Marine engineering practice

1. Explain how will you o'haul a fuel injector?
A) After the fuel valve has been
disassembled then the following checks
have to be done:

 The needle guide should be immersed in
clean diesel oil and the needle taken out
and checked for free movement. In case
of any resistance which may be due to
the presence of carbon or fuel sludge the
needle may be put in and pulled out in
succession many times while keeping it
submerged in diesel oil. It is important to
do this in a container full of clean diesel
oil so the contaminants can be flushed
away.
 After the needle guide has been cleaned,
the needle should be taken almost out
and then let it fall in with its own weight.
A free and smooth movement with small
jerks as the clearance is making way for
the oil to come out is an indication that
the clearances are all right and the
needle guide is in good condition. It must
be noted that the needle should fall fully
into the seat.
 On the other hand if the needle falls
fully in one go, then the clearances have
increased and the fuel will leak past the
spindle and less fuel will go in the
cylinder. The needle must be inspected
for any wear marks if this happens. The
needle guide can be used but must be
changed soon.
 If the needle does not go down and
gets struck then it must be thoroughly
cleaned again. If still there is no
improvement then the needle might
have become bent. Check the needle for
any signs of overheating.
 The push rod end should be checked
for any abnormal wear.
 The seating between the nozzle body
and the valve body if damaged can be
repaired by lapping with fine lapping
paste. It must be noted that the lapping
paste should be thoroughly flushed away
with clean diesel oil and thereafter
blown dry with compressed air.
 Check the nozzle spring for breakage,
poor seating and other defects. Change if
required.
 Check the leak off pipes, shims,
packing etc for the condition. If the fuel
valve is water cooled, the cooling
pockets should be cleaned with
compressed air.

Tests and Adjustments

 After the parts are cleaned and
inspected the fuel valve is assembled as
per the manufacturer’s instructions and
thereafter tested for function and
performance.
 The assembled fuel valve is installed on
the test stand and after purging the pipe
line the manual handle is operated in
quick succession. The nozzle should
start discharging with a sharp crackling
noise at the set pressure. The pressure
at which the injector is supposed to fire
depends upon the manufacturer’s
engine design but normally is between
250 to 350 kg/cm2 with an allowance of
plus or minus 10 kg/cm2.
 In case the lifting pressure is not
correct, it can be adjusted by the
adjusting screw.
 The spray characteristics should be
satisfactory and as per the
manufacturers advice.
 All the holes of the injector should be
firing and can be checked by a torch
light or a filter paper can be folded as a
cone and then the injector tested. The
holes on the filter paper will show the
number of holes firing. In this procedure
you must be careful as the high pressure
spray can enter the skin and is toxic for
us.
 The spray angle should be as stated by
the manufacturer. The atomization of
the fuel should take place and solid
spray should not come out.
 Clean diesel oil should be used for the
testing purpose.
 In case the fuel valve is dripping the
needle guide should be taken out and
repaired.

2. Explain how you will change gland packing of a
pump.

3. What is a SDNR valve?
A) Also called a stop disc non return valve or screw
down stop and check valve. This type of check
valve incorporates both the lift check and globe
valve design features. The stem is used to
regulate the lift of the disc when acting as a
check valve, or to hold it in the closed position.
4. How do you o'haul a globe valve?
A) Overhaul of Globe valves
When a valve is suspected not to hold or it has
become tight or seized, it must be dismantled for
overhaul. The overhaul procedure has been
discussed below:
 Disassembly procedure:
 Remove the wheel nut and the wheel
handle
 Open the bonnet bolts and the top portion
of the valve along with the valve seat, stem
etc will come out. The bottom portion of
the valve will be separate.
 Hold the bonnet in a vice and open the
gland bolts. Then loosen the gland flange
and the gland bush. The valve stem should
then be screwed clockwise and it would
come out from below along with the valve
disc.
 Remove the set screw of other
arrangement that is securing the valve disc
to the stem.
 Remove the gland flange, gland nut, and all
the gland packings with a gland packing
extractor.
Globe valve overhaul:
 Clean, buff, and polish all the parts.
 Check all the threaded parts for damage
and if there is any damage on the thread
then the threads must be dressed by a
needle file.
 Check the stem for straightness. The
simplest method of checking is by rolling on
a flat surface, but the correct method is to
put it on a lathe and center it. Thereafter
with the help of a dial gauge put on a
magnetic stand at a suitable point, check
the distortion.
 Check the stem for scratches, as these can
damage the gland packing. Any scratches
must be removed with an emery paper or
oil stone.
 The valve and the valve seat must be
inspected and if found to be in fairly good
condition, they must be ground together by
using a guide for centering and a suitable
grade lapping paste. A 1200 grit lapping
paste would be suitable in most conditions.



Correcting Globe valve seat leakage:

