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E-mail: kg.abhi@gmail.com

Introduction to Calculus

Course-1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Let us consider a variable x . Function: We can now think of various expressions in terms of x : Examples: • 2x + 5 • x 2 + 3x − 2 , and so on. We call the above expressions of x as ‘function of x ’ and we denote them by f (x) (‘f of x’) or g (x) etc. Thus we write, for example, f ( x) = 2 x + 5 . Range: In the next step, we think of the numerical values of the variable x may have. Among those numerical values we have the lowest value and the highest possible value. Therefore, we can say, there is a lower end and an upper end.. This defines the Range of the values x (in short, ‘Range of x’).

Example:

Suppose a variable x can be any positive number between 0 and 10. So this is the range. The lower limit of the range is 0 and the upper limit is 10. The range can be written as 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 . Concept of Infinity: Here we introduce a new concept. We can think of any big number, whatever big no matter. There is always a bigger number possible than you think. Therefore, we see the upper limit of the numbers we are considering is actually bigger than the biggest number we can ever think of. This is termed as ‘Infinity’ (a symbol ‘ ∞ ’ is used to denote it). In a similar way we can think of numbers smaller and smaller than zero (negative numbers) and go towards other extreme which is − ∞ . Suppose we say that a variable x can have any value greater than 0. This automatically means that the range of x can be written as 0 < x < ∞ . Limiting Values: • Let us consider the successive values of x decreasing in the following way: 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001, 0.00001…and so on. We see that the values are decreasing systematically towards 0 (zero). Thus we may say that the value of x approaches towards zero. We write x → 0 (‘ x tends to zero’).

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By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta.

E-mail: kg.abhi@gmail.com

•

Next we consider the successive values of x increasing in the following way: 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000……and so on. Now we see that the numbers are systematically increasing towards a bigger and bigger number. Therefore, the limiting value in this case is ∞ (infinity). We write x → ∞ (‘ x tends to infinity’). Again we consider x may take values like 1.1, 1.01, 1.001, 1.0001, 1.00001…and so on in a systematic way. In this case we can write x → 1 (‘x tends to one’).

•

So far we have considered the ranges and limiting values of any variable x . A function f (x) should also have corresponding limiting values and ranges. Limit of a Function: As x takes different values, the function f (x) also takes different values. Consider: f ( x) = 2 x + 5 . For x = 0 , f (0) = 2 × 0 + 5 = 5 x = 1 , f (1) = 2 × 1 + 5 = 7 x = −2 , f (−2) = 2 × (−2) + 5 = 1 x = 0.5 , f (0.5) = 2 × (0.5) + 5 = 6 etc.

So we see, when x = any number positive, negative, integer, fraction or anything) we have a corresponding value of f (x) . At the same time, we are interested to know the limiting value of the function f (x) when we know a limiting value of x . Next we try to determine the limiting values of the functions of different kinds and for different limiting values of the variables. Suppose we have f ( x) → b (limiting value of the function) when x → a (limiting value). We write:

Ratios 0 =0 a a =∞ 0 a =0 ∞

Limit f ( x) = b

x →a

of Extreme Numbers:

If we divide zero by any number we get zero. If we divide any finite number by zero we get infinity.

If anything is divided by infinity, the result is zero.

2

By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta.

E-mail: kg.abhi@gmail.com

0 = undefined. This means it can be anything which we can not specifically say. 0 ∞ 0 ∞ , , these ratios are meaningless. We avoid them. ∞ ∞ 0

Basic Theorems of Limits:

**1. Lim( f1 + f 2 + f 3 + ....) = Lim f1 + Lim f 2 + Lim f 3 …. 2. Lim( f1 ⋅ f 2 ⋅ f 3 ....) = Lim f1 . Lim f 2 . Lim f 3 ….. 3. Lim
**

f1 Limf 1 = [ Note here, Lim f 2 has to be non-zero in this case, otherwise f2 Limf 2 the ratio will be ∞ .]

Here f1 , f 2 and f 3 are actually f1 ( x) , f 2 ( x) and f 3 ( x) respectively. We often have to find out the limits of many complicated looking functions where we can use the above theorems.

Examples:__________________________

#1. Lim

x →∞

**2 x 2 + 2x 2 = Lim 1 + = Lim 1 + Lim = 1 + 0 = 1 2 x →∞ x →∞ x →∞ x x x Lim(3 x + 5) 3. Limx + 5 3x + 5 3.1 + 5 8 x →1 x →1 = = = = =4 4x − 2 4.1 − 2 2 Lim(4 x − 2) 4. Limx − 2
**

x →1

x →1

#2. Lim

x →1

** x + 1 1 1 #3. Lim = Lim 1 + = Lim 1 + Lim = 1 + 0 = 1. x →∞ x →∞ x →∞ x →∞ x x x
**

Home Work Problems:

Find out the limits: x2 − 4 1. Lim x→2 x−2 x2 + x −1 2. Lim x →∞ 2x + 5 3x 2 − 2 x − 1 3. Lim x →∞ x3 + 4 4x3 − 2x 2 + x . 4. Lim x →0 3x 2 + 2 x

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