10

Polar Coordinates,
Parametric Equations

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Coordinate systems are tools that let us use algebraic methods to understand geometry.
While the rectangular (also called Cartesian) coordinates that we have been using are
the most common, some problems are easier to analyze in alternate coordinate systems.
A coordinate system is a scheme that allows us to identify any point in the plane or
in three-dimensional space by a set of numbers. In rectangular coordinates these numbers
are interpreted, roughly speaking, as the lengths of the sides of a rectangle. In polar
coordinates a point in the plane is identified by a pair of numbers (r, θ). The number θ
measures the angle between the positive x-axis and a ray that goes through the point, as
shown in figure 10.1.1; the number r measures the distance from the origin to the point.

Figure 10.1.1 shows the point with rectangular coordinates (1, 3) and polar coordinates
(2, π/3), 2 units from the origin and π/3 radians from the positive x-axis.

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• (2, π/3)

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Figure 10.1.1

Polar coordinates of the point (1,

3).

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. .... ... π/4): go to the direction π/4 and then move a distance 2 in the opposite direction. ... ...... .. . . . .. ... When θ = 7π/4. .. . ...... . the value of r tracks the value of y............ 2 1 0 .... .. . In the cardioid example.....240 Chapter 10 Polar Coordinates.. .1 Graph the curve given by r = 2.... .. ..1.. ......... a negative angle θ means an angle measured clockwise from the positive x-axis...... All points with r = 2 are at distance 2 from the origin.... ....... ..2 π 3π/2 2π .. .. The point in figure 10. . ...3 as an example... ..... . 5π/4) and (2. ... when θ = π/2.. .... ...... . .. The point with polar coordinates (r.... .. ..... so we graph the point at distance 1 from the origin along the positive y-axis....1...... ..1.. ....... .......... . so can we describe curves using equations involving r and θ. ... and the corresponding point appears in the fourth quadrant.. • • A cardioid: y = 1 + cos x on the left...... Using figure 10.2 Graph the curve given by r = 1 + cos θ. ... ...... which is at an angle of π/2 from the positive x-axis..... ...1... . forming the “cardioid” shape of figure 10. . ..........1. Each point in the plane is associated with exactly one pair of numbers in the rectangular coordinate system.. . .. .. ..3 also has coordinates (2... .......... ..... . . we considered only the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. .... and already there was a duplicate: (2... As usual. • • π/2 Figure 10........ .. .. ... 2π) duplicates a point on the curve r = 1 + cos θ when 0 ≤ θ < 2π.. . . . ... We can even make sense of polar coordinates like (−2.. ... .... ......... . . ....... ...... . ......... .. . The relationship between rectangular and polar coordinates is quite easy to understand. −3π/4).... . Indeed.2...... .. .... as in figure 10.... We first consider y = 1 + cos x.. this follows immediately from the definition of the sine and cosine functions.. ... . .... . ...... ..... ........... . 0) and (2....71....... ... ..... . every value of θ outside the interval [0....... .... θ) has rectangular coordinates x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ.. . ....... .... ..... .. ... . ..... √ r = 1 + cos(7π/4) = 1 + 2/2 ≈ 1.. . Most common are equations of the form r = f (θ). . . ..... ..... 2π) are the same point... .. . see figure 10....... ... For example. .. As θ goes through the values in [0..1. so r = 2 describes the circle of radius 2 with center at the origin..... r = 1 + cos θ on the right.....2... . . ....... ..... each point is associated with an infinite number of pairs in polar coordinates.. .3.....1. the point shown has rectangular coordinates .. Parametric Equations Just as we describe curves in the plane using equations involving x and y......... .. . .. EXAMPLE 10....... . .... .. ....... .......... ....1. EXAMPLE 10..... . .. ........ 2π].. This illustrates one of the potential benefits of using polar coordinates: the equation for this curve in rectangular coordinates would be quite complicated.. ...... r = 1 + cos(π/2) = 1...

