TOEFL Word List 1600 (1

)
By examword.com
The 1600 TOEFL words are extremely important for TOEFL test takers. A quick review of them
helps very much to get a good score. examword.com offers explanations for each of them, as
well as in local languages for ESL (English as Secord Language) students.


abandon: lacking restraint or control; feeling of extreme emotional intensity;
unbounded enthusiasm

abate: subside; decrease; become less in amount or intensity

abbreviation: shortening something by omitting parts of it

abduct: carry off by force; kidnap

abhor: fill with horror and loathing; horrify; hate

abject: being of the most miserable kind; wretched; lacking pride; brought low in
condition or status

abolish: cancel; put an end to; destroy completely

abort: stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy

abrupt: broken off; very steep; having sudden transitions from one subject to another

absolve: let off hook; relieve of requirement or obligation

abstain: refrain; hold oneself back voluntarily from an action or practice

abstruse: obscure; profound; difficult to understand.

absurd: preposterous; ridiculously incongruous or unreasonable; foolish

abundant: plentiful; possessing riches or resources

abyss: enormous chasm; vast bottomless pit; any deep, immeasurable space; hell

accessible: easily approached or entered; obtainable; easy to talk to or get along with

acclaim: applaud; announce with great approval

accomplice: partner in crime; associate in wrongdoing

accurate: capable of providing a correct reading or measurement; performing with
care and precision

accuse: blame; condemn

acid: sour; water-soluble compounds having a sour taste; quality of being sarcastic,
bitter, or scornful

acquaint: inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar

acquiesce: assent; agree without protesting

acrid: unpleasantly sharp or bitter to taste or smell; bitterly pungent

actuate: put into motion or action; activate

acute: quickly perceptive; keen; having a sharp point or tip; extremely sharp or
severe

adamant: extremely hard; inflexible; stubbornly unyielding

adapt: make fit for; change to suit a new purpose

adept: expert at; very skilled; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude

adequate: sufficient; enough to meet a purpose

adhere: stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with

adjacent: adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near

admonish: warn; counsel someone against something to be avoided

adorn: enhance or decorate with or as if with ornaments

advent: coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important

adverse: in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose

advocate: speak, plead, or argue in favour of; plead for; push for something

affable: easily approachable; warmly friendly

affect: have an emotional or cognitive impact upon

affiliate: associate; incorporate

affinity: natural attraction, liking, or feeling of kinship; relationship by marriage

affliction: cause or condition of pain, suffering, or distress

affluent: having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value

aggravate: worsen; make worse or more troublesome

aggregate: gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to

agile: moving quickly and lightly; mentally quick

agitate: cause to move with violence or sudden force; upset; disturb

agrarian: pertaining to land or its cultivation; relating to agricultural or rural matters

ailment: sickness; illness; affliction

akin: of the same kin; related by blood

allegiance: loyalty to a nation, sovereign, or cause; fidelity to any person or thing;
devotion

alleviate: provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part

allocate: assign; distribute according to plan

allot: parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as
a share or lot

allude: refer casually or indirectly, or by suggestion

aloft: in or into a high place; high or higher up

aloof: apart; remote in manner; distant physically or emotionally; reserved and
remote

alternative: one of two or more things, ideas or courses of action that may be used;
option; choice

amazing: awesome; astounding; surprising

ambiguous: unclear or doubtful in meaning

ambivalence: state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes, such as
love and hate

ambivalent: mixed; experiencing or expressing opposing or contradictory feelings

amenable: responsive to advice or suggestion; responsible to higher authority; willing
to comply with; agreeable

amiable: good-natured and likable; lovable; warmly friendly

amicable: exhibiting friendliness or goodwill; not quarrelsome

amnesia: partial or total loss of memory, usually resulting from shock or illness

amnesty: general pardon granted by government, especially for political offenses

amphitheater: oval building with tiers of seats from central open space or arena

analogous: comparable; similar or alike

anecdote: short account of amusing or interesting event; short narrative; secret story
of history or biography

annex: append or attach; take possession of; incorporate into an existing political unit

annual: occurring or payable every year

anonymous: having no name; having unknown or unacknowledged name

antagonism: active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or
factor

antagonist: one who contends with another, especially in combat; an adversary;
opponent

antedate: be earlier in time; go back further

anticipate: act in advance of; deal with ahead of time; predict

antique: any furniture old and valuable; out of fashion

anxious: eager; keen; worried; uneasy and apprehensive about an uncertain event or
matter

apathy: lack of caring; indifference

apparent: capable of being seen, or easily seen; open to view; visible to eye

appealing: attractive; charming

appease: bring peace, quiet, or calm to; satisfy or relieve

applaud: acclaim; express approval, especially by clapping the hands

appraise: estimate value of; evaluate, especially in official capacity

apprise: inform; give notice to; make aware

approbation: expression of warm approval; praise

apt: likely; exactly suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand

arable: fit for growing crops, as by plowing

arduous: demanding great effort or labor; difficult

arid: dry; lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or
plants

aroma: fragrance; scent; pleasant characteristic odor, as of a plant, spice, or food

arrogant: arising from feeling or assumption of one's superiority toward others

articulate: expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language

artificial: made by humans; produced rather than natural.

ascertain: find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of

assail: assault; attack with or as if with violent blows

assault: attack; onslaught

assert: declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly

assiduous: constant in application or attention; diligent; unceasing or persistent

assimilate: incorporate and absorb into mind; make similar; cause to resemble

astonishing: very wonderful; of a nature to excite astonishment; surprising greatly

astute: wise or keen; shrewd; with sharp intelligence

atone: make amends, as for sin or fault; pay for; turn away from sin

atrocity: brutal deed; atrocious condition, quality, or behavior; monstrousness

attain: achieve or accomplish; gain

attribute: essential quality; reputation; honor

audacious: fearlessly, often recklessly daring; bold

auditory: pertaining to sense of hearing

augment: make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity

august: impressive; majestic; inspiring awe or admiration

austere: strict or severe in discipline; severely simple and unornamented

authentic: not counterfeit or copied; valid; trustworthy

authorize: empower; give permission for; sanction

automaton: mechanism that imitates actions of humans

autonomy: independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-
determination

avalanche: great mass of falling snow and ice

avarice: greediness for wealth; insatiable desire of gain

aver: declare to be true; affirm

aversion: firm dislike; turning away; avoidance of a thing, situation, or behavior
because of dislike

avert: prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away

aviator: someone who operates an aircraft

avid: greedy; eager for; marked by keen interest and enthusiasm

avoid: shield away from; prevent

awkward: difficult to handle or manage

bacchanalian: drunken; relating to reveling and drunkenness

bachelor: unmarried men; the first or lowest academic degree conferred by
universities and colleges

baffle: frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of

bald: hairless; lacking a natural or usual covering

balmy: mild and pleasant; fragrant

ban: official prohibition; decree that prohibits something

bankrupt: penniless, without any money; financially ruined

bar: a counter where you can obtain food or drink; cafe; strip; stick

bare: lacking the usual or appropriate covering or clothing

barren: desolate; fruitless and unproductive; lacking

barter: trade goods or services without the exchange of money

bashful: abashed; daunted; very modest, or modest excess; constitutionally disposed
to shrink from public notice

bead: small piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for
stringing

beam: ray of light; long piece of metal or wood; long piece fixed or movable in
structure, machine, or tool

bear: support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support

beckon: signal or summon, as by nodding or waving; attract because of inviting or
enticing appearance

bellicose: warlike or hostile in manner or temperament; showing or having impulse to
be combative

belligerent: inclined or eager to fight; aggressive

beneficial: helpful; tending to promote physical well-being

beneficiary: person entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance policy or will

benefit: advantage; something that aids or promotes well-being ; welfare; gain

benevolent: generous in providing aid to others; charitable

bequeath: leave to someone by a will; hand down

besiege: surround with armed forces; harass with requests

bestow: give as gift; present

betray: be unfaithful; reveal unconsciously or unwillingly

beverage: liquids for drinking, usually excluding water; refreshment

bias: preference or inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgment;
influence in unfair way

bicker: engage in a petty, bad-tempered quarrel

bilateral: two-sided; mutual

biography: an account of the series of events making up a person's life; accounts of
people's life

bland: lacking stimulating or mild; agreeable

blatant: flagrant; conspicuously obvious; loudly offensive

blend: combination; mixture; forming uniform mixture

blizzard: snowstorm; storm

bloom: flower; blossom; best time of youth; period of greatest prosperity or
productivity

bluff: pretense of strength; mislead or deceive

blunder: serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion

blunt: having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive

bold: brave; daring; intrepid; impudent

bolster: support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion

bond: link; connection; uniting force or tie; binding agreement; duty

boom: bonanza; prosperity; prosper; expand; flourish

brace: something which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly, as bandage, cord,
or rod;

breakthrough: act of overcoming or penetrating an obstacle or restriction

breathtaking: very surprising or shocking

breed: raise; produce offspring; give birth to or hatch; mate

breeze: light current of air; gentle wind; progress swiftly and effortlessly

brilliant: full of light; shining; bright; sharp and clear in tone

brisk: marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in
speech or manner

brittle: easily broken; having little elasticity

broach: introduce; bring up for discussion or debate; announce

brochure: pamphlet; small book usually having paper cover

brutal: like a brute; savage; cruel; inhuman; merciless

bulky: of large size for its weight

burrow: tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; dig; move through
by or as by digging

buttress: support physically; prop up; support something or someone by supplying
evidence

cajole: influence or urge by gentle urging or flattering

calamity: event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; disaster;
misery

calm: freedom from motion, agitation, or disturbance; tranquility; stillness; quiet;
serenity

camouflage: exploit natural surroundings to disguise something; conceal

canvass: determine votes; examine carefully or discuss thoroughly; scrutinize

capable: having the ability required for a specific task

captivate: charm; enthrall; seize by force, as an enemy in war, or anything belonging
to enemy

caricature: representation that is deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic effect

carnage: destruction of life; savage and excessive killing of many people

carve: cut; sculpt

cast: assign the roles of; choose at random

casual: informal; purposeless; occurring by chance

cataclysm: an event resulting in great loss and misfortune; deluge or overflowing of
water

catastrophe: calamity; disaster; state of extreme ruin and misfortune

caustic: capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action

cautious: conservative; careful

cavity: hole; cavern; hollow area within the body

celebrated: famous; well-known; having illustrious past

censor: overseer of morals; official responsible for removal of objectionable or
sensitive content

censure: expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism; blame

census: official examination of the details of a country's population

centennial: of hundredth anniversary; lasting or aged a hundred years

chaos: disorder; condition or place of great disorder or confusion; disorderly mass

chasm: deep opening in the earth surface

cherish: harbor; treasure; treat with affection and tenderness; hold dear

chicanery: mean or unfair artifice to obscure truth; deception by trickery or sophistry

chide: scold mildly so as to correct or improve; express disapproval

chilly: cold

chop: hew; cut by striking with a heavy sharp tool, such as an ax

chubby: of a person, slightly overweight, somewhat fat and hence soft; rounded and
plump

cite: quote; adduce as an instance

clandestine: secret; conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods

clash: make noise by striking against something; dash noisily together; meet in
opposition

classify: declare unavailable, as for security reasons; arrange or order by classes or
categories

cliche: obvious remark; overused expression or idea

cling: hold fast or adhere to something; stick together and resist separation; remain
emotionally

clumsy: awkward; showing lack of skill or aptitude

coalescence: union of diverse things into one body or form or group; growing
together of parts

coalition: partnership; league; state of being combined into one body

coax: persuade or try to persuade by pleading or flattery; move to or adjust toward a
desired end

coherent: adhesive; cohesive; sticking together ; logical; sound; capable of thinking
and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner

coin: make pieces of money from metal; invent or fabricate

collaborate: work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort

colossal: of extraordinary size; huge; gigantic

commence: have a beginning or origin; originate; start; begin

commerce: trade; business; intellectual exchange or social interaction

commitment: pledge, undertaking; act of binding yourself to a course of action

commodity: goods; article of trade; advantage; benefit.

compact: closely and firmly united or packed together; briefly giving gist of something

compel: force; coerce; necessitate or pressure by force

competent: capable; adept

compile: put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources

complement: complete; consummate; make perfect

compliment: praise; commendation; say something to someone that expresses praise

comply: yield assent; accord; agree, or acquiesce; adapt one's self; fulfill; accomplish

component: element; ingredient; abstract part of something

comprehensible: understandable; readily comprehended or understood; intelligible

comprehensive: thorough; including all or everything; broad in scope

comprise: include; consist of; be composed of

compulsory: mandatory; obligatory; required by rule

concede: admit; yield; give up physical control of another

concerted: planned or accomplished together; combined

concise: brief and compact; expressing much in few words

concoct: digest; convert into nourishment by the organs of nutrition.

