This outcome has been achieved with the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports

of the Czech Republic, project No. 1M0579
Update: 12.12.2005 2.1.3.1-1

Summary
Possibilities to reinforce glulam beams parallel to
the grain to increase the bending and axial
stiffness and ultimate load have been investigated
within this research project. To use Fibre-
Reinforced Plastics (FRP) as a tensile
reinforcement is one of possible methods. The
fibres used were glass fibres and carbon fibres.
The design model was developed taking into
account the plastic behaviour of timber loaded in
compression parallel to the grain.
Field of application
FRP reinforced timber elements have the potential
mainly to:
• allow the use of lower grade timber in
structures,
• enhance the properties of new and existing
timber structures,
• repair damaged structures.
Methodological and conceptual
approach
Glulam beams loaded by bending moments fail
on the tension side at the position of knots or
finger joints. Due to this mode of failure
glulam beams are mainly reinforced on the
tension side to strengthen the weak cross-
section. The reinforcement for glulam beams
should have a high modulus of elasticity E and
a large tensile strain at failure. Materials
considered were steel, glass fibre reinforced
plastics (GFRP) and carbon fibre reinforced
plastics (CFRP). The disadvantage of steel is
the low yield strength leading to plastic
deformations before the timber fails. The FRP
reinforcement does not show this behaviour.
An effective reinforcement leads to a plastic
behaviour on the timber compression side. In
non reinforced glulam beams this effect hardly
occurs and the design models therefore do not
take into account this effect. For FRP
reinforced beams therefore different design
models are necessary. Figure 1 shows the types
of cross section studied. In practice, because of
fire safety or for esthetical reasons Type 1 is
applied. The width of the reinforcement usually
equals the width of the cross section.


Type 1 Type 2
Figure 1: Cross section of the test specimens

For reinforced glulam beams different failure
modes are possible. Assuming a constant modulus
of elasticity, constant tensile and compressive
strength and a linear – elastic – ideal – plastic
stress-strain relationship within a cross section the
following failure modes are considered.

Failure mode e Failure mode f
I
II
I
III III
II
Failure mode a Failure mode b Failure mode c Failure mode d

Figure 2: Failure modes

Failure modes on the tension side of a cross
section:
Mode a: Failure of the timber facing, on level I,
while the cross section is in a linear –
elastic state.
2 APPLICATION OF ADVANCED MATERIALS IN INTEGRATED DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
2.1 Concept for the development of a new material basis for advanced structures
2.1.3 Development of conception of the utilization of wood based materials
2.1.3.1 Analysis of Contemporary State and Design of Feasible Production Forms of WP Composites
Authors: Doc. Ing. Petr Kuklík, CSc.; Ing. Jan Vídenský, Czech Technical University in Prague
DESIGN MODEL FOR FRP REINFORCED GLULAM BEAMS




This outcome has been achieved with the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, project No. 1M0579
Update: 12.12.2005 2.1.3.1-1

Mode b: Failure above the reinforcement, on
level II, while the cross section is in a
linear – elastic state.
Mode c: Failure of the timber facing, on level I,
while the cross section is in a linear –
elastic – ideal – plastic state.
Mode d: Failure above the reinforcement, on
level II, while the cross section is in a
linear – elastic – ideal – plastic state.
Failure modes on the compression side by a
defined compression strain:
Mode e: Compressive failure, on level III,
before the timber facing fails in tension,
the cross section is in a linear – elastic –
ideal – plastic state.
Mode f: Compressive failure after the timber
facing failed in tension with a
subsequent tensile failure above the
reinforcement, the cross section is in a
linear – elastic – ideal – plastic state.



Figure 3: Experimental verification of failure
modes.
Using a tensile reinforcement the compressive
stress will exceed the timber tensile stress in
beams loaded in bending. Therefore plastic
deformations are more probable in beams with the
tensile reinforcement. Using both compressive
and tensile reinforcement the linear modes will
mostly occur due to the reduction of the plastic
area in the compressive zone.
Research results
Figure 4 illustrates the notation and the assumed
stress-strain relation. The design model reduces
the calculation to non reinforced glulam beams by
using absolute geometrical factors α
i
and general
factors k
i
. These factors permit to calculate
geometrically similar cross sections by calculating
just once these factors α
i
and k
i
.

M M
σ1,c
σt
σ2,c
σR,t,a
σR,t,b
Neutrální osa
E ,f ,f 0 t c
E ,f Rt Rt
b
εt
εR,t
ε1,c
ε2,c


Figure 4: Reinforced beam with deformation
and stress-strain relationship.

Dimensionless factors α
i
:

h
h
i
i
= α (1)

Factor k
f
interprets the ratio of the timber
compressive to tensile strength:

u t
u c
t
c
f
f
f
k
,
,
ε
ε
= = (2)

Abbreviation factor k
t
:

1
0
,
− =
E
E
k
t R
t
(3)
The effective height h is the remaining height of
the cross section. With an intact timber facing h is
equal to h
0
. After failure of the timber facing the
effective height h is reduced by the height of the
timber facing.
References
• Colling, F. (1990): Tragfähigkeit von
Biegeträgern aus Brettschichtholz in
Abhängigkeit von den festigkeitsrelevanten
Einflussgrößen. University of Karlsruhe,
Germany, 1990
• Larsen, H. J. (1982): Strength of Glued
Laminated Beams – Part 5: Tests of Beams.
Institute of Building Technology and Structural
Engineering. Report No. 8201, 1982
• Meier U. (1992): Carbon Fiber-Reinforced
Polymers, International Association for Bridge
and Structural Engineering, Zurich 1992
• Tichy, R. (1998): Properties and Applications of
Wood-Plastic Composites, 5
th
World Conference
on Timber Engineering, Montreux 1998