Vehicle Services | INFORMATION MANUAL

INDIVIDUALLY CONSTRUCTED VEHICLES
Safety and Regulation Division
Kateena Street, Regency Park 5010 Phone 1300 882 248 Fax (08) 8348 9533
This Information Manual details the requirements to obtain approval
for road use of an Individually Constructed Vehicle (ICV).
The construction of passenger vehicles is a complex and usually time consuming project. The
Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure’s (DTEI) aim is to ensure that the requirements
of Australian Design Rules (ADRs) and regulations related to safety and environmental protection are
equivalent to production vehicles.
Not only must high quality components be used, but all components used in the design must be
correctly matched to each other to ensure safe operation, performance and compliance with the
relevant standards. The motor vehicle must be considered as a complete package.
All requirements of the Australian Design Rules (ADRs) and South Australian Road Traffic (Vehicle
Standards) Rules are not fully detailed. It is the vehicle constructor’s responsibility to ensure that
an ICV complies as fully as possible with the ADRs and the South Australian Road Traffic (Vehicle
Standards) Rules 1999.
MR850 03/07
Description
Page
Number
Definition of an Individually Constructed Vehicle 3
Engineering Requirements 3
Recommended Construction & Approval Process 3
Applications (Overview of Items to Address) 3
1. Engine and driveline 4
2. Brakes 4
3. Wheels and tyres 4
4. Axles and suspension 4
5. Steering 4
6. Chassis or frame 4
7. Body 4
8. Seats and seatbelts 5
9. Emissions and noise 5
10. Glazing and visibility 5
11. Lamp/signal requirements 5
12. General provisions 5
Australian Design Rules (information and listing) 5
ADR 1/.. Reversing lamps 6
ADR 2/.. Side door latches and hinges 6
ADR 3/.. Seats and seat anchorages 6
ADR 4/.. Seatbelts 7
ADR 5/.. Anchorages for seatbelts 8
ADR 6/.. Direction indicator lamps 9
ADR 8/.. Safety glazing material 10
ADR 10/.. Steering column 11
ADR 11/.. Internal sun visors 11
ADR 13/.. Installation of lighting and light signalling
devices
11
ADR 14/.. Rear vision mirrors 11
ADR 18/.. Instrumentation 12
ADR 21/.. Instrument panel 12
ADR 22/.. Head restraints 13
ADR 23/.. Passenger car tyres 13
ADR 25/.. Anti-theft lock 14
ADR 28/.. External noise of motor vehicles 14
ADR 29/.. Side door strength 14
Contents
Description
Page
Number
ADR 30/.. Diesel engine exhaust smoke emissions 15
ADR 31/.. Hydraulic brake systems for
passenger cars
15
ADR 34/.. Child restraint anchorages and fittings 16
ADR 37/.. Emission control for light vehicles 16
ADR 42/.. General safety requirements
(includes the following)
17
Bonnet latching 17
Diesel engine anti start locking device 17
Steering system 17
Standard controls for automatic transmissions 17
Electrical wiring, connections and installations
17
Exhaust outlets
17
External or internal protrusions 17
Field of view 18
Wheel guards (mudguards) 18
Brake tubing and brake hose 19
Reverse gear 19
Television and visual display units 19
Windows and ventilation 19
Power Operated Windows 19
Warning devices – audible 19
Demisting of windscreens 19
Windscreen wipers and washers 19
ADR 43/.. Vehicle configuration and marking 19
ADR 46/.. Headlamps 20
ADR 47/.. Retro-reflectors 20
ADR 48/.. Rear registration plate illuminating devices 20
ADR 49/.. Front and rear position (side) lamps stop
lamps and end outline marker lamps
21
ADR 51/.. Filament globes 21
ADR 60/.. Centre high-mounted stop lamp 21
ADR 61/.. Vehicle marking 22
Dynamic Occupant Protection 22
Airbags 22
Gas Discharge Headlamps 22
DEFINITION OF AN INDIVIDUALLY
CONSTRUCTED VEHICLE
Individually Constructed Vehicles (ICV)
are vehicles where the body and chassis
are new, however the sub assemblies
and components used may be derived
from other production vehicles and need
not be new. Most ICVs are ‘passenger
car type’ vehicles which includes
sedans, station wagons, coupes,
and tourers.
An ICV is a ‘one-off’ vehicle. If
production of more than one vehicle
per year is proposed, DTEI should be
consulted because construction and
compliance of the vehicles may then be
administered under the Commonwealth
Government – Department of Transport
and Regional Services, Low Volume
Scheme.
An Individually constructed vehicle is
a new vehicle that is not a production
vehicle, a modified production vehicle
or a production vehicle which has had
the body or chassis replaced.
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
Design & Engineer’s responsibility
All aspects of design including
compliance with Australian Design
Rules, Regulations, compatibility of
engine with other vehicle components,
steering, braking, handling and
drivability will remain the responsibility
of the Engineer submitting the
Engineering Report.
Inspection Procedure
It is recommended that the vehicle
be inspected by the Engineer at the
following stages:
a. At completion of the chassis prior
to the fitting the body or any other
component which may obstruct
inspection of chassis welds etc.
b. At some intermediate stage
of construction.
c. After completion of the vehicle
but prior to presentation for the
full roadworthy inspection by DTEI.
Engineer’s Report
All aspects of design and components
used must be fully addressed in an
Engineering Report prepared for the
vehicle.
Letter of Conformity
As assurance that the vehicle has been
inspected by the Engineer and the
vehicle conforms with the Engineering
Report, a Letter of Conformity must
be submitted prior to the vehicle being
inspected by DTEI.
The Letter of Conformity must include
the following:
• name and address of the owner
• make and type of vehicle
• chassis number or VIN
• engine number
• dates of inspection during
construction
• a statement to the effect that the
above vehicle has been constructed
in accordance with the Engineering
Report Number ….. Dated …..
• signature of the Chartered
Professional Engineer
• dated and signed.
Finding an Engineer
A list of appropriately qualified and
experienced engineers involved in
this type of work in South Australia
is available on request from DTEI.
RECOMMENDED CONSTRUCTION
& APPROVAL PROCESS
a. Consult the Chartered Professional
Engineer as to the acceptability of
the vehicle’s proposed construction
and revise if necessary.
b. Obtain confirmation from the engineer
that the proposed vehicle will comply
with the appropriate ADRs and
Regulations. This confirmation usually
takes the form of an Engineering
Report and enables construction of
the vehicle to commence, however
see point ‘d.’
c. Complete the Application to Build an
Individually Constructed Vehicle form
and submit it to Vehicle Standards
together with the Engineering
Report and any other relevant
documentation.
d. If the proposal is acceptable then
Vehicle Standards will then issue a
Statement of Requirements (SOR).
If the proposal is not acceptable or
further information is required Vehicle
Standards will contact the applicant
in writing. This should be done as
early in the process as possible
because the SOR or Regulation
changes may influence the design.
e. Following the completion of
construction, the vehicle must
undergo inspection and performance
testing by the engineer to ensure
that the vehicle meets all applicable
standards, Regulations and to
verify that its safe operation on the
road is ensured. The results of all
performance tests must be recorded
and retained by the Engineer. The
Engineer must then complete a
Letter of Conformity to confirm that
the vehicle has been constructed
in accordance with the Engineering
Report.
f. Following the Letter of Conformity
and the receipt of a Statement of
Requirements from Vehicle Standards
the vehicle can be booked in for
a full roadworthy inspection. If the
vehicle fails inspection, the relevant
issues must be addressed and the
vehicle submitted for inspection at a
later date. When the vehicle passes
inspection it can then be registered
and will be issued with an Exemption
From the Fitting of a Compliance
Plate and a South Australian I.D.
Label which will identify the vehicle.
APPLICATIONS
Except for those aspects which can
only be determined after construction
is completed, the application prepared
by the Chartered Professional Engineer
and submitted to DTEI must give full
design details relating to the following:
3
1. ENGINE & DRIVELINE
• Engine make, size and number
of cylinders
• Any changes from standard
specifications
• Power and torque specifications
• Turbocharger or supercharger (if fitted)
• Drive-line and differential
• Gearbox and transmission
• Fuel system (i.e. petrol, diesel, LPG).
Engine Selection
Engine power and torque must be
compatible with the driveline, structural
and braking components. For details
relating to emission control refer to
ADR 37/..