concord: agreement of opinions; harmonious state of things

concrete: solid mass; covering with cement; hard, strong construction material
consisting of sand, conglomerate , and gravel

concurrent: simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time

condemn: blame; denounce; express strong disapproval of

confer: bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over

confidential: treated with confidence; trusted in; trustworthy; secret

configuration: arrangement of parts or elements; outline

confiscate: seize as forfeited to the public treasury; appropriate to the public use

conflict: fight; struggle; incompatibility of dates or events

conform: comply with; follow; fit; meet

congenial: compatible

congestion: act of gathering or heaping together or forming a mass

conglomerate: corporation made up of different companies in diversified fields;
composing of heterogeneous elements gathered into a mass

congregate: assemble; convene; gather

conjecture: believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

consecutive: following one after another without interruption; sequential

consistent: being in agreement with itself; coherent; regular

conspicuous: noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious

contaminate: make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile

contemplate: look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought

contempt: state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open
disrespect of

contention: competing as for profit or prize

contrive: form by an exercise of ingenuity; devise; invent; design

controversial: controvertible; disputable

controversy: contentious speech act; argument

convenient: suited or favorable to one's comfort, purpose, or needs:; near; accessible

convey: carry from one place to another; bear or transport

conviction: judgment that someone is guilty of crime; strongly held belief

copious: plentiful; containing plenty; affording ample supply

cordial: gracious; showing warm and friendliness

corporeal: bodily; of a material nature; tangible

corpulent: very fat; large in body; overweight

corroborate: establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts; support with
evidence

courteous: exhibiting courtesy and politeness; showing regard or thought for others

covert: secretive, not openly shown

cozy: comfortable; relaxing

crave: ask with earnestness or importunity; ask with submission or humility; beg

crease: line made by pressing, folding, or wrinkling

crooked: having or marked by bends or angles; not straight or aligned; curved

crouch: bend down; stoop low; lie close to the ground with the legs bent, as an animal
when waiting for prey, or in fear

crucial: of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis; of the greatest
importance

crude: being in an unrefined or natural state; raw; lacking tact or taste; blunt or
offensive

cryptic: having hidden meaning; mystifying; using code or cipher

cultivate: improve and prepare, as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; promote
the growth of

cumbersome: heavy; difficult to handle because of weight or bulk

cumulative: increasing by successive addition

curb: bend or curve; guide and manage, or restrain

curious: difficult to please or satisfy; careful or anxious to learn; eager for knowledge;
given to research or inquiry

curt: having been shortened; effectively cut short; rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech
or manner

curtail: cut short or reduce; cut off end or tail, or any part

damp: humid; moist; slightly wet

dangle: hang loosely, or with a swinging or jerking motion; swing, as something
suspended loosely

daring: bold; brave

daunt: frighten; abate the courage of; discourage

dazzling: bright; brilliant

decadent: self-indulgent; moral decay

decay: decompose; break sown; disintegration; rottenness; decline; worsen;
decadence

deceit: attempt or disposition to deceive or lead into error; any declaration, artifice, or
practice, which misleads another, or causes him to believe what is false

deception: act of deceiving

decipher: convert code into ordinary language; read with difficulty

declare: state clearly; make known formally or officially

declivity: downward slope, as of a hill

decompose: decay

decorate: adorn; embellish

dedicate: set apart; devoted; consecrated

deem: decide; judge; sentence; condemn

defame: harm someone's reputation; degrade; bring into disrepute; make infamous

defect: abandon or turn against; cease or change one's loyalty

defective: having a defect; faulty; imperfect; incomplete; lacking

defer: delay till later; put off; hold back to a later time

deficient: inadequate; lacking an essential quality or element

definitive: final; complete; precisely defined or explicit

defraud: deprive of some right, interest, or property, by a deceitful device

degenerate: become worse; decline; fall

dehydrate: remove water from; dry out; lose water or bodily fluids

deity: god; divinity; supernatural things

dejected: being in low spirits; depressed

deliberate: consider; think about carefully; weigh

delicate: pleasing to the senses, especially in a subtle way; easily hurt; very subtle in
difference

deluge: great flood; heavy downpour; any overflowing of water

delusion: false belief; mistaken or unfounded opinion

demise: end of existence or activity; termination

demolish: raze; destroy; do away with completely; put an end to

denote: indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically

denounce: condemn openly; criticize; make known in formal manner

dense: thick; crowded closely together; compact

depress: lower in spirits; press down

deprive: deny; take away

derelict: left and abandoned; negligent in performing a duty

deride: ridicule; make fun of; laugh at with contempt

descry: catch sight of; discover by careful observation or scrutiny

desecrate: violate with violence, especially to sacred place

deserted: remote from civilization; left desolate or empty; abandoned

desiccate: dry up thoroughly; make dry, dull, or lifeless; preserve foods by removing
the moisture

desist: cease to proceed or act; stop; forbear

desolate: unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants

desultory: aimless; haphazard; at random; not connected with subject

detect: feel; discover the presence of; identify

deteriorate: become worse; decline

detrimental: causing damage or harm; injurious

deviate: turn away from a principle, norm; depart; diverge

device: technique or means; instrument; machine used to perform one or more
relatively simple tasks

devise: form, plan, or arrange in the mind; transmit or give by will

devoid: completely lacking; barren or empty

dexterous: skillful in the use of the hands; having mental skill

digress: turn aside, especially from main subject in writing or speaking

diligent: assiduous; industrious; hard-working

dilute: weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water

dim: emitting only a small amount of light; lacking in brightness

dimension: measure of spatial extent, especially width, height, or length; size;
aspect; element

dingy: darkened with smoke and grime; dirty or discolored

dip: insert into a fluid and withdraw again; immerse for baptism; wet, as if by
immersing; moisten; appear to move downward

discard: throw out something from one's hand; get rid of

discern: detect; perceive

discipline: trait of being well behaved ; act of punishing ; system of rules of conduct
or method of practice

disclose: unclose; open; remove a cover or envelope from; lay open or expose to
view

discord: conflict; lack of agreement among persons, groups, or things

discrepancy: lack of consistency; difference

disdain: view with scorn or contempt; feel with aversion

dismal: causing gloom or depression; dreary; somber; melancholy

dismay: destroy courage or resolution by exciting dread; cause to lose enthusiasm

disparity: difference; condition or fact of being unequal, as in age, rank, or degree

disperse: move away from each other; cause to separate; cause to become widely
known

disposition: natural or acquired habit with tendency; act or means of getting rid of
something

dispute: argument; angry altercation; quarrel; verbal controversy; debate

disseminate: distribute; spread; scatter like seeds

dissolve: melt; liquefy; cause to pass into solution; cause to disappear or vanish

distinct: definite; separate; different

distinguished: prominent; celebrated, well-known or eminent because of past
achievements

distract: cause to turn away from original focus; pull in conflicting emotional
directions; unsettle

diverge: vary; go in different directions from the same point

divulge: reveal; make known to public

docile: obedient; ready and willing to be taught; easily managed or handled

dodge: avoid a blow by moving or shifting quickly aside; shifty or ingenious trick

dogged: determined; stubbornly persevering; unyielding

doleful: sorrowful; filled with or expressing grief; mournful

dominate: monopolize; command; rule; prevail; be prevalent in

donate: grant; present as a gift to a fund or cause; contribute

dot: the shorter of two telegraphic signals used in Morse code; very small circular
shape

doze: slumber; sleep lightly; be in dull or stupefied condition, as if half asleep; be
drowsy

drain: draw out; flow out; waste

drastic: radical; taking effect violently or rapidly

drawback: disadvantage or inconvenience; shortcoming; refund or remittance, such
as a discount on duties or taxes

dreary: gloomy; dismal; dark, colorless, or cheerless

drench: cause to drink, especially by force; put potion down throat of; steep in
moisture; wet thoroughly

drip: process of falling in drops; liquid or moisture that falls in drops; sound made by
liquid falling in drops

drought: dry period; aridity; long period of abnormally low rainfall

drowsy: dull with sleepiness; showing lack of attention

dubious: questionable; filled with doubt

dull: lacking responsiveness or alertness; intellectually weak or obtuse

dumbfound: fill with astonishment and perplexity; confound

dunce: backward in book learning; child or other person dull or weak in intellect;
dullard or dolt

durable: lasting; long-lasting; enduring

dwell: live as a resident; exist in a given place or state

dwelling: residence; place to live in; abode

dwindle: shrink; reduce in size; become less

dynamic: energetic; vigorously active

eclipse: darken; exceed in importance; outweigh

ecology: science of the relationships between organisms and their environments

edible: eatable; substance that can be used as food

edifice: building, especially one of imposing appearance or size; a structure that has a
roof and walls

eerie: suggestive of the supernatural; mysterious

efface: rub or wipe out; make indistinct as if by rubbing

elaborate: marked by complexity and richness of detail; done with care and in minute
detail

elasticity: tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been
stretched or compressed

elderly: somewhat old; advanced beyond middle age

elegant: refined and tasteful in appearance or behavior or style

elevate: raise; give a promotion to or assign to a higher position

elicit: draw out; bring forth or to light; generate or provoke as response or answer

eligible: qualified; desirable and worthy of choice, especially for marriage

elucidate: make clear or plain, especially by explanation; clarify

elude: avoid cleverly; escape perception of

emanate: come or send forth from a source, used chiefly of intangible thing, as light

emancipate: free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate

embed: enclose; place in something; fix firmly in surrounding mass

emblem: symbol; sign; distinctive badge, design, or device

emboss: mold or carve in relief; decorate with or as if with a raised design

eminent: standing out above other things; high in rank, office, or worth

emit: give off; send out; give out as sound

emulate: be a match or counterpart for; eager to equal or excel

enamored: totally in love; marked by foolish or unreasoning fondness

enchant: charm by sorcery; get control of by magical words and rites

enchanting: having the power to enchant; charming

encomium: high praise; formal expression of praise; tribute

encounter: face; confront; meet, especially unexpectedly; come upon

endeavor: attempt by employing effort

endorse: acknowledge by signing a bill, draft, or other instrument

engender: cause; bring into existence; give rise to

enhance: make better or more attractive; increase; improve

enigma: puzzle; difficult problem

enlist: enter on a list; enroll; register; engage for military or naval service

enmity: ill will; hatred; quality or state of being hostile

ennui: feeling of being bored by something tedious

ensue: pursue; follow or come afterward; follow as a consequence

enthrall: capture; attract and hold by charm, beauty, or excellence; hold in bondage
or subjection

entice: attract by arousing hope or desire

enumerate: list each one; mention one by one

enunciate: speak distinctly; state or set forth precisely or systematically; pronounce;
articulate

envisage: look in the face of; apprehend; consider or regard in a certain way

ephemeral: short-lived; enduring a very short time

epitaph: inscription on tombstone in memory

epithet: word or phrase characteristically used to describe a person or thing

equitable: marked by or having equity; just and impartial

equivocal: open to two or more interpretations and often intended to mislead

eradicate: completely destroy; eliminate; exterminate

erect: construct; stand; set up

escalate: rise; increase in extent or intensity

eschew: avoid; refuse to use or participate in; stand aloof from

espouse: take in marriage; marry; give one's loyalty or support to; adopt

essay: effort made for performance of anything; short literary composition on a single
subject

essential: necessary; critical; vital; constituting or being part of the essence of
something

estate: extensive landed property; everything you own; all of your assets

esteem: regard with respect; favorable regard

eulogy: expression of praise, often on the occasion of someone's death

evacuate: make empty; empty out; remove contents of

evade: get away from by artifice; avoid by dexterity; escape from cleverly

evanescent: fleeting; vanishing or likely to vanish like vapor

evenhanded: impartial; fair; rightly balanced; equitable

evolve: develop; grow

exacerbate: increase severity, violence, or bitterness of; aggravate

exacting: making severe demands; rigorous; requiring great care, effort, or attention

exalt: raise in rank or dignity; praise

excavate: unearth; dig out; make a hole in; hollow out

exceed: go beyond; be or do something to a greater degree

excerpt: passage or segment taken from a longer work, such as literary or musical
composition

excursion: trip; usually short journey made for pleasure

execute: put into effect; carry out the legalities of

exhaustive: treating all parts or aspects without omission; comprehensive

exhilarating: invigorating and refreshing; cheering; making lively and joyful

exhortation: act of practice of exhorting; act of inciting to laudable deeds; incitement
to that which is good; language intended to incite and encourage

expendable: not essential or mandatory in order to achieve a goal; not reusable;
Suitable to be expended

expire: come to an end; terminate; lose validity; breathe one's last breath; die

explicit: precisely and clearly expressed; definite; outspoken

exploit: make use of, sometimes unjustly

explore: investigate systematically; examine; search

expose: set forth; set out to public view

expunge: cancel; remove; erase or strike out

extensive: widespread; far-reaching; wide

extol: praise highly; glorify; celebrate

extract: draw or pull out, usually with some force or effort; remove; get despite
difficulties or obstacles

extraneous: not essential; coming from outside

extravagant: wandering beyond one's bounds; exceeding due bounds; wild;
excessive; unrestrained

facade: front of building; superficial or false appearance
E.g.I believe the Religious Right's thin facade is being revealed.

