Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services

Microsoft Corporation Published: June 3, 2005 Author: Tim Elhajj Editor: Sean Bentley

Abstract
This paper describes how to deploy Microsoft® Windows Server™ Update Services (WSUS). You will find a comprehensive description of how WSUS functions, as well as descriptions of WSUS scalability and bandwidth management features. This paper also offers step-by-step procedures for installation and configuration of the WSUS server. You will read how to update and configure Automatic Updates on client workstations and servers that will be updated by WSUS. Also included are steps for migrating from Microsoft Software Update Services (SUS) to WSUS, as well as steps for setting up a WSUS server on an isolated segment of your network and manually importing updates.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.

This White Paper is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT.

Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation.

Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property.

Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred.

© 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Microsoft, SQL Server, Windows, and Windows Server are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.

The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

Contents
Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services.....................................................1 Abstract.......................................................................................................................1 Contents.............................................................................................................................5 Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Introduction to Deploying Windows Server Update Services .........................................8 ................................8

Design the WSUS Deployment .............................................................................9 Choose a Type of Deployment ...........................................................................9 Simple WSUS Deployment........................................................................................10 Chain of WSUS Servers............................................................................................12 Networks Disconnected from the Internet..................................................................13 Choose a Management Style ...........................................................................14 Centralized Management..........................................................................................14 Distributed Management...........................................................................................16 Choose the Database Used for WSUS ............................................................16 Selecting a Database................................................................................................17 Database Authentication, Instance, and Database Name.........................................18 Determine Where to Store Updates .................................................................18 Local Storage............................................................................................................19 Remote Storage........................................................................................................19 Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment .............................21 Deferring the Download of Updates...........................................................................21 Filtering Updates.......................................................................................................22 Using Express Installation Files.................................................................................23 Background Intelligent Transfer Service....................................................................24 Determine Capacity Requirements ..................................................................25 Install the WSUS Server ......................................................................................25 Configure the Firewall Between the WSUS Server and the Internet ................26 Prepare Disks and Partitions ............................................................................27 Install Required Software .................................................................................28 Windows Server 2003...............................................................................................28 Windows 2000 Server...............................................................................................28 Install and Configure IIS ...................................................................................29 IIS Lockdown Tool.....................................................................................................29

Client Self-Update.....................................................................................................31 Using the WSUS Custom Web Site...........................................................................31 Run WSUS Server Setup .................................................................................32 Configure the WSUS Server ...............................................................................37 Access the WSUS Administration Console ......................................................38 Configure WSUS to Use a Proxy Server ..........................................................38 Select Products and Classifications .................................................................39 Synchronize the WSUS Server ........................................................................40 Configure Advanced Synchronization Options .................................................40 Update Storage Options............................................................................................40 Deferred Downloads Options....................................................................................41 Express Installation Files Options..............................................................................41 Filtering Updates Options..........................................................................................42 Chain WSUS Servers Together ........................................................................43 Create a Replica Group ...................................................................................43 Create Computer Groups for Computers .........................................................44 Setting up Computer Groups.....................................................................................44 Approve Updates .............................................................................................46 Verify Update Deployment ...............................................................................47 Secure Your WSUS Deployment ......................................................................47 Hardening your Windows Server 2003 running WSUS.............................................47 Adding Authentication Between Chained WSUS Servers in an Active Directory Environment...........................................................................................................48 Securing WSUS with Secure Sockets Layer.............................................................49 Update and Configure the Automatic Updates Client Component .......................54 Client Component Requirements .....................................................................54 Update Automatic Updates ..............................................................................55 Automatic Updates Client Self-Update Feature.........................................................55 Determine a Method to Configure Automatic Updates Clients .........................56 Configure Automatic Updates by Using Group Policy ...................................58 Configure Automatic Updates in a Non–Active Directory Environment .........65 Manipulate Automatic Updates Behavior Using Command-line Options ..........71 Detectnow Option......................................................................................................71 Resetauthorization Option.........................................................................................71 Set Up a Disconnected Network (Import and Export Updates) ...........................71 Step 2 Import and Export: Copying Updates from File System ........................73 Step 1 Import and Export: Matching Advanced Options ...................................74 Step 3 Import and Export: Copying Metadata from Database ..........................75

Migrate from a SUS Server to a WSUS Server ...................................................76 Migration Command-line Tool ..........................................................................77 Two Migration Scenarios ..................................................................................78 Same-server Migration .................................................................................79 Remote Server Migration ..............................................................................83 Appendix A: Unattended Installation ....................................................................87

Appendix B: Install MSDE on Windows 2000 ......................................................91 Step 1: Download and Expand the MSDE Archive.......................................................92 Step 2: Install MSDE.....................................................................................................93 Step 3: Update MSDE...................................................................................................94 Appendix C: Remote SQL ...................................................................................96 Remote SQL Limitations...............................................................................................96 Database Requirements...............................................................................................96 Step 1: Install WSUS on the Front-end Computer........................................................97 Step 2: Install WSUS on the Back-end Computer.......................................................100 Set Permissions on Windows Server 2003..............................................................105 Set Permissions on Windows 2000 Server..............................................................108 Step 3: Configure the Front-end Computer to Use the Back-end Computer...............110 Appendix D: Security Settings ...........................................................................111 Windows Server 2003.................................................................................................111 Audit Policy..............................................................................................................111 Security Options......................................................................................................113 Event Log Settings..................................................................................................125 System Services......................................................................................................126 TCP/IP Hardening...................................................................................................133 IIS 6.0 Security Settings..............................................................................................134 URLScan.................................................................................................................134 IIS Security Configuration........................................................................................136 SQL Server 2000........................................................................................................137 SQL Registry Permissions.......................................................................................137 Stored Procedures...................................................................................................138 Urlscan.ini file.............................................................................................................140

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Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services
This guide describes how to deploy Microsoft® Windows Server™ Update Services (WSUS). You will find a comprehensive description of how WSUS functions, as well as descriptions of WSUS scalability and bandwidth management features. This guide also offers step-by-step procedures for installation and configuration of the WSUS server. You will read how to update and configure Automatic Updates on client workstations and servers that will be updated by WSUS. Also included are steps for migrating from Microsoft Software Update Services (SUS) to WSUS, as well as steps for setting up a WSUS server on an isolated segment of your network and manually importing updates. In this guide • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction to Deploying Windows Server Update Services Design the WSUS Deployment Install the WSUS Server Configure the WSUS Server Update and Configure the Automatic Updates Client Component Set Up a Disconnected Network (Import and Export Updates) Migrate from a SUS Server to a WSUS Server Appendix A: Unattended Installation Appendix B: Install MSDE on Windows 2000 Appendix C: Remote SQL Appendix D: Security Settings

Introduction to Deploying Windows Server Update Services
This guide describes how to deploy Microsoft Windows Server Update Services (WSUS). Begin your WSUS deployment by reading about how WSUS functions, its general requirements, and its features for scalability and bandwidth management. First, read

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services

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Design the WSUS Deployment. Next, read how to install and configure the WSUS server in the section, Install the WSUS Server.Then read how to configure Automatic Updates on client workstations and servers that will be updated by WSUS in Update and Configure the Automatic Updates Client Component. There are companion papers to this guide that offer other types of information about WSUS. For an overview of WSUS features, read "Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Overview." For information about administering WSUS or troubleshooting problems with WSUS, read "Windows Server Update Services Operations Guide." The latest versions of these documents are available on the Microsoft Web site for Windows Server Update Services at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47374.

Design the WSUS Deployment
The first step in deploying WSUS is to design the server deployment. The following sections describe various aspects of the WSUS server deployments—from a simple single-server deployment to multiple WSUS server deployments. Considerations for bandwidth management are discussed, along with guidance for capacity planning. In this guide • • • • • • Choose a Type of Deployment Choose a Management Style Choose the Database Used for WSUS Determine Where to Store Updates Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment Determine Capacity Requirements

Choose a Type of Deployment
This section describes basic building blocks for all WSUS deployments. Use this section to familiarize yourself with simple deployments, which involve deployments with a single WSUS server. This section also describes the function of computer groups, which involves targeting updates to different groups of computers you create, and also describes more complex scenarios, such as "chaining" multiple WSUS servers together or setting up a WSUS server on an isolated network segment.

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Simple WSUS Deployment
The most basic deployment of WSUS involves setting up a server inside the corporate firewall to serve client computers on a private intranet, as shown in the "Simple WSUS Deployment" illustration below. The WSUS server connects to Microsoft Update to download updates. This is known as synchronization. During synchronization, WSUS determines if any new updates have been made available since the last time you synchronized. If it is your first time synchronizing WSUS, all updates are made available for approval. The WSUS server uses port 80 and port 443 to obtain updates from Microsoft. This is not configurable. If there is a corporate firewall between your network and the Internet, remember you might have to open port 80 for HTTP protocol and port 443 for HTTPS protocol. Although the connection between Microsoft Update and WSUS requires port 80 and port 443 to be open, you can configure multiple WSUS servers to synchronize with a parent WSUS server by using a custom port. Chaining WSUS servers together and configuring a custom port for WSUS are both discussed later in this guide. Simple WSUS Deployment

Automatic Updates is the client component of WSUS. Automatic Updates must use the port assigned to the WSUS Web site in Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS). If there are no Web sites running on the server where you install WSUS, you have an option to use the default Web site or a custom Web site. If you set up WSUS on the default Web site, WSUS listens for Automatic Updates on port 80. If you use a custom Web site, WSUS listens on port 8530. If you use the custom Web site, you must also have a Web site set up and running on port 80 to accommodate updating legacy Automatic Updates client software. If you use the custom Web site, also remember to include the port number in the URL when you configure Automatic Updates to point to the WSUS server. Other issues to consider when using a custom port for the WSUS Web site are discussed in "Using the WSUS custom Web site," in Install and Configure IIS later in this guide.

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Using Computer Groups
Computer groups are an important part of WSUS deployments, even a basic deployment. Computer groups enable you to target updates to specific computers. There are two default computer groups: All Computers and Unassigned Computers. By default, when each client computer initially contacts the WSUS server, the server adds it to both these groups. Simple WSUS Deployment with Computer Groups

You can move computers from the Unassigned Computers group to a group you create. You cannot remove computers from the All Computers group. The All Computers group enables you to quickly target updates to every computer on your network, regardless of group membership. The Unassigned Computers group permits you to target only computers that have not yet been assigned group membership. One benefit of creating computer groups is that it enables you to test updates. The Simple WSUS Deployment with Computer Groups illustration depicts two custom groups named Test group and Accounting group, as well as the All Computers group. The Test group contains a small number of computers representative of all the computers contained in the Accounting group. Updates are approved first for the Test group. If the testing goes well, you can roll out the updates to the Accounting group. There is no limit to the number of custom groups you can create. There are instructions for creating custom computer groups in Create Computer Groups for Computers later in this guide.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Note: Do not use WSUS to distribute updates to client computers that are not licensed for your organization. The WSUS license agreement specifically disallows this.

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Chain of WSUS Servers
In contrast to simple WSUS deployments, you can also create more complicated multiple-server WSUS deployments. The basic building block for this type of deployment is the ability to synchronize one WSUS server with another WSUS server, instead of with Microsoft Update. When you chain WSUS servers together, there is an upstream WSUS server and a downstream WSUS server, as shown in the "WSUS Servers Chained Together" illustration below. When configured this way, WSUS shares only updates and metadata with its downstream servers during synchronization—not computer group information or information about which updates are approved. If you want to set up WSUS to distribute information about which updates are approved, look into using replica mode, described in Choose a Management Style. WSUS Servers Chained Together

This type of configuration is useful for many types of deployments. You might use it to download updates once from the Internet and then distribute those updates to branch offices having downstream servers, saving bandwidth on your Internet connection. You might use it to scale WSUS in a large organization with more client computers than one WSUS server can service. You might also use it to move updates closer to the edge of your network, where they will be deployed. When deploying WSUS servers in such a hierarchical architecture, three levels is the recommended limit. This is because each level adds additional lag time to propagate updates throughout the chain. Theoretically there is no limit to how deep you can go, but only deployments with a hierarchy five levels deep have been tested. The downstream server must always synchronize to an upstream server. For example, in the "WSUS Servers Chained Together" illustration above, Server B synchronizes from Server A. This keeps synchronizations traveling downstream. If you attempt to synchronize an upstream server to a downstream server, you effectively create a closed loop, which is not supported. You can find step-by-step instructions for synchronizing WSUS servers in Chain WSUS Servers Together later in this guide.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services If you do use multiple WSUS servers chained together, we recommend the following technique to prevent propagating updates with changes that break the protocol for server-to-server communication.