2. BRAKES
• System (refer to ADR 31/.. and 42/..)
• Type (i.e. disc, drum)
• Brake balance.
Vehicle Braking
Tests to show compliance with ADR
31/.., or equivalent, must be conducted
and submitted prior to presentation
of the vehicle for final inspection.
Refer to Engineering Instruction
Number 4 - Brake System Test
Procedure or refer to ADR 31I..
Brake Balance
Tests to ensure correct brake balance
must be conducted and submitted prior
to presentation of the vehicle for final
inspection.
3. WHEELS & TYRES
Size, speed and load ratings, carcass
construction (refer to ADR 23/..)
4. AXLES & SUSPENSION
• Type and make of axles
(front and rear)
• Method of attachment
• Strength at 1g braking and 3g bump
• Width of axles between wheel
mounting flanges
• Bump clearance
• Ground clearance (refer to ADR 43/..)
• Track (front and rear).
Wheel Track
Wheel track is the distance measured
across an axle between the centre line
of the left wheel and the centre line of
the right wheel. Where standard axles
are used the wheel track will be based
on the maximum allowable wheel track
for the vehicle for which the axle was
designed. Alternatively an Engineering
Report showing that the wheel track
is within the design capabilities of the
components being used and that the
track does not have any adverse affect
on vehicle handling and/or steering.
Where non-standard components are
fitted the wheel track will be assessed,
determined and justified by the
Engineer.
5. STEERING
• Steering geometry
• Steering column (refer to ADR 10/..)
• Anti-theft locks (refer to ADR 25/..).
Components
Steering components are not permitted
to be welded or heated unless an
Engineering Report is submitted to
DTEI in accordance with Engineering
Instruction Number 5 - Heating and
Welding of Steering Components.
All newly manufactured steering
components must be identified and a
full description of manufacture including
drawings must be presented, as well
as an assessment and statement of
suitability by the Engineer.
Geometry
Test results of a subjective test which
show handling characteristics must be
submitted prior to presentation of the
vehicle for final inspection.
Refer to Lane Change Manoeuvre
Test Procedures MR 807 (MR 807).
In addition the Engineer should show
that the vehicle does not demonstrate
excessive ‘bump steer’ throughout the
operating range of the front suspension.
6. CHASSIS OR FRAME
• Style and type
• Material and strength
• Mounting of body to chassis/frame
• Beaming and torsional rigidity
• Wheel base.
Beaming & Torsional Rigidity
The beaming and torsional rigidity is
usually evaluated on the composite
chassis/frame and body. An Engineering
Report on the beaming and torsional
rigidity to a procedure acceptable to
DTEI may be required.
Refer to Torsional Rigidity and Beaming
Stiffness Test Procedures (MR 816).
7. BODY
• Style and type
• Material
• Position and accessibility of foot
controls
• Door strength (refer to ADR 29/..)
• Door latches and hinges (refer to
ADR2/..)
• Mudguards (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Engine bonnet (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Driver field of view (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Primary vision area (refer to ADR 8/..)
• External and internal projections
(refer to ADR 42/..)
• Internal sun visors (refer to ADR 11/..)
• Location and visibility of instruments
(refer to ADR 18/..)
• Instrument panels (refer to ADR 21/..).
Body Design
It is essential to carefully examine the
requirements of driver field of view,
primary vision area, windscreen wipers
and washers and mudguards when
designing the body shell of the vehicle.
4
Occupant Protection
The following ADRs apply to passenger
car type vehicles:
ICVs are not required to prove
compliance with these ADRs but
should be constructed to comply
with the intent of these ADRs and offer
the best occupant protection possible.
See Dynamic Occupant Protection
on page 22.
8. SEATS & Seatbelts
• Type and number of seats
• Size and height of seats
• Seat anchorages (refer to ADR 3/..)
• Seatbelts (refer to ADR 4/..)
• Seatbelt anchorage points
(refer to ADR 5/..)
• Child restraint anchorages
(refer to ADR 34/..)
• Head restraints (refer to ADR 22/..)
• Instructions for the use of ‘Seatbelt
Assemblies’ (refer to ADR 4/..)
• Instructions for the use of
’Child Restraint Anchorages ‘
(refer to ADR 34/..).
9. EMISSIONS & NOISE
• ICVs constructed before 31/12/03
must comply with ADR 37/00
Emission Control for Light Vehicles.
• ICVs constructed after 31/12/03
must comply with ADR 37/01
Emission Control for Light Vehicles
• Where satisfactory evidence can be
provided that vehicle construction
commenced prior to 31/12/03 DTEI
may accept compliance with ADR
37/00.
• ADR 37/.. includes exhaust emissions,
evaporative emissions, crankcase
gasses and petrol filler inlets.
• Diesel engine smoke (refer to ADR
30/..)
• External noise (refer to ADR 28/..).
10. GLAZING & VISIBILITY
Glazing material (refer to ADR 8/..)
• Rear vision mirrors (refer to ADR 14/..)
• Demisting of windscreens (refer to
ADR 42/..)
• Windscreen wipers and washers (refer
to ADR 42/..)
• Driver field of view (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Primary vision area (refer to ADR 8/..)
• Window tinting – refer to DTEI
Window Tinting for your Motor Vehicle
(MR 430)
• Centre high-mounted stop lamp (refer
to ADR 60/..) .
11. LAMP/SIGNAL REQUIREMENTS
• Headlamps (refer to ADR 46/..)
• Front position lamps (refer to ADR
49/..)
• Rear position lamps (refer to ADR
49/..)
• Rear registration plate illuminating
device (refer to ADR 48/..)
• Retro-reflectors (refer to ADR 47/..)
• Hazard warning signals (refer to ADR
13..)
• Globes (refer to ADR 51/..)
• Reversing lamps (refer to ADR 1/..)
• Direction indicator lamps (refer to ADR
6/..)
• Centre high - mounted stop lamp
(refer to ADR 60..).
12. GENERAL PROVISIONS
• Turning circle (refer to ADR 43/..)
• Controls (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Electrical wiring (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Exhaust outlets (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Ventilation (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Reverse gear (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Engine number (refer to ADR 43/..)
• Warning device (refer to ADR 42/..)
• Registration plates and labels (refer
to ADR43/..)
• Vehicle identification number (refer
to ADR 43/..).
Australian Design Rules
The ADRs have been developed
to provide detailed performance
specifications for safety standards in
vehicles with the objective of reducing:
• the frequency of accidents
• the severity of occupant injury when
accidents do occur
• the adverse impact of noise, smoke
and gaseous emissions on the
community and the environment.
Components used in constructing
an ICV may be taken from a
vehicle which complies with the
relevant ADRs provided that
details of the make, model and
date of manufacture of the vehicle
concerned are quoted. Items which
are not identical to those from a
complying vehicle may be accepted
subject to an engineering evaluation.
Following is a resume of the relevant
ADRs. The requirements quoted are
only an abbreviation of compliance
required for a vehicle to meet the intent
of the specific ADRs. Every ICV is
required to comply with the intent
of the relevant ADRs listed below:
ADR number & title:
1/..Reversing Lamps
2/..Side Door Latches & Hinges
3/..Seat Anchorages
4/..Seatbelts
5/..Anchorages for Seatbelts
6/..Direction Indicator Lamps
8/..Safety Glazing Material
10/..Steering Column
11/..Internal Sun Visors
13/..Installation of Lighting &
Light-signalling Devices
14/..Rear Vision Mirrors
18/..Instrumentation
21/..Instrument Panel
5
ADR 69/..
Full Frontal Impact
Occupant Protection
ADR 72/..
Dynamic Side Impact
Occupant Protection
ADR 73/..
