated line. 6ere it losses most of its temperature & pressure & finall
sent to low pressure turbine. The uses of three different turbines help in
increasing the efficienc of the plant. The turbine in turn connecting with a
generator produces electricit. Then this electricit is stepped upto 331 78
with the help of step up transformer & supplied to various sub9stations
grids. 5eanwhile, the steam through low pressure :(.P.; Turbine is
condensed and the condensed water is stored in hot well.
<. )'T4+ F(&)* The condensed water is e.tracted from the hot well
through condensate e.traction pumps & sent to the boiler drum with the
help of ,&I(4+ F44= P>5P :,.F.P.; before passing through low pressure
heater and dearater. )hile loss in water is make up from %.S. Tank, which
have =.5. 5oor in it. The %.S. Tank is directl connected to hot well. The
water used in condenser is sent to cooling tower for cooling. 'fter cooling
this water is again sent to condenser with the help of circulating water
pump. The loss is making from raw water pump house through clarifier
pump house.
%&5P&040TS =4S%+IPTI&0
$. )'?&0 TIPP(4+* It is the machine which is used to tip the coal from
the wagon. The coal tipped is directl feed to conveor belt. Its capacit is
$3 wagon per hour.
3. %+>S64+* It crushes the coal into small pieces.
<. %&'( 5I((S* In it small pieces of coal are converted into pulverized
from. The are ! in number.
@. F>+0'%4* It is the chamber in which fuel burns & fire blows.
". ,&I(4+ =+>5* It contains water for boiling.
!. 4(4%T+&ST'TI% P+4%IPIT'T&+* In this we have electrodes which
attract fl ash and e.tract it from flue gases so that it cannot enter
atmosphere.
2. %6I540A* It is used to release flue gases into the atmosphere.
B. T>+,I04* Turbine is the part which revolves due to steam pressure. It
is of three tpes. a; 6igh pressure turbine. b; Intermediate pressure turbine.
c; (ow pressure turbine.
C. T>+,& ?404+'T&+* It is the main machine which produces 3"1 5)
electricit .It is :6 3 &; water and 6 3 :6drogen;
gas cooled therefore it is contained in clindrical chamber.
$1. %&0=40S4+* It condenses steam coming from low pressure turbine
:(.P.T.; to hot water. , removing air and other non9condensable gases
from steam while passing through them.
$$. %&&(I0? )'T4+ :%.).; P>5P* This pump send water from cooling
tower to condenser.
$3. %&&(I0? T&)4+*
It is used to coal the water its height is near about $@<." mtrs. The hot water
is led to the tower top and falls down through the tower and is broken into
small particles while passing over the baffing devices. 'ir enters the tower
from the bottom and flow upwards. The air vaporizes a small percentage of
water, thereb cooling water falls down into tank below the tower from
where it is pumped to the condenser and ccle is repeated.
$<. +') )'T4+ P>5P 6&>S4* It supplies raw water to the boiler.
$@. %('+IFI4+ P>5P 6&>S4* The water from raw is clear at clarifier
b putting alum in it & filtering it & then supplied to the condenser.
$". %&0=40S'T4 4DT+'%TI&0 P>5P* %.4.P. pump is used to e.tract
the condense water from the hot well and suppl to the deaerator after
passing through (.P. heater & 4conomizer, so that high pressure steam in
the clinder can be created.
$!. (&) P+4SS>+4 64'T4+* It is used to increase the temperature of
water, in this wa efficienc of sstem increases.
$2. =4'+4'T4+* It is used to remove air from water which is entrapped
in the water molecules. It is ver important part because the entrapped air
effect air drum badl.
$B. ,&I(4+ F44= P>5 :,.F.P.;* It is the heaviest drive in the plant &
suppl water to boiler drum from dearator.
$C. 6I?6 P+4SS>+4 64'T4+ :6.P.;* In this temperature of water
increases. Thus efficienc further increases.
31. 4%&0&5IS4+* In this flue gases e.change heat to the water to
increase sstem efficienc, causes saving in fuel consumption :" to $1#;.
4conomizer tubes are made up of steel either smooth or covered with fins
to increase the heat transfer surface area.