 In case the valve seat is extensively
damaged, and cannot be repaired by
lapping or will take a very long time to lap,
the same can be changed if it is replaceable.
Some replaceable seats are screwed in,
while some are force or shrink fitted. In the
case it is shrink filled,the old seat can be
taken out by a hammer and chisel. But
when it is to be put back, the seat must be
kept in the fridge room (meat room -14 deg
C approx), or can be cooled by liquid
nitrogen or CO2 . After cooling the seat will
go in smoothly and after sometime expand
and assume position. But if it if built-in type
then it must be machined true using a valve
seat cutter.
 A valve seat cutter is a special tool to cut
the seats of the errant valves. It has
different sizes of cutters to suit the
different valves. It also has a centering
guide to correctly align the tool.
 The seat on the valve disc can be put up on
the lathe and machined true. This should be
followed by lapping the two parts together.
 This page discusses the reassembly of the
globe valve as part of an overhaul. Special
mention is made of the need to correctly
center the valve seat on the valve disc. In
certain types of globe valves guide vanes
are not present, and they could lead to
wrong assembly. An improper fitting would
lead to globe valve seat leakage or damage
the globe valve.
Assembly of Globe Valve
 Clean all parts and blow dust with
compressed air.Construction of Globe Valve
 Put the valve disc on the stem with the set
screw or the arrangement provided.
 Put grease on the threads and screw in the
stem through the yoke nut from down
below. Care must be taken to put the gland
nut and gland flange in correct order in
between.
 Put back the wheel handle and the wheel
nut and tighten it.
 Now close the valve wheel handle fully, so
that the valve stem along with the valve
disc extends the maximum down.
 Now put a correct size new gasket on the
space provided on the valve body, stick it
with grease or Molyslip in case of high
temperature applications.
 Now place the valve disc on the valve seat
and correctly center it. This is very
important in certain valves where there is
no guide.
 Now put the nuts and the bolts in place but
do not tighten them. There would be some
gap between the body and the valve
bonnet. From there check again that the
valve is properly centered.
 Now start opening the valve. As you do so,
the gap between the bonnet and the body
would reduce and they would come
together.
 Now fully open the valve and tighten all the
bonnet bolts in the correct sequence.
 Now put correct size, correctly cut, and
well-greased gland packings in the stuffing
box place. Care should be taken that the cut
parts are together with no gaps and that
the packings are staggered.
 Push down the gland nut and the gland
flange and put in the gland bolts. The gland
bolts must be slightly tightened and the
correct tightening must be done in place of
installation.
 Now close and open the valve several times
and check whether it is free in movement.
Check from the opening of the flanges,
whether it is sitting properly on the valve
seat.
 Paint the valve with the primer and keep it
for drying.

 Different methods of testing after overhaul
of a globe valve are used. A simple method
is to fill the valve with water and use
compressed air for bubble testing. The
second method is to fill the chamber with
compressed air and wait for a pressure
drop. Globe valves are used extensively on
board ships and also on offshore oil rigs and
throughout other industries. It is very
important for the new junior engineers and
other sea going marine engineers to
understand the utility and maintenance
requirements of globe valves.

5. How does a gate valve work?
A) The gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a
valve that opens by lifting a round or
rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the
fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the
sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are
planar, so gate valves are often used when a
straight-line flow of fluid and minimum
restric-tion is desired. The gate faces can form a
wedge shape or they can be parallel. Gate
valves are primarily used to permit or prevent
the flow of liquids, but typical gate valves
shouldn't be used for regulating flow, unless
they are specifically designed for that purpose.
Because of their ability to cut through liquids,
gate valves are often used in the petroleum
industry. For extremely thick fluids, a specialty
valve often known as a knife valve is used to cut
through the liquid. On opening the gate valve,
the flow path is enlarged in a highly nonlinear
manner with respect to percent of opening.
This means that flow rate does not change
evenly with stem travel. Also, a partially open
gate disk tends to vibrate from the fluid flow.
Most of the flow change occurs near shutoff
with a relatively high fluid velocity causing disk
and seat wear and eventual leakage if used to
regulate flow. Typical gate valves are designed
to be fully opened or closed. When fully open,
the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the
flow path, resulting in very low friction loss.
6. If a gate valve is stuck, what could be the
reason?
7. How is a job centered on a chuck in a lathe
A) Dial gauge
8. What safety precautions will you take if
working on a lathe?
 Always wear eye protection. The lathe can
throw off sharp, hot metal chips at
considerable speed as well as spin off
spirals of metal that can be quite hazardous
 Wear short sleeve shirts, if possible, or
shirts with snugly fitting cuffs if long sleeve.
Loose sleeves can catch on rotating work
and quickly pull your hand or arm into
harm's way.
 Wear safety shoes
 Remove wrist watches, necklaces, chains
and other jewelry
 Tie back long hair so it can't get caught in
the rotating work.
 Always double check to make sure your
work is securely clamped in the chuck or
between centers before starting the lathe.
Start the lathe at low speed and increase
the speed gradually.
 Get in the habit of removing the chuck key
immediately after use
 Keep your fingers clear of the rotating work
and cutting tools
 Avoid reaching over the spinning chuck. For
filing operations, hold the tang end of the
file in your left hand so that your hand and
arm are not above the spinning chuck.
 Never use a file with a bare tang - the tang
could be forced back into your wrist or palm


9. What is a reamer? Where is it used?
A) A reamer is a metalworking tool used to create
an accurate sized hole. The process is called
reaming. They may be used as a hand tool or in
a machine tool, such as a milling machine or
drill press
10. How does a Quick closing valve work?
A) Quick closing valve is a kind of pressure
reducing valve in which the an automatic
process control valve for fluid pressure control
is used for unmanned machinery spaces. This
can be done by careful selection of valve trim,
i.e. the parts of the valve that come in contact
with the controlled fluid and form an actual
control portion. The difference between
pressure release valve and quick closing valve
is that the later does not come in direct
contact with the fluid it is controlling.
The lever is connected externally to a remote
operating mechanism which might be pneumatic or
hydraulic controlled. The controlling system has a
piston which moves with the pressure of air or fluid
and simultaneously moves the lever attached to it.
The lever at the other end is connected externally
to the spindle which is attached internally to the
valve.The valve is a spring loaded valve which
means that the spindle is placed through a spring
which helps in re-positioning of the valve to the
open position when the air or fluid pressure in
controlling cylinder reduces.