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WSUS administrators should point Automatic Updates on all WSUS servers to the deepest downstream WSUS server in the hierarchy. This shields the entire chain from server-to-server protocol-breaking changes, because the downstream WSUS server can be used to update the broken upstream WSUS servers via Automatic Updates.

Networks Disconnected from the Internet
It is unnecessary for your entire network to be connected to the Internet in order for you to deploy WSUS. If you have a network segment that is not connected to the Internet, consider deploying WSUS as shown in the "Distributing Updates on an Isolated Segment" illustration below. In this example, you create a WSUS server that is connected to the Internet but isolated from the intranet. After you download updates to this server, you can hand-carry media to disconnected servers running WSUS, by exporting and importing updates. Distributing Updates on an Isolated Segment

Exporting and importing is also appropriate for organizations that have high-cost or lowbandwidth links to the Internet. Even with all the bandwidth-saving options described later in this guide downloading enough updates for all Microsoft products throughout an organization can be bandwidth-intensive. Importing and exporting updates enables organizations to download updates once and distribute by using inexpensive media. See Set Up a Disconnected Network (Import and Export Updates) for more information about how to export and import updates.

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Choose a Management Style
WSUS supports deployments in both central and distributed management models. These management models enable you to manage your update distribution solution in whatever way makes the most sense for your organization. The following sections feature the same organization, using both management models to stress the differences between the two. You do not have to use a single management model throughout your organization. It is perfectly acceptable for a single organization to have a centrally managed WSUS deployment serving some computers, and one or more independently managed WSUS deployments serving other computers. Note: You cannot import updates to a server that is being centrally managed. WSUS servers on disconnected networks are always autonomously managed.

Centralized Management
Centrally managed WSUS servers utilize the replica server role. The replica server role features a single administered server and one or more subordinate replicas, as depicted in the "WSUS Centralized Management (Replica Role)" illustration below. The approvals and targeting groups you create on the master server are replicated throughout the entire organization. Remember that computer group membership is not distributed throughout the replica group, only the computer groups themselves. In other words, you always have to load client computers into computer groups.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services WSUS Centralized Management (Replica Role)

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It is possible that not all the sites in your organization require the same computer groups. The important thing is to create enough computer groups on the administered server to satisfy the needs of the rest of the organization. Computers at different sites can be moved into a group appropriate for the site. Meanwhile, computer groups inappropriate for a particular site simply remain empty. All update approvals, like computer groups, must be created on the master server. You can only add WSUS servers to replica groups during setup. For step-by-step instructions, see Create a Replica Group later in this guide. Note: If you change language options, Microsoft recommends that you manually synchronize them between the centrally managed WSUS server and its replica servers. This avoids a situation where changing language options on the centrally managed server alone might result in the number of updates that are approved on it not matching the number approved on the replica servers.

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Distributed Management
Distributed management offers you full control over approvals and computer groups for the WSUS server, as shown in the "WSUS Distributed Management" illustration below. With the distributed management model, you typically have an administrator at each site. Distributed management is the default installation option for all WSUS installations. You do not have to do anything to enable this mode. WSUS Distributed Management

Choose the Database Used for WSUS
You do not need to be a database administrator or purchase database software to use WSUS. No matter which version of Windows you install WSUS on, there is a free version of Microsoft® SQL Server™ available. These free versions of SQL Server were designed to require very little management by the WSUS administrator. Of course, if you want more control over the database, you can also use the full version of SQL Server with WSUS. The WSUS database stores the following types of information:

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services • • • WSUS server configuration information Metadata that describes what each update is useful for

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Information about client computers, updates, and client interaction with updates

Managing WSUS by accessing data directly in the database is not supported. You should not attempt to manage WSUS in this way. Manage WSUS manually, by using the WSUS console, or programmatically by calling WSUS APIs. Each WSUS server requires its own database. If there are multiple WSUS servers in your environment, you must have multiple WSUS databases. WSUS does not support multiple WSUS databases on a single computer running SQL Server.

Selecting a Database
Use the following information to determine what database software is right for your organization. Once you have made a selection, see if there are any additional tasks you need to complete to set up the database software to work with WSUS. You can use database software that is 100-percent compatible with Microsoft SQL. There are three options that have been tested extensively for use with WSUS: • Microsoft Windows SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (WMSDE) ships with WSUS. It is available only if you install WSUS on a computer running Windows Server 2003. It is similar to the next option, SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (MSDE), but without limitations for database size or connections. Neither WMSDE nor MSDE have a user interface or tools. Administrators are meant to interact with these products through WSUS. • Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (MSDE) is available from Microsoft as a free download. It is based on SQL Server 2000, but has some built-in limitations that restrict performance and database size to 2 GB. Use MSDE if you are installing WSUS on a computer running Windows 2000. See Appendix B: Install MSDE on Windows 2000 for step-by-step instructions on installing MSDE. • Microsoft SQL Server 2000 is the full-featured database software from Microsoft. WSUS requires SQL Server 2000 with Service Pack 3a. If you use the full version of SQL Server, the SQL Server administrator should enable the nested triggers option in SQL Server. Do this before the WSUS administrator installs WSUS and specifies the database during the setup process. WSUS Setup enables the recursive triggers option, which is a database-specific option; however, it does not enable the nested triggers option, which is a server global option. WSUS does support running database software on a computer separate from WSUS, but there are some restrictions. See Appendix C: Remote SQL for more information.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Database Software Recommendations by Operating System Operating System Windows Server 2003 Recommendation If you are installing WSUS on Windows Server 2003 and do not want to use SQL Server 2000, WMSDE is the recommended database software option.

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Windows 2000 Server

If you are installing WSUS on Windows 2000 and do not want to use SQL Server 2000, MSDE is the recommended database software option.

Database Authentication, Instance, and Database Name
Regardless of which database software you use, you cannot use SQL authentication. WSUS only supports Windows authentication. If you choose WMSDE for the WSUS database, WSUS Setup creates an instance of SQL Server named server\WSUS, where server is the actual name of the computer. With either database option, WSUS Setup creates a database named SUSDB.

Determine Where to Store Updates
Although metadata that describes what an update is useful for is stored in the WSUS database, the updates themselves are not. Think of updates as being logically divided into two parts: a metadata part that describes what the update is useful for, and the files required to install the update on a computer. Metadata includes end-user license agreements (EULAs) and is typically much smaller than the size of the actual update. Update storage is described in this section. You have two choices for where updates are stored. You can store updates on the local WSUS server or you can store updates on Microsoft Update. The result for either option is outlined in the following sections. If you have multiple WSUS servers chained together, each WSUS server in the chain must use the same update storage option. These options are selected during the setup process, but can also be changed after installing WSUS. See Configure Advanced Synchronization Options for step-by-step procedures.

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Local Storage
You can store update files locally on the WSUS server. This saves bandwidth on your Internet connection because client computers download updates directly from the WSUS server. This option requires enough disk space to store the updates you intend to download. There is a minimum requirement of 6 GB of hard disk space to store updates locally, but 30 GB is recommended. Local storage is the default option. Note: The 30 GB recommendation is only an estimate based on a number of variables, such as the number of updates released by Microsoft for any given product, and how many products a WSUS administrator selects. Although 30 GB should work for most customers, a worst-case scenario might require more than 30 GB of disk space. If that should happen, "Windows Server Update Services Operations Guide" offers guidance on how to recover. "Windows Server Update Services Operations Guide" is available on the Microsoft Web site for Windows Server Update Services at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47374.

Remote Storage
If you want, you can store update files remotely on Microsoft servers. WSUS enables you to take advantage of Microsoft Update for the distribution of approved updates throughout your organization. This is particularly useful if most of the client computers connect to the WSUS server over a slow WAN connection, but have high-bandwidth connections to the Internet, or if you have only a small number of client computers, as shown in the following illustration.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Clients Downloading Approved Updates from Microsoft Update

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In the scenario in the Clients Downloading Approved Updates from Microsoft Update illustration, you configure WSUS so that client computers download updates from Microsoft Update. When you synchronize the WSUS server with Microsoft Update, you get only update metadata, which describes each of the available updates. In this configuration, the files that install updates on client computers are never downloaded and stored on WSUS. You still approve updates to client computers on your network as usual, but when it comes time for clients to obtain the actual update, each client connects to the Internet to download it from Microsoft servers. These are the same servers Microsoft uses to distribute updates to the public. Although your clients obtain updates from Microsoft over the Internet, you still make the decisions about which updates are approved for distribution. The benefit of this scenario is that the distributed clients do not have to use the slow WAN connection to download updates, because WSUS only distributes approvals over the WAN link.

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Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment
No matter the amount of network bandwidth available, WSUS offers features that allow you to shape the deployment to best fit your organization's needs. The decisions you make about how to synchronize with Microsoft Update have a dramatic effect on the efficient use of bandwidth. Use the following sections to understand WSUS features for managing bandwidth.

Deferring the Download of Updates
WSUS offers you the ability to download update metadata at a different time from the update itself during synchronizations. In this configuration, approving an update triggers the download of all the files used to install that particular update on a computer. This saves bandwidth and WSUS server disk space, because only updates that you approve for installation are downloaded in full to the WSUS server. You can test the files prior to deploying them on your network, and your client computers download the updates from the intranet. Microsoft recommends deferring the download of updates, since it makes optimal use of network bandwidth. Deferred Downloads of Updates

If you have a chain of WSUS servers, it is recommended that you do not chain them too deeply, for the following reasons: • In a chain of WSUS servers, WSUS automatically sets all downstream servers to use the deferred download option that is selected on the server directly connected to Microsoft Update. You cannot change this configuration. The entire chain of WSUS servers must either defer the download of updates or download both metadata and updates during synchronizations. • If you have deferred downloads enabled and a downstream server requests an update that has not been approved on the upstream server, the downstream server’s request triggers a download on the upstream server. The downstream server then downloads the content on a subsequent synchronization, as shown in the "Deferred Downloads Using Multiple WSUS Servers" illustration. If you have a deep hierarchy

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services of WSUS servers using deferred downloads, there is greater potential for delay as content is requested, downloaded, and then passed down the chain. Deferred Downloads Using Multiple WSUS Servers

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For bandwidth savings, deferring downloads is particularly useful in conjunction with a special approval setting that only detects whether client computers require an update. With this kind of approval, the WSUS server does not download the update and clients do not install the update. Instead, clients just determine if they need the update. If they do, they send an event to the WSUS server, which is recorded in a server report. If you see that your clients require updates that were approved for detection, you can then approve them for installation. This combination of deferring downloads and detection approvals allows an administrator to download only the updates required by the client computers that are connected to the WSUS server. WSUS allows you to automate this scenario by creating a rule on the WSUS server that automatically approves all new updates for detection. For more information about different types of approvals and creating automatic approval rules, see “Windows Server Update Services Operations Guide” on the Microsoft Beta Web site for Windows Server Update Services at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=3626. If you chose to store updates locally during the WSUS setup process, deferred downloads are enabled by default. You can change this option manually. See Configure Advanced Synchronization Options for step-by-step procedures.

Filtering Updates
WSUS offers you the ability to choose only the updates your organization requires during synchronizations. You can limit synchronizations by language, product, and type of update. In a chain of WSUS servers, WSUS automatically sets all downstream servers to use the update filtering options that are selected on the server directly connected to Microsoft Update. In other words, you can only set a filter for updates on the upstream server. You

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services cannot change this configuration. The entire chain of WSUS servers must all use the same update filters. Although you cannot change the filters on downstream servers, you can defer the download of updates to get a subset of language, product, or types of updates on a downstream server. Deferring downloads is described in Deferring the Download of Updates.