facetious: joking ,often inappropriately; humorous
E.g.I'm serious about this project; I don't need any facetious cracks about do-gooder little rich
girls.

fallacious: false; tending to mislead; deceptive
E.g.Paradoxically, fallacious reasoning does not always yield erroneous results: even though
your logic may be faulty, the answer you get may nevertheless be correct.

fallible: likely to fail or be inaccurate
E.g.I know I am fallible, but I feel confident that I am right this time.

fathom: measure the depth; come to understand
E.g.I find his motives impossible to fathom; in fact, I'm totally clueless about what goes on in
his mind.

fatuous: foolish or silly, especially in self-satisfied way
E.g.He is far too intelligent to utter such fatuous remarks.

feasible: capable of being accomplished or brought about
E.g.Now, the expert that would have to come in and examine "Baby R.B." and decide whether
that's feasible is just now being scheduled.

felicity: great happiness; pleasing and appropriate manner or style
E.g.She wrote a note to the newlyweds wishing them great felicity in their wedded life.

fervid: extremely hot; eager; impassioned; burning
E.g.Her fervid enthusiasm inspired all of us to undertake the dangerous mission.

fiasco: complete failure; sudden and violent collapse
E.g.The real problem with our job fiasco is that I essentially had two nights with almost no
sleep.

fictitious: existing only in imagination; feigned; not true or real
E.g.Although this book purports to be a biography of George Washington, many of the incidents
are fictitious.

flaccid: acting in strength, firmness, or resilience
E.g.His sedentary life had left him with flaccid muscles.

flagrant: obvious and offensive, blatant, scandalous; flaming into notice
E.g.The governor's appointment of his brother-in-law to the State Supreme Court was a flagrant
violation of the state laws against nepotism.

flamboyant: elaborately or excessively ornamented
E.g.Modern architecture has discarded the flamboyant trimming on buildings and emphasizes
simplicity of line.

flaunt: display proudly or shamelessly; show oneself off
E.g.And all the information they did flaunt is easily obtainable.

fleeting: transient; brief; temporary; passing quickly
E.g.Sometimes, for a fleeting moment, I thought I caught a glance, heard a tone, beheld a form,
which announced the realization of my dream.

fluctuate: rise and fall in or as if in waves; shift; vary irregularly
E.g.The water pressure in our shower does fluctuate wildly.

forensic: relating to use of technology in investigation and establishment of facts or
evidence in court by law
E.g.An expert in forensic accounting, according to a recent report in Newsweek, says the AIG
scandal might get considerably worse than it already is.

fortuitous: accidental; by chance; coming or occurring without any cause
E.g.Though he pretended their encounter was fortuitous, he'd actually been hanging around her
usual haunts for the past two weeks, hoping she'd turn up.

fracas: noisy, disorderly fight or quarrel; disturbance
E.g.The military police stopped the fracas in the bar and arrested the belligerents.

frustrate: make null; bring to nothing; prevent from taking effect or attaining
fulfillment
E.g.We must frustrate this dictator's plan to seize control of the government.

fulsome: offensively flattering or insincere; offensive; disgusting
E.g.His fulsome praise of the dictator revolted his listeners.

garnish: decorate with ornamental appendages
E.g.Parsley was used to garnish the boiled potato.

genealogy: account or history of descent of person or family from ancestor; lineage
E.g.He was proud of his genealogy and constantly referred to the achievements of his ancestors.

genesis: coming into being of something; origin
E.g.But let's rewind, back to the beginning, as their genesis is available for all to read online.

ghastly: horrible; inspiring shock; extremely unpleasant or bad
E.g.Another reason the summer of 2009 seems so ghastly is because other countries are living
through infinitely more exciting times.

gibe: mock; laugh at with contempt and derision
E.g.As you gibe at their superstitious beliefs, do you realize that you, too, are guilty of similarly
foolish thoughts?

glib: performed with a natural or offhand ease
E.g."Excuse me, sir," said the man in glib English.

gossamer: sheer, light, delicate, or tenuous
E.g.They would laugh in gossamer tones, and then move on gracefully to someone else,
sometimes moving gracefully at speeds exceeding 40 mph.

gregarious: sociable; seeking and enjoying the company of others
E.g.Natural selection in gregarious animals operates upon groups rather than upon individuals.

grimace: facial distortion to show feeling such as pain, disgust
E.g.Even though he remained silent, his grimace indicated his displeasure.

hail: call for; salute; greet; praise vociferously
E.g.The US Embassy in Manila found itself under a hail of rotten fruit early today, the latest
symptom of anti-American feeling reverberating across Asia in recent days.

harangue: noisy speech; speech or piece of writing with strong feeling or expression
E.g.In her lengthy harangue, the principal berated the offenders.

haughty: high; lofty; bold; arrogant; overbearing
E.g."Indeed, mama, but you can -- and will," pronounced the haughty voice of Blanche, as she
turned round on the piano-stool; where till now she had sat silent, apparently examining sundry
sheets of music.

heedless: unaware, without noticing; unmindful or thoughtless
E.g.He drove on, heedless of the danger warnings placed at the side of the road.

heinous: grossly wicked; abominable; hateful; infamous
E.g.I'm a sincere believer that people who have engaged in heinous crimes deserve the ultimate
retribution.

heresy: opinion contrary to popular belief; opinion contrary to accepted religion
E.g.Galileo's assertion that the earth moved around the sun directly contradicted the religious
teachings of his day; as a result, he was tried for heresy.

hiatus: gap; interruption in duration or continuity; pause
E.g.During the summer hiatus, many students try to earn enough money to pay their tuition for
the next school year.

histrionic: characteristic of acting or stage performance
E.g.He was proud of his histrionic ability and wanted to play the role of Hamlet.

hoax: act intended to deceive or trick; practical joke
E.g.Mr. Troyer said later that some of the search had been in response to a hoax - a man called
the police and falsely said he was the gunman.

hovel: shack; small, wretched house
E.g.He wondered how poor people could stand living in such a hovel.

hyperbole: figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis;
overstatement
E.g.As far as I'm concerned, Apple's claims about the new computer are pure hyperbole: no
machine is that good!.

hypothesis: assumption; theory
E.g.A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible.

idiom: expression whose meaning differs from meanings of its individual words;
distinctive style
E.g.The phrase "to lose one's marbles" is an idiom: if I say that Joe's lost his marbles, I'm not
asking you to find some for him. I'm telling you that he's crazy.

idiosyncrasy: behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual
E.g.One Richard Nixon's little idiosyncrasy was his liking for ketchup on cottage cheese.

immaculate: spotless; flawless; absolutely clean
E.g.Chatman said her mom and dad always kept their vehicles in immaculate shape.

imminent: near at hand; close in time; about to occur
E.g.Peak oil does not mean that we are in imminent danger of running out of oil.

immune: resistant to; free or exempt from; not subject to
E.g.Still, the company doesn't expect to remain immune from the effects of the downturn.

impale: pierce; kill by piercing with a spear or sharp
E.g.His adversary hurled a spear to impale him.

impeach: charge with crime; challenge or discredit the credibility of
E.g.The angry congressman wanted to impeach the president for his misdeeds.

impeccable: faultless; incapable of sin or wrongdoing
E.g.His voting record has been impeccable from a conservative point of view.

impervious: impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed
E.g.The carpet salesman told Simone that his most expensive brand of floor covering was
warranted to be impervious to ordinary wear and tear.

implacable: incapable of being pacified; not to be relieved;
E.g.Madame Defarge was the implacable enemy of the Evremonde family.

implicit: implied or understood though not directly expressed
E.g.Jack never told Jill he adored her; he believed his love was implicit in his actions.

import: bring in from another country
E.g.Despite being one of the world's largest oil exporters, Nigeria refines only a very small
proportion of even its own fuel needs, and has to import the rest - a severe and unnecessary
drain on resources.

impostor: someone who assumes a false identity
E.g.Some Sarah Palin impostor somehow got access to Sarah Palin's Facebook page and posted
the bizarre comments.

imprecation: curse; act of calling down a curse that invokes evil
E.g.Spouting violent imprecation, Hank searched for the person who had vandalized his truck.

impregnable: invulnerable; able to withstand attack
E.g.Until the development of the airplane as a military weapon, the fort was considered
impregnable.

impropriety: improper act; improper or unacceptable usage in speech or writing
E.g.Because of the impropriety of the punk rocker's slashed T-shirt and jeans, the management
refused to admit him to the hotel's very formal dining room.

improvident: thriftless; not providing for future; incautious
E.g.He was constantly being warned to mend his improvident ways and begin to "save for a
rainy day.".

impugn: dispute or contradict, often in insulting way; challenge
E.g.Our treasurer was furious when the finance committee's report tried to impugn the accuracy
of his financial records.

incarcerate: imprison; put into jail; shut up or inclose
E.g.He was not willing to incarcerate the civil rights workers because their imprisonment could
serve the cause.

incisive: penetrating, clear, and sharp, as in operation or expression
E.g.His incisive remarks made us see the fallacy in our plans.

incontrovertible: indisputable; not open to question
E.g.Unless you find the evidence against my client absolutely incontrovertible, you must declare
her not guilty of this charge.

increment: process of increasing in number, size, quantity, or extent
E.g.The new contract calls for a 10 percent increment in salary for each employee for the next
two years.

incumbent: imposed as an obligation or duty; currently holding an office
E.g.Voters see the same old candidates year after year and figure that the incumbent is usually
a lock in a vast number of congressional districts.

indefatigable: tireless; showing sustained enthusiastic action
E.g.Although the effort of taking out the garbage tired Wayne out for the entire morning, when
it came to partying, he was indefatigable.

indigenous: native; originating where it is found
E.g.But rarely was the music they played anchored in indigenous sounds of their homelands, as
the groups eagerly explored musical hybrids.

inference: inferring by deduction or induction; truth or proposition drawn from
another which is admitted or supposed to be true; conclusion; deduction
E.g.If he is guilty, then by inference so is she.

ingenious: clever; having inventive or cunning mind
E.g.Do not certain ingenious philosophers teach this doctrine, and ought not we to be grateful to
them?

ingenuous: naive and trusting; young; unsophisticated
E.g.The woodsman had not realized how ingenuous Little Red Riding Hood was until he heard
that she had gone off for a walk in the woods with the Big Bad Wolf.

ingratiate: become popular with; make agreeable or acceptable
E.g.He tried to ingratiate himself into her parents' good graces.

inhibit: restrain; prevent or forbid; hold back
E.g.Only two things inhibit him from taking a punch at Mike Tyson: Tyson's left hook, and
Tyson's right jab.

innocuous: having no adverse effect; harmless
E.g.An occasional glass of wine with dinner is relatively innocuous and should have no ill effect
on you.

innuendo: hint; indirect implication , usually malicious
E.g.Until he engages in innuendo about being supported by "hard-working, white Americans,"
then he has not said much that should upset fellow Democrats.

inordinate: exceeding reasonable limits; excessive; not regulated; disorderly
E.g.She had an inordinate fondness for candy, eating two or three boxes in a single day.

insatiable: not easily satisfied; impossible to satiate or satisfy; greedy
E.g.If this country has an insatiable need for Mexico's drugs, it's only due to federal negligence
in fencing and securing our borders.

inscrutable: impenetrable; not readily understood; mysterious
E.g.Experienced poker players try to keep their expressions inscrutable, hiding their reactions to
the cards behind a so-called "poker face.".

insidious: spreading harmfully in a subtle manner; designed or adapted to entrap
E.g.More insidious is the whole issue of the second amendment.

instigate: goad or urge forward; provoke; incite
E.g.Rumors of police corruption led the mayor to instigate an investigation into the department's
activities.

integrity: quality or condition of being whole or undivided; completeness
E.g.Protecting global supply chain integrity is of the utmost importance for manufacturers.

irascible: irritable; easily angered; excited by or arising from anger
E.g.Miss Minchin's irascible temper intimidated the younger schoolgirls, who feared she'd burst
into a rage at any moment.