All the quick closing valves are generally set
in the open position.When the piston of the
controlling cylinder moves up, the end of
the lever which is connected to the piston
moves up. As the lever is pivoted at the
center, the other end of the lever moves
down and pushes the spindle downwards.
This closes the valve and shuts the flow of
the fluid.
11. How do you reset a QC valve after operation?
A) After release, the valve can be reset according
to the following procedure:
1. Turn the handwheel to the right (clockwise)
until the tappet of the actuator is rested under
the
stem nut.
A slight resistance can be noticed.
2. Turn the handwheel to the left (counter-
clockwise) until a slight resistance is noticed.
12. Is there any difference between relief valve and
safety valve?
A) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RELIEF VALVE AND
SAFETY VALVE:
 Releif valve is applicable in the fluid system.
safety valve is applicable in the gaseous
system.
 Relief valve opening is directly proportional to
the pressure rise.
Safety valve opening is will happen at after
reaching the set
pressure.

 Mode of relif vlave line is again connected to
the suction.
But in the safety valve is just vent-out there is
no connection to
suction.
13. Explain how will you prepare for Bunkering?
 Are Valves and pipe lines marked for easy
identification?

 Are valve markings correct? (Have round
covers on the floor plates in the machinery
space been also confirmed?)

 Are all deck scuppers effectively plugged? (Are
wooden plugs, if any then cemented up?)

 Has it been confirmed that no deficit, crack,
corrosion, and the like exist on the pipe line to
be used?

 Have a leak test to the pipe line by an air
pressure of 5 kg/cm2 or under been carried
out? (To be entered the date of last testing in
remark column )

 Have operation of remote valves and level
gauges used in bunkering been confirmed?
And also accuracy of remote gauging system
verified?(if fitted)

 Is bilge line valves fully closed and secured?

 Are all the pressure gauges to be used working
satisfactorily?

 Are all thermometers fitted in manifold
working satisfactorily?

 Alarm setting on overfill alarm accurate &
operational?(if fitted)
14. How do you set tappet clearance?
Tappet clearance is taken to ensure positive
closing of the valve & for thermal expansion of
the valve.
Taking all safety precautions.(See Ans. 1)
Make sure the piston is on TDC.
i. From the marking on the flywheel.
ii. From the fuel cam.
iii. Push rod should be free.
Make sure the engine has cooled down.
Loosen the lock nut of the rocker arm.
Now adjust the tappet clearance between the
rocker arm & valve stem by tightening or
loosing the nut below the lock nut.
If tappet clearance is less:
i. Valve will open early & close late
ii. Air induced through inlet valve may leak out.
So, less air for combustion.
iii. Power will be reduced.
iv. Fuel consumption will increase, engine may
become unbalanced, exhaust temp. will be very
high.
v. In worst condition, valve may remain open,
resulting in loss of compression pressure,
burning of exhaust valve, T/C fouling will
increase.
If tappet clearance is more:
i. Valve will open late & close early.
ii. Lesser heat energy to T/C, so reduction in
scavenge air & hence power.
iii. No proper removal of gases.
iv. Hammering of valve stem-may cause
damage to valve stem.
15. What are the steps to take after a blackout at
sea?
In case of Blackout following precautions and
actions should be taken:
a. Never panic in such situation, be calm
and composed. Emergency generator
will restore the power in no time.
b. Inform Officer on bridge briefly about
the condition.
c. Call for man power and inform the chief
engineer.
d. If the main propulsion plant is running,
bring the fuel lever to zero position.
e. Close the feed of the running purifier to
avoid overflow and wastage of fuel.
f. If auxiliary boiler was running, shut the
main steam stop valve to maintain the
steam pressure.
g. Find out the problem and reason for
blackout and rectify the same.
h. Before starting the generator set, start
the pre- lubrication priming pump if the
supply for the same is given from the
emergency generator; if not, then use
manual priming handle (provided in
some generator).
i. Start the generator and take it on load.
Then immediately start the main engine
lube oil pump and main engine jacket
water pump.
j. Reset breakers and start all the other
required machinery and system. Reset
breakers that are included in
preferential tripping sequence. (Non-
essential machinery).
16. How do you pressure test a fuel valve?
A) For exact pressure a slow kick has to be given to
avoid fluctuation in pressure gauge
17. How will you replace an exhaust valve seat?
Replacement of valve seat inserts is done by
cutting out the old insert and machining an
oversize insert bore. Replacementoversize
insert is usually chilled and the cylinder head is
sometimeswarmed. Valve seat is pressed into
the head. This operation requiresspecialized
machine shop equipment
18. How do you install a bearing on a shaft?
A) We ensure the shafts are free of debris and
high spots visually, any burs are emery clothed
out. The bearings are pressed on with a
hydraulic cylinder using slow but steady
pressure, the shaft is dry although the inner
portion of the bearing is coated with a thin
layer of grease. The hydraulic pressure is being
applied to the inner race of the bearing
transferred though a properly machined sleeve.
 Heating bearing & freezing shaft

19. How do you specify pipe size?
A) The numbers and letters on a bearing are
usually the manufacturers part number. This
allows the maker to quickly identify which
particular bearing it is. A typical producer of
bearing would make many different kind ans
sizes and from different materials
20. What is the common size between different
schedules of a pipe?
21. If an A/E does not start what will be your
action?
Engine not starting on Air:-
a. Low air bottle pressure or air line valve may
be shut.
b. Air bottle isolating valve or automatic valve
or distributor not functioning.
c. Control air valves faulty or less control air
pressure.
d. Start air automatic valve jammed.
e. Turning gear engaged.
f. Reversing has not taken place completely.
g. Control valve for fuel or start is not in it’s end
position.
h. Bursting diaphragm on start air line
damaged.
i. Fuel lever on maneuvering stand not on
remote mode.
j. Auxiliary blower not running or not on ‘auto’
mode.
k. Emergency stop has activated.
l. Interlock is operated.
m. Cylinder air start valve defective or sticky.
n. Piston not in firing mode.

