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Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco.
División Académica de Ciencias de la Salud.

Anthology

Inglés Básico.
Teacher: Portilla Mánica Norma Isabel.

Cileni Cortés Camacho
Matrícula: 132E45424

Licenciatura en Médico Cirujano
2º “A


Ciclo largo febrero-julio 2014

Introduction

There are many reasons to learn English but one of the most important reason for
me is that in the medical field it is the universal language. Learning English is
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actually a medical advantage. English is becoming more and more important with
regards to health, learning English will enable me to a better communicate with
English speakers. Be able to speak English can be helpful for me in my career.
Knowing medical English can open me the way to different important fields in
medicine. Actually in the medicine field prefer to hire people who speak more of
one language and they are right, sometimes something very important could get
lost in translation when medical English translator is used.
If I learn to speak medical English I will be able to communicate with foreign
patients and work partners, it will provide me a better position in my career and
also I will have the option to apply for jobs requiring English.
The truth is that English is internationally recognized as the language of science.
Most of the knowledge related to health is in English. Being able to use English in
my researches on the Web will give me unlimited access to knowledge.













INDEX
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 0
Unidad no. 1.- Técnicas para la obtención de conceptos generales de textos en inglés. .... 4
The skeleton .................................................................................................................................. 4
2

Body Parts: .................................................................................................................................... 6
Main nerve system ....................................................................................................................... 8
Circulatory system ........................................................................................................................ 9
Respiratory system ..................................................................................................................... 11
Digestive system ......................................................................................................................... 12
Urinarium system ........................................................................................................................ 13
The senses .................................................................................................................................. 14
Reproductive System ................................................................................................................. 15
Unidad No. 2 TÉCNICAS PARA LA APLICACIÓN DE CONECTORES ............................... 18
Cellular and chemical structures .............................................................................................. 18
How membrane cells work and functions ............................................................................... 20
How nerve cells communicate .................................................................................................. 21
How cells divide .......................................................................................................................... 22
The mitosis cell cycle ................................................................................................................. 23
....................................................................................................................................................... 23
The meiosis cell cycle ................................................................................................................ 23
....................................................................................................................................................... 23
How cells communicate ............................................................................................................. 24
Structure of the cell membrane ................................................................................................ 25
Unidad No. 3 TÉCNICAS PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE INFORMACIÓN ESPECÍFICA....... 27
Unidad No. 4 CASOS CLÍNICOS EN INGLÉS .......................................................................... 31
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 32
Glosary ............................................................................................................................................. 34
Annexus: .......................................................................................................................................... 38



3

Unit 1








4


Unidad no. 1.- Técnicas para la obtención de conceptos generales
de textos en inglés.
The skeleton

5


6

Body Parts:


9 Forarm 17 Knee 25 Chest 33 foot
10 Wrist 18 Toes 26 Upper abdomen 34 toes
11 Thumb 19 Hair 27 Lower abdomen
12 Palm 20 Eye 28 Penis
13 Fingers 21 Nose 29 Abdomen
14 Groin 22 Ear 30 Hand
15 Penis 23 Cheek 31 Leg
16 Thigh 24 Neck 32 Elbow
1 Head
2 Head
3 Face
4 Mouth
5 Chin
6 Armpit
7 Arm
8 Elbow
7



8

Main nerve system
It is a complex group of nerves and
neurons that transmit signals between
different parts of the body.
The nervous system is the anatomical
elements that permits to the body
react before a stimulus. The nerve
system controls the organisms‟
activities.
Neurons: they carry the electrical
messages that are the "language" of
the nervous system.The basic
functioning of the nervous system
depends a lot of the neurons. The
brain has billions of them, and they
have many specialized jobs.

Division of the nervous system

Central nervous System (CNS)
It is the principal control center of the
body. This system allows the control
and integration of the nervous
information. The brain and spinal cord
constitute the CNS it is located in the
cranium and spinal canal of the spine.
The central nervous system includes:

The brain: lies within the skull and is
shaped like a mushroom. The brain
weighs approximately 1.3 to 1.4 kg. It
has nerve cells called neurons and
supporting cells called the glia.
There are two types of matter in the
brain: grey matter and white
matter. Grey matter receives and
stores impulses. Cell bodies of
neurons and neuroglia are in the grey
matter. White matter in the brain
carries impulses to and from grey
matter. It consists of the nerve fibers
(axons).

The spinal cord: is along tube like
structure which extends from
the brain. The spinal cord is
composed of a series of 31
segments. A pair of spinal nerves
comes out of each segment. The
region of the spinal cord from which a
pair of spinal nerves originates is
called the spinal segment. Both
motor and sensory nerves are located
in the spinal cord.

Peripheral nervous System
(PNS)
Nerves are bundles of neuron fibers.
The nerves in the body and head that
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carry information to and from the
central nervous system are called the
peripheral nerves. This System is a
set of nervous fibers that conduct the
information of the CNS for the
functionality of the organism. The
twelve cranial nerves and the thirty-
first spinal nerves are in the
splanchnocranium and distributed in
the body segments.





Circulatory system
The circulatory system is responsible
for transporting materials throughout
the entire body. It transports nutrients,
water, and oxygen to your billions of
body cells and carries away wastes
such as carbon dioxide that body cells
produce. It is an amazing highway
that travels through your entire body
connecting all your body cells.
Parts of the Circulatory System,
The circulatory System is divided into
three major parts:
 The Heart
 The Blood
 The Blood Vessels
The Heart
The Heart is an amazing organ. The
heart beats about 3 BILLION times
during an average lifetime. It is a
muscle about the size of the fist. The
heart is located in the center of your
chest slightly to the left. It's job is to
pump your blood and keep the blood
moving throughout the body.

The Blood
The blood is a substance that is
constantly flowing through the body.
Blood Cells
The Red Blood Cells, White Blood
Cells and Platelets are made by the
bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft
tissue inside of our bones that
produces blood cells.
Red Blood Cells: are responsible for
carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide,
pick up oxygen in the lungs and
transport it to all the body cells. After
delivering the oxygen to the cells it
gathers up the carbon dioxide and
transports carbon dioxide back to the
lungs where it is removed from the
body when we exhale.
White Blood Cells: help to the body
fight off germs, attack and destroy
germs when they enter the body.
Platelets: are blood cells that help
stop bleeding
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Plasma: is the liquid part of the blood.
Approximately half of the blood is
made of plasma. The plasma carries
the blood cells and other components
throughout the body. Plasma is made
in the liver.
The Blood Vessels
 Arteries
 Capillaries
 Veins
Arteries: carry oxygen rich blood
away from the heart.
Capillaries: are tiny blood vessels,
connect arteries to veins. Oxygen and
wastes pass in and out of your blood
through the capillary walls.
Veins: carry blood back toward your
heart.