ire: anger; wrath; keen resentment; irritate
E.g.The waiter tried unsuccessfully to placate the ire of the diner who had found a cockroach in
her soup.

irksome: causing annoyance, weariness, or vexation; tedious
E.g.He found working on the assembly line irksome because of the monotony of the operation
he had to perform.

itinerant: wandering; traveling place to place, especially to perform work or duty
E.g.Since the storm, the city had also been attracting a new kind of itinerant idealist.

jargon: language used by a special group; technical terminology; nonsensical or
meaningless talk
E.g.The computer salesmen at the store used a jargon of their own that we simply couldn't
follow; we had no idea what they were jabbering about.

jaunty: gay in manner, appearance, or action; easy and carefree
E.g.In An American in Paris, Gene Kelly sang and danced his way through "Singing in the Rain"
in a properly jaunty style.

jeopardy: exposure to death, loss, or injury; hazard; risk of loss or injury
E.g.Some private developers say the number of projects in jeopardy is much higher.

jettison: throw overboard; eject from boat, submarine, aircraft, or spaceship
E.g.In order to enable the ship to ride safely through the storm, the captain had to jettison
much of his cargo.

judicious: exhibiting good judgment or sound thinking; prudent
E.g.At a key moment in his life, he made a judicious investment that was the foundation of his
later wealth.

ken: understanding; knowledge; range of vision
E.g.I really do not know the reason. It is beyond my ken.

labyrinth: maze; complex structure of interconnecting passages
E.g.You know, Michelle, one thing contributing to this labyrinth is the nation's biggest private
employer, Wal-Mart.

lachrymose: weeping or inclined to weep; tearful; showing sorrow
E.g.His voice has a lachrymose quality more appropriate to a funeral than a class reunion.

laconic: brief; effectively cut short; marked by use of few words
E.g.Many of the characters portrayed by Clint Eastwood are laconic types: strong men of few
words.

latent: present or potential but not evident or active; dormant; hidden
E.g.Existing arrangements contain latent functions that can be neither seen nor replaced by the
reformer.

lavish: liberal; wasteful; excessive spending
E.g.I would fly to Paris and stay in lavish hotels if someone else were paying.

lethal: deadly; causing or capable of causing death
E.g.In a decision the court upheld the use of all three drugs in lethal injections.

longevity: long life; great duration of life; long duration or continuance, as in an
occupation
E.g.When he reached ninety, the old man was proud of his longevity.

low: utter sound made by cattle; make a low noise
E.g.From the hilltop, they could see the herd like ants in the distance; they could barely hear the
cattle low.

lucid: easily understood; clear; intelligible
E.g.So in lucid moments, you structure your life to serve your own best interest.

ludicrous: laughable; completely devoid of wisdom or good sense
E.g.It is ludicrous to call a cottage a mansion.

luminary: celebrity; person who is an inspiration to others; person who has achieved
eminence in specific field
E.g.A leading light of the American stage, Ethel Barrymore was a theatrical luminary whose
name lives on.

malicious: deliberately harmful; spiteful; proceeding from extreme hatred
E.g.It is just plain malicious software designed to corrupt your device or steal your information.

masquerade: assembly of persons wearing masks, and amusing themselves with
dancing, conversation, or other diversions; dramatic performance by actors in masks
E.g.The masquerade is where fans play instruments and perform skits, dance numbers, and
stand-up comedy in costume.

maudlin: tearfully sentimental; over-emotional; sickly-sentimental
E.g.One moment he was in maudlin tears and the next he was cracking some miserable joke
about the disaster.

meander: follow a winding and turning course; move aimlessly and idly without fixed
direction
E.g.Needing to stay close to a source of water, he follows every twist and turn of the streams as
they meander through the countryside.

mediocre: moderate to inferior in quality; ordinary; commonplace
E.g.He manages to give solid performances even in mediocre movies.

mercenary: interested in making money; profit oriented; hired for service in foreign
army
E.g.South African involvement in mercenary activities was approved in the National Assembly on
Tuesday.

meretricious: of or pertaining to prostitutes; tastelessly showy; lustful; deceptive;
misleading
E.g.The net result is that both the news columns and the editorial columns are commonly
meretricious in a high degree.

meticulous: excessively careful; marked by extreme care in treatment of details
E.g.One neighbor, who usually uses the truck to haul away lawn debris, always returns the truck
in meticulous condition.

mettle: quality of endurance and courage; good temperament and character
E.g.When challenged by the other horses in the race, the thoroughbred proved its mettle by its
determination to hold the lead.

microcosm: small, representative system having analogies to larger system;
miniature model of something
E.g.The small village community that Jane Austen depicts serves as a microcosm of English
society in her time.

mimic: copy or imitate closely, especially in speech, expression
E.g.Scientists process skin tissue to mimic embryonic stem cells.

misnomer: error in naming person or place; incorrect designation
E.g.His tyrannical conduct proved to all that his nickname, King Eric the Just, was a misnomer.

monologue: speech uttered by a person alone; dramatic soliloquy
E.g.I am not really a big fan of Sarah either but what she said in her opening monologue is true.

morose: ill humored; sullen; depressingly dark; gloomy; persistent
E.g.Though we feel sad at someone's pain and sorrow, feeling morose is difficult while actively
wishing the person to be happy.

motley: multi-colored; mixed; having elements of great variety
E.g.He wore a loose tunic and looser trousers, homespun and dyed in motley green and brown.

mottled: spotted with different shades or colors
E.g.When old Falstaff blushed, his face was mottled with embarrassment, all pink and purple
and red.

mundane: belonging to this earth or world; not ideal or heavenly; concerned with
commonplaces; ordinary
E.g.Unlike other players, the CEO and Secretariat are less interested in mundane benefits than
in value.

murky: dark and gloomy; thick with fog; vague
E.g.The murky depths of the swamp were so dark that one couldn't tell the vines and branches
from the snakes.

myriad: of very large or indefinite number; of ten thousand
E.g.In China, for example, where a number of different dialects are spoken, the same character
can be pronounced in myriad ways.
quaint: odd; old-fashioned; picturesque; unfamiliar or unusual in character

quandary: dilemma; state of uncertainty or perplexity

quench: put out a fire; extinguish; put an end to; destroy

query: inquiry; doubt in the mind; mental reservation

quest: act of searching for something

quote: cite or repeat a passage from; repeat or copy the words of another

radiant: brilliant; delighted

radical: drastic; extreme; arising from or going to a root or source; basic

ragged: torn; worn; having an irregular surface or edge; uneven or jagged in outline

raid: search without warning; surprise attack by a small armed force

random: without definite purpose, plan, or aim; having no specific pattern

range: limits within which something can be effective; variety of different things or
activities

ration: allotment; allowance; portion; allot; distribute in rations

raw: in the natural unprocessed condition; cruel and unfair; uncooked; untrained and
inexperienced

raze: destroy completely; scrape or shave off

rebellion: organized opposition to authority

recede: move back; retreat; withdraw a claim or pretension

reception: act of receiving; manner in which something is greeted

recess: withdrawing or retiring; moving back; retreat; state of being withdrawn;
seclusion

reciprocal: concerning each of two or more persons or things; exchangeable;
interacting

reckless: headstrong; rash; indifferent to or disregardful of consequences

reclaim: bring into or return to a suitable condition for use; claim back; make useful
again

reconcile: correct inconsistencies; become friendly after a quarrel; become compatible
or consistent

recount: narrate or tell; count over again

recrimination: countercharge; counter or mutual accusation

recruit: enlist; register formally as a participant; engage for military service

recurring: repeated; Returning again; repetitious

redeem: purchase back; regain possession of by payment; ransom or rescue from
captivity; pay penalty; make amends for

redoubtable: formidable; arousing fear or awe; worthy of respect or honor

refine: purify; make more precise; improve

refute: disprove; prove to be false or incorrect

rehabilitate: restore to proper condition; help to re-adapt, as to former state of
health or good repute

rehearse: practice; drill; engage in preparation for a public performance

reign: sovereignty; rule; dominance or widespread influence

reimburse: pay back for some expense incurred

reiterate: say, state, or perform again or repeatedly

rejoice: feel joy; experience gladness in a high degree; have pleasurable satisfaction;
be delighted; enjoy

rejoicing: of rejoice; feeling and expression of joy and gladness; procedure expressive
of joy; festivity

release: give off; liberate; grant freedom to; make something available

relegate: assign to obscure place, position, or condition; delegate; assign

reliable: worthy of being depended on; trustworthy

relinquish: give up something with reluctance; retire from; give up or abandon

relish: take keen or zestful pleasure in; enjoy the flavor of; give spice or flavor to

remedy: a medicine or therapy; ; cure; fix; repair; provide relief for

reminisce: recollect and tell of past experiences or events; talk or write about
memories of the past, especially pleasant memories

remit: send back; give up; surrender; resign; restore; transmit or send, especially as
money in payment of a demand

remnant: remainder; small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer
exists

render: deliver;give or make available; provide; represent in a drawing or painting

renounce: abandon; disown; turn away from; give up

renowned: famous; celebrated for great achievements, for distinguished qualities

repeal: revoke or annul, especially by official or formal act

repel: force or drive back; disgust; offer resistance to; fight against

repercussion: often indirect effect or result that is produced by an event or action;
reflection, especially of sound

replenish: fill or make complete again; add a new stock or supply to

reproach: express disapproval or disappointment; bring shame upon; disgrace

reprobate: person hardened in sin; person without moral scruples

reproduce: have offspring or young; duplicate; make a copy

reprove: voice or convey disapproval of; rebuke; find fault with

repugnance: extreme dislike or aversion; opposition; conflict; resistance, in a physical
sense

repute: ascribe a particular fact or characteristic to; consider; suppose

rescind: cancel; make void; repeal or annul

resent: feel bitter; consider as injury or affront; be in angry

reserved: held in reserve; kept back or set aside; marked by self-restraint and
reticence

residual: remaining as a residue; surplus

resolute: firm, unyielding, or determined; having decided purpose

restless: never resting; unquiet; uneasy; continually moving; eager for change;
discontented

resume: give a summary; return to a previous location or condition

resurrection: rising again; resumption of vigor; act of rising from the dead or
returning to life

retaliate: do something harmful or negative to get revenge for some harm; fight back
or respond in kind to an injury or affront

reticent: inclined to keep silent; reserved; uncommunicative.

retract: withdraw; take back; draw back or in

retreat: receding; pull back or move away or backward; withdrawal of troops to a
more favorable position

retrieve: recover; find and bring in; get back

reveal: make known; disclose or show

revere: worship; regard with feelings of respect or honor

revoke: void or annul by recalling, withdrawing, or reversing; cancel; retract

riddle: pierce with numerous holes; perforate; permeate or spread throughout

rigid: stiff and unyielding; strict; hard and unbending; not flexible

rigor: strictness or severity, as in temperament, action, or judgment; something hard
to endure

rip: tear or be torn violently; criticize or abuse strongly and violently

ripe: ready; fully developed; mature

risky: involving risk or danger; hazardous

roam: wander; ramble; stroll

rotundity: roundness; rounded fullness; integral entireness

rough: not perfected; having or caused by an irregular surface

route: way for travel or transportation

rudimentary: relating to basic facts or principles; being in the earliest stages of
development; incipient

rugged: uneven; rough; very difficult

rummage: make an energetic, usually hasty search

rural: country; relating to rural areas

ruthless: pitiless; cruel; having no compassion or pity; merciless

salvage: save from loss or destruction; rescue of a ship; save for further use

sanction: give authorization or approval to something; penalize a state, especially for
violating international law

sanctuary: place of refuge or asylum; shrine; holy place, such as a church, temple, or
mosque

sanguine: cheerfully confident; optimistic; of healthy reddish color; ruddy

saturate: soak, fill, or load to capacity; cause to unite with the greatest possible
amount of another substance

scale: climb up or over; alter according to a standard; estimate or measure; remove
in layers

scan: make a wide, sweeping search of; examine

scant: scarcely sufficient; less than is wanted for the purpose; not enough

scarce: hard to find; absent or rare; limited

scatter: sprinkle; disseminate; cause to separate and go in different directions

scent: distinctive odor that is pleasant; fragrance; perfume

scholarly: academic; scientific; characteristic of scholars or scholarship

scope: range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions; extent; bound

scorch: burn superficially; parch, or shrivel, the surface of, by heat; affect painfully
with heat; burn

scorn: extreme and lofty contempt; haughty disregard

scrap: small piece or bit; fragment; fragment; leftover bits of food; remnant

scribble: write or draw carelessly and in a hurry; doodle; meaningless marks and lines

