Titanium Alloy

Ti t ani um
Al l oy Cl assi f i c at i on and Uses
Titanium, a crystalline, lustrous, white metal when pure. It was discovered in Creed,
Cornwall by William Gregor in 1791. The metal has a low density, good strength
and has excellent corrosion resistance. The metal burns in air and is the only element
that burns in nitrogen. It is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and
is also found in meteorites and in the sun.
Tabl e 1: Ti t ani um Al l oyi ng el ement s and t hei r
pr oper t i es
El ement Ef f ec t
Aluminum
● primary alloying constituent
● promotes precipitation hardening
● alpha phase stabilizer.
Molybednum
● Lower cost corrosion inhibitor that palladium
● beta phase stabilizer
Carbon
● forms carbides to improve tensile strength
● alpha phase stabilizer
Chromium ● beta phase stabilizer
Cobalt ● beta phase stabilizer
Copper ● beta phase stabilizer
Gallium ● alpha phase stabilizer
Germanium ● alpha phase stabilizer
Hydrogen ● increases brittleness
Iron ● beta phase stabilizer
Manganese ● beta phase stabilizer
Molybdenum
● high temperature stability for castings
● beta phase stabilizer
Nickel
● Improves corrosion resistance
● beta phase stabilizer
Niobium
● replaces vanadium for biomedical devices
● beta phase stabilizer
Nitrogen
● increases brittleness
● alpha phase stabilizer
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Titanium Alloy
Oxygen
● increases brittleness
● alpha phase stabilizer
Palladium
● improves corrosion resistance
● beta phase stabilizer
Silicon ● beta phase stabilizer
Tantalum ● beta phase stabilizer
Tin
● high temperature stability for castings
● biologically neutral
● improves toughness in cryogenic applications
Vanadium
● primary alloying constituent
● promotes precipitation hardening
● increases tensile strength
● decreases elongation
● reduces impact resistance
● not used in biomedical alloys due to toxicity issues
● beta phase stabilizer
Zirconium
● high temperature stability for castings
● biologically neutral

Ti t ani um Al l oys
Titanium has the following advantages:
● Good strength
● Resistance to erosion and erosion-corrosion
● Very thin, conductive oxide surface film
● Hard, smooth surface that limits adhesion of foreign materials
● Surface promotes dropwise condensation
The combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent mechanical properties,
and corrosion resistance makes titanium the best material choice for many critical
applications. The high cost of titanium alloy components may limit their use to
applications for which lower-cost alloys, such as aluminium and stainless steels.
Titanium is rather difficult to fabricate because of its susceptibility to oxygen,
nitrogen, and hydrogen impurities which cause the titanium to become more brittle.
Elevated temperature processing must be used under special conditions in order to
avoid diffusion of these gasses into the titanium. Most alloys of titanium can be
formed by conventional means such as rolling, forging and casting.
. Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, and 12 and considered 'unalloyed' titanium and have
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Titanium Alloy
similar mechanical properties. Grades 1 through 4 allow increasing levels of
impurities. Grades 7 and 11 have 0.2% palladium added to improve titanium's
already excellent corrosion resistance. Grade 12 features 0.8% Ni and 0.3% Mo to
improve the corrosion resistance at a lower cost than Pd. Titanium alloys generally
feature higher strength than unalloyed titanium.
for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of Aluminum and
Vanadium, typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. This mixture has
mechanical propertiesa which varies dramatically with temperature, allowing it to
undergo precipitation hardening. This process is carried out after the alloy has been
worked into its final shape but before it is put to use, allowing much easier
fabrication of a high-strength product.
Commercially pure titanium with minor alloy contents include various titanium-
palladium grades and alloy Ti-0,3Mo-0,8Ni (ASTM grade 12 or UNS R533400).
The alloy contents allow improvements in corrosion resistance and/or strength
Alloy Ti-0,3Mo-0,8Ni (UNS R533400, or ASTM grade 12) has applications similar
to those for unalloyed titanium but has better strength and corrosion resistance.
However, the corrosion resistance of this alloy is not as good as the titanium-
palladium alloys. The ASTM grade 12 alloy is particularly resistant to crevice
corrosion in hot brines.
The most widely used titanium alloy is the Ti-6Al-4V alpha-beta alloy. This alloy is
well understood and is also very tolerant on variations in fabrication operations,
despite its relatively poor room-temperature shaping and forming characteristics
compared to steel and aluminium. Alloy Ti-6Al-4V, which has limited section size
hardenability, is most commonly used in the annealed condition.
Other titanium alloys are designed for particular application areas. For example:
● Alloys Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (commonly called Ti-17) and Ti-6Al-2Sn-
4Zr-6Mo for high strength in heavy sections at elevated temperatures.
Compressor discs, heavy section forgings for gas turbine engine components.
High tensile strength and good fracture toughness.
● Alloys Ti-6242S, IMI 829, and Ti-6242 (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo) for creep
resistance
● Alloys Ti-6Al-2Nb-ITa-Imo and Ti-6Al-4V-ELI are designed both to resist
stress corrosion in aqueous salt solutions and for high fracture toughness
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Titanium Alloy
● Alloy Ti-5Al-2,5Sn is designed for weldability, and the ELI grade is used
extensively for cryogenic applications
● Alloys Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al for high strength at
low-to-moderate temperatures. Used to form near net shape forgings for high
strength components, primarily aircraft components.