...... . EXAMPLE 10.... (1.. ..... ....... .. . .. . ........ ........... . . ..... . ...... ...... . . 2π) • ....... . π/4 1 2 −1 •...1....... ..... ...3 The point (−2... .... .... •..... −2 Figure 10........ ... ....... . ....... ...... ... . ............ ... ........ ........ .. ... .... . ..5 Graph the polar equation r = θ... When θ < 0..... ........ π/2) . ... ..... . ..... . .. . ............ ..1.. and graphing polar equations directly is also not always easy... ...... .. . .... . . Converting polar equations to rectangular equations can be somewhat trickier. .... ... ....4. ... √ √ x = (−2) cos(π/4) = − 2 ≈ 1......•....3 EXAMPLE 10........ θ) values to convince yourself that this makes sense.. and so the full graph is the right hand picture in the figure..... ..... .... ...... ....... . .. ..... −π/2) . ..... .. . .. . . ......... (π.. 1) ... ... . •... . r is also negative.... This makes it very easy to convert equations from rectangular to polar coordinates... . . .. .. .. . ..... .... ... . (π/2.. . .. • ............... . ... ... . .. . . . −2π) . You should try plotting a few (r...... ... −π) . ................... ... .. ... ... ....... .. .. . . ... .. . . .... . .......... 5π/4) = (2.. ... ...... .. . . ... ......... .. ... .. ... .. .10... ....1...... ...... .... .......... . . ... ... ..... .. ... ...... ...... .. ... ............ −3π/4) in polar coordinates. . ........ .. ..... Here the distance from the origin exactly matches the angle. ... sin θ − 3 cos θ EXAMPLE 10. ..4 Find the equation of the circle (x − 1/2)2 + y 2 = 1/4 in polar coordinates.................. ..... .... .. .. . .. . . or r = ..... . ...... .... . ....... Figure 10...... .. .. ... (−1... Again substituting: (r cos θ − 1/2)2 + r 2 sin2 θ = 1/4. π/4) = (2.. . Find the equation of the line y = 3x + 2 in polar coordinates....... −1) The spiral of Archimedes and the full graph of r = θ......4 (−π/2..... A bit of algebra turns this into r = cos(t). ... . .. .. −2 −1 .... We 2 merely substitute: r sin θ = 3r cos θ + 2..... ...... . .. •.... ... ... . .... . (−2π. ... (−π.. ..1... .1... .... ......... .............. •.. . . .. so a bit of thought makes it clear that when θ ≥ 0 we get the spiral of Archimedes in figure 10... .. ..4142 and y = (−2) sin(π/4) = − 2. ........ .. . . (2π.. . ... π) •... ... ...1. . ......... . .. ............1 Polar Coordinates 241 2 1 ...... ... .. . ......

. ... r 2 = −2 sec θ csc θ .... π/2)..1...... . y = 3x ⇒ 3.... x2 + y2 = 5 ⇒ 4.... .1...5 0 1 Graph of r = 2 sin θ. . . When θ runs from π to 2π.....1.... we know that we will get the entire curve for values of θ in [0.. .. . .... 1. y = x2 + y2 ⇒ 7........ ... . Because the sine is periodic.. r = sin θ + cos θ 16. As θ runs from 0 to π/2. .. (−3.... ... (−2. . .... . .5... .... Now...... so in fact we get the whole curve for values of θ in [0. ... r = 1 + θ /π 1 19... and it is not hard to see that the first part of the curve is simply traced out again. .. r = θ/2.. .... π). π/3).. 2π). Find an equation in polar coordinates that has the same graph as the given equation in rectangular coordinates. 3π/2). .. Exercises 10. ... −π/4)... ... 2.. .... . ............... .... Then as θ continues to π.. y = 5x + 2 ⇒ 2 10. 13... ... ..1..... (0.. Parametric Equations EXAMPLE 10.. . y = x + 1 ⇒ 12.. r is negative. . . 1 −1 Figure 10.... Having made this guess.242 Chapter 10 Polar Coordinates. θ ≥ 0 18....... First we substitute for x and y to get (r cos θ)2 + (r sin θ − 1)2 = 1. . . x = 2 ⇒ 11.... . we can easily check it.. . ..... .... Plot these polar coordinate points on one graph: (2.. r = sin(θ + π/4) 15... .. .. .. ...... π).. .... it would have to be the circle x2 + (y − 1)2 = 1. r = cot θ csc θ 20. y = 3x2 − 2x ⇒ Sketch the curve.6 Graph r = 2 sin θ. r = cos θ 14. y = x3 ⇒ 8. y = sin x ⇒ 9... and if it is.. r = − sec θ 1 2 17. . ... y = −4 ⇒ 2 5..... ... .. . r increases from 0 to 2. .. the curve looks something like figure 10. . . . ... (1. .... (1/2.. 4π/3).... r decreases again to 0...... . xy = 1 ⇒ 6. .. Thus. expanding and simplifying does indeed turn this into r = 2 sin θ... this suggests that the curve could possibly be a circle...