scrupulous: exactly and carefully conducted; by extreme care and great effort;
cautious

scrutinize: examine closely and critically

seasoned: experienced, especially in terms of a profession or a hobby; aged or
processed

secluded: removed or remote from others; solitary; hidden or isolated

sedition: resistance to authority; insubordination or rebellion

seemly: proper; appropriate; of pleasing appearance; handsome

sensational: arousing or intended to arouse strong curiosity, interest, or reaction

sentinel: one that keeps guard; soldier stationed as a guard

sequester: isolate; retire from public life; segregate; seclude

serene: completely clear and fine

sever: cut off from a whole; set or keep apart; divide or separate

severe: serious in feeling or manner; not light, lively, or cheerful

shabby: torn or worn to rage; poor; mean; ragged

shatter: destroy; break up; break into many pieces

sheer: very thin or transparent; very steep; absolute or pure

shimmer: shine with a weak or fitful light; glimmer intermittently

shiver: shake with or as if with cold; tremble; break into fragments or splinters

shred: a small amount; a long, narrow piece cut or torn off; long irregular strip that is
cut or torn off

shrewd: clever; characterized by keen awareness, sharp intelligence

shrill: acute; sharp; piercing; having or emitting a sharp, piercing tone or sound

shrink: become smaller or draw together; compress

shun: avoid deliberately; keep away from

shy: timid; bashful; easily startled; distrustful

significant: fairly large; important in effect or meaning

signify: denote; mean; indicate

simulate: make a pretence of; reproduce someone's behavior or looks

simultaneous: existing, happening, or done at the same time

singular: unique; extraordinary; being only one

sip: drink or imbibe in small quantities; take in with lips in small quantities, as liquid;
draw into the mouth; suck up

skeptical: marked by or given to doubt; questioning

sketch: draw or describe briefly; give the main points; summary of

sketchy: containing only an outline or rough form; being in the manner of a sketch;
incomplete

slack: area of still water; lack of tension; cord, rope, or cable that is hanging loosely;
unused capacity; casual trousers

slander: defamation; false and malicious statement or report about someone

slender: having little width in proportion to height or length; long and thin

slim: small in quantity; being of delicate or slender build

sluggish: lazy; with little movement; very slow

smolder: burn without flame; be liable to break out at any moment

snare: trap; gin; anything by which one is entangled and brought into trouble

soak: cause or suffer to lie in a fluid; absorb; drain; drink intemperately or
gluttonously

sojourn: temporary stay; brief period of residence; place of temporary stay

solace: comfort or relieve in sorrow, misfortune, or distress

solicit: request earnestly; seek to obtain by persuasion or formal application

somber: gloomy; depressing or grave; dull or dark in color

sophisticated: wide-ranging knowledge; complex; intellectually appealing

sophistry: argument for exercise merely; plausible but misleading argument; art or
process of reasoning; logic

sort: kind or species; a class of;

sound: sensation perceived by the ear; distinctive noise; long narrow inlet

sovereign: having supreme rank or power; self governing; excellent; independent

span: duration; distance; cover; extent or measure of space between two points

spartan: avoiding luxury and comfort; sternly disciplined

spawn: lay eggs; produce offspring in large numbers

specific: stated explicitly or in detail; definite

specimen: model; sample; an example regarded as typical of its class

spectacular: impressive or sensational; lavishly produced performance; grand

spell: name or write in order the letters constituting; add up to; signify

spin: turn round rapidly; move round rapidly; move swiftly

splash: cause fluid to scatter in flying masses; strike and dash about, as water, mud

splendid: shining; very bright; magnificent; brilliant

splice: fasten together; join at the ends; join by interweaving strands

spoil: go bad; rot; decay; become unfit for consumption or use

sporadic: occurring at irregular intervals; having no pattern or order in time

spot: location; place; site; pinpoint; mark to allow easy recognition

spouse: man or woman engaged or joined in wedlock; married person, husband or
wife

sprout: have new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud; shoot up

spur: urge a horse; incite or stimulate; ride quickly by spurring a horse; proceed in
haste

spurious: false; counterfeit; forged; illogical

squander: spend wastefully; fail to take advantage of; lose a chance for

stable: not easily moved or disturbed

stagnant: not moving or flowing; lacking vitality or briskness; stale; dull

stain: soiled or discolored; symbol of disgrace or infamy; natural spot of a color
different from the gound

stale: having lost freshness; lacking originality or spontaneity

stall: small area set off by walls for special use; booth

stately: majestic; impressive, as in size or proportions

stationary: fixed; immobile; static; not capable of being moved

steep: soak; make thoroughly wet

stern: hard, harsh, or severe in manner or character; firm or unyielding

stoic: one who is seemingly indifferent to or unaffected by joy, grief, pleasure, or pain

stout: dependable; stocky; euphemisms for fat

strenuous: arduous; intense; performed with much energy or force;

stretch: extend; pull in opposite directions; lie down comfortably

strife: act of striving; earnest endeavor; exertion or contention for superiority; contest
of emulation, either by intellectual or physical efforts

strive: endeavor; struggle or fight forcefully; exert much effort or energy

stubborn: unreasonably, often perversely unyielding; persistent; difficult to treat

stumble: miss a step and fall or nearly fall; walk unsteadily

stun: surprise greatly; amaze; make senseless or dizzy by or as if by a blow

stupendous: astonishing; wonderful; amazing, especially, astonishing in magnitude or
elevation

sturdy: robust; strong; substantially made or constructed

sublime: of high spiritual, moral, or intellectual worth; characterized by nobility;
majestic

submerge: sink; immerse; put under water

subsequent: following in time or order; succeeding; later

subside: settle down; sink to a lower level or form depression; wear off or die down

subsidiary: subordinate; secondary; serving to assist or supplement

substantial: fairly large; in essentials; material; true or real; not imaginary; solidly
built

subterranean: hidden; secret; situated or operating beneath the earth's surface;
underground

subtle: slight; be difficult to detect or grasp by the mind

succumb: submit to an overpowering force; yield to an overwhelming desire; give up
or give in

sullen: lonely; solitary; desolate; gloomy; dismal; affected with ill humor

summit: utmost height; highest point of a mountain

sundry: various; miscellaneous; separate; distinct; diverse

superb: of unusually high quality; excellent; wonderful

superficial: trivial; of little substance; involving a surface only

supplant: replace; usurp; displace and substitute for another

supple: flexible; moving and bending with ease

supplicate: ask for humbly or earnestly, as by praying; make humble, earnest
petition; beg

surfeit: eat until excessively full; be more than full; feed someone to excess

surge: outburst; roll or be tossed about on waves, as a boat

surly: rude; sullenly ill humored; gloomy; threatening, as of weather conditions

surmise: guess; infer something without sufficiently conclusive evidence

surpass: be or go beyond, as in degree or quality; exceed

susceptible: easily influenced; having little resistance, as to a disease; receptive to

suspend: hang freely; postpone; delay

sway: swing; move back and forth or sideways; win approval or support for; convince

sweeping: extensive; having wide-ranging influence or effect:

swift: quick; moving or capable of moving with great speed

synthesize: integrate; compose; combine so as to form a new, complex product

taciturn: silent or reserved in speech; saying little; not inclined to speak or converse

tact: sense of touch; feeling; stroke in beating time; sensitive mental touch; peculiar
skill or faculty

tactic: plan for attaining a particular goal; action calculated to achieve some end

taint: contaminate; cause to lose purity; affect with or as if with a disease; corrupt
morally

tame: domesticated; very restrained or quiet; make less strong or intense; soften

tamper: interfere in a harmful manner; alter improperly

tangle: uniting or knitting together confusedly; knot of threads, or other thing, united
confusedly, or so interwoven as not to be easily disengaged

tantalize: tease; torture with disappointment; bait someone by showing something
desirable but leaving them unsatisfied

tantamount: equivalent in effect or value

tardy: late; delayed; moving slowly

tarnish: make dirty or spotty; stain; dull the luster of; discolor, especially by exposure
to air or dirt

tart: a species of small open pie, or piece of pastry, containing jelly or conserve; a sort
of fruit pie

taunt: reproach in a mocking, insulting, or contemptuous manner; make fun of , often
in an aggressive manner

tautology: unnecessary repetition, especially for same sense in different words ;
redundancy

tawdry: cheap in nature or appearance; tastelessly showy; shameful or indecent

tease: tear into pieces; raise the fibers of

tedious: tiresome by reason of length, slowness, or dullness; progressing very slowly

temperate: restrained; self-controlled; moderate in degree or quality

tempting: attractive; appealing

tender: offer formally; extend; propose a payment

tenor: general, usual, or prevailing course or direction; settled or prevailing or
habitual course of a person's life

tentative: hesitant; not fully worked out or developed; experimental; not definite or
positive

tepid: moderately warm; lacking in emotional warmth or enthusiasm; halfhearted

tether: tie with rope; fasten or restrict with rope or chain

thaw: melt, such as snow and ice; defrost; warm weather following a freeze

thermal: relating to or caused by heat; designed to help retain heat

thorough: accurate or careful; complete

thrifty: careful about money; economical

thrive: make steady progress; prosper; flourish

thwart: hinder or prevent of ; frustrate

tilt: slight but noticeable partiality; line or surface that departs from the vertical

timid: shy; craven; lacking self-confidence; shy

tint: color; dye with a color

toil: exhausting labor or effort; any thread, web, or string spread for taking prey

tolerant: showing respect for the rights of others; open-minded; showing capacity for
endurance

torpid: having lost motion, or the power of exertion and feeling; numb; benumbed

torrent: rushing stream; flood; heavy downpour

torture: extreme pain; anguish of body or mind

toupee: partial wig or hairpiece worn to cover a bald spot

tow: draw or pull behind by a chain or line

towering: high; outstanding; very great or intense

toxic: poisonous; caused by a toxin or other poison

trait: quality; attribute; distinguishing feature; slight degree or amount

trajectory: path of other moving body through space; chosen or taken course

tranquility: a state of peace and quiet

transmute: change from one form, nature, substance, or state into another;
transform

transparent: easily detected; permitting light to pass through freely

transpose: substitute one for the other of; reverse or transfer order or place of;
interchange

traverse: go through or across, often under difficult conditions

treacherous: dangerous; dangerously unstable and unpredictable; disloyal; tending to
betray

tremendous: huge; capable of making one tremble; terrible

tremor: shaking or vibrating movement; slight quiver

trepidation: state of alarm or dread; nervous apprehension; involuntary trembling or
quivering

tribunal: seat of a judge; bench on which a judge and his associates sit for
administering justice; court or forum

trickle: flow in drops; run or flow slowly; drip

trigger: cause something happen; set off

triumph: victory; win; expressing great joy

trivial: unimportant; of little significance or value; ordinary; commonplace

tug: pull or draw with great effort; draw along with continued exertion; haul along;
tow

tumble: fall down, as if collapsing

turbulent: characterized by unrest or disorder

turmoil: state of extreme confusion or agitation; commotion or tumult

twinkle: open and shut the eye rapidly; blink; wink

tyro: beginner in learning something; novice

ultimate: final; being the last or concluding; fundamental; elemental; extreme

unbearable: unendurable; so unpleasant, distasteful, or painful as to be intolerable

uncanny: strange; mysterious; peculiarly unsettling, as if of supernatural origin or
nature

uncouth: lacking refinement or cultivation or taste

undergo: experience; suffer; pass through

underlying: lying under or beneath something; basic; implicit; taking precedence;
prior

underscore: draw a mark or line under; emphasize; stress

undertake: take on; embark on; assume

ungainly: awkward; lacking grace in movement or posture

uniform: consistent; standardized; clothing of a particular group

unilateral: being on one side only; affecting but one side; one-sided.

