FLUID MECHANICS

LABORATORY

The reports presented in this paper deal with the themes of: pressure
force on a flat plate submerged, flow visualization, flow measuring
device, pressure gradient and velocity profile.
Reports:
 Pressure force on a
flat plate
submerged.
 Flow
Visualization.
 Flow meter
apparatus.
 Pressure
gradient, velocity
profile.

Group 12:
Pedro Armijo
Jaime Farfán
Roxanna Patiño
Kevin Tobar



ESCUELA SUPERIOR POLITÉCNICA DEL LITORAL
ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF EARTH SCIENCES
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

“Pressure force on a flat plate submerged"











Teacher: Dr. Mijaíl Arias
Date of Practice: Monday, August 12, 2013
Delivery of the report: Thursday, August 22, 2013

2013 – 2014
PRACTICE # 1
“PRESSURE FORCE ON A FLAT PLATE SUBMERGED”

Abstract
The practice involves determining the specific weight of water in a system that helps us to
determine the pressure force on a flat plate submerged. The machine consists of an arm in
which we gradually increasing weight and in the other side, we were comparing it with
water equaling the moments produced by both. In each weight gain, we had to take notes:
the angle between the water side to the vertical, and once matched the moments, the water
height measured from the top horizontal. This procedure was performed to calculate all
possible combinations of the weights.

1. Objectives

_ Establish the specific weight of water.

_Establish the magnitude and position of the resultant pressure force on a submerged plane
plate.

2. Theory
A fluid is a substance able to flow, compressibility coefficients of liquids and gases are
quite different: a gas is easily compressed, while a liquid is virtually incompressible.

The density of a homogeneous material may depend on many factors, such as its
temperature and pressure to which it is submitted. Density is defined as its mass per unit
volume.





The specific weight of a material is defined as the material’s density by the gravitational
acceleration.





Any surface submerged in a fluid is under action of a hydrostatic force. This force acts
perpendicularly to the surface. The pressing force acting on a differential surface area is
given by:



The resultant force acting on the entire surface can be determined by summing the
contributions of the infinitesimal forces acting on it, namely:



The gradient of static pressure in a fluid is defined as:



3. Experimental procedure
_ Put the mass carrier as the first weight.
_ Take the angle with the vertical plate.
_ Introduce water on the plate, enough so the angle is now zero.
_ Take the distance from the water surface to the upper horizontal.
_Repeat the 4 steps, increasing each time more weight, making the most possible weight
combinations.

4. Data
g = specific weight of water
B = fluid wide = 75 mm = 7,5 cm
1 R = 100 mm= 10 cm
2 R = 200 mm = 20 cm
arm L = 10 pulg = 250 mm= 25 cm


5. Calculations


For each weight placed on the mass carrier determine:
_ Magnitude of the Resultant Force (Ec.1)



_ Moment produced by the resultant force on the pivot O (EC.2).





_Distance to the experimental pressure center (Ec. 3).




_ Calculate the error of the incline (EC.4):

_ The moment that produces the resultant force on the pivot O can be expressed by: (EC.4)

6. Table of data and results
No M W a Q H H M Fr Y
cp
M
[g] [N] [cm] [rad] [mm] [m] [N*m] [N] [m] [N*m]
1 15,9 0,15582 0,63 0,0524518 176 0,176 0,038955 -1,92616249
-
0,0202242 -0,2277586
2 35,9 0,35182 0,7 0,0582673 164 0,164 0,087955 -1,04771008
-
0,0839498 -0,0960105
3 85,9 0,84182 0,95 0,0790019 143 0,143 0,210455 0,480112726 0,4383450 0,1330759
4 136 1,33182 1,15 0,0955416 128 0,128 0,332955 1,566719119 0,2125174 0,2959785
5 186 1,82182 1,05 0,0872777 114 0,114 0,455455 2,604035735 0,1749035 0,4516222
6 236 2,31182 0,95 0,0790019 102 0,102 0,577955 3,493612726 0,1654319 0,5851009
7 336 3,29182 1,65 0,1366432 80 0,08 0,822955 5,042234209 0,1632124 0,8170142
8 386 3,78182 0,7 0,0582673 69 0,069 0,945455 5,934789924 0,1593072 0,9513645
9 436 4,27182 0,65 0,0541138 58 0,058 1,067955 6,745861676 0,1583126 1,0730396