Engine not starting on fuel:
a. Less fuel in service tank.
b. Fuel filter is chocked.
c. Fuel supply pumps not delivering required
pressure. Or fuel pump tripped.
d. Fuel level on local maneuvering stand, is not
on remote stand.
e. Fuel rack stuck.
f. Fuel pump malfunctioning, jammed plunger.
g. Injector nozzle needle sticking or holes
blocked.
h. Compression pressure is too low due to
broken piston ring or exhaust valve not closing
properly.
i. Fuel pump relief valve leaking.
j. Start air pressure insufficient to turn the
engine fast enough.
22. Your action if T/C is surging?
Turbo charger surging may be defined as a high
pitch vibration of audible level coming from the
blower end or compressor end of the
turbocharger. Whenever the breakdown of gas
flow takes place, a reversal of scavenge air
takes place through diffuser and impeller
blades into the blower side which causes
surging.Surging is to be avoided as it interferes
with the combustion in the main engine and
may cause damage to the thrust bearings.

Causes of Turbocharger Surging
The following are the causes of turbocharger
surging:
 Improper power distribution between the
main engine cylinders may cause
turbocharger surging as one unit is
producing more power and other is
producing less. Due to this the air
consumption required by both the
turbochargers differs, which leads to
surging.
 Fouled compressor on turbine side – In this
case if the inlet filters are dirty then enough
air can not be supplied for combustion,
which leads to surging. Similarly if the
turbine side is also dirty i. e nozzle, blades
etc enough air can not be produced for
combustion.
 Highly fouled exhaust i.e. economizer, if
fitted may cause back pressure in the
turbocharger and thus finally lead to
surging.
 Bad weather – This is one more reason for
surging. Due to bad weather the engine
suddenly starts racing and sudden load
change takes place. This happens because
during bad weather or pitching the
propeller moves in and out of the water,
causing the change in load on the engine.
 Therefore, the turbochargers are needed to
be matched properly with the engine air
consumption rate and pressure across the
operating range of the engine and they
should not fall in the surge limits.
Prevent Turbocharger SurgingThe following are
the ways to prevent turbocharger surging.
However, it is to note that some points may
vary with design and construction of the
turbocharger.

 Keep the turbocharger intake filter
clean.
 Water-wash the turbine and the
compressor side of the turbocharger.
 Proper maintenance and checks should
be done on turbocharger periodically.
 Soot blow should be done from time to
time in case of economizer or exhaust
boiler.
 Indicator cards to be taken to assess
cylinder and power distribution of
individual units.
23. Why is a Steam trap used in condensate return
lines?
A steam trap is a special type of valve which
prevents the passage of steam but allows
condensate through. It works automatically and
is used in steam heating line to drain
condensate without passing any steam. The
benefit gained with steam trap is that steam
contained in the heating line until it condenses,
thus giving up all the latent heat. There three
main type of seam traps
1) Mechanical traps
2) Thermostatic traps
3) Thermodynamic traps
24. How is gas cutting done?
A) In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to
weld metals. Welding metal results when two
pieces are heated to a temperature that
produces a shared pool of molten metal. The
molten pool is generally supplied with
additional metal called filler. Filler material
depends upon the metals to be welded.
In oxy-fuel cutting, a cutting torch is used to heat
metal to kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen
is then trained on the metal, and metal burns in
that oxygen and then flows out of the cut (kerf) as
an oxide slag.
Torches that do not mix fuel with oxygen
(combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not
considered oxy-fuel torches and can typically be
identified by a single tank (Oxy-fuel welding/cutting
requires two isolated supplies, fuel and oxygen).
Most metals cannot be melted with a single-tank
torch. As such, single-tank torches are typically
used only for soldering and brazing, rather than
welding.
25. How many valves are there on a gas-cutting
torch?
Three
26. How do you light a gas-cutting torch and
adjust the flame?
A) Crack open the gas valve light it with lighter and
then open and adjust the oxygen valve
27. How do you set up a new pipe for welding?
 File the edges fo the pipe when both the
piecies kept togather makeing “V”
 Maintaining minimum root gap tag the
pipe at three four places
 Clean the slag
 Now star welding (welding to be done
in one direction)
 Let the weld cool down remove the slag
 Check the weld of splatter blowhole and
proper root penetration.

28. What is GPR/GPO/LH electrodes?
Gpr electrode:- High recovery rutile type
electrodes for unalloyed steels. Easy to use in
the horizontal position with a speed of up to 50
cm/min., and a throat thickness up to 3.5 - 6
mm in one layer. Self-releasing slag. Also suited
for steels protected with zinc- or iron-oxide
based primers.
Gpo electrode:-General Purpose Organic-rutile
coated electrodes for unalloyd steels. Easily
weldable in all positions including vertical
down. Suitable for bridging large gaps. Excellent
for all-purpose repair welding of mild steel
LH electrode:-Low hydrogen electrodeA
covered electrode used in arc welding that
provides an atmosphere low in hydrogen