Offset Frontal Impact
Occupant Protection
22/..Head Restraints
23/..Passenger Car Tyres
25/..Anti-Theft Lock
28/..External Noise of Motor Vehicles
29/..Side Door Strength
30/..Diesel Engine Exhaust Smoke
Emission
31/..Hydraulic Brake Systems for
Passenger Cars
34/..Child Restraint Anchorages and
Child Restraint Anchor Fittings
37/..Emission Control for Light Vehicles
42/..General Safety Requirements
– contains information on the
following:
5. Bonnet Latching
6. Diesel Engines (anti-start
locking device)
7. Controls
9. Electrical Wiring, Connections
& Installations
10. Exhaust Outlets
11. External or Internal Protrusions
12. Field of View
14. Wheel Guards (Mudguards)
15. Brake Tubing & Brake Hose
16. Reverse Gear
18. Television & Visual Display
Units
19. Windows & Ventilation
20. Warning Devices – Audible
23. Demisting of Windscreens
24. Windscreen Wipers & Washers
25. Tyre & Rim Selection
43/..Vehicle Configuration & Marking
45/..Lighting & Light – Signalling
Devices Not Covered By ECE
Regulations
46/..Headlamps
47/..Retro-reflector
48/..Rear Registration Plate Illuminating
Device
49/..Front & Rear Position (Side) Lamps,
Stop Lamps & End Outline Marker
Lamps
51/..Filament Globes
60/..Centre High-Mounted Stop Lamp
61/..Vehicle Marking
62/..Mechanical Connections Between
Vehicles
69/..Full Frontal Impact Occupant
Protection
72/..Dynamic Side Impact Occupant
Protection
73/..Offset Frontal Impact Occupant
Protection
ADR 1/.. REVERSING LAMPS
Intent
To specify the photometric requirements
for reversing lamps which will warn
pedestrians and other road users
that the vehicle is about to move or
is moving in the reverse direction and
which during the hours of darkness will
aid the driver in reversing manoeuvres.
Requirements
ADR 1/.. specifies that the colour of the
light emitted shall be white.
ADR 13/.. specifies that:
• there shall be one or two reversing
lamps at the back of the vehicle
positioned not less than 250 mm
nor more than 1200 mm above
the ground
• if only one lamp is fitted it must be
positioned on the drivers side of the
vehicle
• the lamp or lamps shall only light up
if the reverse gear is engaged and
either the ignition switch is in the ‘on’
position or the engine is running
• the lamps shall be visible at 15
degrees upward and 5 degrees
downward, 45 degrees to the right
and to the left if there is only one
lamp or 45 degrees outwards and 30
degrees inward if there are two lamps
• may not be grouped, combined or
reciprocally incorporated with any
other rear lamps.
ADR 2/.. SIDE DOOR LATCHES &
HINGES
Intent
To specify requirements for side door
retention components including latches,
hinges and other supporting means to
minimise the likelihood of occupants
being thrown from a vehicle as a result
of impact.
Requirements
Each door latch and striker assembly
shall be provided with two positions
consisting of a fully latched position
and a secondary latched position which
provide both longitudinal and transverse
restraint.
Each door shall be equipped with a
locking mechanism with an operating
means in the interior of the vehicle.
When the locking mechanism is
engaged, the door handles on the
outside of the front doors and all door
handles on the rear doors shall be
inoperative.
ADR 3/.. SEATS & SEAT
ANCHORAGES
Intent
To specify requirements for seats,
their attachment assemblies, and their
installation to minimise the possibility of
occupant injury due to forces acting on
the seat as a result of vehicle impact.
Requirements
Each seat shall be capable of
withstanding a load, equivalent to:
• twenty times the mass of the entire
seat, when applied in either a forward
or rearward direction
• a 530Nm moment about the “seating
reference point” applied to the upper
cross-member in the rearward
direction
• where a seat must hinge or fold
to permit access to or egress from
another seat the seat shall be
fitted with a self-locking device for
restraining the seat or seat back
• The release control shall be readily
accessible to both the occupant of
that seat and the occupant of a seat
immediately behind that seat
• where there are rear seating positions;
the rear surfaces of the front seats
that can be contacted by a person
in a rear seat must be padded in
accordance with ADR 3/02.
Alternative criterion
Seats anchored through vehicle
floors made from sheet metal can be
adequately secured by using 8 mm
bolts and 40x40x3 mm steel backing
plates.
6
The upper anchorage ‘sash location point’ shall be at least 140 millimetres
from the seating reference plane (Refer to ADR 5/..)
The lower anchorages must be on opposite sides of the centre line of the
seating position and located within the shaded area as shown in Figure 2.
A minimum of four anchorage bolts per
seat, for single seats must be provided.
For double and triple seats, additional
anchorage bolts may be required.
The corners of backing plates shall
have a minimum radius of 5 mm and
the edges adjacent to the sheet metal
must be chamfered.
ADR 4/.. SEATBELTS
Intent
To specify the requirements for seatbelts
to restrain vehicle occupants under
impact conditions, to facilitate fastening
and correct adjustment, to assist the
driver to remain in the seat and thus
maintain control of the vehicle in an
emergency situation, and to provide
protection against ejection in an
accident situation.
Requirements
All outboard seating positions shall
be fitted with a lap/sash seatbelt which
incorporates a dual lock emergency
locking retractor mechanism.
All inboard seating positions shall be
fitted with either a lap belt or a lap-sash
belt.
Only new seatbelts, complying
with Australian Standard 2596
- Seatbelt Assemblies for Motor
Vehicles or AS E35 Pt 1 - 1970
- Seatbelt Assemblies for Motor
Vehicles, or any other approved
standard accepted as equivalent, can
be fitted.
Instructions for use of seatbelt
assemblies shall be included in the
vehicle handbook, or otherwise supplied
with the vehicle. The instructions shall
be in accordance with the ADR.
LOCATION - Seatbelt ANCHORAGES
Alternative criterion
7
Anchorages must be provided to suit the seatbelts required by ADR 4/.. They
must be positioned so that the seatbelt webbing is able to function properly,
without rubbing against any sharp edges.
The upper anchorage is to be located within the shaded area shown in
Figure 1.
ADR 5/.. ANCHORAGES FOR
SEATBELTS
Intent
To specify the requirements for
anchorages for seatbelt assemblies so
that they may be adequately secured
to the vehicle structure or seat and will
meet comfort requirements in use.
Requirements
A report prepared by a Chartered
Professional Engineer which
demonstrates compliance with ADR 5/..
must be presented or the anchorages
shall be designed, located and
constructed so that they meet with
the alternative criterion.
Because seatbelts are generally made
to standard lengths it is essential that
the lower anchorages be placed in a
position behind the seat so as to allow
for the buckle of the buckle strap or
stalk to be located at the side of the hip
of a seated occupant. The buckle must
not be allowed to rest on the seated
person’s abdomen.
The optimum distance between the
lower anchorages of a seatbelt is
from 250 mm to 350 mm with the
minimum distance being 165 mm. The
lower seatbelt anchorages must not
be superimposed i.e. each seatbelt
must be anchored by a separate bolt.
Anchorages provided for different
seating positions are to be separated
by at least 200 mm.
Construction - seatbelt anchorages
All anchorages must be able to
withstand a force of at least 10 kN
applied for not less than 30 seconds
along the direction of the line of the
seatbelt. Under test conditions some
deformation is permitted but the
anchorage must not pull away from
the structure.
Proof of the strength of anchorages
shall be by calculation, physical testing
or where applicable in accordance with
the alternative criterion.
Alternative criterion
When anchorages are located in vehicle
floors, parcel shelves or other areas of
the vehicle made from sheet metal, steel
backing plates (approximately 75 x 50 x
3 mm) are normally adequate.
The size of the seatbelt anchorage
backing plate depends upon the
strength of the material to which the
anchorage is fastened. The following
must be taken into consideration when
determining the size of the plate:
a. the thickness of the floorpan,
upperbody or pillar material
b. the shape of the floorpan, upperbody
or pillar, whether flat, corrugated,
fluted, curved box or composite
section
c. the type of material from which
the floorpan, upperbody or pillar
has been constructed (e.g. steel,
aluminium).
The corners of all backing plates are
to have a 5 mm minimum radius and
edges adjacent to the body are to be
chamfered.
8
Individually Constructed Vehicles MARCH 2007
The anchor bolts must be tightened
to the correct tension using a torque
wrench. The bolt must fully engage all
the thread of the nut and this may mean
that a longer bolt than that supplied
with the seatbelt kit is required. Fine
threaded 7/16” (11 mm) mild steel bolts
are usually used. Anchorages must
not be fitted through wood or where
wood or other non- metal material is
sandwiched between steel.
Do not fit anchorages in aluminium
or fibreglass panels without obtaining
specific approval from the Engineer.
Anchorages and fittings must be
protected from corrosion by suitable
paint or other anti-corrosive substance.
The general construction of anchorages
is shown in Figures 3 and 4 below.
ADR 6/.. DIRECTION INDICATOR
LAMPS
Intent
To specify the photometric and field
of view requirements for direction
indicators which will provide adequate
warning to other road users of
the intention to perform a turning
manoeuvre.
