Introduction to Multi-Layer Measurements

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Introduction to Multi-Layer Measurements
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After completing this module, you will be able to:
• Explain radio measurements in LTE, WCDMA and GSM/EGPRS.
• Explain general principles of inter-layer mobility.
• Describe the principles of Hierarchical Cell Structures.
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Key drivers for Inter-layer mobility
• Mobile subscribers - moving across different coverage areas of different network
layers.
• Network layers have different capacities – bandwidth / throughput.
• Potential for load balancing across layers.
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The radio access network may be designed using hierarchical cell structures.
Numbers in the picture describe different layers in the hierarchy.
The highest hierarchical layer, i.e. typically smallest cell size, has the higher priority
(number 3 in the figure).
The HCS priority of each cell is given in system information

Normally, different layers are created using different frequencies.
However, in some scenarios, different layers can use the same frequency.
Different frequencies can also be used on the same hierarchical layer e.g. in order to
cope with high load in the system.
In order to cope with UEs travelling fast through smaller cells (e.g. through micro or
pico cells), the cell reselection procedure can be performed towards bigger cells on
lower priority layers e.g. to macro cells so as to avoid unnecessary cell reselections.

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HCS introduces an additional cell (re-)selection criterion.

In order to cope with UEs travelling fast through smaller cells (e.g. through micro or pico
cells), the cell reselection procedure can be performed towards bigger cells on lower priority
layers e.g. to macro cells so as to avoid unnecessary cell reselections.

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The 3GPP priority concept could be considered an extension and generalisation of the
3G-specific HCS concept
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From TS 25215 v9.2.0
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UTRAN controls the measurements in the UE, either by
• Broadcasting system information on the BCCH, and/or by
• Transmitting a Measurement Control message on the DCCH.

If the UE is in the RRC idle mode, it receives relevant measurement information from
the BCCH. SIB 3 contains parameters for cell selection and Reselection. In parallel, SIB
11 is used to deliver measurement control information to the UE for the serving cell.
SIB 3 & 11 are read and valid in the RRC idle state.

If the UE is in the CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH & URA_PCH, It is connected to one cell only
and responsible for cell selection and Reselection. It retrieves the parameters for cell
selection from SIB type 4. The measurement control information is broadcasted with
SIB 12. SIB 4 & SIB 12 are read and valid, when the UE is in the CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH
& URA_PCH sub-state. If SIB 4 resp. If SIB 12 is not broadcasted, then SIB 3 resp. SIB 11
parameters are used instead. In the sub-state CELL_DCH, the UE is not reading SIB
type 3/4 & 11/12. The parameters of SIB 12 (SIB 11, if SIB 12 is not available) can be
still valid in this state.

The RRC message Measurement Control can be transmitted to the UE, if a DCCH has
been setup between the UE and UTRAN. This message informs the UE about the type
of measurement, which has to be conducted. Each measurement command links a
measurement with a measurement identity, quantity, objects, reporting quantities,
reporting criteria, type, etc.
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How does a UE perform measurements after a transition in the CELL_DCH state?
Two cases have to be distinguished:
1. Transition from the RRC idle state to the CELL_DCH sub-state
• In the RRC idle state, the UE retrieved the measurement control parameters from the
SIB type 11. Information Elements, which contain intra-frequency, inter-frequency,
inter-RAT and traffic volume measurement system information, may be included in the
SIB 11. If they are included, the UE can send a measurement report, when a
measurement reporting criteria is fulfilled.
• As soon as the UE receives a Measurement Control message including one of the above
mentioned measurement types, it replaces its internal stored data based on the SIB11
by the parameters delivered with the Measurement Control message.
2. Transition from the CELL_FACH to the CELL_DCH sub-state.
• In the CELL_FACH sub-state, the SIB 12 (or SIB 11, if there is no SIB 12) is valid including
all relevant measurement control parameters. If the UE transits to the CELL_DCH sub-
state, the system information stays valid, as long as there was no Measurement Control
message, which replaces the parameters.
• But what happens, if the UE was in the CELL_DCH sub-state, it has received
Measurement Control messages, and it then transits to the CELL_FACH sub-state?
• In the CELL_FACH sub-state, the UE reads SIB 12 (SIB 11), and its measurement
control parameters become valid. But when the UE then transits back to the
CELL_DCH sub-state, the UE resumes with the measurements and associated
reporting, as they were stored before the transition to the CELL_FACH (or any other
RRC connected) sub-state.
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The RRC message Measurement Control is used to setup, modify or release a measurement in
the UE.
• The UE gets information on how to perform a specific type of measurement. A
measurement is either conducted periodically or driven by an event. Then, the UE returns a
measurement report.
• The Measurement Control message is transmitted on a DCCH via an RLC entity in the
acknowledged mode. i.e. the UE is either in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH.
• If the setup of a measurement fails, the UE returns the RRC message Measurement Control
Failure. It is transmitted on a UL DCCH via a RLC entity in the acknowledged mode.

