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**of the Czech Republic, project No. 1M0579
**

Update: 12.12.2005 2.1.3.1-1

Summary

Possibilities to reinforce glulam beams parallel to

the grain to increase the bending and axial

stiffness and ultimate load have been investigated

within this research project. To use Fibre-

Reinforced Plastics (FRP) as a tensile

reinforcement is one of possible methods. The

fibres used were glass fibres and carbon fibres.

The design model was developed taking into

account the plastic behaviour of timber loaded in

compression parallel to the grain.

Field of application

FRP reinforced timber elements have the potential

mainly to:

• allow the use of lower grade timber in

structures,

• enhance the properties of new and existing

timber structures,

• repair damaged structures.

Methodological and conceptual

approach

Glulam beams loaded by bending moments fail

on the tension side at the position of knots or

finger joints. Due to this mode of failure

glulam beams are mainly reinforced on the

tension side to strengthen the weak cross-

section. The reinforcement for glulam beams

should have a high modulus of elasticity E and

a large tensile strain at failure. Materials

considered were steel, glass fibre reinforced

plastics (GFRP) and carbon fibre reinforced

plastics (CFRP). The disadvantage of steel is

the low yield strength leading to plastic

deformations before the timber fails. The FRP

reinforcement does not show this behaviour.

An effective reinforcement leads to a plastic

behaviour on the timber compression side. In

non reinforced glulam beams this effect hardly

occurs and the design models therefore do not

take into account this effect. For FRP

reinforced beams therefore different design

models are necessary. Figure 1 shows the types

of cross section studied. In practice, because of

fire safety or for esthetical reasons Type 1 is

applied. The width of the reinforcement usually

equals the width of the cross section.

Type 1 Type 2

Figure 1: Cross section of the test specimens

For reinforced glulam beams different failure

modes are possible. Assuming a constant modulus

of elasticity, constant tensile and compressive

strength and a linear – elastic – ideal – plastic

stress-strain relationship within a cross section the

following failure modes are considered.

Failure mode e Failure mode f

I

II

I

III III

II

Failure mode a Failure mode b Failure mode c Failure mode d

Figure 2: Failure modes

Failure modes on the tension side of a cross

section:

Mode a: Failure of the timber facing, on level I,

while the cross section is in a linear –

elastic state.

2 APPLICATION OF ADVANCED MATERIALS IN INTEGRATED DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

2.1 Concept for the development of a new material basis for advanced structures

2.1.3 Development of conception of the utilization of wood based materials

2.1.3.1 Analysis of Contemporary State and Design of Feasible Production Forms of WP Composites

Authors: Doc. Ing. Petr Kuklík, CSc.; Ing. Jan Vídenský, Czech Technical University in Prague

DESIGN MODEL FOR FRP REINFORCED GLULAM BEAMS

This outcome has been achieved with the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, project No. 1M0579

Update: 12.12.2005 2.1.3.1-1

Mode b: Failure above the reinforcement, on

level II, while the cross section is in a

linear – elastic state.

Mode c: Failure of the timber facing, on level I,

while the cross section is in a linear –

elastic – ideal – plastic state.

Mode d: Failure above the reinforcement, on

level II, while the cross section is in a

linear – elastic – ideal – plastic state.

Failure modes on the compression side by a

defined compression strain:

Mode e: Compressive failure, on level III,

before the timber facing fails in tension,

the cross section is in a linear – elastic –

ideal – plastic state.

Mode f: Compressive failure after the timber

facing failed in tension with a

subsequent tensile failure above the

reinforcement, the cross section is in a

linear – elastic – ideal – plastic state.

Figure 3: Experimental verification of failure

modes.

Using a tensile reinforcement the compressive

stress will exceed the timber tensile stress in

beams loaded in bending. Therefore plastic

deformations are more probable in beams with the

tensile reinforcement. Using both compressive

and tensile reinforcement the linear modes will

mostly occur due to the reduction of the plastic

area in the compressive zone.

Research results

Figure 4 illustrates the notation and the assumed

stress-strain relation. The design model reduces

the calculation to non reinforced glulam beams by

using absolute geometrical factors α

i

and general

factors k

i

. These factors permit to calculate

geometrically similar cross sections by calculating

just once these factors α

i

and k

i

.

M M

σ1,c

σt

σ2,c

σR,t,a

σR,t,b

Neutrální osa

E ,f ,f 0 t c

E ,f Rt Rt

b

εt

εR,t

ε1,c

ε2,c

Figure 4: Reinforced beam with deformation

and stress-strain relationship.

Dimensionless factors α

i

:

h

h

i

i

= α (1)

Factor k

f

interprets the ratio of the timber

compressive to tensile strength:

u t

u c

t

c

f

f

f

k

,

,

ε

ε

= = (2)

Abbreviation factor k

t

:

1

0

,

− =

E

E

k

t R

t

(3)

The effective height h is the remaining height of

the cross section. With an intact timber facing h is

equal to h

0

. After failure of the timber facing the

effective height h is reduced by the height of the

timber facing.

References

• Colling, F. (1990): Tragfähigkeit von

Biegeträgern aus Brettschichtholz in

Abhängigkeit von den festigkeitsrelevanten

Einflussgrößen. University of Karlsruhe,

Germany, 1990

• Larsen, H. J. (1982): Strength of Glued

Laminated Beams – Part 5: Tests of Beams.

Institute of Building Technology and Structural

Engineering. Report No. 8201, 1982

• Meier U. (1992): Carbon Fiber-Reinforced

Polymers, International Association for Bridge

and Structural Engineering, Zurich 1992

• Tichy, R. (1998): Properties and Applications of

Wood-Plastic Composites, 5

th

World Conference

on Timber Engineering, Montreux 1998

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