%>++40T T+'0SF&+54+ :%.T.; SP4%IFI%'TI&0S +4E>I+4=
F&+ %TS '+4* $. %lass 3. ,urden <. +atio @. +esistance ". 7nee Point
8oltageFSaturation %Ts can be broadl divided into two categories*9
$. 5etering %Ts* 5etering %Ts are of ver accurate for design of material
having nickel iron allos to reduce losses and having low flu. densit. The
accurac class of these %Ts is 1F3#, 1."# & $.1#. Saturation level of
these %Ts is low i.e. $11 to $31# of I n :%+ secondar current; are thermal
protection of meters. 5etering %Ts are also known as 5easuring %Ts.
These %Ts cannot be used for protection purpose. The can onl measure the
current.
3. Protection %Ts* Protection %Ts are less accurate than metering %Ts
having high flu. densit. Saturation level of these %Ts is high. Protection
%Ts are of two class i.e. "P $1 & PS. "P $1 is generall used for simple oFc
& 4FF protection where PS :purchaser specified; class is used for
differential protection. These %Ts are also used to measure current but up to
specified limit.
?404+'T&+ SP4%IFI%'TI&0 &F ?404+'T&+ 7)F5) 93$1 P.F.
91.B" 78' 93@2111 78 9$".2"
'mp 9C1"1 +otor volt 9<$1
4P5 9<111 +otor amp 93!11
6z 9"1 Phas 9< %onnection9star star ?as pressure 9<."kgF
cm 3
Insulation class9, SP4%9 I4 %<@.$B<@.< IS."@3< =I8I096'+I=)'+
%oolants9 6 3 & & 6 3
Supervision of cooling gas & cooling water temperature The ad-ustment or
setting of cooling water flow should be made onl b changing the
ad-ustment f cooling water outlet valves. The inlet valve at header or valve
at individual cooler section should be opened full. The pressure of water at
inlet of each cooler should be so ad-usted as to keep the
valve to 1.3kgFcm 3 below the pressure of 6 3 in casing.
&perating value 5'D. S4TTI0? $. Stator water inlet temp. to stator
winding 3. Stator water outlet temp. from stator winding.
@1 o %
!1 o %
@" o %
B" o %
'('+5 6I?6 84+A 6I?6 <. %old gas temp. 3" o 9@@ o % @@ o % "" o %
@. 6ot gas temp. @1 o 92" o % 2" o % 9
". Stator core temp. GC" o % C" o % 9
!. Stator slot temp. "1 o 92" o % 2" o % 9
2. +otor winding temp. G$$" o % $$" o % $31 o % B. 6umidit monitor
dew point G$1 o % G9< o % 9
6A=+&?40 %&&(4+S
The turbo generator has been provided with four nos. gas coolers mounted
longitudinall in side stator bod for cooling of hot gas, thus taking awa
the heat losses generated b rotor winding, stator core and windage losses.
The gas cooler is a shell and tube heat e.changer consisting of cooling
tubes with coiled copper wire around them to increase the surface area of
cooling. %ooling water flow through the tubes while hdrogen flowing
across coolers comes into contact with e.ternal surface of cooling tubes.
6eat remove from hdrogen is dissipated through cooling water.
&n both ends of coolers, water chambers are bolted to two plates. The
outside flange of water chamber on slipping end is elasticall fi.ed to stator
bod with the help of molded rubber gasket to allow free e.pansion of
cooler where as on the turbine endH it is fi.ed rigidl to the stator. 't
turbine end, inlet and outlet water pipes are connected to water flange. In
order to remove air from cooler while filling them with water, wind pipes
are provided on slip ring end. Shut off valves are installed in pipe line at
inlet and outlet of each cooler.
?404+'T&+ =4S%+IPTI&0
3$1 5) ?404+'T&+ The generator is two pole tpe with clindrical
rotor using direct water cooling of stator winding, including phase
connecting bus bar, terminal bushing and direct hdrogen cooling of rotor
winding using gap pick up method. The losses in other parts of generator
such as stator iron losses, friction & windage losses are removed b
hdrogen circulating in casing.
The generator stator frame is of pressure9resistant and gas tight
construction with four horizontal coolers in the frame itself forming part of
ventilation and closed cooling circuit.
The generator consists of the following components as shown*
ST'T&+* I Stator bod I Stator core I Stator winding I ?as coolers
+&T&+* I +otor shaft I +otor winding I +otor retaining ring and other
fittings I Field connections.