we can instead compute dy/dθ f (θ) cos θ + f ′ (θ) sin θ dy = = . r = sec θ csc θ ⇒ ½¼º¾ ËÐÓÔ × 22. dx dx/dθ −f (θ) sin θ + f ′ (θ) cos θ EXAMPLE 10. we may restrict our attention to the interval [0. describing x and y in terms of θ alone. First. Setting the denominator to zero we get −θ − 2 sin θ cos θ = 0 sin θ(1 + 2 cos θ) = 0. when θ = π. the numerator is also 0. as convenience dictates. dx dθ dx Since dθ/dx = 1/(dx/dθ). We have seen that x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ describe the relationship between polar and rectangular coordinates. so using the chain rule we may compute dy dy dθ = . the second when θ is 2π/3 or 4π/3. r = sin(3θ) ⇒ 23. r = tan θ ⇒ Ò ÔÓÐ Ö ÓÓÖ Ò Ø × When we describe a curve using polar coordinates. 2π) or (−π. so we cannot .1 Find the points at which the curve given by r = 1 + cos θ has a vertical or horizontal tangent line.2. r = sin2 θ ⇒ 24. then we can write x = f (θ) cos θ and y = f (θ) sin θ. Since this function has period 2π. π]. so either sin θ = 0 or cos θ = −1/2. so we cannot conclude that the tangent line is horizontal. dx −(1 + cos θ) sin θ − sin θ cos θ − sin θ − 2 sin θ cos θ This fraction is zero when the numerator is zero (and the denominator is not zero).10. The first is true when θ is 0 or π. If in turn we are interested in a curve given by r = f (θ). 4 2 This means θ is π or ±π/3.2 Slopes in polar coordinates 243 Find an equation in rectangular coordinates that has the same graph as the given equation in polar coordinates. The first of these equations describes θ implicitly in terms of x. the denominator is also 0. as above. when θ = π. However. it is still a curve in the x-y plane. We would like to be able to compute slopes and areas for these curves using polar coordinates. The numerator is 2 cos2 θ + cos θ − 1 so by the quadratic formula √ −1 ± 1 + 4 · 2 1 cos θ = = −1 or . However. 21. we compute the slope: (1 + cos θ) cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ + cos2 θ − sin2 θ dy = = .

... ... ...... dx dx dx dθ dx dx/dθ EXAMPLE 10.. . .... . indicating concave down and concave up respectively.... . .. Note that when θ = π the curve hits the origin and does not have a tangent line.... .. .. r = cos θ ⇒ 5. .. substituting these values into the second √ √ derivative we get y ′′ (π/3) = − 3/2 and y ′′ (−π/3) = 3/2. .2.. • ...... . .... . ...1 Points of vertical and horizontal tangency for r = 1 + cos θ... .. in describing concavity. 2π/3 and 4π/3 on the graph of the function....2...1 shows points corresponding to θ equal to 0... r = 1 + sin θ ⇒ 4..... ........ ... (sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ)3 The ellipsis here represents rather a substantial amount of algebra. r = sec θ ⇒ 2.. .. We know that the second derivative f ′′ (x) is useful in describing functions... .. .. Parametric Equations conclude that the tangent line is vertical... • • • • Figure 10.. ..... .. r = sin θ ⇒ 6.... r = θ ⇒ 3.... ...... .. . ... Figure 10. .. .... . .... .... .2... ...... . .. namely..... r = sin(2θ) ⇒ ... This agrees with the graph of the function. We can compute f ′′ (x) in terms of polar coordinates as well. ................. . ... ..... .. ±π/3... Compute y′ = dy/dx and y′′ = d2 y/dx2 . then d dy dy ′ dy ′ dθ dy ′ /dθ = = = .. ...... . .2 We find the second derivative for the cardioid r = 1 + cos θ: 1 3(1 + cos θ) 1 d cos θ + cos2 θ − sin2 θ · = ··· = · 2 dθ − sin θ − 2 sin θ cos θ dx/dθ (sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ) −(sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ) = −3(1 + cos θ) .2.............. .244 Chapter 10 Polar Coordinates. . ... . We know from above that the cardioid has horizontal tangents at ±π/3. 1..... .......... . . .. .... . . Exercises 10.. We already know how to write dy/dx = y ′ in terms of θ... .....