11

Respiratory system
Respiration is the set of events that
results in the exchange of oxygen
from the environment and carbon
dioxide from the body's cells. The
process of taking air into the lungs is
inspiration, or inhalation, and the
process of breathing it out is
expiration, or exhalation.
All of this couldn't happen without the
respiratory system, which includes the
nose, throat, voice box, windpipe, and
lungs.
At the top of the respiratory system,
the nostrils act as the air intake,
bringing air into the nose, where it's
warmed and humidified.
Air can also be taken in through the
mouth. These two openings of the
airway meet at the pharynx, at the
back of the nose and mouth. The
pharynx is part of the digestive
system as well as the respiratory
system because it carries both food
and air. At the bottom of the pharynx,
this pathway divides in two, one for
food (the esophagus) and the other
for air. The epiglottis, a small flap of
tissue, covers the air-only passage
when we swallow, keeping food and
liquid from going into the lungs.
The larynx is the uppermost part of
the air-only pipe. This short tube
contains a pair of vocal cords, which
vibrate to make sounds.




The trachea extends downward from
the base of the larynx. It lies partly in
the neck and partly in the chest
cavity. The walls of the trachea are
strengthened by stiff rings of cartilage
to keep it open. At its bottom end, the
trachea divides into left and right air
tubes called bronchi, which connect
to the lungs. Within the lungs, the
bronchi branch into smaller bronchi
and even smaller tubes called
bronchioles. Bronchioles end in tiny
air sacs called alveoli, where the
exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide actually takes place.





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The lungs also contain elastic tissues
that allow them to inflate and deflate
without losing shape and are encased
by a thin lining called the pleura. This
network of alveoli, bronchioles, and
bronchi is known as the bronchial
tree.
The diaphragm plays a lead role in
breathing. It moves downward when
we breathe in, enlarging the chest
cavity and pulling air in through the
nose or mouth. When we breathe
out, the diaphragm moves upward,
forcing the chest cavity to get smaller
and pushing the gases in the lungs up
and out of the nose and mouth.


Digestive system

The digestive system helps the body
digest food. In order to use the food
we eat, our body has to break the
food down that it can process; it also
has to excrete waste.
It begins in the mouth where the food
is partly broken down by the process
of chewing then the food enters to the
esophagus that is a long tube that
moves food from the back of the
throat to the stomach. The stomach a
stretchy sack shaped like the letter J
that churns the food and bathes it in a
very strong acid.
After being in the stomach, food
enters the small intestine that breaks
down the food mixture even more so
the body can absorb all the vitamins,
minerals, proteins, carbohydrates,
and fats.
The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
send different juices to the first part of
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the small intestine that helps to digest
food and allow the body to absorb
nutrients. The pancreas makes juices
that help the body digest fats and
protein, the juice from the liver called
bile helps to absorb fats into the
bloodstream. And the gallbladder
serves as a warehouse for bile,
storing it until the body needs it.
The leftover waste parts of the food
that the body can't use goes on to the
large intestine where some of the
water and electrolytes are removed
from the food.
Finally the solid waste is then stored
in the rectum until it is excreted via
the anus.




Urinarium system
The body produces urine as a way to
get rid of waste and extra water that it
doesn't need. Before leaving your
body, urine travels through the urinary
tract.
The urinary tract includes the:
kidneys: that filter waste from the
blood and produce urine.
ureters: that take urine from the kidn
ey to the bladder
bladder: holds urine until it's time to
go to the bathroom.
urethra: carries urine from the bladde
r to out of the body.
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Once urine is produced, it travels from
the kidney to the bladder, where it's
stored until you need to go to the
bathroom. The bladder expands as it
fills; when it's full, nerve endings in
the bladder wall send a message to
the brain that you need to pee, the
bladder walls contract and the
sphincter relaxes. The urine then
flows from the bladder and out of the
body through the urethra. For boys,
the urethra ends at the tip of the
penis. For girls, it's above the vaginal
opening.

The senses

The senses are based on receptor
cells or groups of receptor cells
called sense organs.
Balance: involves the body‟s sense
of movement and gravity or the
relationship
between one‟s
own body and the
earth
Proprioception: it
lets us know
exactly where our
body parts are,
how we are
positioned in
space and to plan
our movements.
Taste: Receptors
for taste are
located on the
tongue at the taste
buds. Taste buds
are at the top of
the tongue. There arre four different
taste receptors: sweet, sour, salt,
bitter.
Touch: The skin is the organ, which
contains the receptors for touch and
temperature. The receptors are found
in different concentrations at different
areas of the body.
Sight: Sight or vision is the capability
of the eye(s) to focus and detect
images of visible light on
photoreceptors in
the retina of each
eye that
generates
electrical nerve
impulses for
varying colors,
hues, and
brightness
Hearing: Hearing
or audition is the
sense of sound
perception.
Hearing is all
about vibration.
Mechanoreceptor
s turn motion into
electrical nerve
pulses, which are
located in the inner ear.
Smell: is our ability to detect scent –
chemical, molecules in the air. Our
olfactory system begins in our nose
which has hundreds of olfactory
receptors.

15

Reproductive System
Female reproductive system
The external part of the female
reproductive organ is called the vulva
that is located between the legs and
covers the opening of the vagina and
other reproductive organs located
inside the body.
A female's internal reproductive
organs are the vagina, uterus,
fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
The vagina is a muscular, hollow tube
that extends from the
vagina opening to the uterus.
The vagina connects with the uterus
to the cervix that
has strong, thick walls. The
opening of the cervix is very small.


The uterus is shaped like an upside
down pear with thick muscular walls.
At the upper corners of the uterus, the
fallopian tubes connect uterus to the
ovaries that are two oval-shaped
organs that lie to the upper right and l
eft of the uterus. The ovaries store
and release eggs into the fallopian tub
es in the process called ovulation.
Once the egg is in the fallopian tube,
tiny hairs in the tube's lining help push
it down the narrow passage
way toward the uterus.




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Male reproductive system
The male reproductive system
includes:
• The testicles: produce and
store millions of tiny sperm
cells and produce hormones.
• The duct system: made up of
the epididymis and the vas
deferens
• The accessory glands:
include the seminal vesicles
and prostate gland
• The penis: where semen and
urine exit the body through the
urethra.
Alongside the testicles are
the epididymis and the vas
deferens which make up the duct
system of the male reproductive
organs. The vas deferens transports
the sperm-containing fluid
called semen. The epididymis
connects to the vas deferens.
The epididymis and the testicles hang
in the scrotum that is a bag of skin
that helps to regulate the temperature
of testicles. The accessory glands,
including the seminal vesicles and the
prostate gland, provide fluids that
lubricate the duct system and nourish
the sperm.
The urethra is the channel that carries
the semen to the outside of the body
through the penis.
The penis is made up of two parts:
the shaft and the glans. The shaft is
the main part of the penis and the
glans is the tip. At the end of the
glans is a small slit or opening.