29. How do you select the correct current setting
for welding?
 Identify the type of welding technique
that requires the use of electric currents
to start the arc using a welding rod ---
for example, electric arc welding.
 Determine the kind of material you will
be welding in order to choose the
appropriate welding rod since they must
be of the same material make.
 Choose the type of welding rod based
on the material to be welded, taking
into consideration the diameter,
electrical conductivity and possibly the
tensile strength that is stamped on the
electrode
 Observe the last two digits together
"1/8 E60XX" to indicate the type of
coating used on the welding rod and the
welding current that can be used with it.
Use Direct Current (DC) straight, (DC -)
DC reverse (DC+) or Alternate Current
(A.C) as stamped on the welding rod to
choose your amperage.
 Regulate the "Current Selector" or a
comparable option to select the amp
range once you've identified all the
necessary parameters for the weld

30. Crank pin brg clearance
A) Telescopic feeler gauge
In engines like MAN B&W, this is the most
common method used to measure the
bearing clearance of the top shell. In this
method there is no need to remove any
connection or keep for measuring the
clearance.
The telescopic gauge is inserted between the
gap of the crank web and the bearing keep.
When the tip reaches the shell top, the feeler is
inserted between the shell and the pin to check
the clearance.
31) Welding defects?
Common weld defects include:
i. Lack of fusion
ii. Lack of penetration or excess
penetration
iii. Porosity
iv. Inclusions
v. Cracking
vi. Undercut
vii. Lamellar tearing
32) Bridge gauge main brg clearance
MEASURING CLEARANCES
Metal thickness measurementExtract bearing
metal and measure thickness.2. Measurement
by means of lead wireExtract main bearing cap
and put a soft lead wire (0.5mm) on upper part
of crankshaft. Then replace cap and tighten to
prescribed torque. Remove cap andmeasure
with a micrometer the thickness of the lead
wire thus pressed.3. Measurement with bridge
gaugeApply bridge gauge across crank journal
and measure clearance between gauge
andcircumference of journal. An optional
bridge gauge is available. A bridge gauge is
alsoused to take the reading while the bottom
shell is in its genuine position plus
takinganother reading after removing the shell
and seeing the difference between them.
33) How does a Stud extractor work?
A) The stud extractor is a versatile tool
designed for the removal or insertion
of threaded studs into blind stud holes.
Clamping force on the end of the stud
is generated by a closing collet
designed to grip the minor diameter of
the thread without inflicting damage
on the thread root.
The principal operation entails threading
the collet on to the stud until it is
bottomed out. A multi-jack bolt tensioner
is tightened with an allen key forcing the
tapered ring down over the collet. The
taper produces an internal radial clamping
force that compresses the collet onto the
stud. The Stud Runner grips so tightly that
a tremendous amount of torque can be
applied in either direction

34) How does a chain block work?
A) A chain hoist uses gears to multiply force.
A chain hoist is operated by hand. An operator
pulls the light loop chain on the side of the
chain hoist. This turns a gear mechanism inside
the chain hoist housing to turn the chain pulley.
When this pulley turns, it raises the heavy chain
which usually has a hook on the end. By pulling
the light chain loop, the manual hoist is actually
able to increase the force that is being applied
by the heavy chain. This is caused by the gear
ratios inside the manual chain hoist. The
mechanical work done by the operator is the
same as the work done by the heavy lifting
chain.
35) What are the safeties on cargo cranes