Recall that the area of a sector of a circle is αr 2 /2. r = 1 + π/θ.1 2π 0 1 f (θ)2 dθ.10. the area is (∆θ)(f (θ))2/2. r = π/θ. 1 1 (1+cos θ)2 dθ = 2 2 2π 1 θ sin 2θ 1+2 cos θ+cos θ dθ = (θ + 2 sin θ + + ) 2 2 4 2π 2 0 = 0 3π . The basic approach is the same as with any application of integration: find an approximation that approaches the true value. r = + cos θ 2 13. r = cot(2θ) 21. 0 ≤ θ ≤ ∞ π/θ. or sin θ = 1/2. 7. r = tan θ 18. so θ = π/6 or .1.3. where α is the angle subtended by the sector. r = 25. we approximated the region using rectangles. 2 i=0 In the limit this becomes b a EXAMPLE 10. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 4π 14. r = sec(θ/2). 0 ≤ θ ≤ ∞ Ö × Ò ÔÓÐ Ö ÓÓÖ Ò Ø × We can use the equation of a curve in polar coordinates to compute some areas bounded by such curves. 2π] unless otherwise stated. r = sin θ + cos θ 3 9. r = 2 + 2 sin θ 10. r = 2 + cos θ 12.3.2 We find the area between the circles r = 2 and r = 4 sin θ. r = 1 + sec θ 1 1 + sin θ 23. as depicted in figure 10.3 245 Areas in polar coordinates Sketch the curves over the interval [0. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 6π 8. The two curves intersect where 2 = 4 sin θ.3. r = 1 − cos θ 19. Thus we approximate the total area as n−1 1 f (θi )2 ∆θ. For areas in rectangular coordinates. 0 ≤ θ ≤ ∞ 22. in polar coordinates. 2 We find the area inside the cardioid r = 1 + cos θ. If the curve is given by r = f (θ). 0 ≤ θ ≤ 4π 1 20. r = 1 + cos2 (2θ) 16. r = sin2 (3θ) 17. and the angle subtended by a small sector is ∆θ. r = sin2 θ 15. r = ½¼º¿ 24. r = sin(θ/3).2. r = + sin θ 2 1 11.3. we use sectors of circles. as shown in figure 10. r = cos(θ/2). 2 EXAMPLE 10.

. .. .. .. .. The area we want is then 1 2 5π/6 π/6 16 sin2 θ − 4 dθ = Figure 10. . ........... . .. .... . .... .. . .... .... . . ....... ..... . . . . . Parametric Equations . ..... .. .. ...... .. .. .. We attempt to find points of intersection: 1 + sin θ = 3 sin θ 1 = 2 sin θ 1/2 = sin θ..... .... .3........ . . . . . . .. .2 √ 4 π + 2 3. ... . . ... . .3 as the difference of the other two shaded areas... . ........ .. ... ... ....... .. . .. . . .......3... .. ........ . Note that no solution of this equation corresponds to the intersection . ... . . . ..... . ..... ........ ... ..... 3 An area between curves. This has solutions θ = π/6 and 5π/6... .. .... ......... ... .. .. .. .. ....... . ... ....... .. .. ........... . ..... . ..... ... .. .3.. The cardioid is r = 1 + sin θ and the circle is r = 3 sin θ..246 Chapter 10 Polar Coordinates. ...... .. . . .. . . .. .. ... . . Figure 10. ...1 Approximating area by sectors of circles.. . . . .. π/6 corresponds to the intersection in the first quadrant that we need.... .. . . 5π/6. . ... ... .... This example makes the process appear more straightforward than it is.. ... . . ... .... ... . . . .. ... ...... ..... EXAMPLE 10..... ........ . . ..... .. . .. ..... . . .... ... .... ... ..... .... . . . . .... ..... ... . .... .... ........... . ...... . ....... .... . ... . ..3.... .. .3 We find the shaded area in the first graph of figure 10.. ... .. . ... ....... it is not always so easy to identify points of intersection........ . ............ . . Because points have many different representations in polar coordinates..... ......