17

Unit 2














18

Unidad No. 2 TÉCNICAS PARA LA APLICACIÓN DE
CONECTORES
Cellular and chemical structures

Cell Part Function
Cell (plasma) membrane Controls entry into and out of cell

Cell Wall shapes and supports a plant cell

Cytoplasm

substance within cell
Endoplasmic reticulum surface for chemical activity
stores and releases chemicals

Golgi bodies digestion center

Lyosome mircotubule hollow cylinder that supports and
shapes cell

Mitochondria "powerhouse" of cell

Nuclear membrane holds nucleus together

Nucleolus spherical body within nucleus

Ribosomes where proteins are made

Vacuole contains water and dissolved minerals
Nucleo Contains information
to run cell

Nucleus: is where the DNA is kept
and RNA is transcribed. RNA is
moved out of the nucleus through the
nuclear pores. The
nucleolus is usually
visible as a dark spot
in the nucleus, and is
the location of
ribosome formation.
Ribosomes: are
where RNA is
translated into
protein. These
organelles are very small, made up of
50 proteins and several long RNAs
bound together. Ribosomes do not
have a membrane. Ribosomes fall
into two seperate units while not
synthesizing protein.
19

Endoplasmic reticulum: is the
transport system for molecules
needed for certain changes and
specific
destinations,
instead of
molecules that
float freely in
the cytoplasm.
There are two
types of ER,
rough and
smooth. Rough
ER has
ribosomes
attached to it, as mentioned before,
and smooth ER does not.
Lysosome: is
the digestive
system in the
cell. It breaks
down
molecules into
their base
components digestive enzymes. This
demonstrates one of the reasons for
having all parts of a cell
compartmentalized, the cell couldnt
use the destructive enzymes if they
werent sealed off from the rest of the
cell.
Cell membrane: functions as a semi-
permeable barrier, allowing a very few
molecules across it while fencing the
majority of organically produced
chemicals inside
the cell. Electron
microscopic
examinations of cell
membranes have
led to the
development of the
lipid bilayer model.

Cytoplasm: was defined earlier as
the material between the plasma
membrane (cell membrane) and the
nuclear envelope. Fibrous proteins
that occur in the
cytoplasm, referred
to as the
cytoskeleton maintain
the shape of the cell
as well as anchoring
organelles, moving
the cell and controlling internal
movement of structures.
Microtubules: serve as a
"temporary scaffolding" for other
organelles. Actin filaments are thin
threads that function in cell division
and cell motility. Intermediate
filaments are between the size of the
microtubules and the actin
filaments.eeze-fracturing is able to
split the bilayer.
Vacuoles: are single-
membrane organelles
that are essentially part
of the outside that is
located within the cell.
Mitochondria: consist
s of an outer and an
inner membrane. The
mitochondria are the
main energy source of
the cell, in fact, they
are often called the
"power plants" of the
body because this is where energy
(ATP) is created.
Golgi complex- It is the
organelle in the cell that is
responsible for sorting and
correctly shipping the
proteins produced in the ER.
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How membrane cells work and functions

The cell membrane surrounds the cytoplasm of living cells, physically separating
the intracellular component from the extracellular environment. The cell membrane
also plays a role in anchoring the cytoskeleton to provide shape to the cell, and in
attaching to the extracellular matrix and other cells to help group cells together to
form tissues.
The cell membrane is selectively permeable and able to regulate what enters and
exits the cell, thus facilitating the transport of materials needed for survival. The
movement of substances across the membrane can be either "passive", occurring
without the input of cellular energy, or "active", requiring the cell to expend energy
in transporting it. The membrane also maintains the cell potential. The cell
membrane thus works as a selective filter that allows only certain things to come
inside or go outside the cell.
The cell employs a number of transport mechanisms that involve biological
membranes:
Passive osmosis and diffusion: Some substances such as carbon dioxide and
oxygen, can move across the plasma membrane by diffusion, which is a passive
transport process. Because the membrane acts as a barrier for certain molecules
and ions, they can occur in different concentrations on the two sides of the
membrane. Such a concentration gradient across a semipermeable membrane
sets up an osmotic flow for the water.
Transmembrane protein channels and transporters: Nutrients, such as sugars
or amino acids, must enter the cell, and certain products of metabolism must leave
the cell. Such molecules diffuse passively through protein channels such
as aquaporins in facilitated diffusion or are pumped across the membrane
by transmembrane transporters. Protein channel proteins, also called permeases,
are usually quite specific, recognizing and transporting only a limited food group of
chemical substances, often even only a single substance.
Endocytosis: is the process in which cells absorb molecules by engulfing them.
The plasma membrane creates a small deformation inward, called an invagination,
in which the substance to be transported is captured. The deformation then
pinches off from the membrane on the inside of the cell, creating a vesicle
containing the captured substance. Endocytosis is a pathway for internalizing solid
particles, small molecules and ions and macromolecules.
Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the cell by invagination and
formation of a vesicle, the membrane of a vesicle can be fused with the plasma
21

membrane, extruding its contents to the surrounding medium. This is the process
of exocytosis. Exocytosis occurs in various cells to remove undigested residues of
substances brought in by endocytosis, to secrete substances such as hormones
and enzymes, and to transport a substance completely across a cellular barrier

How nerve cells communicate

The electrical signals (nerve
impulses) carried by neurons are
passed on to other neurons at
junctions called synapses. The signal
may be directly transferred at
electrical synapses or, if there is no
physical link between adjacent
neurons, the signal is carried across
the gap by chemicals called
neurotransmitters. By using
neurotransmitters, the nervous
system can alter the way a message
is passed on. Each neuron
communicates with many others and
this contributes to the amazing
complexity of the brain.
What is Synapse?

When a nerve impulse reaches the
synapse at the end of a neuron, it
cannot pass directly to the next one.
Instead, it triggers the neuron to
release a chemical neurotransmitter.
The neurotransmitter drifts across the
gap between the two neurons. On
reaching the other side, it fits into a
tailor-made receptor on the surface of
the target neuron, like a key in a lock.
This docking process converts the
chemical signal back into an electrical
nerve impulse.
Neurotransmitters:
Your brain uses over 50 different
neurotransmitter chemicals. Although
electrical signalling between neurons
is quicker and more energy efficient,
chemical signalling is far more
versatile. The signals carried by some
neurotransmitters excite the target
cell while others dampen down their
activity, depending on the type of
neurotransmitter released at the
synapse and the receptors they
reach.


22



How cells divide
Most of the time, when a cell in the
body divides, each new cell carries a
complete set of chromosomes
There are two types of cell division:
mitosis and meiosis. Most of the time
when people refer to “cell division,”
they mean mitosis, the process of
making new body cells. Meiosis is the
type of cell division that creates egg
and sperm cells.
Meiosis is the process by which
certain sex cells are created. The egg
or sperm cells contain only a total of
23 chromosomes. When an egg and
sperm unite to make a fertilized egg,
the chromosomes add up to equal
46. Meiosis, ensures that humans
have the same number of
chromosomes in each generation.
Mitosis is a fundamental process for
life. During mitosis, a cell duplicates
all of its contents, including its
chromosomes, and splits to form two
identical daughter cells. Because this
process is so critical, the steps of
mitosis are carefully controlled by a
number of genes. When mitosis is not
regulated correctly, health problems
such as cancer can result. Mitosis
describes the process by which the
nucleus of a cell divides to create two
new nuclei, each containing an
identical copy of DNA. Almost all of
the DNA duplication in the body is
carried out through mitosis.