Wr ought Ti t ani um
Commercially produced titanium products are made in net shape mill wrought forms
such as plate, tubing, sheet, wire, extrusions. Additionally, Titanium is often formed
to net shape though forging and welded or brazed assemblies. The relatively high
cost is often the result of the intristic raw material cost of metal, fabricating costs
and the metal removal costs incurred in obtaining the desired final shape.
Ti t ani um Cast i ng
Titanium can also be cast, which must be done in a vacuum furnace because of
titanium's reactive nature. Generally, Titanium castings are hot isostatically pressed
to close porosity that would affect strength. Precision casting is fairly well
developed developed and widely used in the aircraft industry to produce titanium net
shape parts.
As aircraft engine manufactures seek to use cast titanium at higher operating
temperatures, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo are being specified
more frequently. Other advanced high-temperature titanium alloys for service up to
595
o
C, such as Ti-1100 and IMI-834 are being developed as castings. The alloys
mentioned above exhibit the same degree of elevated-temperature superiority, as do
their wrought counterparts over the more commonly
used Ti-6Al-4V.
Ti t ani um Net Shape Tec hnol ogi es
Several new titanium net shape technologies are on the horizon including powder
metallurgy (P/M), superplastic forming (SPF). It is used to make lightweight alloys
for aircraft, replacement hip joints and chemical plants. bone pins and other things
requiring light weight metals or metals that resist corrosion or high temperatures.
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Titanium Alloy
Titanium Alloys
Tabl e 1: Ti t ani um Al l oys Composi t i on
>
designation UNS ASTM DIN
Aerospace
American
AMS
Aerospace
American
MIL-T
9046-9047
Remarks
GR-1 1 3.7025 CP4
GR-2 2 3.7035
4902,4941
4942,4951
CP3
Commercially pure
titanium, used primarily for
corrosion resistance.
Strength increases with
Grade Number.
GR-3 3 3.7055 4900 CP2
GR-4 4 3.7065 4901 CP1 CP-70
GR-7 7.11
Industrial alloys with
superior corrosion
resistance.
GR-12 12
GR-5 5 3.7165
4911,
4928
AB1/AB2
Popular alloys of medium
strength for airframe and
engines.
Ti-4Al-4 Mo-2.5Sn
(550)

Ti-10Fe-2V-3Al (10-2-
3)
4983
Beta alloys having excellent
fabricability and high
strength developed by heat
treatment.
Ti-15V-3Al-3 Cr-3Sn
(15-3)
4916
Ti-6Al-2Sn 4Zr-2Mo
(6-2-4-3)

4975
4976
AB4
Alloys developed for aero
engine use
T-6Al-2Sn-4Zr 6Mo(6-
2-4-6)
4981
Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-
4Cr
R58650

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Titanium Alloy
Tabl e 3: Ti t ani um ser i es al l oy c omposi t i on
(under c onst r uc t i on)
Desi gnat i on 10-2-3 6-4 ZP5 ZP7
UNS Alloy Number T? T? T? T?
ASTM Number ? ? ? ?
Alloy Symbol Ti10Fe2V3Al Ti6Al4V ZnAl4Cu1
Aluminum %
Max.
3.4
2.6
5.5
6.75
4.3
3.5
4.3
3.5
Min.
Vanadium %
Max.
11.0
9.0
0.25
N/A
1.25
0.75
0.25
N/A
Min.
Iron %
Max.
2.2
1.6
0.30
--
0.080
0.030
0.020
0.005
Min.
Nickel %
Max.
N/A N/A N/A
0.005
0.020
Min.
Nirogen (N) Max (%) 0.05 ? 0.10 0.075
Oxygen (O) Max (%) 0.13 ? 0.005 0.003
Hydrogne (H) Max (%) 0.015 0.0125 0.004 0.002
Tin (Sn) Max (%) -- -- 0.003 0.001

Physi c al pr oper t i es of Ti t ani um al l oys
Tabl e 6: Ti t ani um Al l oy Physi c al Pr oper t i es
(under c onst r uc t i on)
#3 #5 #7 #2 ZA-8 ZA-12 ZA-27
Ultimate Tensile Strength: psi
x 10
3
(MPa)
41 (283) 48 (328) 41 (283) 52 (359) 54 (374) 58 (400) 61 (421)
Yield Strength - 0.2% Offset:
psi x 10
3
(MPa)
32 (221) 39 (269) 32 (221) 41 (283) 42 (290) 46 (317) 55 (379)
Elongation: % in 2" 10 7 13 7 6-10 4-7 1-3
Shear Strength: psi x 10
3

(MPa)
31 (214) 38 (262) 31 (214) 46 (317) 40 (275) 43 (296) 47 (325)
Hardness: Brinell 82 91 80 100 95-110 95-115 105-125
Poisson's Ratio 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.32
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Titanium Alloy

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