unique: without an equal; being the only one of its kind

universal: affecting all; general; present everywhere; relating to the entire world or
all within the world; worldwide

unruly: difficult or impossible to discipline, control, or rule; not according to rule;
irregularly

unscathed: not injured or unharmed

upheaval: violent disturbance; sudden, violent disruption or upset

uphold: support; preserve; hold aloft; raise

upkeep: act of keeping up, or maintaining; maintenance

uptight: being in a tense state; excessively concerned with rules and order

urge: force in an indicated direction; stimulate; excite

urgent: pressing; compelling immediate action or attention

usurp: seize and hold power or rights of another by force or without legal authority

utensil: instrument, implement, or container for practical use, especially in kitchen or
laboratory

utter: speak; express; send forth with the voice

vacant: void of thought or knowledge; without an occupant or incumbent

vacuous: empty; showing lack of thought or intelligence; vacant

vague: imprecise; indistinct; not clearly expressed; inexplicit

vain: having no real substance, value, or importance; empty; void; worthless;
unsatisfying

valedictory: of speech given in farewell, especially one delivered by an outstanding
member of graduating class

valiant: vigorous in body; strong; powerful; performed with valor or bravery; heroic

valid: logically convincing; sound; legally acceptable; well grounded

vanguard: advance forces; leading units at front of army or fleet; persons at forefront
of any group or movement

vanish: disappear; pass out of sight, especially quickly; die out

vanity: quality or state of being vain; emptiness; feelings of excessive pride; conceit

variable: factor; something that is likely to vary; changeable; inconstant

variation: act of changing or altering

vast: large; broad; extensive; very great in size, number, amount, or quantity

vein: blood vessel that carries blood

venerate: treat with great respect and deference; consider hallowed or be in awe of

venomous: poisonous; secreting and transmitting venom; marked by deep ill will;
deliberately harmful

venturesome: willing to try new things and take risks; bold

venue: scene of any event or action; locality where a crime is committed or a cause of
action occurs

verbose: wordy; using or containing a great and usually an excessive number of
words

verge: extreme edge or margin; border; enclosing boundary; space enclosed by such
a boundary

verify: confirm; prove the truth of by presentation of evidence or testimony

versatile: having many talents; capable of working in many fields

vessel: craft; ship; container for liquids

vex: annoy; disturb, especially by minor irritations; be a mystery or bewildering to

viable: practical or workable; capable of maintaining life; capable of continuing
effectiveness

vicinity: state of being near in space or relationship; proximity

vie: strive for victory or superiority; contend; compete

vigilance: watchfulness; wakefulness; process of paying close and continuous
attention

vigorous: robust; strong; energetic, and active in mind or body

vindicate: clear from blame; exonerate; maintain, uphold, or defend

visceral: felt in one's inner organs; obtained through intuition rather than from
reasoning or observation

vital: full of life; animated; necessary to continued existence; living or breathing

vivid: bright; lively; graphic; having striking color

vogue: popular fashion; current state or style of general acceptance and use

volatile: tending to vary often or widely, as in price; inconstant or fickle; tending to
violence

voluptuous: giving pleasure or satisfaction of the senses; having strong sexual appeal

vomit: throw up; eject from stomach through mouth; disgorge

vow: solemn promise made to God; promise of fidelity; pledge of love or affection

vulnerable: susceptible to wounds; capable of being wounded or hurt

wade: paddle; walk through relatively shallow water

wag: move one way and the other with quick turns; shake to and fro; move in
vibrating; cause to vibrate

wage: hazard on the event of a contest; stake; engage in, as a contest; adventure, or
lay out, for hire or reward; hire; employ

wail: grieve or protest loudly and bitterly; express sorrow by a mournful vocal sound;
moan; cry

walkout: strike; act of leaving or quitting a meeting, company, or organization,
especially as a sign of protest

wan: having a pale or sickly color; unnaturally pale, as from physical or emotional
distress

wander: move about without a definite destination or purpose; range about; stroll; go
away; depart

wane: decrease in size or strength; draw gradually to an end

ward: guard; defender; protector; state under guard; division of a county; division of
a hospital

ware: articles of merchandise; style or class of manufactures; especially, in the plural,
goods; commodities; merchandise

warp: rope used in hauling or moving a vessel, usually with one end attached to an
anchor, a post, or other fixed object; towing line; state of being twisted or bent out of
shape

wary: very cautious; on guard; watchful

waxy: paleness; smooth and lustrous; consisting of, abounding in, or covered with
wax

weary: tired; exhausted; physically or mentally fatigued

wholesome: conducive to sound health or well-being; beneficial

wicked: evil in principle or practice; contrary to moral or divine law; addicted to vice
or sin

widespread: spread or scattered over a considerable extent; occurring or accepted
widely

wile: trick or stratagem practiced for deception;

wily: cunning; full of tricks; skill in deception

winsome: agreeable; gracious; charming, often in childlike or naive way

withdraw: remove from; pull back; break from gathering; retreat; depart

wither: shrivel; decay; lose freshness, vigor, or vitality; loss of moisture

withhold: refuse to give; refrain from giving, granting, or permitting; deduct from
employee's salary

withstand: stand up against; successfully resist; oppose with force or resolution

woe: deep, inconsolable grief; affliction; suffering; deep distress or misery, as from
grief

wrinkle: a minor difficulty; a slight depression in the smoothness of a surface

yearn: pain; grieve; vex; be pained or distressed; feel deep pity, sympathy, or
tenderness

yield: give in; surrender; give forth a natural product; be productive

zealous: enthusiastic; filled with or motivated by zeal

zenith: point directly overhead in sky; summit

zone: region; portion of the surface of a sphere;

















Top 100 words for TOEFL
By examword.com
This is a must-have words list for TOEFL test takers. We suggest everyone check these words
just before your TOEFL exam. If you haven't enough time to prepare or practice, scan this list
save you much of time.


abyss: enormous chasm; vast bottomless pit; any deep, immeasurable space; hell

acquiesce: assent; agree without protesting

affable: easily approachable; warmly friendly

affliction: cause or condition of pain, suffering, or distress

affluent: having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value

agitate: cause to move with violence or sudden force; upset; disturb

ambiguous: unclear or doubtful in meaning

annex: append or attach; take possession of; incorporate into an existing political unit

aqueous: of or like water

arduous: demanding great effort or labor; difficult

aroma: fragrance; scent; pleasant characteristic odor, as of a plant, spice, or food

atone: make amends, as for sin or fault; pay for; turn away from sin

avarice: greediness for wealth; insatiable desire of gain

bellicose: warlike or hostile in manner or temperament; showing or having impulse to
be combative

calisthenics: exercises to develop strong bodies

captor: person who takes smb captive

concoct: digest; convert into nourishment by the organs of nutrition.

dangle: hang loosely, or with a swinging or jerking motion; swing, as something
suspended loosely

deprive: deny; take away

diligent: assiduous; industrious; hard-working

disrobe: undress

docile: obedient; ready and willing to be taught; easily managed or handled

doleful: sorrowful; filled with or expressing grief; mournful

drought: dry period; aridity; long period of abnormally low rainfall

dubious: questionable; filled with doubt

dumbfound: fill with astonishment and perplexity; confound

efface: rub or wipe out; make indistinct as if by rubbing

elucidate: make clear or plain, especially by explanation; clarify

enchant: charm by sorcery; get control of by magical words and rites

endeavor: attempt by employing effort

endorse: acknowledge by signing a bill, draft, or other instrument

enthral: take the whole attention, enslave

exploit: make use of, sometimes unjustly

extensive: widespread; far-reaching; wide

extol: praise highly; glorify; celebrate

flimsy: weak; feeble; limp; slight; vain; without strength or solidity

fraud: getting money by lying or cheating; something intended to deceive

gaudy: very showy or ornamented, especially when excessive, or in a tasteless or
vulgar manner

ghastly: horrible; inspiring shock; extremely unpleasant or bad

grumble: utter or emit low dull rumbling sounds

harass: irritate or torment persistently; wear out; exhaust

heretic: one who holds to a heresy; one who believes some doctrine contrary to the
established faith or prevailing religion

impediment: any structure that makes progress difficult; stumbling-block

indigenous: native; originating where it is found

insatiate: never satisfied

intrepid: fearless; indicating or springing from courage

irate: feeling or showing extreme anger; enraged

jeopardy: exposure to death, loss, or injury; hazard; risk of loss or injury

leash: control

loafer: an idle, lazy person

lucrative: profitable; producing good profit

lustrous: giving out or shedding light, as sun or fire; reflecting light; having brilliant
surface

malign: speak evil of; bad-mouth; defame

meddle: mix; mingle; interfere or busy one's self improperly with another's affairs,
specifically, to handle or disturb another's property without permission

mend: make repairs or restoration to; fix; improve

mirth: gladness and gaiety, especially when expressed by laughter

nausea: feeling of sickness in stomach by an urge to vomit; strong aversion; disgust

neglect: disregard; ignore; pay little or no attention to

nocturnal: of or relating to or occurring in the night; most active at night

obese: extremely fat; grossly overweight

obsolete: no longer useful; outmoded; antiquated

perch: a place high up; an elevated place serving as a seat

pervade: pass or flow through, as an aperture; permeate; pass or spread through the
whole extent of

petulant: easily irritated or annoyed; unreasonably irritable or ill-tempered

pillage: rob of goods by force, especially in time of war; plunder; take as spoils

presumptuous: overconfident; going beyond what is right or proper; excessively
forward

quashed: annuled

quenching: satisfy, put an end to, put out

refurbished: make clean, as if like new

rejoicing: of rejoice; feeling and expression of joy and gladness; procedure expressive
of joy; festivity

reticent: inclined to keep silent; reserved; uncommunicative.

reverberate: be sent back, again and again

rigor: strictness or severity, as in temperament, action, or judgment; something hard
to endure

rotundity: roundness; rounded fullness; integral entireness

salvage: save from loss or destruction; rescue of a ship; save for further use

scattered: not situated together

shatter: destroy; break up; break into many pieces

shunned: avoided, kept away from

sketchy: containing only an outline or rough form; being in the manner of a sketch;
incomplete

sporadic: occurring at irregular intervals; having no pattern or order in time

stifled: suppressed, kept back

strive: endeavor; struggle or fight forcefully; exert much effort or energy

subsequent: following in time or order; succeeding; later

succumb: submit to an overpowering force; yield to an overwhelming desire; give up
or give in

taciturn: silent or reserved in speech; saying little; not inclined to speak or converse

tantalize: tease; torture with disappointment; bait someone by showing something
desirable but leaving them unsatisfied

tentative: hesitant; not fully worked out or developed; experimental; not definite or
positive

torpid: having lost motion, or the power of exertion and feeling; numb; benumbed

treacherous: dangerous; dangerously unstable and unpredictable; disloyal; tending to
betray

tremor: shaking or vibrating movement; slight quiver

tyro: beginner in learning something; novice

uproar: noise and excitement

vanity: quality or state of being vain; emptiness; feelings of excessive pride; conceit

vehemence: forcefulness; intensity; conviction

vigilance: watchfulness; wakefulness; process of paying close and continuous
attention

vindicate: clear from blame; exonerate; maintain, uphold, or defend

voluptuous: giving pleasure or satisfaction of the senses; having strong sexual appeal

wan: having a pale or sickly color; unnaturally pale, as from physical or emotional
distress

wile: trick or stratagem practiced for deception;

wrinkle: a minor difficulty; a slight depression in the smoothness of a surface




















500 Basic TOEFL Words (1)
By examword.com
This is a middle size TOEFL vocabulary. Lots of websites and books use them as source of
flash cards. examword.com collects them here and revises some with new definitions of Pacific
Lava School. All words are divided into three groups to easy access and review. Welcome to
visit this popular TOEFL preparation resource.


accolade: award of merit; expression of approval; praise

adamant: extremely hard; inflexible; stubbornly unyielding

admonition: gentle or friendly reproof; counseling against fault or oversight; warning

affable: easily approachable; warmly friendly

affinity: natural attraction, liking, or feeling of kinship; relationship by marriage

aftermath: outcome; consequence, especially of a disaster or misfortune

ailing: somewhat ill or prone to illness

aisles: spaces for walking between row of seats

amenable: responsive to advice or suggestion; responsible to higher authority; willing
to comply with; agreeable

amidst: amid; in the middle of; among

among: in, into, or through the midst of more than two points,objects, etc.