7. Graphic



M vs H Graphic


m=-10.998


8. Analysis and results:


_ Determine the density and specific weight of water


m = = -10.998


m = -10,998
 = 9776
 = 997,55


y = -10.998x + 1.7062
R² = 0.9999
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Series1
Linear (Series1)
9. Conclusions
In this practice we could calculate the specific gravity of water by equating the moments of
the weight of the water with weights. With these values obtained experimentally (angle and
height) we proceeded to the use of formulas with an incline bit error ending (R2 = 0999).
With the incline, we obtained  and conclude in a positive way the experiment with 9776,
the value of the specific gravity of the water used.

10. Anexe













ESCUELA SUPERIOR POLITÉCNICA DEL LITORAL
ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF EARTH SCIENCES
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

"Flow Visualization"










Teacher: Dr. Mijaíl Arias
Date of Practice: Monday, August 12, 2013
Delivery of the report: Thursday, August 22, 2013

2013 – 2014


PRACTICE # 2
“FLOW VISUALIZATION”



Abstract

This work seeks to detail the way a fluid acts to flow opposition. We have been guided to
the brochure for fluids laboratory practices, the equipment we use in our practice is the
tunnel of smoke that will allow us to visualize the flow lines generated by the kérex as fuel.

In his report details the different lines for different oppositions flow as the flow of
geometric figures used.
This practice visualizes different important points mentioned in the theory, which are given
because these oppositions such as boundary layer separation point, stagnation point and
drag.


1. Objectives

a) Observing the separation phenomenon.

b) The distribution of the current lines by cutting the minimum effort that is this.


2. Introduction

Many designs in the area of fluid flow require a precise knowledge of the velocity and
pressure distributions, for example, curved surfaces flow along the wings of an airplane,
through the steps of a pump, a compressor, or the crest of a gate. Knowledge of flow in two
or three dimensions of an incompressible fluid, inviscid offers a broader view of many real
flow situations.
The behavior that these flow lines have before opposition caused by geometric figures.

3. Theory
Fluid: A fluid is a substance able to flow, so that the term "fluid" encompasses liquids and
gases. There fluids flowing so slowly that can be considered solid, such as glass or asphalt.
Viscosity: Viscosity is a property of fluids in motion that is biased towards its flow
opposition to the force application. The more fluids oppose resistance to flow, have more
viscosity. Liquids, unlike solids are characterized by flowing, which means that when
subjected to a force, the molecules are moved, the more rapidly as the size of their
molecules. If they are larger, they will more slowly.

Streamlines: A streamline is a continuous line drawn through a fluid in the direction of the
velocity vector at each point.

Boundary layer: The boundary layer is a layer of fluid close to the wall where viscous
effects cannot be neglected. The boundary layer is the region where transitions between
free flow velocities and those of the wall.
Trail: The separation of the boundary layer gives rise to the formation of a relatively low
pressure region behind a body. This region, which is POOR currently ESTELA called.
Separate region: when the main current flow leaves the body, which causes a separated
flow region.
Laminar Flow: In laminar flow fluid moves in parallel without intermixing sheets and
each particle follows a smooth path, called streamline.
Turbulent flow: Flow "turbulent" is characterized by:
• No fluid particles move along defined paths.
• The action of viscosity is negligible.
• Fluid particles possess appreciable rotational energy, and they move erratically colliding
with each other.
• Particles entering fluid layers of differing speed, its momentum increases or decreases,
and the neighboring particles make extent contrary.

4. Materials and apparatus

Smoke tunnel has been created with the purpose of which is to observe the flow lines. Is an
apparatus of simple construction and easy to operate, and the smoke produced by the
combustion of KEREX not toxic.
The computer shows the streamlines in vertical flow (this flow is produced by a small fan
whose speed can be regulated) passing around the models that are subject to the back wall
of the tunnel. Smoke lines are introduced into the airflow from the smoke generator.
The equipment used includes:
• Smoke generator
• Smoke tunnel
• Kérex

Figure 1. Smoke Flow Visualization Tunnel









Figure 2. Preston-Sweeting Mist Generator












5. Experimental Procedure

i. Fill the bottle with smoke generator KEREX up 2/3 of capacity, adjust the level of the
liquid surface to the corresponding line.
ii. Connect the tunnel and the smoke generator.
iii. After three minutes the smoke is produced and controlled by a clamp placed on the
flexible tubing.
iv. Kérex Clean condensate from the comb by hand pump.
v. Adjust the speed of the supply air and smoke to clear smoke into filaments around the
model.
Note the distribution of streamlines flow separation area for the following models:
a) Sphere.
b) Cylinder.
c) Plate with circular hole.
d) Elbow straight.
e) Elbow rounded corners with baffles.
f) Elbow smoothing.
g) Airfoil
h) Disk.
i) A set of bars.


