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HEATING

L. Scurtu

*

, P. Turewicz

†

Abstract

This paper presents a numerical simulation of induction heating for axisymmetric

geometries for two different materials: steel and aluminum. A numerical simulation code was

generated for the model presented in this paper and a comparison between results given by the

code and experimental measurements is provided.

Introduction

The modern technologies are requesting different processes running under high

temperatures conditions. The processes could be implemented in mechanical or

metallurgical fields. The concept of induction heating offers many advantages in

intensity of the process and its flexibility because of contactless method to transfer

energy. In spite that, direct induction heating application is often limited by complicated

shape of the workpiece or low electrical conductivity of its material, it is used in a lot of

fields for different applications.

In this paper is presented a numerical simulation of induction heating with rotational

symmetry. The aim of our research was to elaborate numerical models and to implement

efficient codes for the simulation of the induction heating presented below. Due to some

technical issues on the transporting system of the billet we were constrained to make a

static heating on the induction system given by the Institut für Elektroprozesstechnik,

Hannover, Germany. In order to validate the results provided by numerical simulation

codes, several experimental measurements have been carried out at the institute

mentioned above. Next, we shall present the induction system used; the experiments

performed and compare them to the numerical simulation results.

1. Induction system for billet heating

The induction system used for the billets heating is a EBS medium-frequency billet

heater, designed for the heating of steel billets (ferromagnetic and austenitic qualities)

and non-ferrous metals as shown in Fig.1.

Fig.1. Schematic view of induction system for billet heating

The parameters used for the experimental measurements and also for numerical

simulation were: a current of 1300A and the frequency of 1900Hz. The BBC Brown

Boveri induction system is designed for a progressive multistage heating, having 3

different coils (Fig.2). The first coil makes the heating more aggressive, heating mainly

the surface; the second one has the role to homogenize the temperature in the billet and

the third one to maintain it. As we can see the shape of the work piece’s cavity is

designed for a self-extracting out of the heating process

Fig.2. Schematic view of the inductor

As we mentioned we’ll used two different materials for our experiments and

simulations: a ferromagnetic one (steel) and a paramagnetic one (aluminum). The

geometry for the two billets is shown in Fig.3. As we can see the geometry for the

billets is the same. For our experiments we’ll used two wire termocouples, one located

at the surface, approximately at 2mm above the surface (in round detail), and one at the

core of the billet.

Fig.3. A 3D representation and the cross section for the two billets

used for experiments and numerical simulation

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The experimental and simulation aproach is presented in Fig.4. The numerical

simulation codes were implemented, in our static induction heating, for coil no.1 and

coil no.2 (colors randomly taken) as presented in the neighboring pictures, having the

billet in the middle of the chosen coil.

Fig.4 Schematic view of the experimental measurements approach

The experimental measurements were taken as shown in Fig.5. Numbered with 1

we have a Modular Platform – Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition / Data Logger Switch

Unit, numbered with 2 there is the wire box connection, with 3 there are the two pole

plugs, with 4 there is the induction system, having a cross-section of the induction for a

better view of the thermocouples placement, and numbered with 5 we have a

workstation with Agilent BenchLink Data Logger 3 Software.

Fig.5. Diagram for reading the experimental values

2. Numerical model

Numerical simulation of induction heating clearly involves two coupled phenomena:

electromagnetism and heating. Electromagnetic field is initiated by high frequency

current, loaded to the induction coil. This field penetrates the workpiece and induces

eddy currents in it. The induced currents generate the Joule heat in the workpiece.

Distribution of the heat sources depends on applied frequency, electro physical

properties of the material, geometry of the workpiece and design of the induction coil.

Electro physical properties as conductive materials significantly depend on temperature.

We consider that the property of the materials used, as the magnetic permeability µ, the

electrical resistivity ρ, the thermal conductivity λ, and specific heat C depend on the

temperature [1,2].

The Finite Element Method developed in the work has been built using the

commercial package ANSYS for both electromagnetic and thermal analysis [3,4]. The

structure of the coupled electromagnetic model is shown in Fig.6.

Fig.6. Structure of the coupled electro-thermal model

For the boundary conditions and as far as eddy currents computation is concerned

we opted for a formulation in magnetic potential [5] to solve the electromagnetic

problem (Fig.7).

(1)

(2)

Fig.7. The boundary conditions for electromagnetic

and thermal problems

(3)

Prin urmare:

(4)

Figure 8 is presenting mesh with the number of elements used for the two coils.