23

The mitosis cell cycle

The meiosis cell cycle








24

How cells communicate
1. Signals travel into cells:
Cells communicate by sending
and receiving signals. Signals may
come from the environment, or
they may come from other cells. In
order to trigger a response, these
signals must be transmitted across
the cell membrane. Sometimes
the signal itself can cross the
membrane. Other times the signal
works by interacting with receptor
proteins that contact both the
outside and inside of the cell. In
this case, only cells that have the
correct receptors on their surfaces
will respond to the signal.



2. Signals pass from protein to
protein:
Once inside the cell, the signal
continues on its way. Its ultimate
destination depends on the nature of
the signal, with some signals traveling
to the nucleus or to other structures
inside the cell. Signals most often
move through the cell by passing from
protein to protein, each protein
modifying the next in some way.
Collectively, the proteins that relay a
signal to its destination make up a
signaling pathway. A signaling
pathway can
have few or many
steps. Some
signaling
pathways branch
out in different
directions,
sending signals to more than one
place in the cell. As a signal is
transferred from protein to protein, it
can also be amplified. By dividing and
amplifying a signal, the cell can
convert a small signal into a large
response.
3. Proteins direct cellular
responses.
Once a signal reaches its target
molecule (usually a protein), it works
to change the behavior of the cell.
Depending on the signaling molecules
involved, the cell can respond in a
variety of ways.
4. Cells integrate multiple signals:
Each cell receives a complex
combination of signals which
simultaneously trigger many different
signaling pathways. Each step in a
signaling pathway provides an
opportunity for cross-talk between
different signals. Through cross-talk,
the cell integrates information from
many different signaling pathways to
initiate an appropriate response.


25

Structure of the cell membrane
The chemical composition of the plasma membrane between cells varies
depending on the function or tissue in which they are, but you can study generally.
The plasma membrane consists of a double layer of phospholipids, by non-
covalently bound proteins to the bilayer, and sugars covalently bound to lipids, or
proteins. The largest molecules are lipids, and it is estimated that there are lipid per
50 proteins. However, proteins, due to their larger size, represent approximately 50
% of the mass of the membrane.
Lipids
98% of the lipids present in the cell membrane are amphipathic that is that they
have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobi. The most abundant are
phosphoglycerides and sphingolipids , which are found in all cells ; followed
glycolipids and steroids. The latter are absent or scarce in the plasma membranes
of prokaryotes. There are also neutral fats , which are amphipathic lipids , but they
represent only 2% of total membrane lipids.
Phosphoglycerides: a glycerol molecule with a phosphoric acid and two long
chain fatty acid is esterified; Membrane major phosphoglycerides are
phosphatidylethanolamine or cephalin , lecithin or phosphatidylcholine ,
phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine .
Sphingolipids: Membrane lipids are composed of; Family only has sphingomyelin
phosphorus; and other carbohydrates have therefore called glycosphingolipids or
simply glycolipidsCholesterol: Molecules are small compared to most other
amphipathic lipids. Is arranged with the hydroxyl group to the outside of the cell.
Cholesterol is an important factor in the fluidity and membrane permeability factor,
occupying the gaps left by other molecules. A greater amount of cholesterol, less
permeable membrane is fluid .

26

Unit 3










27

Unidad No. 3 TÉCNICAS PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE
INFORMACIÓN ESPECÍFICA
Potential new Alzheimer's treatment may come from an unexpected protein
A protein implicated in producing
aggregates harmful to the body may
protect against Alzheimer's. Ongoing
research into how this mechanism
might work has led one team of
researchers to the verge of creating a
new drug to prevent or delay
Alzheimer's symptoms.
Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein that
acts as a transporter,
carrying vitamin A and the hormone
thyroxine through the body via
cerebrospinal fluid and the
bloodstream. TTR is mostly produced
in the liver and in the brain regions
where cerebrospinal fluid is made,
although recent studies have found
that it can be produced at low levels
in neurons.
To act efficiently as a transporter,
TTR forms a structure called a
"tetramer" comprised of four subunits.
However, these tetramers can break
down in people carrying a TTR gene
mutation, and in old people. When
this happens, the subunits of the
tetramer fold into tough aggregates
called amyloids, which accumulate in
the heart, kidneys, peripheral nerves
and elsewhere.
Build-ups of these amyloids are
associated with familial amyloid
polyneuropathy and senile systemic
(cardiac) amyloidosis - diseases that
are known to shorten lifespan.
TTR as tool to prevent Alzheimer's
In the mid-1990s, reports began to
emerge that TTR was able to bind to
amyloid-beta, the protein associated
with Alzheimer's, and prevent it from
aggregating. If correct, these reports
would suggest that TTR may protect
against Alzheimer's.
The Scripps Research Institute's Prof.
Joel N. Buxbaum, co-author of the
new study, was skeptical.
"At the time it seemed unlikely that
one amyloidogenic precursor would
have a beneficial effect on the
aggregation of another," he
told Medical News Today. "The in
vitro experiments were technically
suspect, but turned out to be
essentially correct. "

A proposed new molecule compound
would modestly boost HSF1 activity
and TTR production in neurons in
order to prevent or delay the
symptoms of Alzheimer's
Following the initial report of the link
in 1995, Prof. Buxbaum points out the
laboratory in question did not publish
any further papers on the subject for
another 10 years, suggesting that the
results might not be reproducible.
"Given that background, I was
predisposed to be skeptical," he told
us, "which was probably a good thing
since it made me look at the data
from our genetic experiments very
critically. I figured if the results
convinced me, they should convince
anyone."
However, in a 2008 study, Prof.
Buxbaum and colleagues expanded
their current work on TTR
28

amyloidoses to test the Alzheimer's
theory. In transgenic mice bred to
overproduce amyloid-beta - and so
display symptoms of Alzheimer's -
Buxbaum's team experimented with
also overproducing TTR.
It worked. The team found that the
TTR reduced the aggregating
amyloid-beta in the mice's brains and
improved their memory.
Subsequent studies by Buxbaum's
team further probed the TTR's binding
mechanism and how this prevents
amyloid-beta from forming harmful
aggregates in the brain.
Utilizing other proteins to boost TTR's
protective properties
In their latest study, Prof. Buxbaum
and lead authors Xin Wang and
Francesca Cattaneo analyzed DNA
near the TTR gene. The researchers
wondered whether transcription
factors - special DNA-binding proteins
produced in "the promoter region" -
could increase activity of the TTR
gene.
One of these transcription factors,
Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), was
able to bind to the promoter of the
TTR gene, boosting TTR production.
Interestingly, this boost in TTR
production could only occur in
neuronal-type cells and not in the liver
cells where the bulk of the body's
TTR is produced. In fact, HSF1
seemed to slightly decrease TTR
production in liver cells.
"This result was completely
unexpected when we started this
research," says Prof. Buxbaum. "But
now we realize that it could indicate a
new approach for Alzheimer's
prevention and therapy."
To examine how this might apply to
Alzheimer's, the researchers
compared a group of transgenic
"Alzheimer's mice" with a group of
ordinary lab mice. They found that the
frequency of HSF1 binding to the TTR
gene promoter was doubled in the
Alzheimer's mice.
This has led the team to the early
stages of developing a small molecule
compound that could be delivered in a
pill. This compound would modestly
boost HSF1 activity and TTR
production in neurons in order to
prevent or delay the symptoms of
Alzheimer's.
Medical News Today recently
reported on another study that looked
at amyloid-beta's influence on
Alzheimer's in a mouse model.
Administering the mice with a
compound to regulate production of
amyloid-beta, the researchers behind
that study reported promising results
in "reversing" the symptoms of
Alzheimer's.
Written by David McNamee