⇒ 11.3 Areas in polar coordinates 247 point at the origin. starting with 0.3 An area between curves. r = 2 + cos θ ⇒ 4. √ 1. r = sin θ ⇒ 3. r = cos θ. r = sec θ. but fortunately that one is obvious. ⇒ 2 . Exercises 10. ⇒ csc θ 13. ⇒ 12. r = 4 + 3 sin θ ⇒ 7. Find the area enclosed by the curve. Find the area inside one loop of r = sin2 θ. including the area inside the small loop.3. Find the area inside the small loop of r = (1/2) + cos θ. a > 0 ⇒ 2. Find the area inside one loop of r = cos(3θ). The cardioid goes through the origin when θ = −π/2. the circle goes through the origin at multiples of π. Figure 10.3. Find the area inside the loop formed by r = tan(θ/2). ⇒ 8. r = 2a cos θ. 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/3 ⇒ 6. π/6 ≤ θ ≤ π/3 ⇒ 5.10. Now the larger region has area 1 2 π/6 (1 + sin θ)2 dθ = −π/2 π 9√ − 3 2 16 and the smaller has area 1 2 π/6 (3 sin θ)2 dθ = 0 3π 9√ 3 − 8 16 so the area we seek is π/8. Find the area inside one loop of r 2 = cos(2θ). Find the area enclosed by r = tan θ and r = √ . ⇒ 9. ⇒ 10. Find the area inside r = (1/2) + cos θ.

0 ≤ θ ≤ 3π. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. The center of a circle of radius 1 is on the circumference of a circle of radius 2. ⇒ 20. Find the area inside both r = 3 cos θ and r = sin θ. Find the area of the region inside both circles. Find the area inside r = θ. Then the equations x = f (t) and y = g(t) describe a curve in the plane. ⇒ √ 17. But t in general is simply an arbitrary variable. Find the area inside both r = 1 − cos θ and r = cos θ.248 Chapter 10 Polar Coordinates. Find the shaded area in figure 10. often called in this case a parameter. though the form r = f (θ) is simpler. In the case of the polar coordinates equations. The expanded form has the virtue that it can easily be generalized to describe a wider range of curves than can be specified in rectangular or polar coordinates. the equations x = f (t) and y = g(t) give the position of an object at time t. ⇒ √ 18. These two equations completely specify the curve. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. and this method of specifying a curve is known as parametric equations. ⇒ 15.4. ⇒ 16. . In this interpretation.3.4 ½¼º È Ö Ñ ØÖ An area bounded by the spiral of Archimedes. Find the area inside r = 2 sin θ and above the line r = (3/2) csc θ. The curve is r = θ. ⇒ 19. ⇒ 21. Find the area inside r = 2 cos θ and outside r = 1. ÕÙ Ø ÓÒ× When we computed the derivative dy/dx using polar coordinates. Parametric Equations 14. the variable t is replaced by θ which has a natural geometric interpretation.3. One important interpretation of t is time. Find the area inside r = θ. Suppose f (t) and g(t) are functions. ⇒ Figure 10. we used the expressions x = f (θ) cos θ and y = f (θ) sin θ.