apocryphal: untrue; of questionable authorship or authenticity; erroneous; fictitious

appall: depress or discourage with fear; grow faint or become weak

arousal: act of awaking from sleep; arousing from what is like sleep

assuage: ease or lessen pain; satisfy or appease

awash: covered with water

bared: uncovered; exposed; revealed

barely: just; only; hardly; scarcely

bear: support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support

beef: meat from an adult domestic bovine

beg: call upon in supplication

bend: strain or move out of a straight line; curve; turn toward some certain point

beneath: lower in place, with something directly over or on; under; underneath;
below

bequest: inheritance; legacy; act of giving, leaving by will, or passing on to another

besiege: surround with armed forces; harass with requests

bet: stake or pledge upon the event of a contingent issue; amount or object risked in a
wager

bind: tie, or confine with a cord, band, or chain; make fast; contract; cohere or stick
together

binge: short period of excessive consumption; rapid and excessive consumption of
food, especially of excessive alcohol consumption

blade: flat part of the leaf, of any plant, especially of gramineous plants; cutting part
of an instrument

blasphemy: act of claiming for oneself the attributes and rights of God; utterance or
writing concerning God or a sacred entity

blast: explode; burst; gale; very strong gust of wind or air

blazing: light up by or as by fire or flame; of tremendous intensity or fervor

blister: (pathology) an elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid

blow: forceful exhalation through the nose or mouth

blunt: having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive

boast: show off oneself; speak of with excessive pride

bobbing: moving up and down

bolster: support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion

bout: contest between antagonists; contest or fight; a period of time spent in a
particular way, as in illness

brag: an instance of boastful talk

brash: presumptuously daring

breed: raise; produce offspring; give birth to or hatch; mate

brevity: quality or state of being brief in duration; concise expression

bribe: something serving to influence or persuade; reward or gift with a view to
prevent judgment

brusque: abrupt and curt in manner or speech; rudely abrupt, unfriendly

burden: problem, trouble, an onerous or difficult concern

burglary: breaking and entering for the purpose of committing a crime

burst: the act of exploding or bursting something

cacophony: loud confusing disagreeable sounds

calf: young of domestic cattle

callus: thickened layer of skin

captivity: prison; confinement; state of being a prisoner

cartons: a box made of cardboard

catering: providing food and services

cattle: domesticated bovine animals as a group regardless of sex or age

cease: stop; terminate; put an end to; discontinue

censure: expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism; blame

chimera: monster represented as vomiting flames, and as having lion head, goat
body, and dragon tail

chuckle: call, as a hen to her chickens; fondle; cocker; laugh in a suppressed or
broken manner

churning: moving with or producing or produced by vigorous agitation

clam: be moist or glutinous; stick or adhere; produce or cause to clang

clamor: noise; loud outcry; expression of discontent or protest

clash: make noise by striking against something; dash noisily together; meet in
opposition

clemency: mildness, as of the weather

clever: showing inventiveness and skill

clumsy: awkward; showing lack of skill or aptitude

clutch: grasp and hold tightly; attempt to grasp or seize

coalesce: combine; fuse; grow together; come together so as to form one whole;
unite

cock: adult male chicken

coeds: a female student at a school for males and females.

cognizant: aware; conscious

come: about happen

commiserate: feel or express pity or sympathy for

complaisant: trying to please; showing cheerful willingness to do favors for others

comprised: included; consisted of

concealed: put out of sight; hidden

concern: interest in any person or thing; regard; solicitude; anxiety

contract: constrict; make smaller; compress or concentrate

convey: carry from one place to another; bear or transport

convict: find or declare guilty

copious: plentiful; containing plenty; affording ample supply

copper: a ductile malleable reddish-brown corrosion-resistant diamagnetic metallic
element

couch: sofa; arrange or dispose as in a bed

crap: obscene terms for feces

craze: fine crack in a surface or glaze; short-lived popular fashion; inordinate desire or
longing; passion

crop: the top, end, or highest part of anything, especially of plant or tree; grain or
other product of field while standing; anything cut off or gathered

crotch: the angle formed by the inner sides of the legs where they join the human
trunk

culprit: one guilty of a crime

cumbersome: heavy; difficult to handle because of weight or bulk

curl: form into coiled or spiral shape; twist into ringlets or coils; move in curve or
spiral

dainty: delicately beautiful or charming; exquisite; gratification or pleasure taken in
anything

dairy: place where milk is produced, kept, or converted into butter or cheese

dare: a challenge to do something dangerous or foolhardy

dart: move suddenly and rapidly

dawn: time each morning at which daylight first begins; beginning; start

dazzling: bright; brilliant

deaf: unable to perceive sounds; hard of hearing; unwilling to hear or listen;
regardless; not to be persuaded

dean: dignitary or presiding officer; head in the faculty of some colleges or universities

dearth: scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops

decadence: process, condition, or period of deterioration or decline; falling off or
away; decay

decay: decompose; break sown; disintegration; rottenness; decline; worsen;
decadence

deceive: fool; cause to believe what is not true; mislead

deed: something that is carried out; act or action; feat or exploit

defy: renounce or dissolve all bonds of affiance, faith, or obligation with; provoke to
combat or strife

demise: end of existence or activity; termination

denim: a coarse durable twill-weave cotton fabric

dentures: artificial teeth

depleted: emptied; drained; used up

deputy: one appointed as the substitute of another, and empowered to act for him;
substitute in office

desultory: aimless; haphazard; at random; not connected with subject

deter: keep from; stop; prevent or discourage from acting

devise: form, plan, or arrange in the mind; transmit or give by will

diatribe: bitter verbal attack

dimple: slight natural depression or indentation on the surface of some part of the
body; slight indentation on any surface

dire: causing fear or dread or terror

disgruntled: unhappy; dissatisfied; frustrated

dispassionate: calm; impartial; unaffected by strong emotion or prejudice

distress: discomfort; cause strain, anxiety, or suffering to

donor: giver; one that contributes something, such as money, to a cause or fund

downwind: towards the side away from the wind

doze: slumber; sleep lightly; be in dull or stupefied condition, as if half asleep; be
drowsy

draped: covered with or as if with clothes or a wrap or cloak

dreary: gloomy; dismal; dark, colorless, or cheerless

drizzling: (of rain) falling lightly in very small drops

drowziness: state of being in torpor, sleepy

dull: lacking responsiveness or alertness; intellectually weak or obtuse

dumb: mute; lacking the power of speech

duplicity: double-dealing; deliberate deceptiveness in behavior or speech; acting in
bad faith.

duty: work that you are obliged to perform for moral or legal reasons

dye: substance used to color materials

ease: satisfaction; pleasure; entertainment; freedom from care

edge: brink; perimeter; margin

edifice: building, especially one of imposing appearance or size; a structure that has a
roof and walls

eerie: suggestive of the supernatural; mysterious

effervescent: bubbly, lively

eloquent: vividly or movingly expressive; persuasive

endowed: given from birth

endure: tolerate; carry on through, despite hardships

enmity: ill will; hatred; quality or state of being hostile

equivocal: open to two or more interpretations and often intended to mislead

erroneous: containing or derived from error; mistaken

exemplary: serving as model; outstanding; typical

expedient: suitable; appropriate to a purpose; serving to promote your interest

exuberance: overflowing abundance; joyful enthusiasm; flamboyance; lavishness
fad: fashion that is taken up with great enthusiasm for a brief period of time; craze

faint: lacking strength or vigor ; weak

fair: a traveling show

fancy: capricious notion; something many people believe that is false

fast: abstaining from food

feat: achievement; accomplishment

feather: the light horny waterproof structure forming the external covering of birds

fetter: restrain with U-shaped bar for ankles or feet; impede; hamper

fidget: move uneasily one way and the other; behave or move nervously or restlessly

fizz: an effervescent beverage (usually alcoholic), make a hissling noise

flair: natural talent or aptitude

flare: sudden outburst of emotion; glare; shine; shine with sudden light

flaw: crack or breach; gap or fissure; defect; fault; sudden burst of noise and disorder

fledgling: young and inexperienced; having just acquired its flight feathers

flood: a large flow

flunk: fail, especially in a course or an examination; give a failing grade to

folly: foolishness; lack of good sense, understanding, or foresight

footstool: a low stool to rest the feet of a seated person

frantic: highly excited with strong emotion; disordered or nervous activity

fright: cause fear in

fringe: margin; periphery; decorative border of hanging threads, cords, or strips,
often attached to a separate band

frivolous: lacking in seriousness; not serious; relatively unimportant

fulfill: accomplish, satisfy, meet, suit

garbled: mixed up; difficult to understand because it has been distorted

garments: an article of clothing

garner: gather; store up; amass; acquire

gauntlet: a glove with long sleeve

gerbil: a small rodent that is often kept as a pet

giggle: laugh with short catches of the breath or voice; laugh in light, affected, or silly
manner

glazed: having a shiny surface or coating; lacking liveliness, used of eyes; fitted or
covered with glass

gloomy: imperfectly illuminated; dusky; dim; clouded

gorgeous: dazzlingly beautiful; magnificent

grated: to reduce something to small shreds by rubbing it on a grater.

gravel: small stones, or fragments of stone; very small pebbles, often intermixed with
particles of sand

gravity: seriousness; solemn and dignified feeling; natural force between two massive
bodies

greedy: wanting to get more than one can reasonably get

grief: pain of mind; mental suffering arising from any cause, as misfortune, loss of
friends; sorrow; sadness

grim: unrelenting; rigid; dismal and gloomy; cold and forbidding

grip: hold fast or firmly; seize as in a wrestling match

groan: give forth a low, moaning sound in breathing

groovy: (british informal) very chic

groping: acting with uncertainty or hesitance or lack of confidence

ground: solid surface of the earth; bottom; lowest part

grudge: be unwilling or reluctant to give or admit; be envious; show discontent

gut: the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

hackneyed: repeated too often; over familiar through overuse

haggle: argue about prices; bargain, as over the price of something

hail: call for; salute; greet; praise vociferously

haphazard: not thorough, constant or consistent; by chance

harm: any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

harsh: rough; coarse; severe; unpleasantly stern

harvest: gather; yield from plants in a single growing season

hassle: argument or fight; trouble; bother

hasty: easily angered; irritable; made too quickly to be accurate or wise

hatch: breed; emerge from the egg

haunt: be a regular or frequent visitor to a certain place; bother; disturb

haze: fog; mist; partially opaque covering; vague or confused state of mind

heal: cure; make or get healthy again

hedge: thicket of bushes, usually thorn bushes

heel: back part of the human foot; lower end of a ship's mast

heist: commit a burglary

hen: female chicken

herd: flock; crowd; group of cattle or other domestic animals

heretic: one who holds to a heresy; one who believes some doctrine contrary to the
established faith or prevailing religion

hermit: person who retires from society and lives in solitude; recluse; anchoret,
especially, one who so lives from religious motives

hindrance: something that holds back or causes problems with something else;
obstacle

hindsight: understanding the nature of an event after it has actually happened

hobbling: walking awkwardly

hold: keep from departing; take and maintain control over; stop dealing with

hollow: sound as if echoing in a empty space; void; vain; not solid; having a space or
gap or cavity

hue: color; appearance; particular gradation of color

hurtle: crash; move with or as if with great speed and rushing noise

impart: reveal or tell; grant a share of; bestow

incessant: uninterrupted; unceasing; continuing without interruption

incidental: happening, as occasional event, without regularity; coming without design

incite: arouse to action; motivate; induce to exist

indefatigable: tireless; showing sustained enthusiastic action

indelible: impossible to remove, erase, or wash away; permanent

infraction: violation of rule or regulation; breach; minor offence or petty crime

inmate: a person serving a sentence in a jail or prison

insolvent: bankrupt; unable to repay one's debts

intricate: complex; elaborate; having many complexly arranged elements

irascible: irritable; easily angered; excited by or arising from anger

irresolute: uncertain how to act or proceed; undecided; lacking in resolution

jargon: language used by a special group; technical terminology; nonsensical or
meaningless talk

jeopardy: exposure to death, loss, or injury; hazard; risk of loss or injury

jiggle: a slight irregular shaking motion

keen: acute; incisive; sharp ; express grief verbally

kindle: build or fuel a fire; cause to glow; light up; inspire

knack: clever, expedient way of doing something; specific talent, especially one
difficult to explain or teach

knob: hard protuberance; hard swelling or rising; bunch; lump

ladder: steps consisting of two parallel members connected by rungs

lagging: hang back or fall behind in movement, progress, development

lame: moving with pain or difficulty because of injury; disabled so that movement is
difficult or impossible

lampoon: ridicule; subject to abusive ridicule expressed in work of art

languish: lose animation; be or become weak or feeble; lose strength or vigor

lavish: liberal; wasteful; excessive spending

lead: a soft heavy toxic malleable metallic element

lean: bend or slant away from the vertical; rely for assistance or support

lease: rent; charter; engage for service under a term of contract

leather: an animal skin made smooth and flexible by removing the hair and then
tanning

leery: suspicious or distrustful; wary; cautious

leniency: mildness; quality of mercy or forgiveness, especially in the assignment of
punishment as in a court case

levity: lack of seriousness; lightness of manner or speech, especially when
inappropriate

likely: has a good chance of being the case or of coming about

limb: arm; leg; any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree

limp: walk lamely, especially with irregularity, as if favoring one leg; move or proceed
haltingly or unsteadily

loaf: any thick lump, mass, or cake, especially, a large regularly shaped or molded
mass, as of bread

loony: informal or slang terms for mentally irregular, lunatic, insane

loosely: without regard to specific details or exceptions

loquacious: talkative; given to continual talking; chattering

lousy: infested with lice

ludicrous: laughable; completely devoid of wisdom or good sense

lump: a small mass of matter of irregular shape; irregular or shapeless mass; small
cube of sugar

lurches: makes and uncontrolled series of movements

maize: tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears

meander: follow a winding and turning course; move aimlessly and idly without fixed
direction

mend: make repairs or restoration to; fix; improve

mere: being nothing more than what is specified; considered apart from anything else;
small; slight

messy: dirty; unorganized; disorderly; unpleasantly difficult to settle or resolve

miff: bad-tempered mood

mild: moderate in type or degree or effect or force

misanthrope: one who hates or mistrusts mankind

mischievous: causing mischief; harmful; hurtful; troublesome; irritating

misleading: deceptive

mock: treat with ridicule or contempt; mimic; frustrate hopes of

mold: model; fit tightly, follow the contours of ; frame; make something for a specific
shape; become moldy

mole: a small congenital pigmented spot on the skin

mood: a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling

morose: ill humored; sullen; depressingly dark; gloomy; persistent

moss: tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants

muck: moist sticky mixture, especially of mud and filth; earth, rocks, or clay
excavated in mining

mug: rob at gunpoint or with the threat of violence

mull: reflect deeply on a subject

nave: the central area of a church

neat: clean or orderly

negligent: careless; inattentive

nonchalance: indifference; lack of concern; composure

obey: be obedient to

obtuse: lacking in insight or discernment; stupid

odorless: having no odor; devoid of odor or fragrance

offspring: descendant

onset: beginning or early stages; offensive against enemy

opaque: impenetrable by light; not transparent; not reflecting light; having no luster

opulence: extreme wealth; luxuriousness; abundance

orchard: garden; area of land devoted to the cultivation of fruit or nut trees

outnumber: be larger in number

outward: toward the outside

overwhelming: overpowering in effect or strength; very great or intense; extreme

parsimonious: excessively unwilling to spend; excessively sparing or frugal

partake: to take part; participate. share.