6. Graphics and analysis of results:







Sphere


Flow in opposition due to the sphere can be
seen that the flow lines are separated in the
stagnation point. The streamlines emerging
from the object (sphere). Here you can see a
trail that forms a considerable size.

Cylinder

In this case something happens like what
happened with the sphere, the behavior of the
flow lines are separated from the stagnation
point. The flow totally envelops the cylinder.
In this case we noticed the air drag is a little
lower and produces a lower wake.



Plate with circular hole


Here we found more turbulence in the
separated region. Noticed that the separate
lines followed the same path, because they
need not surround much and the orifice plate
which is located in the middle of this figure
flowing normally.


Straight Elbow


We appreciate that not all make it through
power lines in a perfect manner mainly in
rectangular corners, which produces wake.
These entered a correct way vertically but not
the same as the output.



Elbow rounded corners with baffles

The streamlines follow your almost normally,
there is a very small wake, and this is because
the aligners flow and shape of the corners, is
the best of the last 3 models in matters of
decreasing turbulence and wake


Elbow Smoothing



The streamlines flowing in a better way
through the pipeline, but still some of these
were trapped in the rounded corner.



Airfoil


Here we can see that the flow lines of the left
lower to form a right turn.
On the right is way more flow loss because this
part of the figure is dotted.


Disc

We were able to visualize the stagnation point
due to the disc, the disc makes a strong
opposition to current flow,
The lines begin to separate, and as separate
acquire a greater speed


Set of bars

We observe that each bar makes an opposition
to the flow of smoke lines, but once the smoke
output is between these lines bars return to
their normal direction. Stagnation found many
points in this figure.

7. Conclusions

a. Verify the distribution of flow lines, where depending on the geometry of the body can
be changed in a simple way or drastic flux lines.
b. When these obstacles are the streamlines around the obstacle and try to return to its
original path. The closer to the obstacle lines failed to return to his way, but the farthest
were lost along the way.
c. Visualize the wake for different figures that put an obstacle to current flow. We note that
at the points where these obstacles drastic had formed a kind of cloud movement in these
places had sticking points or trails.
d. We observed the airfoil; this allows the fluid to have a higher speed.

8. References

 Phd. Mijaíl Arias Hidalgo. Fluid Mechanics Guide.
 Barlow J. B., Rae W. H. and Pope A., 1999, Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing, John
Wiley & Sons, chapter 5.
 Internet Site
,http://oceanologia.ens.uabc.mx/~fisica/FISICA_II/APUNTES/DEFINICION_FLUI
DOS.htm
 Alan Pope, William H. Rae Wiley, 1984 Low-speed wind tunnel testing
 University of Buenos Aires, Faculty of Engineering,
http://materias.fi.uba.ar/6718/Capa% 20Limite.pdf
 Central University of Venezuela, Faculty of Engineering,
ofhttp://www.monografias.com/trabajos91/tema-2-mecanica-fluidos-2/tema-2-
mecanica-fluidos-2.shtml
 Internet Site Http://fluidos.eia.edu.co/hidraulica/laminar_turbulento.htm
 Çengel, Y., Cimbala, J. (2012), “Fluid Mechanics,Fundamentals and Applications”
(Mecánica de Fluidos,
Fundamentos y aplicaciones), Mc Graw-Hill, México D.F.,México, ISBN: 978-607-
15077-9-2.