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By default WSUS downloads Critical and Security Updates for all Windows products in every language. Microsoft recommends that you limit languages to only those you need, to conserve bandwidth and disk space. To change language options, see Configure Advanced Synchronization Options. To change product and update classification options, see Select Products and Classifications.

Using Express Installation Files
The express installation files feature is an update distribution mechanism. You can use express installation files to limit the bandwidth consumed on your local network, but at the cost of bandwidth consumption on your Internet connection. By default, WSUS does not use express installation files. To better understand the tradeoff, you first have to understand how WSUS updates client computers. Updates typically consist of new versions of files that already exist on the computer being updated. On a binary level these existing files might not differ very much from updated versions. The express installation files feature is a way of identifying the exact bytes that change between different versions of files, creating and distributing updates that include just these differences, and then merging the original file with the update on the client computer. Sometimes this is called delta delivery because it downloads only the difference, or delta, between two versions of a file. When you distribute updates by using this method, it requires an initial investment in bandwidth. Express installation files are larger than the updates they are meant to distribute. This is because the express installation file must contain all the possible variations of each file it is meant to update. The upper part of the "Express Installation Files Feature" illustration depicts an update being distributed by using the express installation files feature; the lower part of the illustration depicts the same update being distributed without using the express installation files feature. Notice that with express installation files enabled, you incur an initial download three times the size of the update. However, this cost is mitigated by the reduced amount of bandwidth required to update client computers on the corporate network. With express installation files disabled, your initial download of updates is

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services smaller, but whatever you download must then be distributed to each of the clients on your corporate network. Express Installation Files Feature

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The file sizes in the "Express Installation Files Feature" illustration are for illustrative purposes only. Each update and express installation file varies in size, depending on what files need to be updated. Further, the size of each file actually distributed to clients by using express installation files varies depending upon the state of the computer being updated. Important: Although there are some variables with express installation files, there are also some things you can count on. For example, express installation files are always bigger in size than the updates they are meant to distribute. As far as bandwidth goes, it is always less expensive to distribute updates using express installation files than to distribute updates without. Not all updates are good candidates for distribution using express installation files. If you select this option, you obtain express installation files for any updates being distributed this way. If you are not storing updates locally, you cannot use the express installation files feature. By default, WSUS does not use express installation files. To enable this option, see Configure Advanced Synchronization Options.

Background Intelligent Transfer Service
WSUS uses Background Intelligent Transfer Service 2.0 (BITS) for all its file-transfer tasks, including downloads to clients and server synchronizations. BITS is a Microsoft technology that allows programs to download files by using spare bandwidth. BITS

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maintains file transfers through network disconnections and computer restarts. For more information about BITS, see the BITS documentation on the MSDN site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=15106.

Determine Capacity Requirements
Hardware and database software requirements are driven by the number of client computers being updated in your organization. The following tables offer guidelines for server hardware and database software, based on the number of client computers being serviced. A WSUS server using the recommended hardware can support a maximum number of 15,000 clients. Hardware Recommendations for 500 or Fewer Clients Requirement CPU RAM Database Minimum 750 MHz 512 MB WMSDE/MSDE Recommended 1 GHz or faster 1 GB WMSDE/MSDE

Hardware Recommendations for 500 to 15,000 Clients Requirement CPU Minimum 1 GHz or faster Recommended 3 GHz dual processor computer or faster (use dual processors for over 10,000 clients) 1 GB SQL Server 2000 with Service Pack 3a

RAM Database

1 GB SQL Server 2000 with SP3a

Install the WSUS Server
After designing the WSUS deployment, you are ready to install the WSUS server component. Use the five topics listed below to prepare the computer and the network environment for WSUS. Check hardware and software requirements, including database

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software. If you want to create a custom Web site or install WSUS to a computer that already has a Web site, see the IIS section. If you have a firewall or proxy server, see the firewall section to ensure that WSUS has access to updates on the Internet. After you have done all that, then install and configure the WSUS server. If you are doing a migration from Microsoft Software Update Services (SUS) or installing WSUS on a computer with SUS, see Migrate from a SUS Server to a WSUS Server. In this guide • • • • • Configure the Firewall Between the WSUS Server and the Internet Prepare Disks and Partitions Install Required Software Install and Configure IIS Run WSUS Server Setup

Configure the Firewall Between the WSUS Server and the Internet
If there is a corporate firewall between WSUS and the Internet, you might need to configure the firewall to ensure that WSUS can obtain updates. To configure your firewall • If there is a corporate firewall between WSUS and the Internet, you might need to configure that firewall to ensure that WSUS can obtain updates. To obtain updates from Microsoft Update, the WSUS server uses port 80 for HTTP protocol and port 443 for HTTPS protocol. This is not configurable. • If your organization does not allow those ports and protocols open to all addresses, you can restrict access to only the following domains so that WSUS and Automatic Updates can communicate with Microsoft Update: • • • • • • http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com http://*.windowsupdate.microsoft.com https://*.windowsupdate.microsoft.com http://*.update.microsoft.com https://*.update.microsoft.com http://*.windowsupdate.com

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services • • • • • Note: The steps for configuring the firewall above are meant for a corporate firewall positioned between WSUS and the Internet. Because WSUS initiates all its network traffic, there is no need to configure Windows Firewall on the WSUS server. Although the connection between Microsoft Update and WSUS requires ports 80 and 443 to be open, you can configure multiple WSUS servers to synchronize with a custom port. http://download.windowsupdate.com http://download.microsoft.com http://*.download.windowsupdate.com http://wustat.windows.com http://ntservicepack.microsoft.com

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Prepare Disks and Partitions
Use the following guidelines to prepare the disks and partitions on the computer where you will install WSUS: • Both the system partition and the partition on which you install WSUS must be formatted with the NTFS file system. • A minimum of 1 GB of free space is required for the system partition.

• A minimum of 6 GB of free space is required for the volume where WSUS stores content; 30 GB is recommended. Note: The 30 GB recommendation is only an estimate based on a number of variables, such as the number of updates released by Microsoft for any given product, and how many products a WSUS administrator selects. Although 30 GB should work for most customers, a worst-case scenario might require more than 30 GB of disk space. If that should happen, the "Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Operations Guide" white paper offers guidance on how to recover. The latest versions of these documents are available on the Microsoft Web site for Windows Server Update Services at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47374.

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• A minimum of 2 GB of free space is required on the volume where WSUS Setup installs Windows SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (WMSDE). Note that WMSDE is optional. For a complete list of database software options that have been tested with WSUS, see "Selecting a Database," in Choose the Database Used for WSUS earlier in this guide.

Install Required Software
The following is a list of required software for each operating system that supports WSUS. Ensure that the WSUS server meets this list of requirements prior to your running WSUS Setup. If any of these updates require restarting the computer when installation is completed, you should restart your server prior to installing WSUS.

Windows Server 2003
The following software is required for running WSUS on Windows Server 2003: • Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0. For instruction about how to install IIS, see Install and Configure IIS. • Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) 2.0; go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47251. • Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1 Service Pack 1 for Windows Server 2003; go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=35326. An alternative is to go to Windows Update at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? linkid=47370 and scan for Critical Updates and Service Packs. Install Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1 Service Pack 1 for Windows Server 2003.

Windows 2000 Server
The following software is required for running WSUS on Windows 2000 Server: • Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) 5.0. For instruction about how to install IIS, see Install and Configure IIS. • Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) 2.0; go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=46794. • Database software that is 100-percent compatible with Microsoft SQL. To obtain Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (MSDE 2000) Release A, go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47366.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 Service Pack 1; go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47359. • Microsoft .NET Framework Version 1.1 Redistributable Package; go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47369. • Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1 Service Pack 1; go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47368.

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An alternative is to go to Windows Update at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? linkid=47370 and scan for Critical Updates and Service Packs. Install Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1 Service Pack 1 for Windows Server 2000.

Install and Configure IIS
Before installing WSUS, make sure you have Internet Information Services (IIS) installed. By default, WSUS uses the default Web site in IIS. WSUS Setup also gives you the option of creating a Web site on a custom port. If the IIS service (W3SVC) is stopped during WSUS installation, WSUS Setup starts the service. Likewise, if you install WSUS to the default Web site and the site is stopped, WSUS Setup starts it. To install IIS on Windows Server 2003 1. Click Start, point to Control Panel, and then click Add or Remove Programs. 2. Click Add/Remove Windows Components. 3. In the Components list, click Application Server. 4. Click OK, click Next, and then follow the instructions on the screen.

IIS Lockdown Tool
The information about IIS Lockdown Wizard can vary, depending on whether you are using Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000 Server. No matter which operating system you use, if you decide to use IIS Lockdown Tool on a server running WSUS, and you elect to use the URLScan tool, then you must edit the Urlscan.ini file to allow *.exe requests. After you edit this file, you must restart both IIS and the WSUS server. You can find the Urlscan.ini file in the \WINNT\System32\Inetserv\Urlscan folder on the boot drive of your computer.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services To edit the Urlscan.ini file 1. Open Urlscan.ini in a text editor. 2. Remove ".exe" from the [DenyExtensions] section. 3. Ensure that the following settings appear under the [AllowVerbs] section: • • • • GET HEAD POST OPTIONS

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Windows Server 2003 and IIS Lockdown Tool
You do not need to run the IIS Lockdown Wizard on computers running Windows Server 2003, because the functionality is built into that operating system.

Windows 2000 Server and IIS Lockdown Tool
If you are running IIS on a server running Windows 2000 Server, download and install the latest version of IIS Lockdown Tool from Microsoft TechNet at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=29896. WSUS Setup does not install this tool. Microsoft strongly recommends that you run the IIS Lockdown Wizard to help keep your servers running IIS secure. The IIS Lockdown Wizard turns off unnecessary features, thereby reducing vulnerability to attackers. If you install the IIS Lockdown Tool and the URLScan tool on a server running WSUS, you must also read and perform the steps in the following sections. IIS Lockdown Tool and WSUS on Windows 2000 When IIS Lockdown is installed on Windows 2000, it denies Execute permissions to %windir% folder, which then causes an error in the WSUS administrative console. To recover from this error, you must manually grant Read and Execute permissions to %windir%\Microsoft.net\Framework\V1.1.4322\Csc.exe. For more information, see this Knowledge Base article on the Microsoft Support site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=42681.

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Client Self-Update
WSUS uses IIS to automatically update most client computers to the WSUS-compatible Automatic Updates software. To accomplish this, WSUS Setup creates a virtual directory named Selfupdate, under the Web site running on port 80 of the computer where you install WSUS. This virtual directory, called the self-update tree, contains the WSUScompatible Automatic Updates software. The earlier Automatic Updates software included with SUS can only update itself if it finds the self-update tree on a Web server running on port 80. If you have Microsoft Windows XP without any service packs in your organization, you can find more information about the limitations of the client self-update feature in the "Updating Automatic Updates in Windows XP with no service packs" section in Update Automatic Updates.

Using the WSUS Custom Web Site
If you put the WSUS Web site on a custom port, you must have a Web site running on port 80. The Web site on port 80 does not have to be dedicated to WSUS. In fact, WSUS only uses the site on port 80 to host the self-update tree. Malicious programs can target the default port for HTTP traffic (port 80). If WSUS is using a custom port, you can temporarily shut down port 80 throughout your network, but still be able to distribute updates to combat malicious programs. For this reason, some administrators find it helpful to have the WSUS Web site on a custom port. If you already have a Web site on the computer where you intend to install WSUS, you should use the setup option for creating a custom Web site. This option puts the WSUS Web site on port 8530. This port is not configurable. If you are installing WSUS on a computer with a SUS installation, WSUS Setup will only let you install WSUS using the custom port. For more information about SUS to WSUS migration, see Migrate from a SUS Server to a WSUS Server later in this guide. Note: If you change the port number after WSUS installation, in order to access the WSUS administration console from a shortcut, you have to create a new shortcut on your Start menu with the new URL. See Help and Support in Windows Server 2003 for instruction on creating shortcuts. If you change the WSUS port number after WSUS installation, you must manually restart the IIS service.