The RRC message Measurement Report is specified to deliver measurement results from UE
to UTRAN (RNC). This message is transmitted on a DCCH. The RLC entity can be in the
acknowledged or unacknowledged mode. The RLC entity mode is set by the RRC message
Measurement Control. Measurement results can only be transmitted in the CELL_DCH or
CELL_FACH sub-state.
• CELL_DCH: If a reporting criterion is met, the UE transmits a Measurement Report. A
measurement identity identifies the measurement as specified by UTRAN. It includes
measurement quantities and identifies the measurement event.
• CELL_FACH: Traffic volume measurements and positioning measurements are reported by
the UE. Intra-frequency measurements are reported via the RACH, whereby the UE learns
from the BCCH (SIB11 or SIB12) the maximum numbers of cells, it can report.
• CELL_PCH or URA_PCH: UE must perform a cell update. Cell update cause is “UL data
transmission“. Then they are in the CELL_FACH state, where the Measurement Report can
be sent. The measurement report either holds traffic volume measurements or positioning
measurements.

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With the RRC message Measurement Control, UTRAN commands the UE to perform
measurements on its behalf.

There is a set of different types of measurements which can be conducted:
• Intra-Frequency Measurements
• Inter-Frequency Measurements
• Inter-RAT Measurements
• UE-Internal Measurements
• Traffic Volume Measurements
• Quality Measurements
• UE Positioning Methods

As a consequence, a UE may be forced to conduct several different types of measurements
simultaneously. Each type of measurement is identified by an allocated “Measurement
Identity”. Some measurements are not conducted continuously.

UTRAN tells the UE once, how to perform a type of measurement. Whenever necessary, it just
informs the UE to conduct the measurements of a measurement type by just telling it the
associated measurement identity.

Each measurement type comes with a measurement command: setup, modify, and release.

Finally, UTRAN informs the UE how to deliver the measurement reports:
• Delivery on an acknowledged or unacknowledged RLC, and
• Periodical or event triggered reporting.

In the RRC message Measurement Control, is the PhyCH information elements, where the UE
can gain DPCH compressed mode status information.
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Source: Chris Johnson
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List of detected preambles: The eNB shall report a list of detected PRACH
preambles to higher layers. Higher layers utilize this info for the RACH
procedure.
Transport BLER: The ACK/ NACKs for each transmission of the HARQ process
are reported to the MAC. Based on these ACK/NACKs the higher layers
compute the BLER for RRM issues.
TA: The eNB needs to measure the initial timing advance (TA) of the uplink
channels based on the RACH preamble.
Average RSSI: Measured in UL by eNB. It can be used as a level indicator for
the UL power control. The RSSI measurements are all UE related and shall be
separately performed for ( TTI intervals)
• UL data allocation (PUSCH)
• UL control channel (PUCCH)
• Sounding reference signal (SRS)
Average SINR: In UL the eNB measures SINR per UE. The average SINR can be
used as a quality indicator for the UL power control
UL CSI: channel state information per PRB for each UE. The CSI shall be the
received signal power averaged per PRB.
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Seems that it has been removed: E-UTRA Carrier Received Signal Strength
Indicator, comprises the total received wideband power observed by the UE
from all RS symbols for antenna port 0, including co-channel serving and non-
serving cells, adjacent channel interference, thermal noise etc.

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Thermal noise power and Received Interference Power are measured for the
same period of time.
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The purpose of CSI feedback is to provide the eNodeB information about DL
channel state to help in the scheduling decision.
Compared to the WCDMA/HSPA, the main new feature in the channel feedback is the
frequency selectivity of the report
CSI is measured by the UE and signaled to the eNodeB using PUCCH or PUSCH
Channel state information in LTE can be divided into three categories:
CQI - Channel Quality Indicator
RI - Rank Indicator
PMI - Precoding Matrix Indicator
In general the CSI reported by the UE is just a recommendation
The eNodeB does not need to follow it
The corresponding procedure for providing UL channel state information is called
Channel Sounding; it is done using the Sounding Reference Symbols, SRS (not
considered in this presentation)
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This page is here as a reminder of the requirements for the Final Assessment Quiz.
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