ESCUELA SUPERIOR POLITÉCNICA
DEL LITORAL
ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF EARTH SCIENCES
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

“Flow meter apparatus”


Teacher: Dr. Mijaíl Arias
Date of Practice: Monday, August 12, 2013
Delivery of the report: Thursday, August 22, 2013

2013 – 2014
PRACTICE # 3
“FLOW METER APPARATUS”

Abstract
This practice is devoted entirely to the mass flow measurement, based on the principle of continuity
and Bernoulli's equation. Using for this purpose a flow measuring device comprises a weighing
tank, a venturi, a nozzle orifice plate and a rotameter.
The pressure drops occurred in the narrowing, are made visible with height differences in the
gauges installed in each section.
The fluid in this case is water, passes through each of the devices, with a flow regulating valve.
Like all devices, they also have lost both contractions and enlargements. However leaks are more
visible in this case.
The nozzle has much more notable changes in the other devices. Instead, the rotameter I provide
more accurate data, suggesting that it is the best flow meter practice.

1. Introduction
In practice using a flow measuring device, consisting of the Venturi tube, a nozzle and orifice plate.
The basic principle of these meters is that when a fluid flow is restricted, the pressure decreases by
an amount that depends on the flow rate through the restriction, thus the pressure difference
between the points before and after the constraint can be used to indicate the flow velocity.

2. Literature review
Conservation of Mass
The Reynolds transport theorem indicates the variation of a property either in a control volume.

∫ ∫

In the case of conservation of mass y

⁄ .Under fixed control volume with a
number of inputs and outputs.And assuming that the flow within the control volume is stationary, ie
its speed will be constant at a specific point given, and then the equation reduces to:

This equation indicates that for a steady stream entering the mass flows are offset by outgoing mass
flows.
∑̇

∑̇

Incompressible flow
An incompressible flow is one in which the density variations can be neglected. You could say that
all liquids are incompressible and the gas usually at times behaves as if they were.
White, 2006, also mentions that this depreciation of the density depends on the study to be done, as
some engineering branches considered significant variation from 0.1 per 100 in density.
A one-dimensional inputs and outputs:

Where the product

is the volumetric flow

o or flow through section.

Continuity principle
A closed pipeline system circulates fluid constant
volumetric flow, that is the amount offluid flowing
throughanysection of the tubeis constantin a certain
amountof time.Where: ̇

̇

Forsteadyand incompressibleflowwith an inlet
andan outlet, we have:

In this expression is known as the equation of
continuity.

Bernoulli equation
Taken fromFluid
Mechanics,RobertL.
Mott, Sixth Edition,
PearsonEducationPub
lisher, p. 156
This equation is obtained by applying Newton's second law to an infinitesimal cylindrical fluid
particle moving along a streamline:

As also shown by Merle C. Potter and David C Wiggert 2002. Concluding that the constant can
have a different value indifferent powerline, thus obtaining the Bernoulli equation:
(

)

(

)

3. Methodology
Materials
Venturi tube
Venturi tube is used to measure the speed of an
incompressible fluid. Consists of a tube with a narrowing,
so that the sections before and after the tightening are A1
andA2, A1>A2. In each part of the tube there is a
manometer, can be measured so that the respective
pressuresP1 and P2.

Nozzle
The flow nozzle is a measuring instrument for
measuring the pressure differential when the ratio of ß,
is too high for the orifice plate, that is, when the flow
rate is much higher and the losses begin to become
noticeable.

Plate hole
Are strict ion orifice is an open in smaller than the
diameter of the tube in which it is inserted. The orifice
plate has a hole concentric, sharp edges. Due to the
smaller section, the flow velocity increases, causing a
corresponding decrease in pressure.

Rotameter
The rotameter is a variable area meter consisting of a transparent
tube is wide and a meter to "float" (heavier than the liquid)
which is moved up wardby the upward flow of fluid in the pipe.
The tube is graduated to read directly fromthe flow. The grooves
on the float causes rotate and therefore to keep its central
position in the tube. The greater the flow, the greater the height
assumed by the float.

