Word Order & Inversion

Types of Sentences
1、 Simple Sentences
Pattern: Subject + Verb + (Object/ Others) = SV(O)
Subject (noun) Verb (tense) Object (noun)/ Others (complement/adverbials)
e.g. he !at bo" over there is m" !riend.
2、 Compound Sentences
Pattern: SV(O) + #oordinate #onjunction + SV(O)
Subject Verb Object #oordinate #onjunction Subject Verb
e.g. $e is called Peter and he is smiling.
%ote & 'n intransitive verb does not need an object.
& ' compound sentence consists o! t(o or more simple sentences) (hich are combined
b" means o! coordinate conjunctions (and) but) or) either or) neither nor).
3、 Complex Sentences
Pattern: SV(O) + Subordinate #onjunction + SV(O)
Subject Verb Object/Others Subordinate #onjunction Subject Verb Object/Others
e.g. Peter li*es to sing (hen he !eels !ree.
%ote & ' comple+ sentence consists o! a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses)
(hich are combined b" means o! subordinate conjunctions.
& Subordinate clauses include noun clauses) adjective (relative) clauses and adverb clauses.
& Subordinate conjunctions: e.g. (hen) (hile) be!ore) a!ter) until) because) since) as) although)
i!) so that) that) (ho) (hich ,,
iv. Multiple Sentences
Pattern: SV(O) + Subordinate #onjunction + SV(O) + #oordinate #onjunction + SV(O)
Subject Verb Object/ Others Subordinate/#oordinate #onjunction
Peter li*es to sing (hen
he !eels !ree but
he does not sing ver" (ell.
%ote & ' multiple sentence is a combination o! compound and comple+ sentences.
Inversion
-nversion means the verb is placed be!ore the subject !or emphasis. -t occurs:
A. in uestions.
e.g. 're "ou hungr".
/hat have "ou done to solve the problem.
%ote: %o inversion (hen the 0uestion (ord is the subject.
e.g. /ho invented the computer.
!. in uestion t"#s.
e.g. $e loves her ver" much) doesn1t he.
he" cried) didn1t the".
C. "fter $so% neit&er'nor% "s(.
e.g. $e is polite and so is his brother.
'nn (as not at home and neither/nor (as 2en.
$is colleagues respected him) as did his boss.
). in excl"m"tion.
e.g. $ere comes m" aunt3
here goes the ta+i3
%ote: %o inversion (hen the subject is a pronoun.
e.g. $ere he comes3
*. "fter "dver+s of pl"ce'direction.
e.g. On top o! the mountain lies a !arm.
'(a" ran the thie!3
,. "fter ver+s of reportin#.
e.g. 4 #an "ou !ind it.5 as*ed 6avid.
4- have never seen it)5 said $elen.
-. in $t&ere +e( structure.
e.g. here (ere three students in the classroom.
here must be some misunderstanding.
.. in emp&"tic sentences /it& " ne#"tive /ord or ide".
e.g. 7. %ever have - heard such a strange stor".
= - have never heard such a strange stor".
8. Seldom do the" visit us.
= he" seldom visit us.
9. :ittle did she suspect that she (as cheated.
= She little suspected that she (as cheated.
;. <arel" have (e (atched such a moving !ilm.
= /e have rarel" (atched such a moving !ilm.
=. %ot until >onda" did he return the camera to me.
= $e did not return the camera to me until >onda".
?. %o(here can "ou bu" such cheap jeans.
= @ou cannot bu" such cheap jeans at an"(here.
A. %o sooner had he arrived than he called us.
= 's soon as he had arrived) he called us.
B. $ardl"/Scarcel" had he returned !rom the journe" (hen he !ell ill.
= 's soon as he had returned !rom the journe") he !ell ill.
C. Dnder no circumstances (ill - give (a" to his demands.
= - (ill not give (a" to his demands under an" circumstances.
7E. -n no (a" can the" help "ou.
= he" cannot help "ou in an" (a".
77. 't no time (as - a(are o! (hat (as happening.
= - (as at no time a(are o! (hat (as happening.
78. On no account (ill she !orgive him.
= She (ill not !orgive him on an" account.
I. in "dver+i"l expressions pl"ced "t t&e +e#innin#.
e.g. 7. O!ten have - heard that corruption doesn1t pa".
= - have o!ten heard that corruption doesn1t pa".
8. (ice has he been (arned to *eep a(a" !rom drugs.