Requirements
• The colour of the light emitted shall
be amber
• The light emitted from the front and
rear lamps shall be visible at all angles
between 45 degrees inboard
and 80 degrees outboard and
15 degrees above and below the
horizontal within these boundaries
• The mounting and visibility of indicator
lamps is shown in Figure 5.
ADR 13/.. SPECIFIES THAT:
• there shall be:
i) two front direction indicator lamps
ii) two rear direction indicator lamps
iii) two repeating side direction
indicator lamps.
• the outside edges of the lamps at the
front and rear shall not be more than
400 mm from the outer edge of the
vehicle
• the distance between the inner edges
of the lamps at the front and rear shall
be not less than 600 mm
• the side direction indicator lamps
shall not be more than 1800 mm
from the front of the vehicle (the side
lamps may be combined with the front
lamps)
• the lamps at the front and rear shall
be not less than 350 mm nor more
than 1500 mm above the ground
• the side lamps shall be not less than
500 mm nor more than 1500 mm
above the ground
• the direction indicator lamps shall
switch on independently of any other
lamps
• all direction indicator lamps on one
side of the vehicle shall be switched
on and off by means of one control
and shall flash in phase at a rate of
between 60 and 120 times per minute
• the vehicle shall be fitted with audible
and/or visible indicator for the
direction indicator lamps
• the illuminating surface of the front
direction indicator lamps must not be
less than 40 mm from the illuminating
surface of the dipped-beam
headlamps or fog lamps if any.
9
Intent
To specify the performance
requirements of material used for
external or internal glazing in motor
vehicles which will ensure adequate
visibility under normal operating
conditions with minimum obscuration
when shattered, and will minimise the
likelihood of serious injury if a person
comes in contact with the broken
glazing material.
Requirements
Any glass used in windscreens,
windows or interior partitions shall
be of safety glass complying with
one of the approved standards.
All glass shall carry an indelible mark
or marks visible when the glass is
fitted in the vehicle. The mark or marks
shall identify the type of glass and the
relevant standard to which the glass
conforms.
The windscreen used shall meet with
the primary vision area requirements
which allows an average driver to see:
• upwards at 10 degrees to the
horizontal
• downwards to the roadway 11 metres
ahead of the vehicle
• 56 degrees to the left
• 15 degrees to the right of a horizontal
line passing through the right eye
of the driver which is parallel to the
vehicle centre line.
The primary vision area requirements
are shown in Figures 6 and 7.
ADR 8/.. SAFETY GLAZING
MATERIAL
The Visual Light Transmission of a
windscreen in the Primary Vision Area
(as defined in ADR 8/..) must not be less
than 75%. It is permissible to have a
narrow tinted band across the top of the
windscreen which is outside the Primary
Vision Area.
Window tinting
For Information regarding the legal
requirements for window tinting refer
to DTEI Window Tinting for your Motor
Vehicle (MR 430).

10
Individually Constructed Vehicles MARCH 2007
ADR 10/.. STEERING COLUMN
Intent
To minimise crushing or penetrating
injuries to drivers due to the steering
column as a result of frontal impact.
Requirements
The steering column assembly used in a
one-off vehicle shall be identical to one
used in a vehicle approved to ADR 10/..
The steering column assembly
comprises the basic steering
mechanism, the steering wheel, the
associated horn actuating mechanism
and trim hardware.
The steering shafts and associated
components between the steering
column and steering box may also
affect compliance with ADR 10/..,
consequently the manner of installation
is subject to approval.
Optional steering wheels tested to ADR
requirements on the column assembly
will be accepted.
A motor vehicle must not have a
Steering Control Effort in excess of
250 N when the vehicle is operating
at a speed not greater than 10 km/h.
The Steering Control Effort is the force
exerted by the driver of the vehicle
measured at the rim of the steering
wheel with any and all power assistance
devices operating and no failures being
present in the system.
ADR 11/.. INTERNAL SUN VISORS
Intent
To specify requirements for internal
sun visors to reduce the injury potential
of internal sun visors and the adjacent
vehicle structure.
Requirements
If sun visors are fitted to the vehicle
they shall be constructed of, or covered
with, energy absorption material. Any
rigid structure required to support the
sun visor or maintain its shape shall
be of such dimensions as to limit the
likelihood of injury to the head on
impact. Any rigid material edge shall
have a radius of not less than 3 mm.
ADR 13/.. INSTALLATION OF
LIGHTING AND LIGHT-SIGNALLING
DEVICES
Intent
To ensure that the installation of
lighting and light-signalling devices
on the vehicle is such that the effective
operation of these devices is not
impaired.
Requirements
• Main-beam headlamps (ADR46/..)
• Dipped-beam headlamps (ADR 46/..)
• Front fog lamps (ADR 50/..)
• Gas discharge headlamps (ADR 77/..)
• Reversing lamps (ADR 1/..)
• Direction indicator and hazard warning
lamps (ADR 6/..)
• Stop lamps (ADR 49/..)
• Rear registration plate illuminating
device (ADR 48/..)
• Rear fog lamps (ADR 52/..)
• Front position (side lamps) (ADR 49/..)
• Rear position (side lamps) (ADR 49/..)
• Parking lamps (ADR 49/..)
• Retro-reflectors (ADR 47/..)
• Centre high-mounted stop lamp
(ADR 49/.. or ADR 60/..)
• Cornering lamp (ADR 45/..).
Hazard warning signal lamps
The signal shall be given by
simultaneous operation of the direction
indicator lamps and shall be operated
by means of a separate control enabling
all the direction indicator lamps to flash
in phase. A tell-tale shall be fitted.
The signal shall be able to function
even if the device which starts or stops
the engine is in a position which makes
it impossible to start the engine
(ignition off).
ADR 14/.. REAR VISION MIRRORS
Intent
To specify requirements for rear vision
mirrors to provide the driver with a clear
and reasonably unobstructed view to
the rear.
Requirements
Driver’s Side Mirror
An external rear vision mirror shall be
installed on the driver’s side of the
vehicle and must provide the driver with
a view of a level road surface 11 metres
behind the driver’s eyes and 2.4 metres
out from the plane represented by the
driver’s side of the vehicle.
The mirror and mounting shall be free
of sharp points or edges. The mirror
shall be adjustable from the driver’s
seating position. The mirror may have
either a flat or convex reflecting surface.
The average radius of a convex mirror
is not to be less than 1,200 mm.
Internal Rear Vision Mirror
An internal rear vision mirror shall also
be installed except where the design of
the motor vehicle does not provide for
internal rear vision.
Field of View – an internal mirror shall
provide the driver with a view to the rear
with an included angle of 20 degrees in
the horizontal plane (between left and
right) and sufficient vertical angle to
provide a view of the road surface
61 metres behind the vehicle extending
to the horizon. The line of sight may be
partially obscured by seated occupants
or by head restraints. Internal rear vision
mirrors fitted to the vehicle shall have
flat reflecting surfaces. The internal rear
vision mirror mounting shall provide
a stable support for the mirror, and
shall provide for adjustment by tilting in
horizontal and vertical directions. If the
mirror is subjected to an impact, the
mounting shall deflect, collapse or break
away without leaving sharp edges.
Passenger Side Rear Vision Mirror
If the design of the vehicle does not
permit an adequate field of view from
the internal mirror an external rear
vision mirror shall be installed on the
passenger’s side of the vehicle. The
passenger side mirror need not be
11
adjustable from the driver’s seating
position, but shall be capable of
adjustment by tilting in both horizontal
and vertical directions.
The mirror can be flat or convex. The
average radius of a convex mirror is
not to be less than 1,200 mm.
ADR 18/.. INSTRUMENTATION
Intent
To specify requirements for the provision
and location of certain visual indicators.
Requirements
A speedometer shall be fitted which
indicates the vehicle speed in kilometres
per hour. A speedometer shall not read
less that the actual speed of the vehicle.
The speedometer must be installed so
that its indication is readily visible to the
driver when seated in the normal driving
position.
An odometer shall be fitted which
shall indicate the distance travelled in
one kilometre units (or less) from 1 to
999,999 kilometres with an accuracy
of +/- 4%.