29

Reflection about the article
I found the article surprising, because technological advances are contributing
significantly to the development of preventive and pharmacological methods in
diseases that once were considered like incurable. I think that the different studies
on scientific and health research contributing significantly to the hope of the people
that are sick. It's amazing how thoroughly researching results can be had at the
time not thinking or was assumed to be negative.
This article caught my attention since I read the title because Alzheimer 's disease
is considered a progressive and incurable disease which can only be controlled
and in some cases is achieved only reduce symptoms but do not stop .
It's amazing how a single protein can help so much , at least I think , but of course
the side effects are significant but to be the first study that protein results consider
them effective , because its effectiveness was discovered when scientists and
researchers will driven to attempt to counteract the harmful effects such as heart
and liver diseases














30

Unit 4
















31

Unidad No. 4 CASOS CLÍNICOS EN INGLÉS
1. Case study:
A 63-year-old lawyer complained of increasing fatigue and sleepiness over several
months. He became short of breath when walking but had no problem breathing at
rest. He did not feel rested when he awoke in the morning and often had morning
headaches. When he was five-years-old he had polio and was treated with an iron
lung. A physical examination showed that his chest wall movement was
diminished. He had severe curvature of the spine, and his abdomen did not rise
during inspiration, which indicated a weak diaphragm. His pulmonary function
(breathing) test showed a sharply reduced lung volume and an inability to sustain a
maximal breathing effort. His blood carbon dioxide was high and his oxygen low. A
sleep study showed that his breathing slowed down even more at night, which was
associated with a severe decrease in his oxygen level. He was prescribed a
ventilator to use when he slept that delivered pressurized air to his lung via a mask
strapped over his nose and mouth. His sleep improved and his morning headaches
went away but he still became short of breath when he walked fast.

2. Case study

A 70-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit with acute hypoxemic
respiratory failure. 48 hours earlier, he underwent a surgical resection of the lower
lobe of the left lung for stage IIIB adenocarcinoma of the lung. During the 6-hour
operation, he received a total fluid infusion of 5.5 L (including 3 units of packed red
blood cells). The cumulative fluid infusion given during the peri-operative period
(during surgery and the first 24 hours post-op) was 8.0 L with a net negative 0.7L.
While the patient was in the recovery room, the endotracheal tube was removed
without complications, and he transferred to the ward a few hours
later. Approximately 36 hours later, dyspnea and hypoxemia were noted, and after
4 hours of continued hypoxemia, the trachea was inutbated to facilitate mechanical
ventilation.
32



Conclusion

I think that having medical English classes could really be a good way for improve
my writing and speaking skills. How ever i really don‟t speak English very vey well
but at list i try.
Actually, during the last classes I tried a lot to participe in class taking away the
fear and shy. I know that there are different ways to enhance my knowledge of
English so I will continue to practice the words that I learned this months.
I alredy know that English can improve my life, it can let me get smarter, meet
people, earn more money, etc.
During the course the important thing was my teacher becayse she has broad
knowledge and well preparated for the class. The way she teached in class was
different because she made spoke English and tried to everyone.
My favorite part of the course was learned the systems.
I feel that my oral, written have grown significantly. I had the opportunitie to learned
general knowledge about medicine.





33

Glosary

















34

Glosary
abdomen el abdomen
ache, pain el dolor
ambulance la ambulancia
ankle el tobillo
antibiotic el antibiótico
antihistamine el antihistamínico
antiseptic el antiséptico
Anus ano
anus el ano
Appendix apéndice
arch el empeine del pie
arm el brazo
armpit el sobaco, la axila
artery la arteria
arthritis la artritis
artificial respiration el respiratión
artificial
Ascending colon Colon ascendente
aspirin la aspirina
back la espalda
bald calvo adj
bald spot el claro
bandaid curita
belly button el ombligo
bellyache el dolor de barriga
biceps los bíceps
Bile bilis
bite la mordedura
bite (bird, insect) la picadura
bladder la vejiga
Bladder vejiga
bleeding la sangría
blood cell la célula sanguíneo
Blood pressure presión arterial
blood sugar la glicemia, la
glucemia
blood-donor donante de sangre
blood-pressure presión sanguínea
blood-test el análisis de sangre
blood-type el grupo sanguíneo
blood-vessel el vaso sanguíneo
bloody ensangrentado/a
bone el hueso
brain el cerebro, los sesos
broken bone el hueso roto
bruise el moretón, el
cardenal
bulbourethral
glands:
glándula bulboretral
buttocks las nalgas, las
cachas
calf la pantorrilla
cancer el cáncer
capillaries los vasos capilares
capsule la cápsula, la pildora
cartilage el cartílago
cast el enyesado, la
escayola
Cecum ciego
cheeks las mejillas, los
carrillos
chest cold el resfriado de pecho
chest, bosom el pecho
Chime quimo
chin la barba, la barbilla,
el mentón
collarbone la clavícula
colon el colon
concussion la conmoción
cerebral
constipation el estreñimiento
cough la tos (toser)
cough-drop la pastilla para la tos
crotch la horcajadura
crutch la muleta
cut (in skin) la cortadura
dead muerto/a
death el muerte
decompression
sickness
la enfermedad de
descompresión
decongestant descongestionante
dental cavity la caries
dental filling la obturación, el
empaste
dentist odontólogo
Descending colon Colon descendente
diabetic el/la diabético/a
diagnosis el diagnóstico
Diaphragm El diafragma
diarrhea la diarrea
35

disease el morbo, la dolencia
dosage la dosificación, la
dosis
dose la dosis
drug fármaco
earache el dolor de oídos
eardrops las gotas para el
oídos
eardrum el tímpano
ears las orejas
Ectopic pregnancy embarazo ectópico
Egg ovulo
elbow el codo
Embyro embrión
Equilibrium equilibrio
Estrogen estrógeno
examination el reconocimiento
médico
eyebrow la ceja
eyelash la pestaña
eyelid el párpado
eyes los ojos
face la cara
fallen arches los pies planos
Fallopian tubes trompas de falopio
fever la fiebre calentura
finger el dedo
fingernail la uña
fingertip la punta del dedo
fist el puño
follicle el folículo
foot el pie
forearm el antebrazo
forehead la frente
foreskin prepucio
Gall bladder vesícula biliar
gums las encías
hair el pelo
hallucinate (verb) alucinar
hallucinogenic
drug
droga alucinógena
hand el mano
hayfever el fiebre del heno
He is allergic to
penicillin
Tiene una alergia a
la penicilinia.
He is running a
fever.
tiene fiebre.