. ... . .4... . ... .... ...... ..1 Describe the path of an object that moves so that its position at time t is given by x = cos t..... . .. .. .. Because the radius is 1. . . ...... .... . ....... .... .4...... ... say the x-axis.. ....4.. .....2 The wheel... ...... . ..... It is now easy to see that the object oscillates back and forth on the parabola between the endpoints (1............ ..... . .. .. ... .... ............. .......... ...... the center of the wheel has coordinates (t.... Thus the parametric equations for the cycloid are x = t − sin t....•......... ...... ... so the path lies on this parabola.. .. .... ... ... ... Figure 10. .... However..4. . .. .. .. . .. ..2. ... however..... ......... . A bit of thought reveals that ∆x = − sin t and ∆y = − cos t...... . .. .... .......... measured as shown clockwise from the line connecting the center of the wheel to the ground.. . ... . ...... . . t . We see immediately that y = x2 . ... y = 1 − cos t. . ... ..... .... ... Assume the point starts at the origin...... ....... ..... .. called a cycloid.. . .. .. ... These values are nearly the sine and cosine of the angle t..... .. . .......... . ........... y = cos2 t. since x = cos t is always between −1 and 1. ........... ................ .... .... .. EXAMPLE 10..... . ... ... .... ... ∆x ..... as opposed to the usual counterclockwise direction.... . . . It is sometimes quite easy to describe a complicated path in parametric equations when rectangular and polar coordinate expressions are difficult or impossible to devise.... ......... ..... .. . ........ ...... .... ..... .... .... ..... .. ..... .. .. ..4.. .. ....... .. . . ........ ...... .... . .. . .. .... ... ... . ..... 1). We seek to write the coordinates of the point on the rim as (t + ∆x..... .. ...... .. ....... ..... ....... 1) and (−1.. ... . . ... ∆y . . ...... • ..... .. . . .... ...... ....... .......... ... and is at point (1.. .4.... ......... ..... . . .. . ... . .. ........ ............. ..4 Parametric Equations 249 EXAMPLE 10. find parametric equations for the curve... ... ... ......10... ....... ....... ....... .. . .... ... . . ....1 illustrates the generation of the curve (click on the AP link to see an animation).... ......... ........ 1) at time t = 0. ..... ... ... ........ ...... . .... .. . ... .... ......... .... where ∆x and ∆y are as shown in figure 10........ . and again after it has rolled through about 490 degrees... . from the unit circle definition of sine and cosine.... The wheel is shown at its starting point..... .... ...... ...... .. .... A point on the rim of the wheel will trace out a curve.. .2 A wheel of radius 1 rolls along a straight line....... .. . .. ...... . .... .... Figure 10. . .... . . .. ...... . . . .......... ... . .... . .....1 A cycloid........ .. . . ..... .. .. ..... . .... .. ... ......... .. ... .. . . .. .. 1). .. some care is required because we are measuring t from a nonstandard starting line and in a clockwise direction. .. ... ..... .... ...... ............. .. ............. ... 1 + ∆y).... .. .. ....... .... • Figure 10... . .... ....... We take as our parameter t the angle through which the wheel has turned.... .. The path is not the entire parabola... ... ..

.... ... . . .................... ... . .... . ... .. .... ... Find parametric equations for this curve.. .. .... . .......4 shows part of the curve....... . ... .... . ......4....... keeping the string taut.. A wheel of radius 1 rolls around the outside of a circle of radius 3. ............. . . ... What curve is described by x = 3 cos t. . . ..... .... ... .......... If t is interpreted as time. ...... . . ...... . ...... . .. 0).. .... .... ... .. ......... . . . y = t2 . .. .... . .... .. . .. 1/2).. . . . . .. ....... ..... .. A point P on the rim of the wheel traces out a curve called a hypercycloid.. .. .. ....... .. ... . .. . ......... .... . .. ..4. ..... .. As the wheel rolls...... .. .... A point P on the rim of the wheel traces out a curve called a hypocycloid.... . ...... .. . ... ... ... .. . . .. .. ...... and assuming that the string unwinds counter-clockwise and the end of the string is initially at (1.. ... .. . .. describe how the object moves on the curve... ... . .. .. . ........ . ... .. ..... .. ⇒ . . . ... . ............ . ..... . . . •... ..... ... ... .... . .. ...... .... as indicated in figure 10..... .... . P traces a curve.. .. .. .. . ....... ... Sketch the curve described by x = t3 − t. .. . .. . . .... . assume P starts at the point (0.. . . ...... . . . ..4..... ... .. ....... .. ...... . ... .. ...... • .... ... . ....4. ... 0). ....... .. . A point P is located halfway between the center of the wheel and the rim.. . infinite) string is wound tightly around a circle.. .. 5... .. . . .. . ... .... .... ... .... ...... ... Assuming P starts at the point (3. . . ... ...... ... . ... . ... .. ... . describe how the object moves on the curve.. . .. .. ... Exercises 10.... .. ... ... .... .... . .. . .. ..... . ... ... .... . . . .... . . ... . . . ... .... ...3... .... . . .. .... .. .. .. .. . . . ... . . . ... . ... ... y = t4 ? If t is interpreted as time. .... .. .. .... ........... . . ... .... . .......... y = 3 cos t? If t is interpreted as time.. .... as indicated in figure 10.............. .. .... . . ... ....... .. .. ... . .... . ... .. ......... ....... ........ . . . .... .. ......... .... . .. ...... ........ . .......... ...... . ... . ........ .. . ..... ... ....... y = 3 sin t? If t is interpreted as time. . .. . ..... ... .. .. . . .. . . . .. ...... ........ . ..... ... ⇒ 7... . . ... ........ ..... .. .... ... .... ...... 1.. .. .............. ....... ... ..... . ... . . . . .. . . .. . ..... ........ . A wheel of radius 1 rolls along a straight line. ... ...... ... ..... describe how the object moves on the curve.... .... An involute of a circle is formed as follows: Imagine that a long (that is............. ... .... ... .......... ... . .... . . ...... .. ⇒ 9. . . . .. .. ... ... . .. . ... ... ... and that you grasp the end of the string and begin to unwind it..... What curve is described by x = t2 .. ...... . 6. .... ... .... .... 8... .... . . . .. .. .. ... .. ..... . ..... ... ..... .. .......... . . ............... ........... . .. . ..... .. ... find parametric equations for the curve... ...... .. ........... .... ...... ... ..... 0)... .. . .. ... .. .. ... . .........4. Figure 10...... . . .. .. ..... .. ... ............ . ... .... 2...... . ..... ....3. ...... .. . . ... .. .. .... .... .... What curve is described by x = 3 cos t. • ......... . ...... .. .. Figure 10.. ... ... ..... .. ... A wheel of radius 1 rolls around the inside of a circle of radius 3.. .. .. the dotted lines represent the string at a few different times...... find parametric equations for the curve............. Assuming P starts at the point (3.. .. .. .. . ..... . ..... . .. .. ... .. .... ..... .... .. . . ... ..... ......... .. .... .. ... .. . .. ...... 4...3 .. .. ... .... . . ..... find parametric equations for the curve.. . describe how the object moves on the curve. . . .. . .... . ............... .. ... .. .250 È Ö Ñ ØÖ Chapter 10 Polar Coordinates. ... .. ... .. . The end of the string traces out the involute.. . describe how the object moves on the curve.. .. ........... ........ .. .. . ... . using a circle of radius 1. . .. . . . . .... ... A hypercycloid and a hypocycloid. . . .. ..... . ⇒ .... 3.... .. say the x-axis... . ...... ... . . ... ... .. y = 2 sin t? If t is interpreted as time. . .......... .. ........... . ....... . What curve is described by x = 3 sin t..... .. ...