,4'+I0? )IT6 ,+>S6 ?4'+* I ,earing I ,rush gear
ST'T&+ $. Stator ,od* The stator bod is a totall enclosed gas tight
fabricated structure, suitable ribbed internall to ensure high rigidit, it is
designed mechanicall to withstand internal pressure and forces as a result
of unlikel event o e.plosion of hdrogen, air mi.ture without an residual
deformation, 6drogen gas coolers are housed longitudinall inside the
stator bod.
3. Stator %ore* The stator core is made up of segmental, varnish insulated
punching of 4lectro technical sheet with low loss factor. The stampings are
assembled in an inter leaved manner on dove tailed core bars in order to
damp out the oscillations so that magnetic vibration of stator core are not
transferred to foundation through stator frame.
<. Stator )inding* Stator bars, bus bars and terminal bushing are designed
for direct water cooling. In order to minimize the edd losses, the bars are
composed of separatel insulated strands, solid as well as hollow. The high
voltage insulation is provided b thermosetting insulation using epo. mica
paper tape. )ith this insulating sstem, several laers of this tape are
applied to the formed bars continuousl and half over lapped. The no. of
laers i.e. the thickness of the insulation depends on the machine voltage.
The insulation is also water proof and oil resistant. For protection of the
stator winding against the effects of current forces in slots sides fillers,
bottom spacers and top spacer below the slot wedge ensure permanentl
firm seating of the bars in the slot during operation. The water headers are
insulated from stator bod which permits measurement of insulation
resistance of winding. The stator winding is connected inside the machine
b connecting bus bars and brought out to nine bushing located in bo. of
welded non magnetic steel below the generator at e.citer end.
+&T&+ $. +&T&+ S6'FT* The rotor shaft is single piece forging
manufacturing from ingots which are cast b vacuum degassing process.
The longitudinal slots for insertion of the field winding are milled into
barrel portion. The slots are distributed over the circumstances so that two
solid poles are obtained. To ensure that onl high /ualit and defect free
forging is used, strength test, chemical analsis and ultra sonic test are
carried out during manufacturing. 'fter completion of rotor assembl the
rotor is balanced at different sped in various planes and then sub-ected to an
over sped test at $31# of rated sped for 3 minutes.
3. +&T&+ )I0=I0? '0= +4T'I0I0? +I0?S* The rotor winding
comprises several coils which are inserted into the slots and series
connected in such a wa that two coil groups enclosing one pole each are
obtained. The centrifugal forces of the rotor overhauling windings are taken
up b single piece retaining ring. The retaining rings consist of non9
magnetic high strength steel in order to reduce stra losses.
<. FI4(= (4'= %&004%TI&0S* a;. S(IP +I0?S* The slip rings consist
of helicall grooved allo steel ring shrunk on the rotor bod shaft and
insulated from it. For convenience in assembl both rings are mounted on a
single common steel bush which has an insulating -acket premoulded on it.
The complete bush with slip rings is shrunk on the rotor shaft. The slip
rings are provided with inclined holes for self ventilation. The helical
grooves cut on the outer surface of the slip rings improve brush
performance b breaking the pressurized air pockets that would otherwise
get formed between the brush and slip ring surface.
b;. FI4(= (4'=* The slip rings are connected to the field winding through
semi fle.ible copper leads and current carring bolts placed radiall in the
shaft semi9fle.ible o thin copper sheets silver plated and copper leads are
made up insulated b glass cloth impregnated with epo. resin for low
resistance and ease of assembl. The connection between current carring
bolt and field winding is done b a filed lead bar which has similar
construction as that of semi9fle.ible copper lead.
,4'+I0? '0= ,+>S6 ?4'+
a;. ,4'+I0?* The generator bearings are pedestal tpe with spherical
seating to allow self alignment and are supported on a separate pedestal on
slip ring side and in (.P. casing on the turbine side. The bearings have
provision of hdraulic shaft lifting during start up and turning gear
operation. To eliminate shaft current, e.citer side bearing and its pipes are
insulated from earth. The bearing temperature detectors embedded in the
,abbitt of lower half bearing liner. 8ibrations on the bearing in horizontal
and vertical direction are measured b vibration pickups mounted on the
bearing pedestal.