The display of information presented by
the visual indicators in the following list
shall, if fitted to the vehicle, meet the
location requirements shown in Figure 8.
a. Speedometer
b. Direction indicator tell-tale lamp
or lamps
c. High beam indicator
d. Tachometer
e. Oil pressure indicator
e. Odometer
i. Water temperature indicator
f. Service brake failure indicator lamp
j. Battery charge failure indicator
g. Stop lamp failure indicator
k. Fuel level indicator
h. Oil temperature indicator
l. Parking brake indicator lamp
The visual indicators shall be totally
visible to the driver with the steering
wheel in the straight ahead position,
and with the direction indicator lever
in the neutral position, (the steering
wheel rim and its supporting arms and
attachment do not constitute
obstructions).
ADR 21/.. INSTRUMENT PANEL
Intent
To specify requirements for the
instrument panel to reduce its injury
potential to occupants on impact.
Requirements
The area of the instrument panel that
is within the “Head Impact Area” when
impacted, by a given head form and
velocity, the deceleration of the head
form shall not exceed 80 times the
acceleration due to gravity continuously
for more than 3 milliseconds.
Refer to ADR 69/.. for vehicles
incorporating an inflatable
supplementary restraint system
(air bag).
Alternatively proof of compliance
with the alternative criterion.
12
Individually Constructed Vehicles MARCH 2007
ADR 22/.. HEAD RESTRAINTS
Intent
To specify requirements for the design
of head restraints so as to limit the
severity of injury in the event of rear-end
impacts (“whiplash”) and to ensure that
the head restraints cannot be adjusted
too low.
Requirements
Head restraints are to be constructed
and contoured to decelerate horizontal
movements of the head without
concentrations of load on it.
Head restraints shall be provided for
each of the two front outboard seating
positions.
The head restraints must be mounted
on, or be integral with the seat backs.
They may be provided with adjustable
mounting but the upper boundary of the
impact surface shall not be lower than
700 mm above the ‘Seating Reference
Point’ refer page 7.
The width of each head restraint shall
not be less than 250 mm for use with
bench seats and not less than 170 mm
for use with individual seats.
The head restraint shall not measure
less than 115 mm between upper and
lower boundaries.
Alternative criterion
The areas not shown as exempt in Figures 9 and 10 must be covered with high density energy absorbing material.
ADR 23/.. PASSENGER CAR TYRES
Intent
To specify requirements of strength,
construction and standard pressure/
load relationships for passenger car
tyres of particular size designations.
Requirements
Each tyre shall be conspicuously
labelled on both sidewalls with the
following information:
• tyre size designation
• speed category
• tyre carcass construction
• maximum load rating or load index
• identification of the tyre manufacturer
• date of manufacture
• word “tubeless” if applicable.
The labelling shall consist of
permanently moulded characters at
least 3.8 mm high and 0.25 mm deep
if below the background surface, or at
least 0.4 mm outstanding, if above the
background surface.
Each tyre fitted to the vehicle shall
incorporate at least four treadwear
indicators approximately equally
spaced, each of which provides a visual
indication that the tread in its vicinity has
a minimum groove depth of 1.25 mm.
13
ADR 25/.. ANTI-THEFT LOCK
Intent
To specify requirements for a lock to
inhibit unauthorised use of the vehicle
and to minimise possibility of inadvertent
application of steering locks to the
anti-theft position when the vehicle
is in motion.
Requirements
A key operated protective device
shall be fitted to the vehicle to prevent
the engine from being started and to
prevent the vehicle from being either
steered, driven or moved forward under
its own power.
This protective device and the
components on which it operates,
shall be so designed that it cannot
rapidly and without attracting any
attention, be opened, rendered
ineffective, or destroyed.
The protective device shall be such
that it excludes any risk of accidental
operation while the vehicle is in motion
which is likely to compromise safety.
i.e. It shall not be possible to activate
protective devices acting on the
steering, transmission or gear shift
control without first setting the engine
control to a stop condition.
It shall not be possible to activate the
motive power of the vehicle by normal
means until the protective device has
been deactivated.
For more information refer to ADR 25/..
Anti-theft Lock.
Alternative criterion
The vehicle shall have a key operated
lock which provides:
• an ‘engine-on’ position which permits
the normal functioning of the engine
• an ‘engine-off’ position which
prevents the normal functioning of
the engine
• an anti-theft position which prevents
the normal functioning of the engine
and also inhibits unauthorised use
of the vehicle.
It shall not be possible to adjust the
lock from the ‘engine-on’ position to
the ‘anti-theft’ position without passing
through the ‘engine-off’ position.
When the key is removed the lock shall
be in the ‘anti-theft’ position and it shall
be impossible either to steer the vehicle
or to engage the forward drive gears or
to release a brake without removal or
destruction of the device.
ADR 28/.. EXTERNAL NOISE
OF MOTOR VEHICLES
Intent
To specify limits for external noise
from motor vehicles in order to limit
the contribution of motor traffic to
community noise.
Requirements
The vehicle when tested in accordance
with the requirements of ADR 28/.. the
sound level measured shall not exceed
77 dB(A) for the vehicle in motion test
and 90 dB(A) for the stationary test.
Alternative criterion
Proof of compliance demonstrated
by a stationary exhaust noise test in
accordance with the National Road
Transport Commission – ‘National
Stationary Exhaust Noise Test
Procedures for In-Service Motor
Vehicles’
ADR 29/.. SIDE DOOR STRENGTH
Intent
To specify strength and stiffness
requirements for side doors of
passenger cars which can be used
for occupant access to reduce intrusion
into the passenger compartment as
a result of side impact.
Requirements
An Engineering Report which
demonstrates compliance with
ADR 29/.. shall be submitted.
Alternative criterion
Proof of compliance with the technical
requirements of S3 and S4 of FMVSS
214 – 35 F.R. 16801, October 30, 1970
Side Door Strength – Passenger Cars
as amended by FMVSS 214-58 FR
14169 is required to be submitted.
14
Individually Constructed Vehicles MARCH 2007
ADR 30/.. DIESEL ENGINE
EXHAUST SMOKE EMISSIONS
Intent
To limit the opacity of diesel engine
exhaust smoke emissions.
Requirements
A diesel engine fitted to an ICV must
comply with ADR 30/.. Smoke Emission
Control for Diesel Vehicles. ADR 30/..
refers to ECE Regulation 24 Uniform
Provisions Concerning:
i. the approval of compression ignition
(C.I.) engines with regard to the
emission of visible pollutants
ii. the approval of motor vehicles
with regard to the installation of
C.I. engines of an approved type
iii. the approval of motor vehicles
equipped with C.I. engines with
regard to the emission of visible
pollutants by the engine
iv. the measurement of power of
C.I. engine.
The diesel engine shall have affixed
to it a durable, legible label which
indicates that the engine was
manufactured to comply with
ADR 30/...
The label shall be plastic or metal and
shall be bonded, welded, riveted or
otherwise securely attached to a part
of the engine necessary for normal
engine operation and not normally
requiring replacement during engine life.
The label shall be in a position in which
it can be read after installation in the
vehicle.
The engine, as installed in the vehicle,
shall be adjusted to the manufacturer’s
specifications.
Any cold starting device shall be
designed so that it cannot be brought
into or retained in operation when the
engine is running normally.
The vehicle shall be equipped with a
stopping device which is operated by
the vehicle’s ignition switch.
ADR 31/.. HYDRAULIC BRAKE
SYSTEMS FOR PASSENGER CARS
Intent
To ensure safe braking under normal
and emergency conditions for vehicles
equipped with hydraulic service brakes.
Requirements
If the vehicle has a hydraulic braking
system it shall have:
• a control for the service brake system
which it is readily accessible to the
driver in the normal driving position
• a parking brake system such that
in the applied position retention
is effected by mechanical means.
The control by which the system is
actuated is to be readily accessible
to the driver in the normal driving
position
• one or more service brake failure
indicator lamps and a parking brake
indicator lamp.
An Engineering Report which
demonstrates compliance with ADR
31/.. shall be submitted or alternatively,
tests should be conducted which
demonstrate that the vehicle conforms
with the alternative criterion.
Alternative criterion
Fade Test
With the vehicle unladen, fifteen
deceleration modes must be conducted
in accordance with ADR 31/00 but from
a minimum initial speed of 60km/h,
such that the sustained deceleration is
not less than 4.5 m/s2 for each mode
and the distance between successive
brake applications is not more than
250 metres or the maximum interval
between successive applications is
not more than 25 seconds.
The pedal effort as specified in ADR
31/00 must not be exceeded.