head la cabeza
head cold el resfriado de
cabeza
headache el dolor de la cabeza
Hearing oido
heart el corazón
heart-attack la ataque cardíaco
heartburn la acedía
heel el talón, el calcañar
hemorrhoids los hemorroides
high blood-
pressure
la hipertensión
hip la cadera
hyperglycemic hiperglucémico/a
hypoglycemic hipoglucémico/a
illness la enfermedad
index finger el dedo índice
infection la infección, el
contagio
injection la inyección
injury la herida, la lesión
insulin la insulina
intestines los intestinos
Jejunum yeyuno
joint la articulación
kidney el riñón
Kidney: riñón
knee la rodilla
kneecap la rótula, la
choquezuela
knuckle el nudillo
la membrana
celulósica
cell membrane
leg la pierna
ligament el ligamento
lips los labios
little finger el dedo meñique
Liver hígado
lungs los pulmónes
lymph gland el ganglio linfático
malaria el paludismo, la
malaria
malignant maligno/a
marrow la médula, el
tuétano, el meollo
36

mastectomy mastectomía
medical emergency la urgencia
Metabolic wastes Desechos
metabólicos
middle finger el dedo del corazón
mole el lunar
motion sickness el mareo
moustache el bigote, el
mostacho
mouth la boca
muscle el músculo
Nasal cavity La cavidad nasal
nausea la náusea, las
bascas
neck el cuello
needle la aguja hipodérmica
nerve el nervio
nipple el pézon
nitrogen bubbles las burbujas del
nitrógino
nitrogen narcosis la narcosis de
nitrógeno
nose la nariz
nosebleed la hemorragia nasal
nurse la enfermera
operation operación
Oral cavity La cavidad bucal
palm la palma
penis el pene
penis pene
Pharynx La faringe
physical
examination
la exploración física
pill pastilla
Pleural cavity La cavidad pleural
poison el tóxico
pores los poros
prescription la prescripción
prostate la próstata
prostate gland próstata
pulse, heartbeat el pulso, el latido del
corazón
rabies la rabia
rash la erupción
rectum el recto
Rectum recto
respiration el respiración
rest el descanso, el
reposo
rest (verb) descansar, reposar
rib la costilla
Right bronchus el bronquio derecho
ring finger el dedo anular
Salivary glands glándulas salivales
scalp el cuero, el
cabelludo
scrotum el escroto
scrotum escroto
seminal vesicles vesículas seminales
shin la espinilla
shinbone la espinilla, la tibia
shoulder el hombro
side el costado, el lado
sideburns las patillas
Sight Vista
Sigmoid colon: Colon sigmiode
sinus el seno
skin la piel
Smell olfato
snakebite la mordedura de
serpiente
snoring los ronquidos
sore la llaga, la úlcera
sore inflamado, dolorido
Sperm espermatozoide
Sphincter esfínter
spine el espinazo, la
columna vertebral
splint la tablilla
stomach el estómago
Stomach estómago
suppository el supositorio
surgeon el cirujano
surgery la cirugía
surgical quirúrgico
tablet la tableta
Taste gusto
teeth los dientes, las
muelas
temple la sien
37

testicle el testículo, la turma
the injured person la persona herida
thigh el muslo
throat la garganta
throbbing pain el dolor pungente
thumb el pulgar
to die morir
toe el dedo de pie
toenail la uña del dedo del
pie
tongue la lengua
tonsils las anginas, las
amígdalas
toothache el dolor de muelas
torso el torso
Touch tacto
Transverse colon: Colon transverso
tumor el tumor
Ureter ureter
Urethra uretra
Urinate orinar
Uterus útero
vaccination la vacunación
vaccine la vacuna
vagina la vagina
vein la vena
venom el tóxico, el veneno
vomiting el vómito
waist la cintura, el talle
wart la verruga
wrist la muñeca










38

Annexus:

1.- Complete the table.
Noun Verb
Cut Cut
Bandage Bandaged
Blood Bleed
bruise Brused

2.- Match the injuries and the causes.
1.- he burned his finger. He touched a hot burner on the stove.
2.- He twisted his ankle. He missed a step walking downstairs.
3.- He cut his foot. He walked barefoot on some glass.
4.- He has a bullet wound in his arm. He was Shot during a robbery.
5. He has a concussion. He fell down and banged his head.
3.- Look at the pictures and write the story.

In the number 1 observed a male person, falling from a tree lie both in number 2 a
frightened Miss, marking Oh for an ambulance to the scene, Issue 3 comes
ambulance attend to the injured and take him to the hospital to diagnose internal
lessons, finally the rugged number 4 is recovering.

4.- Answer these questions about yourself. If posible, ask another person the
same questions.
1.- Have you ever broken your arm or leg? I have never broke my arms or leg.
2.- Have you ever needed stitches? I have never neede stitches.
Noun Verb
Injury Injured
Shot Shoot
Treatment Treat
wound Wounded
1
2 4 3
39

3.- Have you ever had a concussion? I have never had a contussion.
4.- Have you ever been unconscious? I have never been unconscious.
5.- Have you ever had a blood test? I had a blood test three months ago.
6.- Have you ever been in an ambulance? I´ve never been in a ambulance.

Health: injuries
A) Common injuries
An injury is damege to part of you body, usually caused by an accident at home, in
a car, or playing sports, e.g., soccer. Here are some Common injuries:


What´s the
problem?
How did it
happen?
Result Solution
1.- I cut my finger. usinng a knife It´s bleeding. A Band-Aid
2.- I have a
concurssion.
playing soccer I´m confused; I
don´t know where
I am.
Rest
3.- I twisted my
ankle.
running for a bus I can´t walk on it
easily.
Rest + Bandage
4.- I burned my
hand.
taking something
out of a hot oven
It´s very painful. Special cream
5.- I broke my arm. I fell off my bike. I can´t use it. a cast and sling
6.- I have a bruise
on my arm
I hit it on the side
of my desk.
It´s swollen and
black and blue.
Ice pack


B) Hospital treatment
Jane fell off a chair, it her head on the floor, and knocked herself unconscious.
Her husband called an ambulance, and she was still unconscions when it
arrived.
She was rushed to the hospital (taken very quickly), where they kept her for two
days for observacion (the hospital staff watched her watched her to decide if
anything was wrong).

40

I jumped for the ball and collided with another player. (We ran into/ hit each
other.) We both had cuts on our heads, but I hand to go to the hospital for eight
stitches.

C) Woun
ds and injuries
Wound (n., v.) and injury are both used to describe harm to the body, but a
wound is generally caused by a weapon (e.g., gun or knife) and is often
intentional.
(Note the pronunciation of wound/wund/.)

He Shot the man in the chest. (A bulled wound, from a gun, in the chest)
He stabbed the woman in the back. (A knife wound in the back).
He got into a fight and got beaten up. He han a black eyes and two broten Ribs.