4. Procedure

1. Was adjusted rotameter valve, until it reaches an initial height of 22.5cm
2. Was a recorded gauge height of the different tube.
3. Stop watch time is that the mass of water in the tank was balanced with the weight of the
dumbbells.
4. Valve was adjusted several times, each with a variation in height of 1.5cm flow meter,
repeat steps1 to 3, to fill the table.
5. After filling the data table proceeded to make such calculations




5. Data table
Venturi Tube Nozzle Plate hole
h
a
(mm) h
b
(mm) h
c
(mm) h
d
(mm) h
e
(mm) h
f
(mm) Y(cm)
Vol. Of
water
(kg)
T(sg)
360 100 318 325 344 53 22.5 15 45.2
347 121 309 317 322 83 21.0 15 46.00
336 142 305 311 323 106 19.5 15 48.4
326 159 298 303 315 130 18.0 15 52.26
319 176 294 299 308 151 16.5 15 57.72
312 190 290 292 302 170 15.0 15 63.00
304 201 286 289 296 184 13.5 15 72.24
296 211 282 284 290 198 12.0 15 76.42


6. Formulates

̇





̇

̇


̇

[


]


Load
Venturi Tube
DATA
D=26mm
d=16mm

̇

(

)√

(

)

̇

i h
a
(mm) h
b
(mm) (h
1
-h
2
)
i
(mm) ̇

(kg/sg)
̇

(kg/sg)
1 360 100 260 0.490 0.332
2 347 121 226 0.457 0.326
3 336 142 194 0.423 0.310
4 326 159 167 0.393 0.287
5 319 176 143 0.363 0.259
6 312 190 122 0.336 0.238
7 304 201 103 0.309 0.208
8 296 211 85 0.280 0.196



Nozzle
DATA
D=26mm
d=51mm

̇

i h
c
(mm) h
d
(mm) (h
1
-h
2
)
i
(mm) ̇

(kg/sg)
̇

(kg/sg)
1 318 325 -7 0.203 0.332
2 309 317 -8 0.217 0.326
3 305 311 -6 0.188 0.310
4 298 303 -5 0.172 0.287
5 294 299 -5 0.172 0.259
6 290 292 -2 0.109 0.238
7 286 289 -3 0.133 0.208
8 282 284 -2 0.109 0.196
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
v
e
n
t
u
r
i

tank

The height difference is negative in the tubes.











Significant variation is observed in curve

Plate hole
DATA
D=51mm
d=20mm

̇

(

)√

(

)

i h
e
(mm) h
f
(mm) (h
1
-h
2
)
i
(mm) ̇

(kg/sg)
̇

(kg/sg)
1 344 53 291 0.756 0.332
2 322 83 249 0.702 0.326
3 323 106 217 0.655 0.310
0.03
0.08
0.13
0.18
0.23
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
n
o
z
z
l
e

tank
4 315 130 185 0.605 0.287
5 308 151 157 0.557 0.259
6 302 170 132 0.511 0.238
7 296 184 112 0.471 0.208
8 290 198 92 0.427 0.196

The mass flow is greater than in the two previous cases.


Rotameter
Y(cm)
Vol. of
water
(kg)
T(sg)
̇

(kg/sg)
22.5 15 45.2 0.332
21.0 15 46.00 0.326
19.5 15 48.4 0.310
18.0 15 52.26 0.287
16.5 15 57.72 0.259
15.0 15 63.00 0.238
13.5 15 72.24 0.208
12.0 15 76.42 0.196
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
p
l
a
t
e

tank



7. Analysis of results

 As the valve was closing, the mass flow rate decreased. And the spinner down.
 Maintaining constant the mass of the tank, the mass flow decreases by the valve being
closed, because closing the valve, preventing water flow passage.
 In the nozzle height difference proved to be negative, this was because it had a larger
diameter output. Ie greater pressure and thus greater height than at the entrance.

8. Conclusions

 The mass flow rate in the smaller sections flowing faster than in the larger sections.
 The rotameter has less variation in the mass flow rate, making it the most reliable.
 In an ideal system (no loss), the mass flow and it would in any of the devices.


9. Recommendations

 Before each practice to service the device, as was observed in many different joints leak.
 Valve opening it with great caution, for the rotameter has the greater accuracy possible.
 Due to fluid flow tubes Heights tends to oscillate, we recommend taking the average height
of each.
 When measuring the mass flow of the tank, be careful when keeping time. A second can
alter the results significantly.
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Y

(
c
m
)

tank

10. References

 Robert L. Mott, Fluids Mechanics, Sixth Edition, PEARSON EDUCATION, Mexico, 2006,
ISBN: 970-26-0805-8, Pgs. 154-158.
 Frank M. White, Fluids Mechanics, FifthEdition, MC GRAW-HILL, Madrid, España,
2004, ISBN: 84-481-4076-1, Pgs. 141-144, 183-184.
 Merle C. Potter y David C. Wiggert, Fluids Mechanics, Third Edition; THOMSON, Mexico
D.F., Mexico, 2002, ISBN: 970-6869-205-6, pgs. 95-97.





