b;. ,+>S6 ?4'+* The rotor winding is solidit connected to slip rings b
means of field lead bars, current carring bolts, field lead core bars and
fle.ible leads. The filed current to the rotor winding is provided through the
brush gear. The current carring brush gear assembl is rigidl fi.ed on the
e.tended part of bearing pedestal on the e.citer side. There are two brush
gear stands, each made up of two smmetrical silicon brass casting half
rings, which are bottled at the top to make one stand assembl, kept
verticall. These rings stands are designed as helical from one end to the
other to achieve uniform wear of slip rings as well as carbon brushes and
smooth removal of carbon dust all along the width of slip rings. The design
of brush gear permits replacement of the brushes during normal operation
condition. This complete gear stand assembl is rigid fitted in position on
brush gear support which as a whole unit is to be fi.ed on to bearing.
c;. S6'FT S4'(S* In order to prevent the escape of hdrogen from the
generator casing along the rotor shaft, shaft seals supplied with oil under
pressure are used. To ensure perfect sealing, the oil pressure in the annular
gap is maintained at a higher level than the gas pressure in the generator
casBng. 's long as the seal oil pressure in the annular gap between the shaft
seal and the rotor e.ceeds the gas pressure in the generator. 0o hdrogen
will escape from the generator housing. The shaft seal is provided with seal
oil b a separate closed circuit sstem. For the operation of generator the
following au.iliar sstem are re/uired.
d;. ST'T&+ )'T4+ %&&(I0? SAST45* $. Seal oil suppl sstem 3.
?as sstem. <. Stator water cooling sstem.
S4'( &I( S>PP(A SAST45* The shaft seals are supplied with seal oil
from a separate circuit which consists of following principle components*
I 8acuum tank I '% seal oil pump $ & 3 I =% seal oil pump I 8acuum
pump I &il coolers I SeaH oil filters I Intermediate oil tank I %onstant
pressure regulating valve9$ I %onstant pressure regulating valve93 I
%onstant pressure regulating valve9< I =ifferential pressure regulating
valve9$ I =ifferential pressure regulating valve93
?'S S>PP(A SAST45* The gas sstem essentiall consists of the
following e/uipment* I 63 & %&3 clinders I Pressure reducers I %&3
vaporizer I Pressure gauges I ?as drier I 6umidit monitors I Purit
measuring instruments
ST'T&+ )'T4+ %&&(I0? SAST45* The stator water suppl sstem
essentiall comprises the following components* I 4.pansion tank I
Stator water pump9' I Stator water pump9, I Stator water cooler9' I
Stator water cooler9, I Stator water filter9' I Stator water filter9,
?404+'T&+ P+&T4%TI&0*
'n '% generator forms the electromechanical stage of an overall energ
conversion process that results in the production of electrical power. '
reciprocating engine, or one of man forms of turbine, acts as a prime
mover to provide the rotar mechanical input to the alternator. There are
man forms of generating plant that utilize a variet of sources of energ
available, e.g. %ombustion of fossil fuels, hdro dams and nuclear fission.
?eneration schemes ma be provided for base9load production, peak
lopping or for providing standb power. 4lectrical protection shall /uickl
detect the initiate shut down for ma-or electrical faults associated with the
generating plant and less urgentl to abnormal operating conditions which
ma lead to plant damage. 'bnormal electrical conditions can arise as a
result of a failure within the generating plant itself, but can also be
e.tremel imposed on the generator. %ommon categories of faults and
abnormal conditions which can be detected electricall are listed as
follows*
5a-or 4lectrical Faults* I Insulation failure of stator windings or
connections.