= $e has been (arned t(ice to *eep a(a" !rom drugs.
9. So desperate (as their situation that the" decided to sell their house.
= heir situation (as so desperate that the" decided to sell their house.
;. Onl" a!ter a hot debate did the" agree to compromise.
= he" agreed to compromise onl" a!ter a hot debate.
=. %ot onl" (as he the producer but he (as also the director o! the !ilm.
= $e (as not onl" the producer but also the director o! the !ilm.
0ote1 -nversion also occurs in other e+pressions li*e:
Only "fter/"rds' l"ter' yesterd"y' l"st /ee2'3
Only if Only /&en Only "fter 0ot since
4. /it& $S&ould% Were% ."d( in condition"ls /&en $If( is omitted.
"pe 7: Should "ou see him) tell him to call me.
= -! "ou should see him) tell him to call me.
"pe 8: /ere - "ou) - (ould cancel m" appointment.
= -! - (ere "ou) - (ould cancel m" appointment.
"pe 9: $ad he *no(n) he (ould have solved the problem.
= -! he had *no(n) he (ould have solved the problem.
*xercise A
-denti!" the sentences (ith the !ollo(ing letters:
S: Simple SentenceF #p: #ompound SentenceF #+: #omple+ SentenceF >: >ultiple Sentence
-: -nversion
e.g. here is a beauti!ul "oung girl dancing (onder!ull" in the room ne+t to the g"m. ( S )
7. $e said that the test (as on Grida". ( )
8. Simon !ound his missing (allet b" loo*ing under his bed. ( )
9. /hen - met Hohn) (e tal*ed !or a (hile and (e both missed our good old da"s. ( )
;. <arel" does 2ett" ta*e an"one1s advice. ( )
=. >" !riend (or*s !or a compan" that designs (eb sites. ( )
?. he van (hich the thie! had stolen (as !ound in She* @am. ( )
A. Peter slept (ell but Paul didn1t. ( )
B. >r. :ee turned o!! the V in order to !ocus on his (or*. ( )
C. he more - *no( the children) the better - li*e them. ( )
7E. he (ater (as so cold that (e decided not to s(im. ( )
*xercise !
>atch the !ollo(ing sentences and choose correct conjunctions !or them:
although, after, which, seldom, because, later than, when, that, if, as, so that

Part - Part --
e.g. Peter too* a da" o!! ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII - bought last (ee*.
7. he" arrived ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII he (ere me.
8. - (ill coo* ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII - can1t (or*.
9. $e (as ta*ing a bath (e.g.) because he had a cold "esterda".
;. - helped him ( ) such a di!!icult e+ercise.
=. here is such a lot o! noise ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII (e are good !riends.
?. /e don1t meet ver" o!ten ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII she (ill tell ever"bod".
A. - (ill (ear m" ne( shoes) ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII (e e+pected.
B. $e said that he (ould apologiJe ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII he could !inish earl".
C. 6on1t tell Sophie "our secret ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII - tid" the house.
7E. IIIIIIIIIIII have - done ( ) IIIIIIIIIIII the phone rang.
*xercise C
<earrange the (ord order o! the !ollo(ing statements to ma*e correct sentences.
e.g. (as sailing/ -n 7BC;/ the 'tlantic Ocean/ a steamship/ !rom/ Kngland to 'merica/ across/.
-n 7BC; a steamship (as sailing across the 'tlantic Ocean !rom Kngland to 'merica.
7. (as shining/ gentle breeJes/ he sun/ and/ (ere blo(ing/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
8. (as sailing/ three (ee*s/ he ship/ !or/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
9. (as/ %e( @or*/ hal!(a" to/-t / its destination/&/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
;. (ere rela+ing/ (hen/ on dec*/ he passengers/ a loud bang/suddenl"/ heard/ the"/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
=. loo*ed over/ all/ the edge/ he"/ ran to/ o! the boat/ and/ jumped up/ the side/) /.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
?. a terrible scene/ sa(/o their horror/ the"/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
A. (hich/ he"/ in the side o!/ some hard object/ had hit/ had torn/ a hole/ the ship/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
B. the steamship/ (as pouring/ at an alarming speed/ into/ /ater/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
C. hal! an hour/ arrived/ Gortunatel"/ another ship/ later/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
7E. ever"one/ -t/ just in time/ to save/ on board/ (as/.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
*xercise )
Some (ords are in (rong order in each sentence. Dnderline the mista*es and correct them.