paucity: scarcity; smallness of number; fewness

paw: a clawed foot of an animal especially a quadruped

peak: summit; apex; maximum; prime

peel: come off in flakes or thin small pieces; strip the skin off; get undressed

peripheral: located in outer boundary; unimportant; auxiliary

peruse: read or examine, typically with great care

pinch: clutch; squeeze between the thumb and a finger, the jaws of a tool, or other
edges

plea: request for help; excuse or pretext

pledge: promise solemnly and formally; binding commitment to do something

poised: marked by balance or equilibrium and readiness for action

popsicle: ice cream or water ice on a small wooden stick

porch: covered and enclosed entrance to building; covered passage

poultry: domestic fowls reared for eating, or for their eggs or feathers, such as cocks
and hens, capons, turkeys, ducks, and geese

pouring: flowing profusely

praise: an expression of approval and commendation

prank: acting like a clown; dress up showily; practical joke

preach: advocate; speak, plead; argue in favor of

prodigal: wasteful; reckless with money

profane: violate; put to improper, unworthy, or degrading use; abuse

progeny: one derived from another; offspring or descendant; result of creative effort,
as product

proximity: state of being proximate; nearness in place, time, or relation

prudish: exaggeratedly proper

puddle: something resembling a pool of liquid; a small body of standing water

puffy: breathing heavily

pulled: attracted

pun: a humorous play on words

pursuit: follow after; follow with a view to obtain; endeavor to attain
quarrel: an angry dispute

querulous: habitually complaining; expressing complaint or grievance

rage: something that is desired intensely; state of extreme anger

rash: hasty, incautious, reckless

rave: speak wildly, irrationally; speak or write with wild enthusiasm

rebuke: scold harshly; criticize severely

recapitulate: summarize; repeat in concise form

recluse: one who lives in solitude; withdrawn from the world; reclusive

regret: sadness associated with some wrong done or some disappointment

rehearse: practice; drill; engage in preparation for a public performance

rekindle: arouse again

relieve: free from a burden; alleviate; save from ruin

rely: rest with confidence; have confidence; depend

remain: continue in a place, position, or situation

renounce: abandon; disown; turn away from; give up

repent: cause to feel remorse or regret; feel regret or self-reproach for

reproach: express disapproval or disappointment; bring shame upon; disgrace

rescind: cancel; make void; repeal or annul

resemble: be similar to; take after; look like

respite: usually short interval of rest or relief; delay in punishment

retreat: receding; pull back or move away or backward; withdrawal of troops to a
more favorable position

ribbing: the act of harassing someone playfully or maliciously (especially by ridicule)

riddle: pierce with numerous holes; perforate; permeate or spread throughout

ridge: long, narrow upper section or crest; chain of hills or mountains

rinds: the chewy or crunchy outside layers on fruit. cheese, or meat

ripe: ready; fully developed; mature

roaring: a very loud utterance (like the sound of an animal)

roll: a list of names

rot: become decomposed by a natural process; perish slowly; become corrupt

rough: not perfected; having or caused by an irregular surface

rouse: pull or haul strongly and all together, as upon a rope, without the assistance of
mechanical appliances

rug: floor covering consisting of a piece of thick heavy fabric (usually with nap or pile)

ruminate: chew over and over mentally, or like cows physically; mull over; ponder

ruse: trick; use of artifice or trickery; deceptive maneuver, especially to avoid capture

rust: become destroyed by water, air, or an etching chemical such as an acid

sagacious: perceptive; shrewd; having insight

sage: one celebrated for wisdom, experience, and judgment; various plants of the
genus Salvia

sate: satisfy appetite fully; satisfy to excess

savants: individuals with mental retardation who are extremely talented in one
domain

scrawl: write carelessly

screech: a high-pitched noise resembling a human cry

screw: cause to penetrate with a circular motion; fastener with shank and slotted
head

scrutinize: examine closely and critically

seal: middle size aquatic mammal; stamp used for authentication or security

seam: line of junction formed by sewing together two pieces; line across a surface, as
a crack; scar

seizing: the act of gripping something firmly with the hands

sentient: aware; conscious; able to perceive

settle: take up residence; form a community; come to rest; bring to an end; fix firmly

sew: create (clothes) with cloth

shackle: chain; fetter; restraint that confines or restricts freedom

shed: get rid of ; cast off; cause to pour forth

shelter: structure that provides privacy and protection from danger

shingles: viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the
skin

shiv: a knife used as a weapon

shoplift: steal in a store

shore: support by placing against something solid or rigid

shriking: making a annoying noise

shrink: become smaller or draw together; compress

silk: a fabric made from the fine threads produced by certain insect larvae

silly: exhibiting a lack of wisdom or good sense; foolish; stupid

skewer: a long pin for holding meat in position while it is being roasted

slash: cut; reduce largely

slaughter: act of killing; extensive, violent, bloody, or wanton destruction of life;
carnage

slippers: low footwear that can be slipped on and off easily

slope: be at an angle; incline; gradient

slug: any of various terrestrial gastropods having an elongated slimy body and no
external shell

slum: a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions

slump: sudden falling off or decline, as in activity, prices, or business; gross amount;
mass

sly: stealthy, insidious, or secret; mischievous; foxy

smear: overspread with anything adhesive; soil in any way; pollute

snail: freshwater or marine or terrestrial gastropod mollusk usually having an external
enclosing spiral shell

snap: make a sharp sound; break suddenly as under tension; utter in angry or sharp
tone

snub: ignore, to treat with disdain or contempt

soaked: drenched with water, or other liquid; very drunk

sober: not extreme; marked by seriousness or gravity; not affected by use of drugs;
self-restraint

somber: gloomy; depressing or grave; dull or dark in color

soothed: calmed or comforted

sovereignty: autonomy; independence

sparkle: be brilliant in performance; give off or reflect flashes of light; glitter

spotter: a person employed to watch for something to happen

spouting: propelled violently in a usually narrow stream

spree: a lively or wild outburst of activity

spurious: false; counterfeit; forged; illogical

squalid: sordid; wretched and dirty as from neglect; morally degraded

squeeze: force something into or through a restricted space; compress with violence

squirm: to move in a twisting or contorted motion, (especially when struggling)

stage: any scene regarded as a setting for exhibiting or doing something

stagnant: not moving or flowing; lacking vitality or briskness; stale; dull

stale: having lost freshness; lacking originality or spontaneity

stare: a fixed look with eyes open wide

stark: bare; complete or extreme

steady: securely in position; not shaky; not easily excited

steep: soak; make thoroughly wet

stem: stop flow of a liquid; make headway against

stickler: one who insists on something unyieldingly; something puzzling or difficult

sticky: glutinous; adhesive; covered with an adhesive agent; humid; stiff

stiff: not moving or operating freely; lacking ease in bending; resistant

stingy: stinging; able to sting

stir: to mix gently with a spoon in a rotary motion

stoic: one who is seemingly indifferent to or unaffected by joy, grief, pleasure, or pain

stony: showing unfeeling resistance to tender feelings

strain: group of organisms within a species; tension; pressure

stretch: extend; pull in opposite directions; lie down comfortably

stride: step; pace; significant progress

stripes: rayas, lines

stroll: wander on foot; ramble idly or leisurely

struck: (used in combination) affected by something overwhelming

stubborn: unreasonably, often perversely unyielding; persistent; difficult to treat

stun: surprise greatly; amaze; make senseless or dizzy by or as if by a blow

stunt: difficult or unusual or dangerous feat usually done to gain attention

substantiate: establish by evidence; make firm or solid; support

sulky: silently resentful; disposed to keep aloof from society, or to repel the friendly
advances of others

supplant: replace; usurp; displace and substitute for another

surreptitious: secret; done or made by stealth, or without proper authority; made or
introduced fraudulently

swallow: take back what one has said ; enclose or envelop completely

swamp: low land that is seasonally flooded; low land region saturated with water

swath: a path or strip; the space created by the swing of a scythe or the cut of a
mowing machine

sway: swing; move back and forth or sideways; win approval or support for; convince

sweepings: the act of cleaning with a broom

thick: not thin

thigh: part of the leg between the hip and the knee

thorn: something that causes irritation; a sharp-pointed tip on a stem or leaf

thrifty: careful about money; economical

throw: up eject the contents of the stomach through the mouth

tickle: touch (the body) lightly so as to cause laughter; please

tide: periodic rise and fall of the sea level

torpor: state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility; sluggishness; dormancy

touchy: tending to take offense with slight cause; oversensitive; requiring special tact
or skill in handling

trite: repeated too often; over familiar through overuse; worn out by use

trousers: (usually in the plural) a garment extending from the waist to the knee or
ankle, covering each leg separately

trustworthy: dependable; reliable

tuckered: tired, exhausted

turd: obscene terms for feces

udder: mammary gland of bovids (cows and sheep and goats)

unassailable: impossible to assail; without flaws or loopholes

uncanny: strange; mysterious; peculiarly unsettling, as if of supernatural origin or
nature

undergo: experience; suffer; pass through

underneath: under or below an object or a surface; lower down on the page

uniform: consistent; standardized; clothing of a particular group

unobstrusive: acting in a manner that does not attract attention

unpleasant: desagradable

unscathed: not injured or unharmed

untenable: indefensible; not able to be maintained

upbeat: pleasantly (even unrealistically) optimistic

upsetting: causing an emotional disturbance

vacillate: sway unsteadily from one side to the other; oscillate

vanish: disappear; pass out of sight, especially quickly; die out

veal: flesh of a calf when killed and used for food

vex: annoy; disturb, especially by minor irritations; be a mystery or bewildering to

vilify: debase; degrade; spread negative information about

vogue: popular fashion; current state or style of general acceptance and use

voluminous: large in volume or bulk; large in number or quantity, especially of
discourse

voracious: ravenous; excessively greedy and grasping; devouring or craving food in
great quantities

waist: narrowing of the body between the ribs and hips

wart: (pathology) a firm abnormal elevated blemish on the skin

wax: increase gradually in size, number, strength, or intensity; show a progressively
larger illuminated area

weave: pattern or structure by weaving ; knit; interlace

wedge: a piece of metal, or other hard material, thick at one end, and tapering to a
thin edge at the other, used in splitting wood, rocks

weeds: any plant that grows where yhou dont want it to

weird: queer; of a strikingly odd or unusual character; strange

welfare: benefit; something that aids health or happiness

whalebone: a horny material from the upper jaws of certain whales

whinning: crying like a child

whipping: beating with a whip or strap or rope as a form of punishment

wholly: completely.

widen: extend in scope or range or area

wilted: to become limp from lack of water or too much heat

wisdom: quality of being wise; knowledge ; results of wise judgments

wise: having or prompted by wisdom or discernment

wool: dense, soft, often curly hair forming the coat of sheep and certain other
mammals

worthy: having high moral qualities

wreck: destruction; destroy; smash or break forcefully

wriggle: to twist to and from; to squirm

writhe: move in twisting or contorted motion; contort in pain