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Accessing WSUS on a Custom Port
Because the custom WSUS Web site is not on port 80, you must use a custom URL to access the WSUS console and Web service. Use the following instructions to access the WSUS Web site and to configure WSUS when it is running on port 8530. • Include a custom port number in the URL directing the client computer to the WSUS server—for example, http://WSUSServerName:portnumber. • For more information about pointing client computers to the WSUS server, see Determine a Method to Configure Automatic Updates Clients later in this guide. • Include a custom port number in the URL for accessing the WSUS console—for example, http://WSUSServerame:portnumber/WSUSAdmin/. • If you set up any WSUS servers downstream of a server that uses a custom port number, you must enter the custom port number on the WSUS console on the downstream WSUS server. You do not form a URL to make this connection. You can find instructions for connecting a downstream WSUS server to an upstream WSUS server in Chain WSUS Servers Together.

Run WSUS Server Setup
After reviewing the previous topics, you are ready to install WSUS. You must log on with an account that is a member of the local Administrators group. Only members of the local Administrators group can install WSUS. If you want to do an unattended installation, see Appendix A: Unattended Installation later in this guide. Important: Be sure to read the WSUS Release Notes. Release notes often contain important late-breaking information about the release. Look for the WSUS Release Notes in the following location: WSUSInstallationDrive:\Program Files\Microsoft Windows Server Update Services\Documentation\En To install WSUS on your server 1. Double-click the installer file (WSUSSetup.exe). Note: The latest version of WSUSSetup.exe is available on the Microsoft Web site for

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Windows Server Update Services at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=47374. 1. On the Welcome page, click Next.

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2. Read the terms of the license agreement carefully, click I accept the terms of the License Agreement, and then click Next. 3. On the Select Update Source page, you can specify where client computers get updates. If you select Store updates locally, updates are stored on WSUS and you can select a location in the file system to store updates. If you do not store updates locally, client computers connect to Microsoft Update to get approved updates. Make your selection, and then click Next. For more information, see Determine Where to Store Updates earlier in this guide. Select Update Source Page

4. On the Database Options page, you select the software used to manage the WSUS database. By default, WSUS offers to install WMSDE to computers running

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Windows Server 2003. You can specify where WSUS installs WMSDE. To accept the default setting, click Install SQL Server desktop engine (Windows) on this computer. If you cannot use WMSDE, click Use an existing database server on this computer, and select the instance name from the drop-down list. Make your selection, and then click Next. For more information, see Choose the Database Used for WSUS earlier in this guide. Database Options Page

5. On the Web Site Selection page, you specify the Web site that WSUS will use. Note two important URLS: the URL to point client computers to WSUS and the URL for the WSUS console where you configure WSUS. Make your selection, and then click Next. For more information, see Install and Configure IIS earlier in this guide. Web Site Selection Page

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6. On the Mirror Update Settings page, you specify the management role for this WSUS server. If you want a central management topology, enter the name of the upstream WSUS server. If this is the first WSUS server on your network or you want a distributed management topology, skip this screen. Make your selection, and then click Next. For more information about management roles, see Choose a Management Style earlier in this guide. Mirror Update Settings Page

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7. On the Ready to Install Windows Server Update Services page, click Next. Ready to Install Windows Server Update Services Page

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8. If the final page of the wizard confirms that the WSUS installation was successfully completed, click Finish.

Configure the WSUS Server
After installing WSUS, you are ready to configure the server. During installation, WSUS Setup created a security group called WSUS Administrators for delegating privileges for managing WSUS. Add WSUS administrators to this group so that WSUS administrators do not have to be members of the local Administrators group to manage WSUS. In this guide • • • Access the WSUS Administration Console Configure WSUS to Use a Proxy Server Select Products and Classifications

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services • • • • • • • • Synchronize the WSUS Server Configure Advanced Synchronization Options Chain WSUS Servers Together Create a Replica Group Create Computer Groups for Computers Approve Updates Verify Update Deployment Secure Your WSUS Deployment

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Access the WSUS Administration Console
Use the following procedure to access the WSUS administration console. You can also open the administration console from Internet Explorer on any server or computer on your network by going to http://WSUSServerName[:portnumber]/WSUSAdmin/. You must be a member of the local Administrators group or the WSUS Administrators group on the server on which WSUS is installed in order to use the WSUS console. To open the WSUS console • On your WSUS server, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Microsoft Windows Server Update Services. Note: If you are running Windows Server 2003 and do not add http://WSUSWebsiteName to the list of sites in the Local Intranet zone in Internet Explorer, you might be prompted for credentials each time you open the WSUS console. If you change the port assignment in IIS after you install WSUS, you need to create a new shortcut on the Start menu to access WSUS from the Start menu.

Configure WSUS to Use a Proxy Server
If you use a proxy server on your network, use the WSUS console to configure WSUS to use the proxy server. This is necessary in order to synchronize the server with Microsoft Update.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services To specify a proxy server for synchronization 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. In the Proxy server box, click Use a proxy server when synchronizing, and then enter the server name, and port number (port 80 is the default) of the proxy server in the corresponding boxes.

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3. If you want to connect to the proxy server under specific user credentials, click Use user credentials to connect to the proxy server, and then enter the user name, domain, and password of the user in the corresponding boxes. If you want to enable basic authentication for the user connecting to the proxy server, click Allow basic authentication (password in clear text). 4. Under Tasks, click Save settings, and then click OK when the confirmation box appears.

Select Products and Classifications
After you specify the proxy server, you are ready to select the products you want to update and the types of updates you want to download. There is a description of why you might want to do this in "Filtering Updates," in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment earlier in this guide. To specify update products and classifications for synchronization 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. In the Products and Classifications box, under Products, click Change. 3. In the Add/Remove Products box, under Products, select the products or product families for the updates you want your WSUS server to download, and then click OK. 4. Under Update classifications, click Change. 5. In the Add/Remove Classifications box, under Classifications, select the update classifications for the updates you want your WSUS server to download, and then click OK.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Note: You may have to do an initial synchronization to get some products to appear in the list of product classifications.

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Synchronize the WSUS Server
After you select products and update classifications, you are ready to synchronize WSUS. The synchronization process involves downloading updates from Microsoft Update or another WSUS server. WSUS determines if any new updates have been made available since the last time you synchronized. If this is the first time you are synchronizing the WSUS server, all of the updates are made available for approval. To synchronize the WSUS server 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. Under Tasks, click Synchronize now. After the synchronization finishes, you can click Updates on the WSUS console toolbar to view the list of updates.

Configure Advanced Synchronization Options
Advanced synchronization features include various options to manage bandwidth and store updates. There is a description of each of these features, including reasons why these features are useful, and their limitations, in Determine Where to Store Updates and Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment earlier in this guide.

Update Storage Options
Use the Update Files section to determine if updates will be stored on WSUS or if client computers will connect to the Internet to get updates. There is a description of this feature in Determine Where to Store Updates earlier in this guide. To specify where updates are stored 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. Under Update Files and Languages, click Advanced, then read the warning and click OK.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 3. If you want to store updates in WSUS, in the Advanced Synchronization Options dialog box, under Update Files, click Store update files locally on this server. If you want clients to connect to the Internet to get updates, then click Do not store updates locally; clients install updates from Microsoft Update.

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Deferred Downloads Options
Use the Update Files section to determine if updates should be downloaded during synchronization or when the update is approved. Find a description of this feature in "Deferring the Download of Updates," in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment earlier in this guide. To specify whether updates are downloaded during synchronization or when the update is approved 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. Under Update Files and Languages, click Advanced, then read the warning and click OK. 3. If you want to download only metadata about the updates during synchronization, in the Advanced Synchronization Options dialog box, under Update Files, select the Download updates to this server only when updates are approved check box. If you want the update files and metadata during synchronization, clear the check box.

Express Installation Files Options
Use the Update Files section to determine if express installation files should be downloaded during synchronization. Find a description of this feature in “Using Express installation files,” in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment earlier in this paper. To specify whether express installation files are downloaded during synchronization 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. Under Update Files and Languages, click Advanced, then read the warning and click OK.

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3. If you want to download express installation files, in the Advanced Synchronization Options dialog box, under Update Files, select the Download express installation files check box. If you do not want express installation files, clear the check box.

Filtering Updates Options
Use the Languages section to select the language of the updates to synchronize. There is a description of this feature in “Filtering updates,” in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment earlier in this guide. To specify language options 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. Under Update Files and Languages, click Advanced, then read the warning and click OK. 3. In the Advanced Synchronization Options dialog box, under Languages, select one of the following language options, and then click OK. • Download only those updates that match the locale of this server (Locale) where Locale is the name of the server locale. This means that only updates targeted to the locale of the server will be downloaded during synchronization. • Download updates in all languages, including new languages This means that all languages will be downloaded during synchronization. If a new language is added, it will be automatically downloaded. • Download updates only in the selected languages This means that only updates targeted to the languages you select will be downloaded during synchronization. If you choose this option, you must also choose each language you want from the list of those available. Note: If you change language options, Microsoft recommends that you manually synchronize them between the centrally managed WSUS server and its replica servers. This avoids a situation where changing language options on the centrally managed server alone might result in the number of updates that are approved on it not matching the number approved on the replica servers.

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Chain WSUS Servers Together
There is a discussion of the benefits and limitations of this process in "Chain of WSUS Servers," in Choose a Type of Deployment earlier in this guide. To connect a downstream server to an upstream server 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. In the Update Source box, click Synchronize from an upstream Windows Server Update Services server, and then enter the server name and port number in the corresponding boxes. 3. Under Tasks, click Save settings, and then click OK when the confirmation box appears.

Create a Replica Group
A description of the benefits of creating a replica group is available in "Centralized Management," in Choose a Management Style earlier in this guide. To create a replica group for centralized management of multiple WSUS servers 1. Install WSUS on a computer at a site where it can be managed by an administrator. Follow the steps in Run WSUS Server Setup earlier in this guide. 2. Install WSUS on a computer at a remote site. Follow the steps in Run WSUS Server Setup earlier in this guide. When you get to the Mirror Update Settings page during WSUS setup, enter the name of the WSUS server from step 1. Mirror Setting Updates Page

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3. Repeat step 2 as necessary to add additional WSUS servers to the replica group.

Create Computer Groups for Computers
There is a description of why you may want to use this feature, as well as a discussion of limitations and default settings, in the "Using Computer Groups" section in Choose a Type of Deployment earlier in this guide.

Setting up Computer Groups
Setting up computer groups is a three-step process. First, specify how you are going to assign computers to the computer groups. There are two options: server-side targeting and client-side targeting. Server-side targeting involves manually adding each computer to its group. Client-side targeting involves automatically assigning the computers by using either Group Policy or registry keys. Second, create the computer group in WSUS. Third, move the computers into groups by using whichever method you chose in the first step.

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Step 1: Specify How to Assign Computers to Computer Groups
Use the WSUS console to specify whether you are using client-side or server-side targeting. To specify the method for assigning computers to groups 1. In the WSUS console, click Options, and then click Computer Options. 2. In the Computer Options box, select one of the following options: • Use the Move computers task in Windows Server Update Services if you want to create groups and assign computers through the WSUS console. • Use Group Policy or registry settings on client computers if you want to create groups and assign computers using Group Policy or by editing registry settings on the client computer. 3. Under Tasks, click Save settings, and click OK when the confirmation box appears.

Step 2: Create Computer Groups
Create the computer groups in WSUS. Whether you use client-side or server-side targeting, you must create the computer groups. To create a computer group 1. In the WSUS console toolbar, click Computers. 2. Under Tasks, click Create a computer group. 3. In the Group name box, type a name for your new computer group, and then click OK.

Step 3: Move the Computers
Use WSUS to move computers into groups or automate this task. To move a computer to a different group by using server-side targeting 1. In the WSUS console, click Computers. 2. In the Groups box, click the computer group of the computer you want to move. 3. In the list of computers, select the computer you want to move.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 4. Under Tasks, click Move the selected computer.