Exercises


5. Cover the opposite page. What are the main symptoms for these
conditions?
1 a cold: sneezing, a runny nose, a sore throat, a cough.
2.- flu: body aches, dhills, dizziness, flushing of the face, headache, decay, nausea
and vomiting.
3.-hay fever / allergies: dery cough, fever, headache, joint pain, muscle aches.
4.- diarrhea: decreased urine (fewer wet diapers in infants), dizziness or
lightheadedness, dry mouth, funken eyes, few tears to mourn.
5.-asthma: lips and Face blueness, decreased level of alertness such as severe
drowsiness or confusion, during an asthma attack, shortness of breath extreme,
rapid pulse, severe anxiety due to shortness of breath, sweating.

6. Look at the underlined letters in these pairs of woeds. Is the pronunciation
the same or different?
Examples: ache pain same/ eI/
Shot stomach different/ a/, / ^/
1.- disease diarrhea 4.- virus illness
2.-chemist ache 5.- flu pharmacy
41

3.-hurt ailergic 6.- cough enough
7.- Look at the pictures and write happened in the space below. In you
description, use the words in the box.
dentist filling Injection Painful painless


I had a horrible painfut and had to go to the dentist, first anesthetized (injection) did
not hurt that after you filling completed the damaged tooth and problem solved
paimess.
8.-Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word.
1.- I hit my hand on the desk, and now it really hurts.
2.- They say she died of a heart attack.
3.- She hand some apples that weren´t ready to eat, and now she has a painful.
4.- I´ve got this terrible painfut in my neck from sleeping in the wrong position.
5.- He died of lung cancer, even though he never smoken a cigarette in his life.
6.- I went to the doctor, and she gave me a prescription for some medication.
7.- Pollution makes his asthma worse, and it´s difficult for him to breathe.
8.- I hurt my back when I fell off that chair.

9.- Look at the opposite page again.
Have you had any of these illnesses recently? No
Have you hand any aches and pains recently? No
Are there any other illnesses you have had or still have?
If I suffer from low platelets.
If so, find the name for ti/ them in English.
42

If suffering from low platelets.

Health: illness and disease
Common problems

She´s
sneezing.
She´s coughing. She has a
sore throat.
She´s
blowing her
nose.
She has a
temperature /
fever







What´s the matter? How do you Know? ( the
symptoms)
Cause of illness
I have a cold.

I have the flu.(U) (more
serious than a cold)
I have hay fever. (U) /
I have allergies.
I have diarrhea.

I feel nauseous.
Sneezing, a runny nose, a
sore throat, a cough.
Symptoms for a cold +
aching
Muscles and a
temperature/fever sneezing,
a runny, itchy
Eyes.
I have a stomachache and
keep
Going to the bathroom.
Afraid I may vomit / throw
up.
A virus

A virus

Allergic reaction to
pollen
From grass, tres,
plants
Often food, or a virus

Food, a virus

Note: For some of these illnesses, you can see a doctor, who may give you a
prescription
[A paper with an order for medicine] that you get from a pharmacy, or you can buy
an over- counter medication [medicine that doesn´t require a prescription]

A) Aches and pains
Nouns: We ache with the following:
43


I have a toothache, a stomachache, a backache, an earache, and a headache:
for other parts of the body.
we use pain, I woke up during the night with a terrible pain my chest.

Verbs: You can use ache for some thing, e.g., mu back aches; but hurt is more
common to describe real pain, and it can be used with or without a direct object:

She hurt / Injured foot when she jumped off the bus and fell over. Or
She hurt herself when she jumped off the bus and fell over.
I hit my leg against table, and now it really hurts. [Gives me a terrible pain]

Adjetives: A common objetive is painful [painless]:

U had an Injection / a shot yesterday and it was very painful.
A: Did it hurt when you had your filling? [When the Dentist fills a hole / cavity in the
Tooth]
B: No, it was painless.
C: Seriuos illnesses, Doctors believe smoking is the major cause of lung cancer.
He had a heart attack and died almost immediately: Asthma has become more
common. [Chest illness causing breathing problems].












44

Blank Skeleton Diagram to Label
























45


How Do You Feel Today?
46

Main bones of the human Skeleton System
Clavicle: A doubly curved short bone that connects the upper arm (at the shoulder)
to the body, right above the first rib. Also known as the collar bone.
Cranium: The cranium is also referred to as the skull. The cranium supports the
structures of the face and protects the head from injury.
Femur: The thigh bone, extending from the hip to the knee. It is the largest, and
strongest bone of the body.
Fibula: The fibula is located on the outer side of the lower leg. It is smaller than the
tibia and attaches below the tibia and forms the outer part of the ankle joint.
Humerus: The upper arm bone. The longest and largest bone of the upper body.
Ilium: The Ilium is the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis. It is often
referred to as the hip bone.
Mandible: The mandible forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place.
Patella: A flat triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint. Also called
kneecap. Protects and covers the knee joint.
Radius: The radius is located on the thumb side of the forearm. The radius is the
forearm bone of the hand.
Ribs:The ribs are long curved bones which, along with the sternum, form a rib
cage. They enable the lungs to expand and they also protect the lungs, heart and
other internal organs.
Sacrum:The sacrum is a large bone that is located at the base of the spine and at
the upper back part of the pelvis where it is inserted between the two hip bones or
two Iliums.
Scapula: The bone, located on the upper back that connects the humerus with the
clavicle. Often referred to as the shoulder blade.
Sternum :A long flat bone in the middle of the chest. Supports the clavicle. The
sternum along with the ribs form the rib cage that protects the heart, lungs, and
major blood vessels from damage.
Tibia: The tibia is the second largest bone in the body. The tibia is located on the
inside of the lower leg. It connects the knee with the ankle bones. It is also known
as the shin bone.
47

Ulna: The ulna is located on the little finger side of the forearm. The ulna is the
forearm bone of the elbow.



48


49


50


51


Common diseases, illnesses and conditions
A disease is, in general terms, a process and also the consequent status of
condition of a living being, characterized by a harmful alteration of your health.
Health and disease are an integral part of life, the biological process and the
environmental and social interactions. Generally understood to disease such as
loss of health, the negative effect is due to a structural or functional impairment of a
body at any level.