Refer to DTEI Brake System Test
Procedure (MR132).
Effectiveness Test
Immediately on completion of the Fade
Tests, two Effectiveness Tests must be
conducted in accordance with item
7 of ADR 31/00 (i.e. Third Effectiveness
Test).
If the instantaneous deceleration is
measured instead of the average
deceleration, the deceleration shall not
be less than 0.89g for any one of the
two stops.
If the above test requirements are met
with a pedal effort of less that 150
Newtons the Minimum Pedal Effort Test
in accordance with the ADR 31/00 must
be conducted.
Refer to DTEI Brake System Test
Procedure (MR 132).
15
ADR 34/.. CHILD RESTRAINT
ANCHORAGES & FITTINGS
Intent
To specify requirements for child
restraint anchorages and child restraint
anchor fittings to provide for the
connection of standard attaching
clips so that child restraints may be
adequately secured to the vehicle.
Anchorages
Each rear seating position must have
either a ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fitting’
or a mounting point for one.
The ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fitting’ is
the attachment point for the ‘Attaching
Clip’ of a child restraint system and is
usually bolted or welded to the structure
of the vehicle.
Each anchorage shall be so designed
and located that:
a. no items need to be removed to gain
access to the anchorage, other than
closure plugs, and items that are
removable without the use of tools
b. clearance is provided to allow the
installation of child restraint anchor
fitting and for the latching and
unlatching of the attaching clip to
the child restraint anchor fitting
without the use of tools
c. it is within 40 mm of the centre line
of the seating position
d. it is rearward of the seat backrest
e. information including either a
photograph or a diagram regarding
the location of each ‘Child Restraint
Anchorage’ shall be specified in
the vehicle handbook or otherwise
supplied with the vehicle.
The information shall include:
WARNING: Child restraint anchorages
are designed to withstand only those
loads imposed by correctly fitted child
restraints. Under no circumstances are
they to be used for adult seatbelts or
harnesses.
Details on the thickness (and number)
of ‘spacers’ required at each ‘Child
Restraint Anchorage’ location and the
correct method of installation of ‘Child
Restraint Anchor Fitting(s)’.
See Figure 11.
Construction – Child Restraint
Anchorages
All anchorages are to be tested
simultaneously and each anchorage
must be able to withstand a force of
at least 3.4 kN.
The direction of the test load shall be
within 20 degrees of the “design line of
action” of the child restraint anchorage
fitting and not more than 5 degrees to
the left or right of the longitudinal axis
of the vehicle.
Under test conditions, some
deformation is permitted, but the
anchorage must not pull away from
the structure.
Proof of the strength of anchorages
shall be by calculation, physical testing
or where applicable in accordance with
the alternative criterion.
Alternative Criterion
Child Restraint Anchorages located
through a sheet metal section of the
vehicle body such as the rear parcel
shelf can be constructed by using
50 x 50 x 3 mm steel backing plates,
or plates of equivalent size and stiffness
with a nut permanently attached to the
underside of the plate.
The corners of backing plates shall have
a minimum radius of 5 mm and the
edges adjacent to the sheet metal shall
be chamfered.
ADR 37/01 EMISSION CONTROL
FOR LIGHT VEHICLES
Intent
To limit fuel evaporative emissions and
exhaust emissions from motor vehicles
in order to reduce air pollution, and to
require new vehicles to be manufactured
to operate on unleaded petrol.
Requirements
Vehicle to be tested in accordance
with the requirements of ADR 37/01 or
evidence to be submitted to show that
the vehicle complies with the alternative
criterion.
Alternative criterion
The engine fitted to the vehicle shall
be designed to use unleaded petrol or
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a fuel.
The engine must remain standard as
manufactured and incorporate all design
features and components originally
fitted to that engine.
In addition, the vehicle is required to
retain any other associated components
of the system such as the catalytic
converter.
16
Individually Constructed Vehicles MARCH 2007
In the case of vehicles operating on
petrol a label of durable material with
the words “UNLEADED PETROL ONLY”
in letters at least 6 mm high shall be
permanently affixed within 150 mm of
the filler inlet.
The design and construction of the
petrol filler inlet shall prevent the
insertion of a leaded petrol nozzle.
Overseas sourced engines will be
accepted provided that the engine is
manufactured to a standard equivalent
to ADR 37/01.
Every vehicle shall be so constructed
that crankcase gases are not permitted
to escape into the atmosphere.
A label of durable material which
includes the engine tune up
specifications shall be permanently
affixed in the engine compartment.
The label may be a copy of the original
donor engine label.
In the case of vehicles operating on
petrol, an Evaporative Emission Control
System which will prevent vaporised fuel
from the fuel system being emitted into
the atmosphere, shall be fitted.
If the engine is modified away from its
standard specifications then the vehicle
must be tested to ADR 37/01 or by an
IM240 emission testing facility or by an
alternative test acceptable to DTEI.
ADR 42/.. GENERAL SAFETY
REQUIREMENTS
Intent
To specify design and construction
requirements to ensure safe operation
of vehicles.
Requirements
Bonnet Latching
Any movable body panel forward of
the windscreen that serves to cover
an engine, luggage, storage or battery
compartment must be provided with
a latch system.
A panel opening from the front which
in any open position partially or
completely obstructs a driver’s forward
view through the windscreen shall be
provided with a second latch position
on the latch system or with a second
latch system.
Diesel Engines
A locking device shall be provided
which prevents the engine from being
started by any accidental or inadvertent
means. (The locking device must act on
the engine and prevent it from starting,
should it be cranked by accidental
means).
Steering System
The centre line of the steering control
must not be located to the left of the
centre line of the vehicle.
Any component of the steering system
which is essential to the steering
operation shall be designed to transmit
energy by mechanical means only.
Failure of any non-mechanical
component of the steering system
must not prevent effective steering
of the vehicle.
Standard Controls for Automatic
Transmission
All motor vehicles equipped with an
automatic transmission shall be fitted
with a starter interlock that renders
the engine starter inoperative when
the transmission control lever is in any
forward or reverse drive position.
Electrical Wiring, Connections
& Installations
The wiring of electrical equipment other
than the high tension ignition wiring
shall:
• be supported at intervals of not more
than 600 mm
• be insulated at joints
• be located in such a position that it
cannot become overheated, cannot
contact moving parts nor constitute
a fire hazard owing to its proximity to
the fuel system
• be protected from chafing. The edge
of all holes in metal through which
the wiring passes shall be rolled or
bushed with a grommet of rubber
or equivalent insulating material.
Exhaust Outlets
The exhaust outlet shall extend at
least 40 mm beyond the further most
outboard or rearmost joint of the floor
pan which is not continuously welded
or permanently sealed which could
permit direct access of exhaust gases
to the passenger compartment, but
not beyond the perimeter of the vehicle
when viewed in plan.
The exhaust outlet, if to the side of
the vehicle, shall discharge to the right
hand side of the vehicle and downwards
at an angle to the horizontal of not less
than 15 degrees and not more than
45 degrees.
The exhaust outlet, if to the rear of the
vehicle shall discharge at not more than
10 degrees above or 45 degrees below
the horizontal.
External or Internal Protrusions
No vehicle shall be equipped with:
• any object or fitting, not technically
essential to such vehicle which
protrudes from any part of the vehicle
so that it is likely to increase the risk of
bodily injury to any person
• any object or fitting technically
essential to such vehicles unless its
design, construction and conditions
and the manner in which it is affixed
to the vehicle are such as to reduce to
a minimum the risk of bodily injury to
any person
17
• any object or fitting which, because
it is pointed or has a sharp edge, is
likely to increase the risk of bodily
injury to any person
• any bumper bar the end of which is
not turned towards the body of the
vehicle to a sufficient extent to avoid
any risk of hooking or grazing.
Field of View
A motor vehicle must not be
constructed in a manner which
prevents the driver from having an
adequate view of traffic on either side
of the vehicle and in all directions in
front of the vehicle to enable the
vehicle to be driven with safety.
No passenger seating position may be
more than 100 mm in front of the drivers
seating position when both seats are in
the rear most position of adjustment.
No motor vehicle must be constructed
with a passenger seating position at the
right–hand side of the driver.
Wheel Guards (Mudguards)
The vehicle must be provided with
wheel guards (part of the bodywork,
mudguards etc) which shall be so
designed as to protect other road users,
as far as practicable, against thrown-up
stones, mud, ice, snow and water and
to reduce for those users the dangers
due to contact with the moving wheels.