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5. In the Computer group list, select the computer group you want to move the computer to, and then click OK. To move a computer to a different group by using client-side targeting • Use Group Policy or registry to enable client-side targeting. For more information about how to configure the client computer, see Determine a Method to Configure Automatic Updates Clients. For more information about the clientside targeting setting, see the "Enable client-side targeting" section in Configure Automatic Updates by Using Group Policy, later in this guide.

Approve Updates
You should approve updates to test the functionality of your WSUS deployment. There are many options for deploying updates; the procedure below only covers the basics. Use WSUS Help or the "Microsoft Windows Update Services Operations Guide" to understand all your approval options. To approve multiple updates for installation 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Updates. 2. On the list of updates, select the multiple updates you want to approve for installation. 3. Under Update Tasks, click Approve for installation. The Approve Updates dialog box appears with the action for the Approve list set to Install for the All Computers group. 4. If you want to specify a different default approval setting for one or more groups, find the group for which you want to set the special approval setting in the Group approval settings for the selected updates box, select an approval setting from the Approval column, and then click OK. By default, all groups found on the WSUS server are initially set to match the settings for the All Computers group.

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Verify Update Deployment
When client computers check in with the WSUS server, you can use the WSUS reporting feature to determine if updates have been deployed. By default, client computers check in with WSUS every 22 hours, but this is configurable. For more information about configuring the time when client computers check in with WSUS, see the "Automatic Update detection frequency" section in Configure Automatic Updates by Using Group Policy later in this guide. To check the Status of Updates report 1. On the WSUS console toolbar, click Reports. 2. On the Reports page, click Status of Updates. 3. If you want to filter the list of displayed updates, under View, select the criteria you want to use, and then click Apply. 4. If you want to see the status of an update by computer group and then by computer, expand the view of the update as necessary. 5. If you want to print the Status of Updates report, under Tasks, click Print report.

Secure Your WSUS Deployment
This guide includes three ways to further enhance the security of your WSUS server: • Recommendations for hardening your Windows Server 2003 running WSUS.

• Recommendations for adding authentication between chained WSUS servers in an Active Directory environment. • Recommendations for implement Secure Sockets Layer protocol on WSUS.

Hardening your Windows Server 2003 running WSUS
You can find recommended settings for hardening your WSUS server in Appendix D: Security Settings. These recommendations include hardening a number of Windows Server components as well as IIS 6.0 and SQL Server 2000. If you are not running Windows Server 2003 or if you are not using SQL Server 2000 as your database software for WSUS, you may not be able to utilize all of these settings.

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Adding Authentication Between Chained WSUS Servers in an Active Directory Environment
You can add authentication for server-to-server synchronization. There are some limitations to enabling authentication. Any WSUS server you want to authenticate must be in an Active Directory environment. Also, if the WSUS servers are in different forests, there has to be trust between forests for this authentication method to succeed. Enabling authentication is a two-step process. First, you create a list of downstream WSUS servers allowed to authenticate with this WSUS server; add this list to a text file that was created when you originally installed WSUS. Second, in IIS, you disable anonymous access to the WSUS server. With completion of these two steps, only the downstream computers listed can synchronize with the WSUS server. Each of these steps is detailed below.

Step 1: Create an authentication list
WSUS setup creates a configuration file that enables you to add an explicit list of computers that have access to WSUS. You can find this file in the file system of the WSUS server at: %ProgramFiles%\Update Services\WebServices\Serversyncwebservice\Web.config Use the <authorization> element to define an authentication list. You must add the <authorization> element below the <configuration> and <system.web> elements. Consider the example below:
<configuration> <system.web> <authorization> <allow users="domain\computer_name,domain\computer_name" /> <deny users="*" /> </authorization> </configuration> </system.web>

Within opening and closing authorization tags, you specify a list of computers that are allowed a connection to the Web service. You must enter these computers as Domain\computer_name. If you want multiple computers, use a comma to separate the names. You can also specify an explicit list of computers that are denied access. Order in this list is important, as the evaluation stops with the first item that applies to the user. The XML schema for this list can be found on an MSDN Web site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47691.

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Step 2: Configure IIS
The next step is to configure IIS to disable anonymous access to the ServerSyncWebService virtual directory and enable Integrated Windows authentication. To configure IIS to disable anonymous access and enable Integrated Windows authentication for the WSUS ServerSynchWebService 1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrator Tools, and then click Internet Information Services Manager. 2. Expand the local computer node. 3. Expand the WSUS Web site node. 4. Right-click SeverSyncWebService, and then click Properties. 5. On the Directory Security tab, under Authentication and access control, click Edit. 6. In the Authentication Methods dialog box, clear the Enable anonymous access check box and select the Integrated Windows authentication check box. 7. Click OK twice.

Securing WSUS with Secure Sockets Layer
You can use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol to secure your WSUS deployment. WSUS uses SSL to allow client computers and downstream WSUS servers to authenticate the WSUS server. WSUS also uses SSL to encrypt metadata passed between clients and downstream WSUS servers. Note that WSUS only uses SSL for metadata. This is also the way Microsoft Update distributes updates. As discussed earlier in this guide, updates consist of two parts: metadata that describes what an update is useful for, and the files to install the update on a computer. Microsoft mitigates the risk of sending update files over an unencrypted channel by signing each update. In addition to signing each update, a hash is computed and sent with the metadata for each update. When an update is downloaded, WSUS checks the digital signature and hash. If the update has been tampered with, it is not installed.

Limitations of WSUS SSL Deployments
There are two limiting issues that administrators considering WSUS SSL deployments need to know about.

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Securing your WSUS deployment with SSL increases the workload of the server. You should plan for about a 10-percent loss of performance because of the additional cost of encrypting all metadata sent over the wire. If you are using remote SQL, the connection between the WSUS server and the server running the database is not secured with SSL. If the database connection must be secured, consider the following recommendations: • • Put the database on the WSUS server (the default WSUS configuration). Put the remote server running SQL and the WSUS server on a private network.

• Deploy Internet Protocol security (IPsec) on your network to secure network traffic. The Overview of IPsec Deployment page on the Microsoft Web site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=45154 offers guidance on how to deploy IPsec in your environment.

Configuring SSL on the WSUS Server
The most important thing to remember when configuring the WSUS server to use SSL is that WSUS requires two ports in this configuration: one for encrypting metadata with HTTPS and one for clear HTTP. When you configure IIS to use the certificate, keep the following points in mind: • You cannot set up the entire WSUS Web site to require SSL. This would mean that all traffic to the WSUS site would have to be encrypted, but WSUS only encrypts metadata traffic. When a client computer or another WSUS server attempted to get update files from WSUS, the transfer would fail because there is no way for WSUS to distribute the file by using plain HTTP. To keep WSUS Web site as secure as possible, only require SSL for the following virtual roots: • • • • • SimpleAuthWebService DSSAuthWebService ServerSyncWebService WSUSAdmin ClientWebService

To keep WSUS functioning, you should not require SSL for the following virtual roots: • Content

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• The certificate on downstream WSUS servers has to be imported into either the Local Computer's Trusted Root CA store or Windows Server Update Service's Trusted Root CA store. If the certificate is only imported to the Local User's Trusted Root CA store, the downstream WSUS server will fail server authentication on the upstream server. • You can use any port you like when you configure IIS to use SSL. However, the port you set up for SSL determines the port that WSUS uses for clear HTTP. Consider the following examples: • If you use the industry standard port of 443 for HTTPS traffic, then WSUS uses port 80 for clear HTTP traffic, which is the industry standard for HTTP. • If you use any other port for HTTPS traffic, WSUS assumes the clear HTTP traffic should be sent over the port that numerically precedes the port for HTTPS. For example, if you use port 8531 for HTTPS, WSUS uses 8530 for HTTP. Note: If you change the port number or want to use HTTPS to access the WSUS administration console, you have to create a new shortcut on your Start menu with the new URL in order to access the WSUS administration console from the Start menu. See Help and Support in Windows Server 2003 for information about creating shortcuts. Sample SSL URLs to Access WSUS Administrative Console This section includes sample URLs to use for accessing the WSUS administrative console when you have configured WSUS to use SSL. Accessing WSUS Administrative Console by Using Industry Standard Port Assignments for SSL If you were to install WSUS to the default site, and then set up SSL to use industry standard port assignments, you would use the following URL to access the WSUS administrative console over a secure connection: https://WSUSServerName/WSUSAdmin/ Note Remember that if you change WSUS port assignments after installation and you are using SSL, WSUS uses the rules noted above to assign a port for the HTTP protocol. Accessing WSUS Administrative Console by Using Custom Port Assignments for SSL

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If you were to install WSUS to the custom site, and then set up SSL to use a custom port assignment of 8531 for the SSL port, you would then use the following URL to access the WSUS administrative console by using a secure connection: https://WSUSServerName: 8531/WSUSAdmin/ Note You do not have to use 8531 for the SSL port. You can use any free port, but WSUS requires two ports for SSL: the port that you assign and the port that numerically precedes it. For example, if you pick 2424 for SSL port, WSUS would use 2424 for HTTPS and 2423 for HTTP.

Configuring SSL on Client Computers
There are two important caveats when configuring client computers: • You must include a URL for a secure port that the WSUS server is listening on. Because you cannot require SSL on the server, the only way to ensure that client computers use a secure channel is to make sure they use a URL that specifies HTTPS. If you are using any port other than 443 for SSL, you must include that port in the URL, too. For example, you might use https://ssl-servername:3051 to point clients to a WSUS server that is using a custom SSL port of 3051. Likewise, you might use https://ssl-servername for a WSUS server that is using port 443 for HTTPS. For more information about how to point client computers to the WSUS server, see "Specify intranet Microsoft Update service location" in Configure Automatic Updates by Using Group Policy later in this guide. • The certificate on client computers has to be imported into either the Local Computer's Trusted Root CA store or Automatic Update Service's Trusted Root CA store. If the certificate is only imported to the Local User's Trusted Root CA store Automatic Updates will fail server authentication. • Your client computers must trust the certificate you bind to the WSUS server in IIS. Depending upon the type of certificate you are using, you may have to set up a service to enable the clients to trust the certificate bound to the WSUS server. For more information, see "Further Reading" later in this section. Sample SSL URLs to Point Automatic Updates to WSUS This section includes sample URLs to use to point Automatic Updates to WSUS when you have configured WSUS to use SSL.

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Point Automatic Updates to WSUS Using Industry Standard Port Assignments for SSL If you were to install WSUS to the default site, and then set up SSL to use industry standard port assignments, you would use the following URL to point Automatic Updates to WSUS server: https://WSUSServerName Point Automatic Updates to WSUS Using Custom Port Assignments for SSL If you were to install WSUS to the custom site, and then set up SSL to use a custom port assignment of 8531 for the SSL port, you would use the following URL to point Automatic Updates to WSUS server: https://WSUSServerName: 8531

Configuring SSL for Downstream WSUS Servers
The following instructions are for configuring a downstream server to synchronize to an upstream server that is using SSL. To connect a downstream server to an upstream server set up to use SSL 1. In the WSUS console toolbar, click Options, and then click Synchronization Options. 2. In the Update Source box, click Synchronize from an upstream Windows Server Update Services server, enter the name of the upstream server and the port number it uses for SSL connections, and then select the Use SSL when synchronizing update information check box. 3. Under Tasks, click Save settings, and then click OK when the confirmation dialog box appears.

Further Reading on SSL
Setting up a Certification Authority (CA), binding a certificate to the WSUS Web site, and then bootstrapping client computers to trust the certificate on the WSUS Web site are complex administrative tasks. The step-by-step procedures for each task are beyond the scope of this guide. However, several articles on the subject are available. For more information and instructions on how to install certificates and set up your environment, see the following pages on the Microsoft Web site.

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• The Windows Server 2003 PKI Operations Guide page on TechNet at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47272 provides a guide for administrators on how to configure and operate a Windows Certification Authority. • The How To Set Up SSL on a Web Server page on MSDN at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=41454 offers step-by-step instruction on setting up SSL on a Web site. • The Certificate Autoenrollment in Windows Server 2003 page on TechNet at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47373 offers instruction on how to automatically enroll client computers running Windows XP in Windows Server 2003 Enterprise environments integrated with Active Directory. • The Advanced Certificate Enrollment and Management page on TechNet at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47395 offers guidance on how to automatically enroll client computers in other environments.