Secondar 4lectrical Faults* I Insulation failure of e.citation sstem. I
Failure of e.citation sstem. I >nsnchronized over voltage
'bnormal Prime 5over or %ontrol %onditions* I Failure of prime mover
I &ver fre/uenc I &ver flu.ing I =ead machine energisation I ,reaker
flashover
Sstem +elated* I Feeding on un9cleared fault I Prolonged or heav
unbalance loading I Prolonged or heav overload I (oss of snchronism
I &ver fre/uenc I >nder fre/uenc I Snchronized over voltage I &ver
flu.ing I >nder voltage In addition various tpes of mechanical protection
ma be necessar, such as vibration detection lubricant and coolant
monitoring, temperature detection etc. The action re/uired following
response of an electrical or mechanical protection is often categorized as
follows*
I >rgent shutdown I 0on9urgent shutdown I 'larm onl
'n urgent shutdown would be re/uired for e.ample, if a phase to phase
JFault occurred within the generator electrical connection. ' non9urgent
shutdown right to se/uential, where the prime mover ma be shutdown
prior to electricall unloading the generator, in order to avoid over sped. '
non9urgent shutdown ma be initiated in the case of continuedK unbalanced
loading. In this case, it is desirable that an alarm should be given before
shutdown becomes necessar, in order to allow for operator intervention to
remed the situation. For urgent tripping, it ma be desirable to electricall
maintain the shutdown condition with latching protection output contact,
which would re/uire manual resetting. For a non9urgent shutdown, it ma
be re/uired that the output contacts are self9reset, so that production of
power can be re9started as soon as possible. 'ccordingl generator
protection has been divided into three categories*
$. %lass ' Protection*9>rgent shutdown Ftripping without an time dela
causing tripping of ?%,, F,, >'Ts & Turbine simultaneousl. :a; ?T +4F
Protection :!@ ?T; :b; ?enerator differential Protection :B2?; :c;
?enerator interterm fault :B2?$; :d; ?enerator +eserve Power Protection
:<3?$; (oss of 4.citation :@1?; :e; ,ackup impedance Protection 3$?; :f;
>'T =ifferential protection :B2>'T; :g; ?TF>'T Turbine :!< PTD?, !<
PTD; :h; &ver voltage protection :"C ?$; :i; ?enerator $11# stator 4FF
Protection :!@?<; :-; &ver flu.ing Protection :CC?; :k; '8+ Trouble :l;
&ver %urrent for >'T :"1>'+; :m; +otor 4FF Protection :!@F; :n; ?T
&verall differential protection :B2 &'; :o; ?enerator C"# stator 4FF
Protection :!@?3;
3. %lass , Protection*9>rgent shutdown Ftripping dela of turbine first and
tripping of ?%,, F,, >'Ts & Turbine on class ' protection through
(4PF+P protection :1."# to 3$1 5);. :a; >nder Fre/uenc Protection :B$
?; :b; ?T Trouble relas :c; (oss of 4.citation Protection :@1 ?$; :d;
0egative Phase flow se/. Protection :@! ?; :e; Stator water flow low and
%onductivit high :f; >'T Trouble
<. %lass % Protection*9&nl ?%, trip and unit can be run on house load. :a;
?enerator ,ackup impedance protection :3$ ?; :b; ?T &ver current
Protection :"$ ?T; :c; 0egative Phase se/, Protection. :d; >FF Protection
:e; ?T 0atural &F% Protection :"$ 0?T; :f; ?enerator Pole Slipping
Protection :2B ?;
?enerator =ifferential Protection Failure of stator windings, or connection
isolation, can result in severe damage to the windings and state core. The
e.tent of the damage will depend, upon the fault current level and the
duration of the fault. Protection should be applied to limit the degree of
damage in order to disconnection of the plant from the power generating
plant, high Lspeed maintain sstem stabilit.
Two methods are commonl used. ' biasing techni/ue, where the rela
setting is raised as through current increases. 'lternativel, a high
impedance techni/ue, where the rela impedance is such element is
insufficient for the rela to operate.
,iased differential protection In a biased differential rela, through the
current is used to increase the setting of the differential element or heav
through faults, it is unlikel that the %T outputs at each zone end will be
identical, due to the effects of %T saturation. In this case a differential
current can be produced. 6owever, the biasing will increase the rela
setting, such that the differential spill current is insufficient to operate the
rela. Through the current is calculated as the average of the scalar sum of
the current entering and leaving the zone of protection. This calculated
through current is then used to appl percentage bias to increase the
differential setting.
Setting ?uidelines For ,iased =ifferential Protection The differential
current setting, should be set to a low setting to protect as much of the
machine winding as possible. ' setting of "# of rated current of machine is
generall considered to be ade/uate. The threshold, above which the
second bias setting is applied, should be set to $31# of the machine rated
current. The initial bias slope setting should be set to 1# to provide
optimum sensitivit for internal faults. The second bias slope ma tpicall
be set to $"1# to provide ade/uate stabilit for e.ternal faults. These
settings ma be increased where low accurac class %Ts is used to
protection.
6igh impedance differential Protection The high impedance principle is
best e.plained b considering a differential scheme where one %T is
saturated for an e.ternal fault, as shown in Figurer. If the rela circuit is
considered to be ver high impedance, the secondar current produced b
the health %T will flow through the saturated %T. If the magnetizing
impedance of the saturated %T is considered to be negligible, the ma.imum
voltage across the rela circuit will be e/ual to the secondar fault current
multiplied b the connected impedance, :+(<M+ $@ M+% T$3 ;
The rela can be made stable for this ma.imum applied voltage b
increasing the overall impedance of the rela circuit, such that the resulting
current through the rela is less than its current setting. 's the impedance
of the rela input alone is relativel low, a series connected e.ternal resistor
is re/uired. The value of this resistor, +S T , is calculated b the formula
shown in Figure <. 'n additional on linear resistor, 5etrosil, ma be
re/uired to limit the peak secondar circuit voltage during internal fault
conditions.