36) What are the safeties on ER crane?
A) Overload trip.
B) Limit switch at fore & aft side.
C) Limit switch port & starboard
movement.
D) Switch button have non-metallic body.
E) Emergency stop.
F) Spring loaded or band brake
G) Fail safe arrangement
37) How does a chain block work?
A chain hoist is operated by hand. An operator will
pull down on one of the chain loops on one side of
the chain. This will turn a pulley mechanism inside
the chain hoist housing. When this pulley turns, it
will lift up the end of the other chain which usually
has a hook on the end. By pulling down on one
chain, the manual hoist is actually able to increase
the mechanical work that is being done. This is
caused by the gear ratio inside the manual chain
hoist.
38) How is the load controlled during
lowering?
39) How is the E/R crane load tested
40) Fuel valve not coming out?
41) Setting exhaust valve timing
42) Pumps o'haul?
Removal of Pump for Inspection and Maintenance
1 Isolate pump electrical circuit breaker on main
switch board and attach a warning notice. (Do Not
Operate-Men at Work).
2. Switch off and lock pump supply at its local
supply panel. Attach a warning notice to pump
local supply panel.
3. Close suction and discharge valves, chain and
lock hand wheels.
4. Open pump suction and discharge pipe drain
valves to bilge and when water ceases to flow;
crack open the pipes / pump flange joints carefully
to ensure that pump has drained off and is safe for
opening.
5. Fix a shackle to lifting pad eye above pump and
hang chain block; ensuring SWL of block, slings and
shackles are satisfactory.
6. Use a center-punch to match/mark coupling and
casing, then remove the coupling bolts.
7. Disconnect, fix i/d tag and remove motor supply
cables; taping over bare ends with insulating tape.
8. Connect shackle and sling to motor eyebolt and
lift motor clear of pump using overhead chain
block. Lay motor on its side out of harm’s way,
protecting machined surfaces on both pump and
motor coupling halves against damage. (Cardboard
and masking tape is quick and efficient method.)
9. Disconnect all external fittings from pump casing
e.g. cooling pipe, pressure gauge, oil reservoirs and
air cock.
10. Remove bolting from top cover and remove
cover. Scrape off old gasket and check mating
surfaces, and renew gasket on assembly. (Light
smear of grease on gasket / faces)
11. The pump shaft with impeller can be lifted out
of casing.
12. Dismantle the impeller, and remove the wear
ring.
13. Remove the gland packing and disregard;
replacing it on rebuild. Remember to cut ends of
packing at 45° and stagger joints when repacking
gland.
Inspection Procedure for Pump and Motor
Pump
1. Impeller, pump shaft and internal volute/casing
can now be inspected for erosion, pitting and wear.
2. If required rectify pitting or erosion in the
impeller and casing with two – part alloy epoxy
putty. (See my article in the Reference section)
3. Check main drive shaft bearings and thrust
bearings for wear and replace if required.
4. Check wear ring clearance using feeler gauges; in
my day at sea it was general practice is to replace
with new rings at major overhaul.
5. Check impeller / shaft key and keyways for
damage and undue wear, Unscrew impeller shaft
securing nut and check threads are in satisfactory
condition; retighten to manufacturers torque
settings.
6. Give all parts a good clean removing any dirt/
medium residue before re- assembly using new
parts as required.
7. Enter date of overhaul and parts renewed in the
pump maintenance record card.
Drive Motor
1. Grip motor drive shaft /coupling firmly and check
for excess axial and longitudinal movement. Rotate
shaft at speed by hand, allowing it to run to a stop
whilst listening for excess noise from bearings. Any
doubt on either counts, the bearings should be
replaced.
2. Megger check motor windings to ensure no
dampness is present and windings are in good
condition. Any suspect readings indicate a full
motor strip to check condition of rotor and stator.
3. If these checks are satisfactory, grease bearings
as required. Some bearings are now sealed for life
and will not require greasing.
Procedure to Start the Pump
1. Unlock and remove chains from inlet/outlet
valve wheels and open both valves full.
2. Open air cock and expel air from line and pump
while checking for any leaks
3. Turn the shaft coupling and ensure shaft is free
to rotate.
4. Reconnect motor.
5. Remove danger notices from pump power
supplies and reinstate breakers.
6. Start and record current drawn by the motor
under starting and running conditions. Check and
record the discharge pressure.
45) Type of drill bits?
A) Spade, lip and spur (brad point), masonry bit and
twist drill bits
46) Types of threads?
i. BSW- Bristish Standard whit worth
II. BSF – Britsh standard fine
III. BA – British Assosiation
IV. BSP – British Standard Pipe
V. AS– American standard
According to shape
i. V- shape
ii. Square thread
iii. Buttress thread
iv. Acme thread
v. Knuckle thread
47)Pipe schedule?
A) Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set
of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low
pressures and temperatures. Pipe size is specified
with two non-dimensional numbers: a nominal
pipe size (NPS) for diameter based on inches, and a
schedule (Sched. or Sch.) for wall thickness. NPS is
often incorrectly called National Pipe Size, due to
confusion with national pipe thread (NPT).
48) Important dimensions of flanges? Types of
flanges?
A) OD, ID, THICKNESS, BOLT HOLE DIAMETER
Type of flanges
 Welding Neck flange
 Slip On flange
 Socket Weld flange
 Lap Joint flange
 Stub End
 Threaded flange
 Blind flange
49) Indications of scavenge fire? What action
will you take?
Causes of Scavenge Fire
 Blow past of combustion products
caused by leaky, sticky or broken piston
rings, worn out liner, faulty cylinder
lubrication, or insufficient axial
clearance of the piston rings.
 Overheated piston dissipates heat to
the under piston area caused by faulty
atomization and injection pressure,
faulty fuel pump timing, loss of
compression, engine overload, failure of
coolant circulation or insufficient
cooling due to formation of scale.
 Blow back of exhaust gases caused by
exhaust back pressure or deposits on
exhaust ports, fouling of grid before
turbine inlet, fouling of turbine blades,
choking of EGB or economiser gas
outlet.
 Presence of fuel oil in the scavenge
spaces due to defective fuel injectors,
incorrect pressure setting of injectors or
fuel particles landing on the cylinder
liner due to excessive penetration.
 Excessive cylinder lubrication which is
drained down to scavenge spaces.
 Oxygen is plenty during engine
operation.
 Fouled scavenge manifold.
Indication of Scavenge Fire
 Engine revolution drops as the power
generation in the affected cylinder is
reduced.
 Unstable operation of Turbo charger
and may cause surging.
 Exhaust temperature of the affected
cylinder increases, as the cylinder is not
receiving fresh air.
 Black smoke with exhaust due to
incomplete combustion in that unit.
 Discharging of spark, flame or smokes
through drain cocks from scavenge air
boxes.
 Rise of pressure and temperature of air
in the air box below the piston.
 Visible evidence of fire if a transparent
window is fitted.
 Cooling water outlet temperature of the
affected unit is increased.