ESCUELA SUPERIOR POLITÉCNICA DEL LITORAL
ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF EARTH SCIENCES
FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

“Pressure gradient”
“Velocity profile”

Teacher: Dr. Mijaíl Arias
Date of Practice: Monday, August 12, 2013
Delivery of the report: Thursday, August 22, 2013

2013 – 2014
PRACTICE # 4
“PRESSURE GRADIENT”
“VELOCITY PROFILE”

Abstract
The practice that is oriented to realize that there is variation in the Reynolds number which
helped in the claim if the flow at the end of the pipe flow was laminar or turbulent flow also
was noticeable static pressure variations as increase input length present in the practice.
With the help of a flow meter or calibration screw could determine existing piezometric
heights within the pipe, thanks to such height such sieving high speed is obtained.
Another important parameter could be determined is themes flow, which increased with
time to increase the flow in the pipeline, which was the key to finding our Reynolds
number be able to determine the flow with which we were working.

1. Introduction
The following report is devoted entirely to an important practical problem of fluid
engineering.
In practice carried out in the laboratory previously served to increase knowledge of the
lines of action they can take fluids within a pipe.
The reason is that at moderate Reynolds numbers there are found and complicated changes
in the flow behavior. The movement is no longer smooth and ordered (laminar) and
becomes agitated fluctuating (turbulent). This process is called transition to turbulence

2. Literature review.
When two particles moving velocity gradient exists, which means that one moves faster
than the other, develop friction forces acting tangentially to them.
Frictions forces seek to introduce rotation between the moving particles, but are speed
simultaneously prevent rotation. Depending on the relative value of these forces can
produce different flow states.
When the velocity gradients low, the inertial force is greater than the friction, the particles
move but not rotate, or do so but with very little energy, the end result is a movement in
which the particles follow trajectories defined, and all particles that pass through appoint in
the field of flow follows the same path. This type of flow was identified by .Reynolds and
is called “laminar", meaning thereby that the particles move in layers or laminate.
By Increasing the velocity gradient will increase the friction between neighboring particles
to the fluid, and these rotational energy to acquire appreciable effect loses its velocity and
rotation Also because particles trajectory. When moving from a path to another, the
particles collide With Each Other and change course as erratic As This type of flow is
called “turbulent".
Laminar flow
Laminar flow is called laminar flow, the rate of movement of a fluid when it is perfectly
ordered stratified smooth, so that the fluid moves in parallel sheets without intermixing if
the current occurs between two parallel planes, or layered coaxial cylindrical such as
glycerin in a tube of circular section layers are not mixed together. The transport
mechanism is exclusively molecular. It is said that the flow is streamlined. In aero dynamic
flow, each fluid particle follows a smooth path, called current line.
For a laminar flow is the Reynolds number should be less than 2300.
Turbulent flow
By increasing the velocity gradient increases the friction between neighboring particles and
they acquire a significant effect loses its rotational energy and rotation viscosity changed
the particle trajectory. When moving from one route to another, the particles collide and
change course as erratic.
The flow is characterized by:
 No fluid particles move along paths defined.
 The action of viscosity is negligible
 Fluid particles possess appreciable rotational energy, and they move erratically
colliding with each other

Particles entering the fluid layers of differing speed,its momentum increases or decreases,
and the neighboring particles do so otherwise.
For a turbulent flow is the Reynolds number must be greater than 4000.





3. Methodology
Procedure
1.-Fully open the valve passage.
2. –Take due care that no flow disturbing is acting.
3. - Get laminar flow with the maximum discharge possible without using the flow
disturbing, record pressure drops that occur.
4. - Measure themes flow with the aid of the weight offloading the tank and the previously
measured time.
5. - Open the valve to get to obtain a turbulent flow.
6. –Get the turbulent flow, record the data of falls of pressure and mass flow measurement.