. ..... ........ . ... .. . .... .. . .. ..... .... ..2 Find the area under one arch of the cycloid x = t−sin t.5 Calculus with Parametric Equations 251 . ....... y = 1−cos t..... .. .. ..4.... At even multiples of π...... ... . ... in agreement with figure 10... . . . which is undefined.. ... Then the integral becomes 2π 0 (1 − cos t)(1 − cos t) dt = 3π...10. ..... .. ..... ........ .. so there is a horizontal tangent line. . .. We compute x′ = 1 − cos t.. . ............... .. .. . .. . . .... ...... . .... .. .. . .. . . Figure 10.. .. y = 1−cos t... .. ... .. . .. . . . . . .... .. . ... ... . .... so sin t dy = . ...... We would like to compute 2π y dx. ... .... . 0 but we do not know y in terms of x.. . . . EXAMPLE 10... ..... .... . Areas can be a bit trickier with parametric equations. . .... The figure shows that there is no tangent line at such points... However... .... .... . .. ..... . the fraction is 0/0. .. . .......... .. .. . .. y ′ = sin t... ... ..... ... .. . ... ......... .. like π or 3π. .. .. the parametric equations allow us to make a substitution: use y = 1 − cos t to replace y... ... . . . .... . .. ... . .. dx 1 − cos t Note that when t is an odd multiple of π. EXAMPLE 10.. . ... .1 Find the slope of the cycloid x = t−sin t... ...4.. and compute dx = (1 − cos t) dt. . ... .. this is (0/2) = 0... ........ . ... . .. .4 ½¼º Ð ÙÐÙ× Û Ø È Ö Ñ ØÖ ÕÙ Ø ÓÒ× We have already seen how to compute slopes of curves given by parametric equations—it is how we computed slopes in polar coordinates. ... .. . ... ... ... .. . . ... . .. .5. .. depending on the curve and the area desired. ....... .. An involute of a circle......1. .5.. We can potentially compute areas between the curve and the x-axis quite easily.. .. ... . .