The wheel guards shall meet the
following requirements when the wheels
are in the straight ahead position:
a. In the part formed by radial planes
at an angle of 30 degrees to the front
and 50 degrees to the rear of the
centre of the wheel (i.e. the part of the
mudguard between D and E in Figure
12), the overall width (q) of the wheel
guards must be at least sufficient to
cover the tyre ‘Section Width’ (b) of
the tyres fitted to the vehicle, taking
into account the extremes of tyre/
wheel combinations that may
be fitted to the vehicle.
b. The rear of the wheel guards must
not terminate above a horizontal
plane 150 mm above the centre of
the wheel and the intersection of the
edge of the wheel guards with this
plane (point A, Figure 12) shall lie
outside the centreline of the tyre.
c. The contour and location of the
wheel guards shall be such that they
are as close to the tyre as possible
and they shall satisfy the following
requirements:
• The lower lip of the outer edge of
the guard shall be at least 30 mm
deep directly above the centre of
the wheel. This depth (p) may be
reduced progressively to zero at
points D and E.

The wheel guards may consist of
several components, provided that
no gaps exist between or within the
individual parts when assembled.
The wheel guards shall be securely
attached. However they may be
detachable either as a unit or in parts.
The front wheel guard itself or in
conjunction with other components
(e.g. bumper bars) of the vehicle body
or chassis shall prevent direct contact
with the upper half of the wheel in a
forward collision.
18
Brake Tubing & Brake Hose
Air or vacuum brake tubing and air
and vacuum brake hose, flexible and
hydraulic power hose between the
brake power unit and the master
cylinder or its equivalent shall conform
to SAE, or other approved standards
specified for air/vacuum or hydraulic
tubing or hose. Brake tubing and hoses
are to be fitted to the vehicle to prevent
chafing, kinking or other mechanical
damage under normal operating
conditions.
Reverse Gear
An ICV shall be capable of being
operated by the driver from the normal
seating position in both forward and
reverse directions.
Television & Visual Display Units
All television receivers or visual display
units shall be installed so that no part of
the image on the screen is visible to the
driver from the normal driving position
unless:
a. the television receiver or visual display
unit cannot be operated while the
vehicle is moving, or
b. the television receiver or visual display
unit is a driver’s aid.
Examples of driver’s aid include, closed-
circuit security cameras, navigational or
intelligent highway and vehicle systems
(GPS), rear view screens and vehicle
monitoring devices.
All television receivers or visual display
units and their associated equipment
shall be mounted in a position which:
• does not obscure the driver’s vision
• does not impede driver or passenger
movement in the vehicle
• is unlikely to increase the risk of
occupant injury.
Windows & Ventilation
At least half the number of windows
shall be capable of being opened or
the vehicle shall be provided with an
alternative method of ventilation.
Power Operated Window Systems
Power operated windows, if fitted shall
comply with the requirements of ADR
42/.. Clause 19.3 Power Operated
Window Systems. Power operated
windows should not be operational 45
seconds after the ignition is turned off.
Warning Devices – Audible
No device capable of producing a
sound resembling that produced by any
siren, repeater horn, bell or whistle shall
be attached to an ICV.
A repeater horn is any device
which emits an audible sound
alternating between different tones or
frequencies on a regular time cycle.
Every motor vehicle shall be fitted with
at least one warning device capable
of giving sufficient audible warning of
the presence of the vehicle. It shall
give an audible signal having constant
amplitude and frequency characteristics.
It may be powered by any energy
source including compressed air.
A further device may be fitted which
emits an intermittent audible signal only
when reverse gear is selected. The
audible signal is to warn persons of the
proximity of the reversing vehicle and
should not be louder than is necessary
for this purpose.
Demisting of Windscreens
Every motor vehicle having a
windscreen must be fitted with a
device capable of removing condensed
moisture from the inside of the
windscreen.
Windscreen Wipers & Washers
Every motor vehicle having a
windscreen must be fitted with a
power-driven windscreen wiping
system.
Every motor vehicle having a
windscreen wiping system must have
a windscreen washing system that
can direct water on to the windscreen
within the area swept by the windscreen
wipers.
The device or devices for operating the
wipers and washer must be able to be
controlled by the driver in the normal
driving position.
ADR 43/.. VEHICLE
CONFIGURATION & MARKING
Intent
To specify requirements for vehicle
configuration and dimensions.
Requirements
Turning Circle
Every motor vehicle shall have a turning
circle in either direction (as determined
by reference to the extreme outer edge
of the tyre track at ground level) not
exceeding 25 metres in diameter.
Ground Clearance
The ground clearance of a vehicle
measured from a horizontal road surface
to any point of the underside of the
vehicle except the tyres, wheels and
wheel hubs shall, with the vehicle in its
maximum laden condition be not less
than 100 mm.
Note: For vehicles with a wheelbase
dimension exceeding 3 m or with rear
overhang exceeding 1.5m refer to ADR
43/..
Overall Width
The overall width of a vehicle must not
exceed 2,500 mm.
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ADR 46/.. – HEADLAMPS
Intent
To specify the photometric requirements
for headlamps which will provide
adequate illumination for the driver of
the vehicle without producing undue
glare for other road users.
Requirements
Only lamps complying with ADR 46/..
are acceptable. The headlamps shall be
suitably handed for right-hand drive and
the colour of light emitted shall be white.
Headlamps shall be so designed and
made, that in normal use despite the
vibration to which they may then be
subjected, their satisfactory operation
continues to be ensured.
The components by which the filament
globe is fixed to the reflector shall be
so made that, even in darkness, the
globe can be fixed in no position but the
correct one.
The headlamps shall be so made that
they give adequate illumination without
dazzle on the passing beam, and good
illumination on the driving beam.
ADR 13/.. specifies that the vehicle shall
have:
• two or four main-beam headlamps
positioned at the front of the vehicle
and fitted in such a way that the light
emitted does not cause discomfort to
the driver either directly or indirectly
through the rear view mirrors or other
reflecting surfaces of the vehicle
• the outer edges of the illuminating
surfaces of the main-beam headlamps
must not be closer to the outer edge
of the vehicle than the outer edges of
the illuminating surface of the dipped-
beam headlamps
• the main-beam headlamps may be
switched on either simultaneously
or in pairs. For changing over from
the main-beam to the dipped-beam
all main-beam headlamps shall be
switched off simultaneously
• a circuit-closed main-beam headlamp
tell-tale the colour of which shall be
blue
• two dipped-beam headlamps
positioned at the front of the vehicle
with the outer edges of the illuminating
surfaces being not more than 400 mm
from the extreme outer edges of the
vehicle and with the inner edges of the
illuminating surfaces being not less
than 600 mm apart
• the lower edge of the illuminating
surfaces shall be not less than 500
mm above the ground and the higher
edges not more than 1200 mm above
the ground
• the dipped-beam may remain
switched on at the same time as the
main-beams
• the control for changing over to the
dipped-beam shall be a hand or foot
operated switch within reach of the
driver in the normal driving position.
The dipped beam and main-beam
headlamps may be grouped together
or with other front lamps.
ADR 47/.. RETRO-REFLECTORS
Intent
To specify the dimensional, photometric
and stability requirements for retro-
reflectors which will ensure that they
effectively warn of the presence of the
vehicle and continue to do so in normal
use.
Requirements
Retro-reflecting devices must be
so constructed that they function
satisfactorily and will continue to do
so in normal use.
The components of retro-reflecting
devices must not be capable of being
easily dismantled and the retro-reflecting
optical units must not be replaceable.
The outer surface of retro-reflecting
devices must be easy to clean and
so it must not be a rough surface.
Only complying reflectors will be
accepted.
The shape of illuminating surfaces of
retro-reflecting devices must fit within
a 200 mm diameter circle. The shape of
the illuminating surfaces must be simple
and not easily confused at normal
observation distances with a letter,
number or a triangle. The colouring of
retro-reflecting optical units by means
of paint and varnish is not permitted.
ADR 13/.. specifies that:
• a vehicle shall have two or more rear
retro-reflectors (non-triangular) affixed
at the rear of the vehicle with the
outer edge of the illuminating surface
being not more that 400 mm from the
extreme outer edge of the vehicle
• the retro-reflectors shall not be less
than 250 mm nor more than 900 mm
above the ground
• they shall be visible in the horizontal
plain up to 30 degrees either side of
centre and up to 15 degrees above
and below the horizontal
• the illuminating surface of the retro-
reflectors may have parts in common
with any other red lamp situated at the
rear
• the rear retro-reflectors shall be red.