Update and Configure the Automatic Updates Client Component
After planning the deployment, and installing and configuring the WSUS server, you are ready to work with the client computers. You can use Group Policy or the registry to configure Automatic Updates. Configuring Automatic Updates involves pointing the client computers to the WSUS server, making sure that the Automatic Updates software is upto-date, and configuring any additional environment settings. In this guide • • • • Client Component Requirements Update Automatic Updates Determine a Method to Configure Automatic Updates Clients Manipulate Automatic Updates Behavior Using Command-line Options

Client Component Requirements
Automatic Updates is the WSUS client software. Other than a network connection, Automatic Updates requires no particular hardware configuration. It can be used with WSUS on any computer that runs any of the following operating systems:

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• Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional with Service Pack 3 (SP3) or Service Pack 4 (SP4), Windows 2000 Server with SP3 or SP4, or Windows 2000 Advanced Server with SP3 or SP4 • Microsoft Windows XP Professional, with or without Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2 • Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition; Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition; Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition; Windows Server 2003, Web Edition

Update Automatic Updates
WSUS requires the WSUS client, a version of Automatic Updates compatible with WSUS. Computers running Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2) already have the WSUS client installed. If you have been using Software Update Services (SUS) to distribute updates, you might have the SUS client installed; however, you might also have the WSUS client in your environment and not know it. This is because you can install the new WSUS client on the same computer as the old SUS client and both clients will function; however, both cannot function simultaneously. If you point the WSUS client to a SUS server, the WSUS client hibernates and allows the SUS client to function, complete with the old user interface. If you used SUS to deploy Windows XP with SP2, you cannot see the new Automatic Updates user interface. This is called side-by-side mode. None of the new WSUS client functionality is available in sideby-side mode. If you do not have Windows XP with SP2, you must update Automatic Updates by using the client self-update feature.

Automatic Updates Client Self-Update Feature
With the advent of the original client software for SUS, each time Automatic Updates checks the public Web site or internal server for updates, it also checks for updates to itself. This means that most versions of Automatic Updates can be pointed to the public Windows Update site and they will automatically self-update. You can also use the WSUS server to self-update the client software. For specifics, see the "Client Self-Update" section in Install and Configure IIS earlier in this guide. The self-updating client software is available on the following operating systems: • Windows 2000 with Service Pack 3 or Service Pack 4

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services • • Windows XP with Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2 Windows Server 2003

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Updating Automatic Updates in Windows XP with No Service Packs
Windows XP with no service packs has Automatic Updates installed, but it will not automatically update itself when pointed to the WSUS server. If you have Windows XP without any service packs in your environment, and have never used SUS, you must install the SUS client software to enable Automatic Updates to self-update. After you load the SUS client, you can point these clients to the server running WSUS. If the client selfupdate feature is configured on port 80 of the WSUS server, the SUS client will find the WSUS client software and self-update. For more information about the client self-update feature, see "Client Self-Update," in Install and Configure IIS earlier in this guide. To obtain the SUS client installer, go to the Automatic Updates June 2002 page on the Microsoft Web site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=22338.

Determine a Method to Configure Automatic Updates Clients
You can find the Automatic Updates user interface in Control Panel, but it appears in different administrative tools in Control Panel depending upon the operating system. In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, it appears as a tab in the System administrative tool. In Windows 2000, Automatic Updates has its own administrative tool in Control Panel. Although Automatic Updates has its own user interface, you do not have to use this interface to configure Automatic Updates for WSUS. In fact, you cannot use the Automatic Updates user interface to point Automatic Updates to WSUS. This section describes the options available to you for configuring Automatic Updates. How best to configure Automatic Updates and WSUS environment options depends upon your network environment. In an Active Directory environment, you would use Group Policy. In a non-Active Directory environment, you might use the Local Group Policy object or edit the registry directly. Administrator-defined configuration options driven by Group Policy—whether set with Group Policy in an Active Directory environment or via the registry or Local Group Policy object—always take precedence over user-defined options. When you use administrative policies to configure Automatic Updates, the Automatic Updates user interface is disabled on the target computer. If you configure Automatic Updates to notify the user of updates that are ready to be downloaded, it sends the notification to the System log and to a logged-on administrator

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of the computer. You can use Group Policy to enable non-administrators to get this message. If no user with administrator credentials is logged on and you have not enabled non-administrators to get notifications, Automatic Updates waits for an administrator to log on before offering the notification. By default every 22 hours, minus a random offset, Automatic Updates polls the WSUS server for approved updates; if any new updates need to be installed, they are downloaded. The amount of time between each detection cycle can be manipulated from 1 to 22 hours by using Group Policy. You can manipulate the notification options as follows: • If Automatic Updates is configured to notify the user of updates that are ready to install, the notification is sent to the System log and to the notification area of the client computer. • When a user with appropriate credentials clicks the notification-area icon, Automatic Updates displays the available updates to install. In this case, a user with the appropriate credentials is either a logged-on administrator or a non-administrator granted appropriate credentials by means of Group Policy. The user must then click Install so the installation can proceed. A message appears if the update requires the computer to be restarted to complete the update. If a restart is requested, Automatic Updates cannot detect additional updates until the computer is restarted. If Automatic Updates is configured to install updates on a set schedule, applicable updates are downloaded and marked as ready to install. Automatic Updates notifies users having appropriate credentials via a notification-area icon, and an event is logged to the System log. This indicates that the user can install updates. At the scheduled day and time, Automatic Updates installs the update and restarts the computer (if necessary), even if there is no local administrator logged on. If a local administrator is logged on and the computer requires a restart, Automatic Updates displays a warning and a countdown for when the computer will restart. Otherwise, the installation occurs in the background. If it is required to restart the computer, and any user is logged on, a similar countdown dialog box is displayed, warning the logged-on user about the impending restart. You can manipulate computer restarts with Group Policy. After the new updates are downloaded, Automatic Updates polls the WSUS server again for the list of approved packages to confirm that the packages it downloaded are still valid and approved. This means that if a WSUS administrator removes updates from the list of approved updates while Automatic Updates is downloading updates, only the updates that are still approved are actually installed. In this guide

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Configure Automatic Updates by Using Group Policy
When you configure the Group Policy settings for WSUS, use a Group Policy object (GPO) linked to an Active Directory container appropriate for your environment. Microsoft does not recommend editing the Default Domain or Default Domain Controller GPOs to add WSUS settings. In a simple environment, link the GPO with the WSUS settings to the domain. In more complex environment, you might have multiple GPOs linked to several organizational units (OUs), which enables you to have different WSUS policy settings applied to different types of computers. After you set up a client computer, it will take a few minutes before it appears on the Computers page in the WSUS console. For client computers configured with an Active Directory-based GPO, it will take about 20 minutes after Group Policy refreshes (that is, applies any new settings to the client computer). By default, Group Policy refreshes in the background every 90 minutes, with a random offset of 0 to 30 minutes. If you want to refresh Group Policy sooner, you can go to a command prompt on the client computer and type: gpupdate /force. Note: On client computers running Windows 2000, you can type the following at a command prompt: secedit /refreshpolicy machine_policy enforce. The following is a list of the Group Policy options available for configuring WSUS-related items in the environment. Note: In Windows 2000, Group Policy Object Editor is known as Group Policy Editor. Although the name changed, it is the same tool for editing Group Policy objects. It is also commonly referred to as gpedit.

Load the WSUS Administrative Template
Before you can set any Group Policy options for WSUS, you must ensure that the latest administrative template has been loaded on the computer used to administer Group Policy. The administrative template with WSUS settings is named Wuau.adm. Although there are additional Group Policy settings related to the Windows Update Web site, all the new Group Policy settings for WSUS are contained within the Wuau.adm file.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services If the computer you are using to configure Group Policy has the latest version of Wuau.adm, you do not need to load the file to configure settings. The new version of Wuau.adm is available on Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Administrative templates files are stored by default in the %windir%\Inf directory. Important: You can find the correct version of Wuau.adm on any computer having the WSUS-compatible Automatic Updates installed. You can use the old version of Wuau.adm to initially point Automatic Updates to the WSUS server in order to self-update. After the Automatic Updates self-updates, the new Wuau.adm file appears in the %windir%\Inf folder.

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If the computer you are using to configure Group Policy does not have the latest version of Wuau.adm, you must first load it by using the following procedure. To add the WSUS Administrative Template 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, click either of the Administrative Templates nodes. 2. On the Action menu, click Add/Remove Templates. 3. Click Add. 4. In the Policy Templates dialog box, select Wuau.adm, and then click Open. 5. In the Add/Remove Templates dialog box, click Close.

Configure Automatic Updates
The settings for this policy enable you to configure how Automatic Updates works. You must specify that Automatic Updates download updates from the WSUS server rather than from Windows Update. To configure the behavior of Automatic Updates 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Configure Automatic Updates. 3. Click Enabled and select one of the following options: • Notify for download and notify for install. This option notifies a logged-on administrative user prior to the download and prior to the

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• Auto download and notify for install. This option automatically begins downloading updates and then notifies a logged-on administrative user prior to installing the updates. • Auto download and schedule the install. If Automatic Updates is configured to perform a scheduled installation, you must also set the day and time for the recurring scheduled installation. • Allow local admin to choose setting. With this option, the local administrators are allowed to use Automatic Updates in Control Panel to select a configuration option of their choice. For example, they can choose their own scheduled installation time. Local administrators are not allowed to disable Automatic Updates. 4. Click OK.

Specify Intranet Microsoft Update Service Location
The settings for this policy enable you to configure a WSUS server that Automatic Updates will contact for updates. You must enable this policy in order for Automatic Updates to download updates from the WSUS server. Enter the WSUS server HTTP(S) URL twice, so that the server specified for updates is also used for reporting client events. For example, type http(s)://servername in both boxes. Both URLs are required. To redirect Automatic Updates to a WSUS server 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Specify Intranet Microsoft update service location. 3. Click Enabled and type the HTTP(S) URL of the same WSUS server in the Set the intranet update service for detecting updates box and in the Set the intranet statistics server box. For example, type http(s)://servername in both boxes. 4. Click OK.

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Enable Client-side Targeting
This policy enables client computers to self-populate computer groups that exist on the WSUS server. If the status is set to Enabled, the specified computer group information is sent to WSUS, which uses it to determine which updates should be deployed to this computer. This setting is only capable of indicating to the WSUS server which group the client computer should use. You must actually create the group on the WSUS server. If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, no computer group information will be sent to WSUS. To enable client-side targeting 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Enable client-side targeting. 3. Click Enabled and type the name of the computer group in the box. 4. Click OK.

Reschedule Automatic Update Scheduled Installations
This policy specifies the amount of time for Automatic Updates to wait, following system startup, before proceeding with a scheduled installation that was missed previously. If the status is set to Enabled, a scheduled installation that did not take place earlier will occur the specified number of minutes after the computer is next started. If the status is set to Disabled, a missed scheduled installation will occur with the next scheduled installation. If the status is set to Not Configured, a missed scheduled installation will occur one minute after the computer is next started. This policy applies only when Automatic Updates is configured to perform scheduled installations of updates. If the Configure Automatic Updates policy is disabled, this policy has no effect. To reschedule Automatic Update scheduled installation 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Reschedule Automatic Update scheduled installations, click Enable, and type a value in minutes. 3. Click OK.

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No Auto-restart for Scheduled Automatic Update Installation Options
This policy specifies that to complete a scheduled installation, Automatic Updates will wait for the computer to be restarted by any user who is logged on, instead of causing the computer to restart automatically. If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will not restart a computer automatically during a scheduled installation if a user is logged on to the computer. Instead, Automatic Updates will notify the user to restart the computer in order to complete the installation. Be aware that Automatic Updates will not be able to detect future updates until the restart occurs. If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, Automatic Updates will notify the user that the computer will automatically restart in 5 minutes to complete the installation. This policy applies only when Automatic Updates is configured to perform scheduled installations of updates. If the Configure Automatic Updates policy is disabled, this policy has no effect. To inhibit auto-restart for scheduled Automatic Update installation options 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click No auto-restart for scheduled Automatic Update installation options, and set the option. 3. Click OK.