including the chain rule. Parametric Equations Note that we need to convert the original x limits to t limits using x = t − sin t. t = sin t. t − 2π = sin t and t = 2π. This technique will allow us to compute some quite interesting areas. sin(t/2) ≥ 0. we get the derivatives f ′ = 1 − cos t and g ′ = sin t. the t limits will be different than the x limits. Likewise. and develops the formula for length: b 1+ a 2 dy dx dx. EXAMPLE 10.9 investigates arc length for functions given as y in terms of x. Alternately. of course. when x = 2π.5.252 Chapter 10 Polar Coordinates. 0 Since 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. so we can rewrite this as 2π 2 sin(t/2) dt = 8.3 Find the length of one arch of the cycloid. From x = t − sin t. so the length is 2π 0 2π (1 − cos t)2 2 + sin t dt = √ 0 2 − 2 cos t dt. we see how to compute the length of a curve given by parametric equations. When x = 0. we can see directly that one arch is generated by 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. we can convert this to use parametric equations x = f (t). Now we use the formula sin2 (t/2) = (1 − cos(t))/2 or 4 sin2 (t/2) = 2 − 2 cos t to get 2π 4 sin2 (t/2) dt. Section 9. as illustrated by the exercises. y = 1 − cos t. As a final example. = u Here u and v are the t limits corresponding to the x limits a and b. y = g(t): b 1+ a dy dx 2 b dx = a v = u v dx dt 2 dx dt 2 2 + dx dt 2 + dy dt dy dx 2 dt dx dx dt (f ′ (t))2 + (g ′ (t))2 dt. which happens only when t = 0. 0 . Using some properties of derivatives. In general. because we understand how the cycloid is produced.

. 0)..1....... . . ..5. . .. .4 at which the tangent line is vertical. see figure 10. the end of the string traces out the mirror image of the initial portion of the curve. .. ... ... ⇒ 9..... .. Consider the hypercycloid of exercise 7 in section 10..... . . ⇒ 5. ....... ... .. ... Recall the involute of a circle from exercise 9 in section 10.. Find the length of the curve from the previous exercise.4. . ....3. .. .. .. ⇒ 7. ....... . ....... and initially laid around the top of the circle with its end at (1. Consider the curve of exercise 6 in section 10.5. .4) for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π... ... ..... . .. . . . .4.. . .... ... .. ..... ...... . . ... ....4... .. ... .. ... . .. . . . ⇒ 10...10.......... ......... . ⇒ 6...4.. Find the length of one arch of the curve... .... . ... .. .. .. ..... .. .... .4........... Consider the curve of exercise 6 in section 10.... . ...... .. . .. .. shown in figure 10... . we get a piece of the involute.. . ....... ... Find the area between the large circle and one arch of the curve. . .... . .4... ...... . .. .. ... ..... ⇒ 4..... . ⇒ 2... ... Consider the hypercycloid of exercise 7 in section 10... . . .5. Find the area inside the curve... ... suppose we have a string of length π attached to the unit circle at (−1. ..... ... .. . . ...... until the string is vertical again.... ............... . . ⇒ ............ ... . Find all values of t for which the curve has a horizontal tangent line..4. .. . ⇒ 11.. Find all points at which the curve has a horizontal tangent line. .. ... . ..... ...... Find the length of one arch of the curve.... ... . ..... ... Recall the involute of a circle from exercise 9 in section 10.... ... .. .. . ......... Consider the hypercycloid of exercise 7 in section 10... .. .......... . .. . 0).. .. Find the area of the region inside this curve and outside the unit circle.5 Calculus with Parametric Equations 253 Exercises 10.. .....4. Continuing... Instead of an infinite string...... ⇒ 12. . . .. .... If we grasp the end of the string and begin to unwind it.. Find the length of the spiral of Archimedes (figure 10. .. ...4.4... .. . . . ...... ..5. . ..........1..... Find the point in the first quadrant in figure 10. ... ...4. .. .1 A region formed by the end of a string.... until the string is vertical... Consider the hypocycloid of exercise 8 in section 10. . 1. . Consider the curve of exercise 6 in section 10.. Figure 10... . .... ... . Find the area under one arch of the curve. Set up an integral for the length of one arch of the curve... .. . the end traces out a semi-circle with center at (−1. 0)... .. .. . .. .......... .. . . ...... .... If we then keep the string taut and continue to rotate it counter-clockwise. .. ⇒ 8. . ....... . Consider the hypocycloid of exercise 8 in section 10... . . ⇒ 3..