ADR 48/.. REAR REGISTRATION
PLATE ILLUMINATING DEVICES
Intent
To specify the lighting requirements
for rear registration plate illuminating
devices which will ensure that the
rear registration plate is adequately
illuminated.
Requirements
The light of the lamp used in the
illuminating device must be sufficiently
colour-less not to cause any appreciable
change in the colour of the registration
plate.
ADR 13/.. specifies that:
• the vehicle shall have a rear
registration plate lamp so positioned
that it will illuminate the site of the
registration plate
• the field of visibility of the illuminated
surface shall be 5 degrees above and
below the horizontal and 30 degrees
to either side.
The South Australian Road Traffic
(Vehicle Standards) Rules 1999 require
that the number plate can be read at
night at a distance of 20m from the rear
of the vehicle.
ADR 49/.. FRONT & REAR POSITION
(SIDE) LAMPS, STOP LAMPS AND
END-OUTLINE MARKER LAMPS
Intent
To specify the photometric requirements
for vehicle light-signalling devices
which will signal to other road users the
position, orientation and movement of
the vehicle without producing undue
glare for other road users.
Requirements
Front Position Lamps
ADR 13/.. specifies that:
• the vehicle shall have two front
position (side) lamps which shall
emit a white light
• they shall be so positioned at the front
of the vehicle that the outer edges of
the illuminating surfaces are not more
than 400 mm from the extreme outer
edges of the vehicle
• they shall be not less than 350 mm
nor more than 1500 mm above the
ground
• they shall be visible at all horizontal
angles between 45 degrees inboard
and 80 degrees outboard and at all
vertical angles between 15 degrees
above and below the horizontal.
Rear Position Lamps
ADR 13/.. specifies that:
• the vehicle shall have two rear position
(side) lamps which emit a red light
• they shall be so positioned at the rear
of the vehicle that the outer edges of
the illuminating surfaces are not more
than 400 mm from the extreme outer
edges of the vehicle
• they shall be not less than 350 mm
nor more than 1500 mm above the
ground
• they shall be visible at all horizontal
angles between 45 degrees inboard
and 80 degrees outboard and at all
vertical angles between 15 degrees
above and below the horizontal.
Stop Lamps
ADR 13/.. specifies that:
• the vehicle shall have two stop
lamps which emit a red light
• they shall be so positioned at the rear
of the vehicle that the outer edges of
the illuminating surfaces are not more
than 400 mm from the extreme outer
edges of the vehicle
• they shall be not less than 350 mm
nor more than 1500 mm above the
ground
• they shall be visible at all horizontal
angles between 45 degrees inboard
and outboard and at all vertical angles
between 15 degrees above and below
the horizontal
• the lamps must light up when the
service brake is applied. They need
not function if the engine control is
in the ‘off’ position i.e. ‘ignition off’.
ADR 51/.. FILAMENT GLOBES
Intent
To specify the dimensional and
photometric requirements for
filament globes which will ensure
interchangeability and correct
functioning when installed in a lamp.
Requirements
• All filament globes installed in
vehicle lamps must comply with the
requirements of ADR 51/.. Filament
Lamps.
(Most commercially available automotive
light globes will comply with ADR 51/..)
ADR 60/.. - CENTRE HIGH-
MOUNTED STOP LAMP
Intent
To specify requirements for
supplementary ‘Centre High-Mounted
Stop Lamp’ on the rear of the vehicle to
provide an additional indication to other
road users, that the driver of the vehicle
is applying the service brakes.
The colour of the light emitted shall be
red.
The lamp shall:
• have an effective projected luminous
area of not less than 30 square
centimetres
• not contain symbols, letters or
characters other than those necessary
for part number, manufacturer’s
identification and/or approval number
identification
• provide access for convenient
replacement of the globe without
the use of special tools
• provide a steady warning light
• not be ‘grouped’ with any other lamp
• not be combined with any other lamp
or reflective device
• not be reciprocally incorporated with
any other lamp
• be illuminated when the service
brakes of the vehicle are applied.
The lamp is to be mounted such that
it is:
• in width - on the vehicle’s median
longitudinal plane
• in height – either not more than
150 mm above the bottom edge
of the rear window or not less than
850 mm above the ground
• facing rearward
• if the lamp is mounted inside the
vehicle it shall be shrouded to the
glass, or other means shall be
provided to minimise reflections from
the light of the lamp upon the rear
window glazing that might be visible
to the driver when viewed directly, or
indirectly, in the rear vision mirror.
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ADR 61/.. VEHICLE MARKING
Intent
To specify requirements for vehicle
marking.
Requirements
Identification Number (VIN). Every
vehicle shall have a unique Vehicle
Identification Number (VIN). The VIN
for an ICV is issued by DTEI, Vehicle
Standards, and must be applied to
the vehicle in accordance with the
instructions contained in the ‘Statement
of Requirements’ for the vehicle. The
‘Statement of Requirements’ is also
issued by Vehicle Standards and
must accompany the vehicle when
it is presented for its Roadworthy
Inspection.
Engine Number
An identification number shall be legible
and permanently stamped on the main
component of the engine at the time
of its manufacture and shall be located
where it can readily be seen when the
engine is installed in the vehicle.
Registration Plates
Provision shall be made for mounting a
registration plate that is to be affixed to
the front and rear of the vehicle so that
no part of the registration plate will be
more than 1300 mm from the ground.
No part of the vehicle, including any
production options or equipment must
be located to obscure any part of the
registration plate(s).
DYNAMIC OCCUPANT
PROTECTION
ADR 69/.. FULL FRONTAL IMPACT
OCCUPANT PROTECTION,
ADR 72/.. DYNAMIC SIDE IMPACT
OCCUPANT PROTECTION
ADR 73/.. OFFSET FRONTAL
IMPACT OCCUPANT PROTECTION
These ADRs involve crash testing
of vehicles containing ‘wired’
anthropomorphic dummies to verify
compliance.
Individually Constructed Vehicles are not
required to verify compliance with these
ADRs due to the costly, complex and
destructive nature of the crash testing,
however:
a. Vehicle designers should consider
crash survivability, and occupant
protection as high priority and
incorporate features that are likely
to minimise injury to occupants in
the event of an accident.
b. A metal placard must be fitted to
the vehicle warning occupants that
the vehicle has not been tested in
accordance with Australian Design
Rules 69, 72 and 73. See figure 13.
c. A permanent label must be sewn
on to the seatbelt webbing of the
front outboard seating positions, just
below the upper anchorage when the
seatbelt is fully retracted, so that it is
easily visible to the occupant before
the seatbelt is secured. The label
should contain the warning shown
in figure 13 and should be at least
100 x 30 mm in size.
d. The warning displayed on the metal
placard and the seatbelts must also
be contained in the vehicle handbook
or otherwise be supplied with the
vehicle.
AIRBAGS
Due to the highly technical and
complex nature of airbag design and
the associated calibration necessary to
ensure proper operation without false
deployment, it is not recommended to
fit airbags to ICVs.
GAS DISCHARGE HEADLAMPS
Gas discharge headlamps may be
fitted to an ICV but are inherently
complex, expensive and are subject
to additional requirements beyond
that of regular headlamps. Refer to
ADR 13/.. Installation of Lighting and
Light Signalling Devices on other than
L-Group Vehicles and ADR 77/.. Gas
Discharge Headlamps.
Further information
Contact the Department for Transport,
Energy and Infrastructure:
Vehicle Services
Kateena Street, Regency Park
PO Box 1 Walkerville SA 5081
Telephone: 1300 882 248
Internet: www.dtei.sa.gov.au
Fax: (08) 8348 9533
This Information Manual is provided for information only.
No responsibility will be accepted from the use of the
information contained in this Information Manual.
MR850 03/07
WARNING
This vehicle has not been tested in accordance
with the following Australian Design Rules
ADR69/.. Full Frontal Impact Occupant Protection
ADR72/.. Dynamic Side Impact Occupant Protection
ADR73/.. Offset Frontal Impact Occupant Protection
It may not provide the level of occupant protection
required by these rules
Figure 13
23
Notes
MR850 03/07