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**1) Show all work. No work, no credit. This is critically important for every calculation, even if it seems
**

trivial.

2) Show all units. Units provide valuable information.

3) Develop good “math sense” or “math literacy.” The answers should make sense. If you calculate a

cost of $50 billion per gallon of water, does this seem right?

4) Know simple conversion factors such as the number of days in a year or hours in a day. Other good

numbers to know:

U.S. population = approx. 300 million (300,000,000 or 3 x 10

8

)

World population = approx. 6.8 billion (6,800,000,000 or 6.8 x 10

9

)

5) Know and convert metric prefixes.

T tera- 10

12

(trillion 1,000,000,000,000)

G giga- 10

9

(billion 1,000,000,000)

M mega- 10

6

(million 1,000,000)

k kilo- 10

3

(1000)

h hecto- 10

2

(100)

da deka- 10

1

(10)

d deci- 10

-1

(0.1)

c centi- 10

-2

(0.01)

m milli- 10

-3

(0.001)

μ micro- 10

-6

(one-millionth 0.000001)

n nano- 10

-9

(one-billionth 0.000000001)

6) Be comfortable working with negative numbers. Going from -8 ºC to +2ºC is a 10º change.

7) Use dimensional analysis. Conversions should show units of measurement and conversion factors.

Example: If water has a density of 62 pounds per cubic foot, how many tons of water are contained in a

4000 cubic foot tank?

4000 cubic foot tank x (62 pounds/cubic foot) x (1 ton/2000 pounds) = 132 tons

Example: If electricity costs $0.20 per kilowatt hour, calculate the cost to run a 1500 watt appliance for

two hours.

1500 watts x (1 kilowatt/1000 watts) x 2 hours x ($0.20/kilowatt hour) = $0.60

8) Work scientific notation problems without a calculator. Multiplication and division will be common.

Multiplying numbers in scientific notation requires the exponents to be added. Dividing numbers in

scientific notation requires exponents to be subtracted.

Examples: 10

6

TIMES 10

3

= 10

9

10

8

DIVIDED BY 10

1

= 10

7

9) Calculate percent change. Percent change can be calculated by finding the difference between the

old and new values, and then dividing by the old value. Convert to a percent by multiplying by 100.

Example: old value = $400, new value = $500, percent change = ($100/$400)x 100 = 25% increase

10) Calculate population growth rate and population density. Growth rate = [b - d] + [i - e]

Population density = population divided by area

11) Know the Rule of 70 to predict doubling time.

Doubling time = 70 divided by annual growth rate (in %)

12) Calculate half-life.

AMOUNT REMAINING = (ORIGINAL AMOUNT)(0.5)x

where x = number of half-lives

13) Calculate pH using –log [H+]. Log10 x = y and 10y = x.

Most pH problems are easily solved without a calculator. Remember that for

every one-increment change in pH, the ion concentrations change by a factor of 10.

Examples: if pH = 6, then the concentration of hydrogen ions [H+] = 1 x 10

-6

If pH = 2, then the concentration of hydrogen ions [H+] = 1 x 10

-2

If the concentration of hydrogen ions = 1 x 10

-13

, then the pH = 13

14) Be familiar with units of energy and power.

Watt = joule/sec = volts x amps

Calorie = energy to raise one gram of water by one degree C.

BTU (British thermal unit) = energy to raise one pound of water by one degree F.

Kilowatts x hours = kilowatt hours

Efficiency = energy out divided by energy in

15) AP GRAPHING TIPS

Label each axis.

Set both axes to scale with consistent increments.

Connect dots.

Interpolate and extrapolate.

Be comfortable with doing graphs by hand.

Include a title and a key.

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