4. Images of flow meter


5. Formulates
Formulates used to find the number of Reynolds.









Experimental rate:




Laminar flow:

Turbulent flow:



6. Data tables
Pressure gradient and length of entry
# OF
DECISION
DISTANCE
FROMINPUT
(mm)
LAMINAR
REGIME
h(mm Hg)
TURBULENT
REGIME
h(mm Hg)
1 160 12.4 31.2
2 300 12.9 30.6
3 450 11.8 29.8
4 600 11.6 29.0
5 750 11.4 28.2
6 900 11.2 27.8
7 1050 11.0 27.2
8 1200 10.8 26.4
9 1350 10.6 25.8
10 1500 10.4 25.2
11 1800 10.0 23.8
12 2100 9.6 22.4
13 2400 9.2 21.0
14 2750 8.9 19.4
15 3500 8.1 16.1
16 4150 7.1 12.6
17 5000 6.3 9.4
18 5514 5.7 7.0
19 5747 5.8 8.6

Speed profiles
Laminar regime
MICROMETER
(mm Hg)
18.32 16.32 14.32 12.32 10.32 9.32 8.32 6.32 4.32 2.32
Radius (mm) 8.5 6.5 4.5 2.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 2.5 4.5 6.5
h
12
(mm Hg) 9.6 9.8 9.8 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.8 9.8 9.7 9.7
h
18
(mm Hg) 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7
h
20
(mm Hg) 6.3 6.8 7.4 7.6 7.9 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.0 7.5

Measuring the mass flow
Mass (Kg) 20
Time (sg) 71.39


Turbulent regime
MICROMETER
(mm Hg)
18.32 16.32 14.32 12.32 10.32 9.32 8.32 6.32 4.32 2.32
Radius (mm) 8.5 6.5 4.5 2.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 2.5 4.5 6.5
h
12
(mm Hg) 22.4 22.4 22.8 22.6 22.8 22.6 22.8 22.9 22.7 22.8
h
18
(mm Hg) 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.6
h
20
(mm Hg) 9.4 10.0 10.5 10.8 11.0 11.1 11.1 10.9 10.6 10.0

Measuring the mass flow
Mass (Kg) 20
Time (sg) 34.93

Load
Laminar Flow
Radio
(mm)
h12
(mm)
h20
(mm)
h18
(mm)
hdin. Hg
(mm)
hdin. Ac
(mm)
Ve
(m/s)

̅

(m/s)
Vt
(m/s)
8,5 96 63 57 6.00 89.33 1.32 1.15 0.46
6,5 98 68 57 11.00 163.76 1.79 1.15 1.22
4,5 98 74 58 16.00 238.21 2.16 1.15 1.78
2,5 97 76 59 17.00 253.09 2.23 1.15 2.14
0,5 98 79 58 21.00 312.64 2.48 1.15 2.24
0 99 79 58 21.00 312.64 2.48 1.15 2.30
0,5 98 78 58 20.00 297.65 2.41 1.15 2.24
2,5 98 76 58 18.00 267.98 2.29 1.15 2.14
4,5 97 70 58 12.00 178.65 1.87 1.15 1.78
6,5 97 75 57 18.00 276.98 2.29 1.15 1.22

Turbulent Flow
Radio
(mm)
h12
(mm)
h20
(mm)
h18
(mm)
hdin.
Hg
(mm)
hdin. Ac
(mm)
Ve
(m/s)
Tw
(N)
V
(m/s)
Vt
(m/s)
8,5 224 94 70 24 357,30 2,64 26,75 0,17 5,94
6,5 224 100 70 30 446,63 2,96 26,75 0,17 14,77
4,5 228 105 71 34 506,18 3,15 27,28 0,18 26,92
2,5 226 108 71 37 550,85 3,28 26,93 0,18 37,34
0,5 228 110 72 38 565,73 3,32 27,10 0,18 47,75
0 226 111 72 39 580,62 3,37 26,75 0,17 44,96
0,5 228 111 72 39 580,62 3,37 27,10 0,18 47,75
2,5 224 109 73 35 521,07 3,20 27,10 0,18 37,56
4,5 227 106 74 32 476,41 3,05 26,58 0,18 27,01
6,5 228 100 76 24 357,30 2,64 26,41 0,18 16,51


7. Calculations made
Static pressure.
Proceeded to calculate the static pressure using the equation where the pressure is a
function of gravity, density and height, thus:



For Velocity Profile
Experimental speed. Laminar and turbulent flow
In the experimental speed calculation, we use the following equation:
Ve=√(2 * g*hdin )
Where in the hdinis calculated as follows.