e.g. @ou aren1t telling the truth) "ou are. are "ou
7. She as*ed me (hat (as m" decision. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
8. Onl" b" constant practice (e can improve our Knglish. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
9. $ere our guests come3 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
;. O!ten (e have heard that smo*ing is haJardous to health. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
=. Dnder no circumstances "ou should do it. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
?. - had been there) - (ould have scolded him !or his dirt" tric*. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
A. Onl" i! "ou invite her) she (ill come to "our part". IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
B. Hane hasn1t returned our calls and neither :il" has. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
C. $ardl" - had arrived home (hen it began to rain. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
7E. On no account "ou should be absent. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
*xercise *
<e(rite the !ollo(ing sentences using the (ords given) (ithout changing the meaning.
e.g. 's soon as she entered the room) the" stopped gossiping.
%o sooner had she entered the room than the" stopped gossiping.
7. - have never met such a ridiculous man3
%ever IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
8. Seldom have - seen a better !ootball pla"er.
- IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
9. She !ound a job onl" last (ee*.
Onl" last (ee* IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
;. %ot onl" is she beauti!ul) but she is also rich.
She is IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
=. %ot until >r. #han is here (ill (e begin our lunch meeting.
/e (ill notIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
?. /e (ill pa" "ou onl" a!ter "ou !inish the job.
Onl" a!terIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
A. Onl" i! "ou stud" hard (ill "ou pass the e+am.
@ou (ill IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
B. /e had such a (arm (inter onl" once be!ore.
Onl" once be!ore IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
C. - (ould not bu" those pirated #6s under an" circumstances.
Dnder no circumstances IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
7E he bird !le( out (hen - opened the cage door.
OutIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
Su##ested Ans/ers
*xercise A
7. #+ 8. S 9. > ;. - =. #+
?. #+ A. #p B. S C. #p 7E. #+
*xercise !
7. he" arrived later than (e e+pected.
8. - (ill coo* a!ter - tid" the house.
9. $e (as ta*ing a bath (hen the phone rang.
;. - helped him so that he could !inish earl".
=. here is such a lot noise that - can1t (or*.
?. /e don1t meet ver" o!ten although (e are good !riends.
A. - (ill (ear m" ne( shoes) (hich - bought last (ee*.
B. $e said that he (ould apologiJe i! he (ere me.
C. 6on1t tell Sophie "our secret as she (ill tell ever"bod".
7E. Seldom have - done such a di!!icult e+ercise.
*xercise C
7. he sun (as shining and gentle breeJes (ere blo(ing.
8. he ship (as sailing !or three (ee*s.
9. -t (as hal!(a" to its destination&%e( @or*.
;. he passengers (ere rela+ing on dec* (hen suddenl" the" heard a loud bang.
=. he" all jumped up) ran to the edge o! the boat and loo*ed over the side.
?. o their horror the" sa( a terrible scene.
A. he" had hit some hard object) (hich had torn a hole in the side o! the ship.
B. /ater (as pouring into the steamship at an alarming speed.
C. Gortunatel" another ship arrived hal! an hour later.
7E. -t (as just in time to save ever"one on board.
*xercise )
7. She as*ed me (hat m" decision (as.
8. Onl" b" constant practice can (e improve our Knglish.
9. $ere come our guests3
;. O!ten have (e heard that smo*ing is haJardous to health.
=. Dnder no circumstances should "ou do it.
?. $ad - been there) - (ould have scolded him !or his dirt" tric*.
A. Onl" i! "ou invite her) (ill she come to "our part".
B. Hane hasn1t returned our calls and neither has :il".
C. $ardl" had - arrived home (hen it began to rain.
7E. On no account should "ou be absent.
*xercise *
7. %ever have - met such a ridiculous man3
8. - have seldom seen a better !ootball pla"er.
9. Onl" last (ee* did she !ind a job.
;. She is not onl" beauti!ul but also rich.
=. /e (ill not begin our lunch meeting until >r. #han is here.
?. Onl" a!ter "ou !inish the job (ill (e pa" "ou.
A. @ou (ill pass the e+am onl" i! "ou stud" hard.
B. Onl" once be!ore did (e have such a (arm (inter.
C. Dnder no circumstances (ould - bu" those pirated #6s.
7E Out !le( the bird (hen - opened the cage door.