Automatic Update Detection Frequency
This policy specifies the hours that Windows will use to determine how long to wait before checking for available updates. The exact wait time is determined by using the hours specified here, minus 0 to 20 percent of the hours specified. For example, if this policy is used to specify a 20-hour detection frequency, then all WSUS clients to which this policy is applied will check for updates anywhere between 16 and 20 hours.

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If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will check for available updates at the specified interval. If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, Automatic Updates will check for available updates at the default interval of 22 hours. To set Automatic Update detection frequency 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Automatic Update detection frequency, and set the option. 3. Click OK.

Allow Automatic Update Immediate Installation
This policy specifies whether Automatic Updates should automatically install certain updates that neither interrupt Windows services nor restart Windows. If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will immediately install these updates after they have been downloaded and are ready to install. If the status is set to Disabled, such updates will not be installed immediately. To allow Automatic Update immediate installation 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Allow Automatic Update immediate installation, and set the option. 3. Click OK.

Delay Restart for Scheduled Installations
This policy specifies the amount of time for Automatic Updates to wait before proceeding with a scheduled restart. If the status is set to Enabled, a scheduled restart will occur the specified number of minutes after the installation is finished. If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, the default wait time is five minutes.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services To delay restart for scheduled installations 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update.

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2. In the details pane, click Delay restart for scheduled installations, and set the option. 3. Click OK.

Re-prompt for Restart with Scheduled Installations
This policy specifies the amount of time for Automatic Updates to wait before prompting the user again for a scheduled restart. If the status is set to Enabled, a scheduled restart will occur the specified number of minutes after the previous prompt for restart was postponed. If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, the default interval is 10 minutes. To re-prompt for restart with scheduled installations 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Re-prompt for restart with scheduled installations, and set the option. 3. Click OK.

Allow Non-administrators to Receive Update Notifications
This policy specifies whether logged-on non-administrative users will receive update notifications based on the configuration settings for Automatic Updates. If Automatic Updates is configured, by policy or locally, to notify the user either before downloading or only before installation, these notifications will be offered to any non-administrator who logs onto the computer. If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will include non-administrators when determining which logged-on user should receive notification. If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, Automatic Updates will notify only logged-on administrators.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services To allow non-administrators to receive update notifications 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows Update. 2. In the details pane, click Allow non-administrators to receive update notifications, and set the option. 3. Click OK. Note: This policy setting does not allow non-administrative Terminal Services users to restart the remote computer where they are logged in. This is because, by default, non-administrative Terminal Services users do not have computer restart privileges.

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Remove Links and Access to Windows Update
If this setting is enabled, Automatic Updates receives updates from the WSUS server. Users who have this policy set cannot get updates from a Windows Update Web site that you have not approved. If this policy is not enabled, the Windows Update icon remains on the Start menu for local administrators to visit the Windows Update Web site. Local administrative users can use it to install unapproved software from the public Windows Update Web site. This happens even if you have specified that Automatic Updates must get approved updates from your WSUS server. To remove links and access to Windows Update 1. In Group Policy Object Editor, expand User Configuration, expand Administrative Templates, and then click Start Menu and Taskbar. 2. In the details pane, click Remove links and access to Windows Update, and set the option. 3. Click OK.

Configure Automatic Updates in a Non–Active Directory Environment
In a non-Active Directory environment, you can configure Automatic Updates by using any of the following methods:

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services • • Using Group Policy Object Editor and editing the Local Group Policy object Editing the registry directly by using the registry editor (Regedit.exe)

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• Centrally deploying these registry entries by using System Policy in Windows NT 4.0 style

WSUS Environment Options
The registry entries for the WSUS environment options are located in the following subkey: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate The keys and their value ranges are listed in the following table. Windows Update Agent Environment Options Registry Keys Entry Name ElevateNonAdmins Values Range = 1|0 1 = Users in the Users security group are allowed to approve or disapprove updates. 0 = Only users in the Administrators user group can approve or disapprove updates. TargetGroup Name of the computer group to which the computer belongs, used to implement client-side targeting—for example, "TestServers." This policy is paired with TargetGroupEnabled. Range = 1|0 1 = Use client-side targeting. 0 = Do not use client-side targeting. This policy is paired with TargetGroup. Reg_String Data Type Reg_DWORD

TargetGroupEnabled

Reg_DWORD

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Entry Name WUServer Values HTTP(S) URL of the WSUS server used by Automatic Updates and (by default) API callers. This policy is paired with WUStatusServer; both must be set to the same value in order for them to be valid. Data Type Reg_String

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WUStatusServer

The HTTP(S) URL of the Reg_String server to which reporting information will be sent for client computers that use the WSUS server configured by the WUServer key. This policy is paired with WUServer; both must be set to the same value in order for them to be valid.

Automatic Update Configuration Options
The registry entries for the Automatic Update configuration options are located in the following subkey: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate\A U The keys and their value ranges are listed in the following table.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Automatic Updates Configuration Registry Keys Entry Name AUOptions Value Range and Meanings Range = 2|3|4|5 2 = Notify before download. 3 = Automatically download and notify of installation. 4 = Automatic download and scheduled installation. (Only valid if values exist for ScheduledInstallDay and ScheduledInstallTime.) 5 = Automatic Updates is required, but end users can configure it. AutoInstallMinorUpdates Range = 0|1 0 = Treat minor updates like other updates. 1 = Silently install minor updates. DetectionFrequency Range=n; where n=time in hours (1-22). Time between detection cycles. DetectionFrequencyEnabled Range = 0|1 1 = Enable DetectionFrequency. 0 = Disable custom DetectionFrequency (use default value of 22 hours). Data Type

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Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Entry Name NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers Value Range and Meanings Range = 0|1; 1 = Logged-on user gets to choose whether or not to restart his or her computer. 0 = Automatic Updates notifies user that the computer will restart in 5 minutes. NoAutoUpdate Range = 0|1 0 = Enable Automatic Updates. 1 = Disable Automatic Updates. RebootRelaunchTimeout Range=n; where n=time in minutes (1-1440). Time between prompting again for a scheduled restart. RebootRelaunchTimeoutEnabled Range = 0|1 1 = Enable RebootRelaunchTimeout. 0 = Disable custom RebootRelaunchTimeout(use default value of 10 minutes). RebootWarningTimeout Range=n; where n=time in minutes (1-30). Length, in minutes, of the restart warning countdown after installing updates with a deadline or scheduled updates. RebootWarningTimeoutEnabled Range = 0|1 1 = Enable RebootWarningTimeout. 0 = Disable custom RebootWarningTimeout (use default value of 5 minutes). Data Type

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Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Entry Name RescheduleWaitTime Value Range and Meanings Range=n; where n=time in minutes (1-60). Time, in minutes, that Automatic Updates should wait at startup before applying updates from a missed scheduled installation time. Note that this policy applies only to scheduled installations, not deadlines. Updates whose deadlines have expired should always be installed as soon as possible. RescheduleWaitTimeEnabled Range = 0|1 1 = Enable RescheduleWaitTime 0 = Disable RescheduleWaitTime(attempt the missed installation during the next scheduled installation time). ScheduledInstallDay Range = 0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7 0 = Every day. 1 through 7 = The days of the week from Sunday (1) to Saturday (7). (Only valid if AUOptions equals 4.) ScheduledInstallTime UseWUServer Range = n; where n = the time of day in 24-hour format (0-23). The WUServer value is not respected unless this key is set. Data Type

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Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD Reg_DWORD

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Manipulate Automatic Updates Behavior Using Command-line Options
There are two documented command-line options used for manipulating Automatic Updates behavior. These options are meant to be run from a command prompt. They are helpful for testing and troubleshooting client computers. For comprehensive troubleshooting information for problems with both the WSUS server and client computers, see "Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Operations Guide."

Detectnow Option
Because waiting for detection to start can be a time-consuming process, an option has been added to allow you to initiate detection right away. On one of the computers with the new Automatic Update client installed, run the following command at the command prompt: wuauclt.exe /detectnow

Resetauthorization Option
WSUS uses a cookie on client computers to store various types of information, including computer group membership when client-side targeting is used. By default this cookie expires an hour after WSUS creates it. If you are using client-side targeting and change group membership, use this option in combination with detectnow to expire the cookie, initiate detection, and have WSUS update computer group membership. Note that when combining parameters, you can use them only in the order specified as follows: wuauclt.exe /resetauthorization /detectnow

Set Up a Disconnected Network (Import and Export Updates)
Managing WSUS on a disconnected network involves exporting updates and metadata from a WSUS server on a connected network and then importing all that information into the WSUS server on the disconnected network. There is a conceptual discussion of why this might be useful in the "Networks Disconnected from the Internet" section in Choose a Type of Deployment earlier in this guide.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Note: You cannot import updates to a server that is being centrally managed. WSUS servers on disconnected networks are always autonomously managed.

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There are three steps to accomplishing an import and export. First, make sure advanced synchronization options for the express installation files feature and languages on the export server match the settings on the import server. This ensures that you collect the type of updates you intend to distribute. For example, if you did not select the option for express installation files on the export server, but did have the express installation file option selected on the import server, you would not be able to distribute updates by using express installation files, because none were initially collected on the export server. A mismatch of language settings can have a similar effect. You do not have to concern yourself with matching settings for schedule, products and classifications, source, or proxy server, since the import operation itself overcomes the need for these settings. The setting for deferred download of updates has no effect on the import server. If you are using the option for deferred downloads on the export server, you must approve the updates so they can be downloaded prior to taking the next step, which is migrating updates to the import server. Second, copy updates from the file system of the export server to the file system of the import server. By default, updates are stored in the following folder: WSUSInstallationDrive:\WSUS\WSUSContent\ You can use the Windows Backup Utility or whatever backup software your organization is familiar with to copy the files. When you copy files to the import server, you must maintain the folder structure for all folders under \WSUSContent. Make sure that the updates appear in the folder on the import server that has been designated to store updates; this designation is typically made during the setup process. You should also consider using an incremental backup system to limit the amount of data you need to move each time you refresh the server on the disconnected network. Third, export update metadata from the database on the export server, and import it into the database on the import server. You accomplish the metadata import and export by using the command-line utility WSUSutil.exe mentioned in Migration Command-line Tool. You can find WSUSutil.exe in the tools subfolder where you installed WSUS. You must be a member of the local Administrators group on the WSUS server to export or import metadata; both operations can only be run from the WSUS server itself. You can only run WSUSutil.exe on a 32-bit platform. You should copy updates to the file system of the import server before you import metadata. If WSUS finds metadata for an update that is not in the file system, the WSUS console shows that the update failed to be downloaded. This type of problem can be

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services fixed by copying the update onto the file system of the import server and then again attempting to deploy the update.

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Although you can use incremental backups to move update files onto the import server, you cannot move update metadata piecemeal. WSUSutil.exe exports all the metadata in the WSUS database during the export operation. In this guide • • • Step 1 Import and Export: Matching Advanced Options Step 2 Import and Export: Copying Updates from File System Step 3 Import and Export: Copying Metadata from Database

Step 2 Import and Export: Copying Updates from File System
Copy updates from the file system of the export server to the file system of the import server. These procedures use the Windows Backup or Restore Wizard, but you can use any utility you like. The object is to copy updates from the file system on the export server to the files system of the import server. Important: The initial settings for access control lists differ between Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. If you are copying content from Windows 2000 Server to Windows Server 2003, you have to manually add the Network Service group to the access control list for the folder where updates are stored. Give the Network Service group Full Control. To back up updates from file system of export server to a file 1. On your export WSUS server, click Start, and then click Run. 2. In the Run dialog box, type ntbackup. The Backup or Restore Wizard starts by default, unless it is disabled. You can use this wizard or click the link to work in Advanced Mode and use the following steps. 3. Click the Backup tab, and then specify the folder where updates are stored on the export server. By default, WSUS stores updates at WSUSInstallationDrive:\WSUS\WSUSContent\. 4. In Backup media or file name, type a path and file name for the backup (.bkf) file.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 5. Click Start Backup. The Backup Job Information dialog box appears. 6. Click Advanced. Under Backup Type, click Incremental. 7. From the Backup Job Information dialog box, click Start Backup to start the backup operation. 8. Move the backup file you just created to the import server. To restore updates from a file to the file system of the import server 1. On your import WSUS server, click Start, and then click Run.