For the diameter of 18.32 mm., In laminar has toh12=96 mm, h18andh20=57 mm=63 mm.
hdin (mm Hg.) =63-57= 6mm
Hdin (mm ac.) = ((13600-856) / 856) * (0.006)) = 0.089
Then:
Ve=√(2 * 9.8 * 0.089)→V=1.32m/s
In this way we proceeded to perform the same calculations for the experimental rate with
remaining diameter and equally in the turbulent flow.
Theoretical speed
Laminar regime
To calculate the theoretical speed function of this system is the following procedure:

V theoretical=2V[1 - (r / R) ^ 2]
V=(4*m)/(π*ρ_ac*D^2*t)=(4*20)/(π*856*(18.32)^ 2*80) →V= 1,03m/s

This resulting value the average speed, which is equal for all pipes, replacing it holds:
Vtheoretical=2V[1 - (r / R) ^ 2]
V theoretical= 2(1.03)[1 - (8.5/9.5) ^ 2] → V theorical= 0.41m /s

Sowed proceed to calculate all theoretical speeds in laminar regime.

Turbulent regime

To calculate the theoretical speed function of this system is carried out the following
procedure:

V theoretical=V{2.44 [(ρ_ac *(R-r) *V) /μ_ac] +5.0}

V =(T_w/ρ_ac) ^ (1/2) and T_w=0.5 * 0.095 * ((13600-856) * 9.8 * 0,357-0,094) / 3.414 =
26,75.90N
y = -13.499x + 89600
R² = 0.9934
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
S
t
a
t
i
c

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
a
)

Input length(mm)
P vs Le

ThusV = 0.17m /s

With what we find theoretical speed for a value of r= 8.5mmistheoreticalV=13.16m/s

Sowed proceeded to calculate all theoretical speeds for each of their main radius valuesin
practice.

8. Graphics.
Pressure gradient
Laminar flow.







Turbulent Flow.








P= -1,477Le + 15706
R² = 0,995
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000
S
t
a
t
i
c

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
a
)

Input length(mm)
P vs Le
Perdida = -0,090Le + 554,4
R² = 0,992
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
L
o
s
t

(
m
m

H
g
)

Input length(mm)
Perdida vs Le
Load lost in the bolster











Speed Profile
Laminar Regime

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
S
p
e
e
d

(
m
/
s
g
)

Radius (mm)
Experimental rate vs. Radius




Turbulent Flow

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
S
p
e
e
d
(
m
/
s
g
)

Radius(mm)
Experimental rate vs. Radius
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
S
p
e
e
d

(
m
/
s
g
)

Radius (mm)
Theoretical speed vs Raidus




9. Analysis and results
A small problem was obtained in the experimental rate chart in the laminar regime and
came to the conclusion that it may have been by the vibrations that produced the machine
and small frictional losses in the pipe.
Was estimated that another complication could be the oscillation of the mercury to record
data affection a bit high when performing our respective load.
Topographic energy can be neglected and that all piping is on the same level, at the start of
static electricity formed almost entirely the total energy of the fluid, but as the velocity
profile develops, the dynamic pressure take hold, causing the static pressure decreases
linearly as you go through the entrance length.

10. Recommendations
Recommended to be taken with accuracy the time when closing the valve to thereby avoid
problems with the value of the mass flow
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
S
p
e
e
d

(
m
/
s
g
)

Radius(mm)
Theoretical speed vs Raidus
Graduating fine regulation screw fluid or disturbing, so do not encounter problems when
estimating the data for the respective load of this practice.

11. Conclusions

We conclude knowing the mass flow in turbulent regimes is much greater than in the
laminar due to the turbulent flow regime is greater than the laminar.
The entrance length increases with decreasing static pressure, dynamic pressure since
increases as develops the velocity profile fully.
12. References

 Frank M. White, Fluids Mechanics, FifthEdition, MC GRAW-HILL, Madrid,
España, 2004, ISBN: 84-481-4076-1
 Merle C. Potter y David C. Wiggert, Fluids Mechanics, Third Edition; THOMSON,
Mexico D.F., Mexico, 2002, ISBN: 970-6869-205-6














Appendix 1
Practice: Pressure force on a flat plate submerged
Appendix 2
Practice: Flow visualization