Action to be Taken
 Inform bridge and reduce the speed.
 Cut of fuel supply to the affected unit and
shut off valves.
 Cylinder lubrication is increased.
 Coolant flow through jacket and piston is
maintained.
 Drains to be shut to prevent flow of spark in
engine room.
 Keep clear of scavenge space relief valve to
prevent human injury
Fire should be extinguished after some time. If the
fire spread in the other scavenge spaces along
with the scavenge manifold, then -
 Inform bridge and stop the engine
 Stop fuel oil booster pump
 Open indicator cocks, engage turning gear
and turn engine to prevent engine seizure
 Normal engine cooling and lubrication are
maintained
 Scavenge air duct flap valve before engine is
to be shut
 Release the smothering gases (Steam or
CO2) to extinguish fire
 Before opening scavenge door ventilate the
space thoroughly if CO2 is released.
Inspection after Scavenge Fire
 Intense fire can cause distortion and may
upset piston alignment
 Check by turning the engine and watch
movement of piston in the liner, check for
any occurrence of binding at part of stroke
(Binding indicates misalignment of piston)
 Check spring on scavenge space relief
device, if the device was near the set of fire
 Piston rod packing spring also should be
checked, which may have become
weakened by overheating
 Check piston rings and liner for any
distortion or reddish burning mark
 Check diaphragm and frame near affected
part
 Check guides and guide shoes
 Check tension of tie bolts
50) Where are wear rings used? What is their
purpose?
Wear rings are sacrificial components installed
on the casing and impeller to inhibit fluid from
recirculating back to suction from the
discharge. They provide a renewable restriction
between a closed impeller and the casing. Wear
rings are often installed on both the front and
back of the impeller. When wear rings are
installed on the back of the impeller, another
set of rings is installed in the backcover.
Wear rings act as the seal between the casing
and the impeller.
51) Boiler gauge glass? Reflex type? Blow
through procedure?
A) Procedure:
i. Make sure drain line is clear
ii. Close the steam outlet valve.
iii. Close the water outlet valve.
iv. Open the drain valve.
v. Open the water out valve & let water flow
thru it and close the valve after blowing down
with water.
vi. Open the steam out valve and blow thru
with steam.
vii. Close steam valve.
viii. Close the drain valve.
ix. Now, open the water side valve.
x. Let water fill up 3/4th gauge glass.
xi. Open the steam valve slowly.
52) ISSA code book?
A) International Shipsuppliers & Services
Association code book. encoding the
international marine materials
55) SCBA pressure testing
Low Pressure (2216 psig) and High Pressure (4500
psig)
Parts to be tested
1 Test pressure gauge for cylinder pressure
2 Magnehelic gauge for low pressure testing
3 Test pressure gauge for medium pressure
4 Test hose 6 ft. (See Note)
5 Test bladder
6 Vacuum/Pressure bulb
7 Hose clamps (2)
8 Rubber stopper
9 Quick disconnect connections (2)
10 Tubing tee
11 Connecting socket
I2 Knuckle thread test assembly
I3 Test piece
14 Medium pressure line
15 Test piece
16 O-Ring
17 Flow meter
18 Flow meter adapter
56) Welding surface preparation
1) clean the metal surface with wire remove all oil
rust or any other partical from the surface of the
metal
2) file the surface to be welded making V-SHAPE
58) Flaring tool
A) Flaring tool are adaptive mechanisms used in
pipe fittings. They accept pliable metal and expand
the ends of pipes section as needed, sothe pipe can
fit to the next section.
59) what is ermato joint?
A) A body with conical seat, a nut and ferrule when
assembled behind it, tube form ajoint on
progressive tightening the nut on the body the
ferrule bites into the outer surface of the tube,
thereby ensuring leak proof joint at high operating
pressure.
61) how will supervise a lube oil filter cleaning?
A) Bucket filter oil enter from Centre of filter and
flows out
1. When pr. Diff. increases across the filter it
indication filter is chocked
2. change over to standby filter
3. open top cover
4. remove bucket from the casing
5. dip/clean it with diesel or kerosene
6. clean it with cotton
7. blow air in the opposite to direction of the flow,
use cotton as a screen behind it.
63) what is dead man’s alarm?
A) dead man alarm system is designed to monitor
e/r activity and alert the c/e and other engineers if
the e/r becomes unattended.
66) compound gauge
A) a compound gauge is a press. Guage that
displays both –ve and +ve gauge press.
Measurement. Gauge press is a measurement of
press. Relative to ambient pr.
67) Pump shaft broken Suggest repair?
68) what is gear back lash?
A) back lash can be defined as a rotational arc
clearance formed between a pair of mounted
gears. A back lash (clearance) to any gear set for
checking damage caused by gear tooth
interference. Lack of back lash causes following
problem.
 Noise
 Overloading
 Overheating of gears and bearing
 Seizing and failure
69) What are the different types of gear seen in
ship?
 Spur gear
 Helical gear
 Worm and worm wheel
 Rack and pinion
 Bevel gear
70) what is hunting tooth
A) An extra odd tooth, gear wheel designed to
ensure the same teeth do not mesh together,
thus reducing wear.
71) Why is gear oil different from others?
A) Because high pressure exists between the
gears, which makes it difficult to substance
boundary lubrication that why high pressure
lube oil is used in gear .
72) what are the different type of taps and
dies?
A) Type of taps
 Tapper tap
 Plug tap
 Bottoming tap
Type of dies
 According to press opration
 Cutting dies
 Forming dies
According to opration
 Simple die
 Compound die
 Combination die
 Progressive die
 Multiple die
 Transfer die
73) why do we check ullage? How to
calculate liquid quantity?
A) Because when ship rolls it becomes
difficult to accurate readings
75) What do you check while opening
piston
 Remove all carbon and varnish from
piston.
 Using ring groove cleaner, clean all
deposits from ring grooves. Ensure all
deposits are cleaned from ring grooves
to prevent ring breakage or sticking.
DO NOT attempt to clean pistons using
wire brush.
 Inspect pistons for nicks, scoring,
cracks or damage in ring areas.
 Connecting rod should be checked for
cracks using Magna flux procedure.
Piston diameter must be measured in
manufacturers specified area.
 Using telescopic gauge and
micrometer, measure piston pin bore
of piston in 2 areas, 90 degrees apart.
This is done to check diameter and out-
of-round
 Connecting rod I.D. and out-of-round
must be within specification. Measure
piston pin bore I.D. and piston pin O.D.
All components must be within
specification.
 Connecting rod length must be
measured from center of crankshaft
journal inside diameter to center of
piston pin bushing using proper caliper.
 Connecting rods should be checked for
bent or twisted condition.
 Piston rings must be checked for side
clearance and end gap. To check end
gap, install piston ring in cylinder which
it is to be installed. Using an inverted
piston, push ring to bottom of cylinder
in smallest cylinder diameter.Using
feeler gauge, check ring end gap
78) What is lip seal?
A) Marine Auxiliary Machinery MCGEORGE
pg no 268
79) mechanical seal
A)Marine Auxiliary Machinery MCGEORGE
pg no 149
80) Exhaust below sketch