Fig.8. a) Mesh for Coil 1; b) mesh for Coil 2

flux

parallel

Electromagnetic Thermal

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Boundary condition to

the thermal convection

at surface:

) (

a s s

T T

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- =

¶

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- a l

Adding the radiation

condition at the surface

of workpiece

) (

4 4

a s s r

T T C Q - = e

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- radiation losses

- Stefan-Boltzman

constant

- emissivity

) ( ) (

4 4

a s s a s s

T T C T T

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- e a l

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10 67 . 5

- - -

× = K Wm C

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a) b)

For the electromagnetic analyze we used element PLANE13. It is defined by four

nodes with up to four degrees of freedom per node and for the thermal analyze we used

PLANE55 that has four nodes with a single degree of freedom, temperature, at each

node.

With the help of the modular platform – Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition / Data

Logger Switch Unit and the software referred to the platform, Agilent BenchLink Data

Logger 3 Software, we read the current and the frequency used for heating the billets

(Fig.9).

Fig.9. Experimental values of current and frequency

As we can observe the current is not constant, just after a certain time it becomes

stable. In order to have a correspondence between the simulation and the experiments,

we follow the experiment trend regarding the current, establishing different stages at

different time steps (the time step for experiment was around 1.834 s) with different

intensity values.

Fig.10. a) Steel temperature distribution for coil 1;

b) Steel temperature distribution for coil 2

Pursuing the steps presented above for the simulation code, we obtained the results

for the two materials. As it is shown in Fig.10 we can see the temperature distribution

for steel in the two coils. As per our statement, we extracted the temperature curves for

a) b)

the surface temperature and the core temperature for steel (Fig. 11).

Fig.11. a) Steel temperature curves for coil 1;

b) Steel temperature curves for coil 2

Following the same concept as for the steel we plotted the temperature distribution

and the temperature curves for aluminum (Fig.12):

Fig.12. a) Aluminum temperature distribution for coil 1;

b) Aluminum temperature curves for coil 1

3. Comparison between measurements and numerical simulation

We will now present the two material comparisons between the numerical

simulation and the experimental measurements. First we’ll plot the comparison for the

steel in the coil 1 (Fig.13) and coil 2 (Fig.14), then finally we’ll plot the comparison for

aluminum in coil 1 (Fig.15).

The below results show that numerical simulation can be a precious tool in

induction heating design. The numerical results agree with experiments within the

measurement error margin. Therefore, numerical simulation can be used to predict the

behavior of induction heating phenomena, avoiding thus long and costly experiments.

a) b)

a) b)

Fig.13. Steel temperature comparison for coil 1

Fig.14. Steel temperature comparison for coil 2

Fig.15. Aluminum temperature comparison for coil 1

Conclusions

As we could have seen, in the curves comparison, there are some differences

between the measurements and the numerical simulation. These differences may be

caused by:

· whether the workpiece is truly concentric within the coil bore, and aligned

on the same axis

· the model is an idealization of reality, for this presentation having an

axisymmetric geometry which does not exist in reality

However, we don’t believe that the above causes weigh much in the total discrepancy

between the experiment and the simulation.

We have to specify two differences that our simulation has:

· the simulation does not have the refractory material

· the simulation does not have the sitting rails

The obtained results enable us to tackle intricate workpiece and inductor setups, and

puts forward interesting phenomena, such as corner effects, which could not be

observed using the two-dimensional code.

References

[1] Metals Handbook, ASM International, 2000

[2] ASM, Metals handbook, Vol. 2, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and

Pure Metals, ASM, Cleveland, 1979

[3] Alawadhi, E.M.: Finite element Simulations Using ANSYS, CRC Press, Boca

Raton, FL 33487, 2010

[4] Groth, C., Müller, G.: FEM für Praktiker; Bd.3, Temperaturfelder: Basiswissen

und Arbeitsbeispiele zu FEM – Anwendungen der Temperaturfeldberechnung,

Expert-Verl., Renningen, 2009

[5] Schliesch, T., Müller, G.: FEM für Praktiker; Bd.4, Electrotechnik: Basiswissen

und Arbeitsbeispiele zu FEM – Anwendungen in der Elektrotechnik, Expert-

Verl., Renningen-Malmsheim, 2009

*

Scurtu, Lucian

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

University of Oradea

C.P. nr. 114, Oficiul Postal 1, str. Universitatii nr. 1, Oradea, Romania

E-Mail: scurtugeorge@yahoo.com

†

Turewicz, Peter

Institut für Elektroprozesstechnik

Leibniz Universität Hannover

Wilhelm-Busch-Str. 4, 30167 Hannover

E-Mail: turewicz@etp.uni-hannover.de

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