To ensure that the protection will operate /uickl during an internal fault
the %Ts used to operate the protection must have a knee point voltage of at
least @8s.
>S4 &F J54T+&SI(K 0&0 L(I04'+ +4SIST&+S 5etrosils are used
to limit the peak voltage developed b the below the insulation level of the
current transformer, rela and interconnecting leads, which are normall
able* to withstand <11118 peak. The following formulae should be used to
estimate the peak transient voltage that could be produced for an internal
fault will be a function of the current transformer knee point voltage and
the prospective voltage that would be produced for an internal fault if
current transformer saturation did not occur. This prospective voltage will
be a function of ma.imum internal fault secondar current, the current
transformer ratio, the current transformer led resistance to the common
point, the rela lead resistance and the stabilizing resistor value. 8 p N383
8k :8f98k;
8,N$:+ %T M3+ ( M+ ST ;where
8 p Npeak voltage developed b the
%T under internal fault conditions. 8kN current transformer knee9point
voltage 8N 5a.imum voltage that would be produced if %T saturation did
not occur.
Setting guidelines for Stator earth fault protection function :"$0; O %urrent
operated from a %T in the neutral earth path. O Two independent tripping
stages. O First stage tripping can incorporate either a definite time or
standard inverse tpe I=5T dela. O Second stage tripping can be
instantaneous or definite time delaed. O Immune to third harmonics.
'pplied to directl connection generators. The protection must be time
graded with other earth fault protectionH the setting emploed should be
less than <<# of the earth fault level. In case of direct generator
connection, it is common that onl one generator of a parallel set is earthed
at an one time, with the arth connections of other machines left open, if
the generating plant can also be run directl in parallel with a medium
voltage public suppl, it is a common re/uirement that all generator earth
connections are left open during parallel operation. In such circumstances,
the main earth fault protection element :leP; will onl be operational for an
earthed machine, It will provide primar earth fault protection for other
machines and the rest of the power sstem and thermal protection for the
earthing resistor. For indirectl connected applications, the time9delaed
earth fault protection function ma be emploed in one of two was. $. To
measure earth fault current indirectl, via a %T in the secondar circuit of a
distribution transformer earthing arrangement. 3. To measure earth fault
directl, via a %T in the generator winding earth connection. )ith the first
mode of application, the current operated protection function :"$0; ma be
used in con-unction with voltage operated protection function :"C0;,
measuring the distribution transformer secondar voltage. This is a
complementar arrangement, where the voltage operated protection
function :"C0; is able to operate in the event of an open Lcircuited loading
resistor and the current operated protection function :"$0; is able to
operate in the event of a short circuited resistor.
The second mode of application would be used for cases of direct resistive
earthing. For distribution transformer earthing, this mode offers the
advantage of being able to respond to an earth fault condition that leads to a
flashover of the distribution transformer primar connections. Such a
primar short circuit would render protection on the secondar side of the
transformer inoperative and it would also result in a ver high and
damaging primar earth fault current.
In either mode of application, the main stator earth fault current operated
protection element :leP; should be sent to have a primar sensitivit of
around "# of the ma.imum earth fault current as limited b the earthing
impedance. Such a setting would provide protection for upto C"# of the
generator stator windings. The probabilit of an earth fault occurring in the
lower "# of the generator Qwinding would be e.tremel low, due to the
fact that the winding voltage with respect to earth is low in this region.
The time characteristic and setting of the main current operated protection
element :leP; should be set to prevent false operation during 68 sstem
earth fault clearance, where a transient generator earth connection current
ma appear as Lresult of the inter9winding capacitance of the generator
step9up transformer. The protection element should also co1operate with
operation of generator 8T primar fuses, for a 8T primar earth fault, and
with 8T secondar fuses for a secondar earth fault on a 8T that has its
primar windings earthed. =epending on the 8T fuse characteristics, and
on 68 sstem earth fault protection clearance times, a definite time dela
anwhere between 1."s and <.1s would be appropriate. In machines with
comple. winding
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