84) What is dress coupling

A dresser coupling is a device used to repair
a leaking pipe.
85) what is bumping clearance? How do you
measure it?
A) Clearance volume or bumping clearance is
the space between the top of the piston and
the cylinder head of an air compressor. This
clearance is an important aspect of the
compressors and should be as less as practically
possible to improve the volumetric efficiency of
the compressor. The clearance volume should
not be too less or too more. Moreover, it
affects the efficiency of the machinery and thus
should be checked at regular intervals of time.
Significance and Effects of Bumping Clearance
In an air compressor, when the discharge valve
closes in the end of the compression cycle, a small
amount of high pressure air is trapped in the
clearance volume.
Before again taking suction, the air trapped in the
clearance volume must expand below the suction
pressure i.e. below the atmospheric pressure.
The expansion of this trapped air in the clearance
volume causes effective loss of stroke due to which
the volumetric efficiency of compressor drops.
Therefore, the clearance volume has a significant
effect on the efficiency of the compressor.
Effects Due to Less Clearance
Small clearance volume may result in piston
banging or colliding to the cylinder head.
This is dangerous when the compressor when is
running in unloaded condition without any
resistance to the movement of the piston.
Effects Due to Large Clearance
Large bumping clearance retards the formation of
vacuum on the suction stroke and thus less air is
drawn inside for compression and accordingly the
weight of the air delivered is reduced proportional
to the clearance volume.

Compressor has to run for a longer period to
provide the necessary compression pressure.

Reasons for Change in Clearance Volume
During overhauls of the air compressor, if the
gasket fitted between the cylinder head joints is of
the wrong type, then the bumping clearance will
increase, resulting in wear down of bottom
bearings or wrong bearings are put in place.
How Bumping Clearance is checked?
Bumping clearance is checked by putting a lead ball
or plastic gauges over the piston and then turning
the compressor one revolution by hand.
By doing this the lead ball will compress and the
thickness obtained is the clearance volume.
This thickness is measured with vernier caliper or
micrometer and is then compared with the
manufacturer’s value. Adjustments are made in
case there is an offset in the value.
Adjustment of bumping clearance
Bumping clearance can be adjusted with the help
of inserting shims (thin metallic plates) in the
bottom bearings. Inserting shims will move the
connecting rod and the piston which will change
the clearance.
What should be the Bumping Clearance?
Generally bumping clearance depends on the
manufacturer but as a thumb rule it should be
between 0.5% to 1% of the bore of the cylinder.
87) Why centrifugal pump started with its
discharge valve shut?
A) Pump with close discharge valve .This is because
of the high column head it has to withstand .If you
open the discharge valve and start up the pump,
then pump has to withstand the high torque which
may damage the pump's motor or prime mover.Be
watchful and as soon as the flow is achieved and
pressure is there , then start gradually opening the
discharge valve.
89) what check you will make on bottom end
bearing boolts?
 Proper Surface Finish
 Proper Tightening
 Check the bolt for cracks, damage, etc.
 Locking of the nuts should be checked
thoroughly.
 Sounding testing by hammer to identify
internal flaws and cracks. It should be
healthy noise.
90) How will measure ovality of crank pin
A) With reference to the engine manf.
tolerances and record sheet, using a calibrated
micrometer. Bottom end bearing is removed
from crankpin / piston removed. Surface
wiped clean. Then at the specified points in
the record sheet, measure the diameter.
Normally at least 0, 45, 90, 135 deg. with ref to
TDC and 5 equal distance locations across the
pin.
Normally wear would be seen at the top (highest
loaded point), and may require grinding undersize
to remove ovality, followed by thorough oil
flushing / locate source of contamination.
94) How will do crack case inspection.
Safety
1. After stopping the engine shut off all pump
2. Post placards for men at work at starting
panel
3. Isolate the engine from stand by mode
4. Shut off lube oil priming pump
5. Open indicator cock
6. Allow engine to cool down
7. Wear all protective clothing
8. Light bulbs should be covered with globe
and protective caging
Timing Gear
1. Check the condition of the gear tooth for
corrosion pitting broken tooth excessive
back lash etc
2. Check lubricating spray nozzle for clogging
or breakage
3. Check for condition of cam rollers should be
free to rotate on pin surface finish of rollers
ans cams
4. All the thee cams for each unit to be
checked
5. Check lubrication of each cam
Running gear
1. Check tightening and locking of bottom end
bearing bolt use testing hammer
2. Check axial displacement of connecting rod
3. If the crack shaft is buildup type the check
the reference mark are in proper position
4. Check for any leaks of water from liner o
ring
5. Lube oil pipe to started and check for
uniform oil flow
Oil system and pipes
1. If the engine is of dry sump type check the
condition of grid and see that if it is clear of
any obstructions
2. Check pip flanges of distribution pipe
3. Check for proper clamping
4. Distribution pipes to checked for proper
tightness and not leaking
5. Check underside of each bearing for any
metal particles including crankcase
6. Check condition of crankcase painting it
should not peel off otherwise it indicates
acidic mixture of L/o
7. Check for flow of oil from indivial bearing by
starting the lube oil p/p