Allergy: is a condition of being very sensitive to things such as food, animals,
medicine, dust, etc., which often results in rashes or difficulty in breathing.
Amnesia: is the medical condition of not being able to remember anything. It is
usually caused by the damage to the brain after an accident, diseases, etc.
Anaemia: is an unhealthy condition in which you have too few red cells in your
blood, which makes you look pale and feel tired.
Anorexia: is a serious illness common mostly in young women. They lose the
desire to eat because they feel they are unattractive because they are too fat, even
when they are not.
Asthma: is a long-lasting chest disease which at times makes breathing very
difficult.
Cancer: is a serious disease which may cause death, in which the cells in your
body increase rapidly and uncontrollably, producing abnormal growths.
Catarrh: is an inflammation of the nose and throat which, like having a cold, makes
your nose feel blocked up.
Chill: is a mild illness which can give you a slight fever, a headache and your body
might shake.
Cold: is a mild, very common illness which makes you sneeze a lot and gives you
a sore throat or a cough.
Coma: is a deep, unnatural sleep-like state, usually caused by illness or an injury,
especially to the brain.
52

Concussion: is an injury to the brain caused by a blow to your head. It is not
normally long-lasting.
Cramp: is a strong pain caused by the sudden tightening of a muscle. You often
get it during or after violent exercise.
Diabetes: is a disease in which there is too much sugar in the blood. If you suffer
from it, you may have to inject insulin into your body every day. Without insulin, you
may go into a coma and die.
Dyslexia: is a problem with reading caused by difficulty in seeing the difference
between the shapes of letters. It is also known as „word-blindness‟
Epilepsy: is an illness of the brauin which causes you to suddenly lose
consciousness or to have fits.
Fever: is a condition associated with many illness where you develop a high
temperature.
Flu: is an infectious disease which is like a bad cold. When you have it you feel
very weak and your muscles ache.
Food poisoning: is a painful stomach disorder caused by eating food which has
gone bad.
Heart attack: is a serious medical condition, sometimes fatal, in which your heart
begins to beat irregularly or fails to pump your blood properly so that it caused a lot
of pain.
Indigestion: is a pain that you get in your stomach when you find it difficult to
digest your food.
Inflammation: is a painful swelling and soreness of part of the body, which is often
red and hot to the touch.
Insomnia: is the condition of being constantly unable to sleep.
Malaria: is a common disease in hot countries. It is spread by mosquitoes and
causes attacks of fever and shivering.
Malnutrition: is poor health caused by not eating enough food or by not eating
enough of the right kinds of food.
Measles: is an infectious illness where you have a fever and small red spots on
your face and body.
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Miscarriage: is losing a baby because it is born too early for eat to live. It is usually
because of illness, shock, etc.
Nervous breakdown: is an illness where you suffer from deep depression, worry
and tiredness. You often cry uncontrollably and find it almost impossible to do your
normal work activities.
Pneumonia: is a serious disease which affects your lungs and make it difficult for
you to breath.
Rheumatism: is an illness that makes your joints or muscles stiff and painful.


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Stroke: is a sudden and severe illness which affects your brain and which can kill
you or make you paralysed in one side of your body.
Medical equipment, etc.
Look at the drawings on these pages and write the correct numbers 1-20
3. Adhesive tape
10.Bandage
2.Capsule
17.Cotton wool
2.Crutch
13.Hearing aid
19.(hypodermic)
needle
4.Ointment
1.Pill/tablet
15.Plaster cast
20.Safety pin
11.Sling
5Stethoscope
9.Stretcher
16.Thermometer
12.Tweezers
8.Walking frame
7.Walking stick
4.Wheelchair
6.X-ray










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Who’s who in medicine

A casualty: is a person who has been injured or killed in an accident, a fire or a
war.

A chiropodist: is a person who is trained to treat and care for people‟s feet.

A chiropractor: is a person who treats diseases by feeling and pressing the bones,
especially those of the back and neck.

A consultant: is a high-ranking and very esperienced hospital doctor who gives
specialist advice in one particular area of medicine.

A district nurse: is a nurse, employed by the local authority, who visits and treats
people in their own homes.

A general practitioner: is a doctor trained in general medicine who treats people in
certain local area for all kinds or illnesses. He or she is usually the first doctor
people go to when they are ill.

A home help: is a person who is employed by the medical and social services to
help people who are old ori ll with their cleaning, cooking, shopping, etc.

A matron: is the woman in charge of the nurses in a hospital. Nowdays she is
officially called a senior nursing officer.

A midwife: is a person, usually woman who has been trained to advise pregnant
women and to help them when they are giving birth.

A nurse: is a person who looks after patients in hospital.

An optician: is a person who tests people‟s eyesight and provides glasses and
contact lenses.

An osteopath: is a person who treats illness and physical problems by moving and
pressing muscles and bones.

A paediatrician: is a doctor who specializes in treating sick children.

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A pharmacist: is a person who is qualified to prepare and sell medicines.

A physiotherapist: is a person who is trained to treat patients by giving exercise or
massage, often to help them walk again after an accident or operation.

A psychiatrist: is a person who treats people suffering from mental illnesses.

A specialist: is a doctor who specializes in one area of medical treatment, e.g. an
eye.

A surgeon: is a doctor whose job is to perform operations.




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Skin and body disorders.
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At the doctor’s:
Fill in the missing words.
Last week I phoned my GP to make an appointment to see her, as I had been
feeling a bit under the wheater recently.
When I arrived at her surgery , there were only two other people in the waiting-
room. I gave my name to the receptionist and sat down to await my turn.
Fortunately I didn‟t have to wait long.
The doctor asked me what was wrong, so I told her my symptoms, namely that I
had been feeling very tired and often had difficulty to breathing. She told me to lie
down on the couch and gave me an examination.
First, she felt my pulse. Then se took my blood preasure, wich was very high. Next
sge took my temperature. It was 37.9 °C. Finally she listened to my breathing
throught her stethoscope.
She didn‟t think tgere was anything seriosly wrong with me –I was just run down.
So she wrote out a prescription for some medicine which she said would make me
feel better. She also advise me, as she always did, to stop smoking and reminded
me that if I didn‟t, then one dat I might get lung cáncer. As usual, I promised
First aid:
Lie the casualty on his* back and tilt back his head while supporting the back of his
neck with the other hand. Keep the chin up and blow air deeply and slowly into
either the mouth or the nose (sealing the oter to prevent air escaping) until the
ches trises, showing that you have inflated the lungs. If the chest fails to rise,
chechk that you have the casualty‟s head in the correct position. If it still does no
trise after this, check for an obstruction in the air way.
Remove your mouth and allow the air to escape from the lungs. Watch the chest
fall.
A blue-grey pallor towards pinkness. Give the first six to ten inflations fairly
promptly, one after the other, then work according to the reaction of your casualty.
If he is pinkish, he is probably getting enough oxygen so just keep going steadily. If
he is still pale blue-grey, he is not getting an adequate supply of oxygen, so try to
get more air into him quickly. But always wait for all the air to escape before you
blow in again. If the casualty begins to breathe again himself, let your inflations
coincide with his own breathing in, and continue until you feel that he can cope
alone. It can seem hopeless to go on with artificial respiration but persistence in
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sometimes rewarded even after as long as an hour, so keep going (as long as the
heart is beating).
When the casualty is breathing naturally, place him in the recovery position and
watch to make sure that breathing continues.
Useful verbs to do with health 1:
1. Ampute- a leg
2. Convalesce-after an illness
3. Cure-the desease
4. Cut-yourself with a knife
5. Deaden-the pain
6. Deliver-a baby
7. Dislocate-your shoulder
8. Dress-a wound
9. Inject-penicillin into the bloodstream
10. Inoculate-against diseases
11. Nick-yourself with a knife
12. Nurse-someone back to health
13. Prescribe-some medicine
14. Pull-a muscle
15. Sprain/twist-your ankle
16. Transplant-a heart or a kidney












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http://effortlessenglishclub.com/how-to-learn-english-very-fast