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2. In the Run dialog box, type ntbackup. The Backup or Restore Wizard starts by default, unless it is disabled. You can use this wizard or click the link to work in Advanced Mode and use the following steps. 3. Click the Restore and Manage Media tab, and select the backup file you created on the export server. If the file does not appear, right-click File, and then click Catalog File to add the location of the file. 4. In Restore files to, click Alternate location. This option preserves the folder structure of the updates; all folders and subfolders will appear in the folder you designate. You must maintain the directory structure for all folders under \WSUSContent. 5. Under Alternate location, specify the folder where updates are stored on the import server. By default, WSUS stores updates at WSUSInstallationDrive:\WSUS\WSUSContent\. Updates must appear in the folder on the import server designated to hold updates; this is typically done during installation. 6. Click Start Restore. When the Confirm Restore dialog box appears, click OK to start the restore operation.

Step 1 Import and Export: Matching Advanced Options
Ensure that advanced synchronization options for express installation files and languages on the export server match the settings on the import server.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services To ensure that advanced synchronization options on export server match settings on import server 1. In the WSUS console of the export server, click the Options tab, and then click Advanced in the Update Files and Languages section.

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2. In the Advanced Synchronization Settings dialog box, check the status of the settings for Download express installation files and Languages options. 3. In the WSUS console of the import server, click the Options tab, and then click Advanced in the Update Files and Languages section. 4. In the Advanced Synchronization Settings dialog box, make sure the settings for Download express installation files and Languages options match the selections on the export server. For more information about these advanced synchronization options, see the topics, "Using Express Installation Files" and "Filtering Updates," in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use for Your Deployment earlier in this guide.

Step 3 Import and Export: Copying Metadata from Database
Export update metadata from the database on the export server, and import it into the database on the import server. The WSUS Setup program copies WSUSutil.exe to the file system of the WSUS server during installation. You must be a member of the local Administrators group on the WSUS server to export or import metadata; both operations can only be run from the WSUS server itself. Important: Never import exported data from a source that you do not trust. Importing content from a source you do not trust might compromise the security of your WSUS server. Note: During the import or export process, the Update Service, the Windows NT service that underpins the WSUS application, is shut down. To export metadata from the database of the export server 1. At the command prompt on the export server, navigate to the folder that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following:

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services wsusutil.exe export packagename logfile For example: wsusutil.exe export export.cab export.log That is, WSUSutil.exe followed by the export command, the name of an export .cab file, a space, and the name of a log file.

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The package (.cab file) and log file name must be unique. WSUSutil.exe creates these two files as it exports metadata from the WSUS database. 3. Move the export package you just created to the import server. To import metadata to the database of the import server 1. At the command prompt on the import server, navigate to the directory that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe import packagename logfile For example: wsusutil.exe import export.cab import.log That is, WSUSutil.exe followed by the import command, the name of export .cab file created during the export operation, a space, and the name of a log file. WSUSutil.exe imports the metadata from the export server and creates a log file of the operation. Note: It can take from 3 to 4 hours for the database to validate content that has just been imported. Please be patient.

Migrate from a SUS Server to a WSUS Server
This section discusses migrating from a Software Update Services (SUS) server to a Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) server. The "Windows Server Update Services Operations Guide" includes other types of migration documentation, such as

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services migrating from MSDE or WMSDE to Microsoft SQL Server, or moving the WSUS database from one SQL server to another SQL server.

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WSUS is the next iteration of SUS. Although you cannot upgrade a SUS server to a WSUS server, there is support for migrating your approvals and updates from SUS to the new WSUS server. This ensures that you do not have to download the same updates twice, nor spend time approving previously approved updates. If you are using multiple SUS servers to target updates to computers fulfilling specific roles on the network, you can map SUS approvals to WSUS computer groups as you migrate the approvals. This allows you to consolidate multiple SUS servers on a single WSUS server. It is simple to introduce WSUS into your production environment. You can install WSUS and SUS on the same computer and both will function. You can also have SUS and WSUS environments running simultaneously on your network. However, you can never synchronize a SUS server with a WSUS server or vice versa. Beyond the migration, the two update solutions are completely isolated from one another. This enables you to test WSUS in your production environment while relying on SUS to update client computers. When WSUS testing is complete and you are comfortable with the new solution, you can decommission SUS. There are some limitations to SUS-to-WSUS migration. Migration is only for approvals and updates on the SUS server. You cannot migrate anything else, such as proxy-server or IIS settings. These types of configuration tasks must be completed independently on the WSUS server. Also, migration is a one-way process; you cannot migrate from WSUS back to SUS. Also note that if approvals are created on the WSUS server before approval migration is performed, the explicitly created approvals are overwritten by the migration of approvals. In this guide • • • • Migration Command-line Tool Two Migration Scenarios Same-server Migration Remote Server Migration

Migration Command-line Tool
WSUSutil.exe is a command-line tool that enables you to migrate from SUS to WSUS, among other things. You can find WSUSutil.exe in the Tools subfolder where you installed WSUS. By default, it appears in the following location: WSUS install drive:\Program Files\Microsoft Windows Server Update Services\Tools

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You must be a member of the local Administrators group on the WSUS server to import approvals or content from SUS. These operations can only be run from the WSUS server itself. You can only run WSUSutil.exe on a 32-bit platform. SUS does not have to be running to move updates or approvals. Although WSUSutil.exe allows you to move both approvals and updates, you are not required to migrate one, the other, or both. WSUSutil.exe uses HTTP to get approvals and SMB to copy updates from a remote SUS installation. To copy updates from a remote computer, this tool requires Read share permissions on the Content folder and all its subfolders.

Two Migration Scenarios
There are two basic SUS-to-WSUS migration scenarios:. • • Installing WSUS on the SUS computer and migrating content and approvals Installing WSUS on a different computer and migrating content and approvals

Depending on your current SUS infrastructure and goals for WSUS, you might need to use both of these scenarios. For example, if you have two SUS servers and want to install WSUS on one and then consolidate the other, you would have to use steps from both migration procedures to achieve your goal. These processes are shown in the "Comparison of SUS to WSUS Migration Scenarios" illustration.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Comparison of SUS to WSUS Migration Scenarios

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Same-server Migration
The same-server migration procedure is a four-step process, with an optional step for testing. If you intend to utilize the SUS server to deploy WSUS, use this process. If you have multiple SUS servers in your organization, you can use this process in combination with remote server migration to consolidate multiple SUS servers on the server running WSUS.

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Step 1 Same Server Migration: Install and Configure WSUS
When installing WSUS on a computer that has SUS installed, you must install WSUS by using a custom port. You must synchronize the WSUS server prior to migrating. Consider using the synchronization option for deferred downloads, which is enabled by default. Also, configure WSUS to download updates for the same number of languages that SUS was configured to download updates. By default, WSUS is configured to download all languages. These configurations ensure that you do not unnecessarily download updates already on your network or in languages that you do not require. To install and configure WSUS on the SUS computer • Install and configure WSUS on the SUS computer. See Run WSUS Server Setup and Configure Advanced Synchronization Options earlier in this guide for instruction.

Step 2 Same Server Migration: Migrate Content and Approvals
You do not have to migrate both content and approvals from the SUS server. You can opt to initially migrate content and then migrate approvals at another time, or any number of combinations that suit your purpose. You do have to make sure that SUS is not synchronizing before you migrate content or approvals. Use WSUSutil.exe to migrate content and approvals from SUS to WSUS. For more information about WSUSutil.exe, see Migration Command-line Tool earlier in this guide. If you intend to map SUS approvals to a WSUS computer group, first create the group on WSUS. For step-by-step instruction, see Create Computer Groups for Computers earlier in this guide. To migrate local content and approvals from SUS and map approvals to a custom computer group on WSUS 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the directory that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content PathToLocalSUSContent /approvals SUSServerName "WSUSTargetGroupName" /log filename For example: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content c:\sus\content\cabs /approvals sus1 "all desktops"

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services /log local_migration.log

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That is, WSUSutil.exe followed by the migratesus command, a space, the /content command-line option, a space, the location of the SUS .cab files, a space, the /approvals command-line option, a space, the NetBIOS or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the SUS server, a space, a quotation mark, the name of the target group on WSUS, another quotation mark, a space, the /log command-line option, a space, and the name of the log file. To migrate local content and approvals from SUS and map approvals to the All Computers target group on WSUS 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the directory that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content PathToLocalSUSContent /approvals SUSServerName /log filename For example: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content c:\sus\content\cabs /approvals sus1 /log local_migration.log To migrate only local content 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the directory that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content PathToLocalSUSContent /log filename For example: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content c:\sus\content\cabs /log local_migration.log To migrate only local approvals 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the directory that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe migratesus /approvals SUSServerName /log filename For example:

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services wsusutil.exe migratesus /approvals sus1 /log local_migration.log Note: If there are additional SUS servers in your environment and you want to consolidate them on this WSUS server, finish this procedure and testing, and then see the "Step 2 Remote Server Migration: Migrate Content and Approvals" section in Remote Server Migration for instruction on migrating approvals from a remote computer.

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Step 3 Same Server Migration: Test WSUS (Optional)
Any computer that is going to connect to WSUS must have the WSUS client installed. To deploy the WSUS client for testing • Deploy the WSUS clients in your environment to test WSUS (optional). See Update Automatic Updates earlier in this guide for instruction.

Step 4 Same Server Migration: Move WSUS to Port 80
Decommission the SUS server, and change the WSUS Web site from the custom port to port 80. As the SUS clients check in with the WSUS server, they will find the WSUS Web site and self-update to the Automatic Updates client compatible with WSUS. Note that you do not need to make any changes to Group Policy to get the SUS clients to selfupdate. If you prefer to leave your updating solution on a port other than port 80, you can leave WSUS on the custom 8530 port and change the client policy to point to this port on your WSUS server. You still need to leave the virtual selfupdate directory on port 80 to allow client computers that are not WSUS-compatible to get updated to the WSUS-compatible client. To decommission SUS 1. Click Start, and then click Run. 2. In the Open box, type inetmgr, and then click OK. 3. In IIS, right-click the SUS Web site, and then click Stop. To switch WSUS to port 80 1. Click Start, and then click Run.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 2. In the Open box, type inetmgr, and then click OK. 3. In IIS, right-click the WSUS Web site, and then click Properties. 4. In the WSUS Administration Properties dialog box, change the value in TCP port from 8530 to 80. Note: If you change the port number after installing WSUS, you have to create a new shortcut on your Start menu with the new URL to access the WSUS console from the Start menu. See Help and Support for instruction on creating shortcuts.

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Remote Server Migration
The remote server migration procedure is a four-step process, with an optional step for testing. If you intend to utilize a computer without a SUS installation to deploy WSUS, use this process. Remote server migration is helpful if you were using multiple SUS servers to approve content for different types of client computers. This scenario features the ability to map migrated SUS approvals and updates to computer groups on the WSUS server, as depicted in the following illustration.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Consolidating Multiple SUS Servers and Mapping Approvals to Unique Computer Groups

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Step 1 Remote Server Migration: Install and Configure WSUS
Unlike same-server migration, you do not have to concern yourself with installing WSUS in any special way. You must, however, synchronize the WSUS server prior to migrating. Consider using the synchronization option for deferred downloads, which is enabled by default. Also, configure WSUS to download updates for the same number of languages SUS was configured to download updates. By default, WSUS is configured to download all languages. These configurations ensure that you do not unnecessarily download updates already on your network or in languages that you do not require. Install and configure WSUS on a computer separate from SUS • Install and configure WSUS on a computer that does not have SUS installed. For more information, see Run WSUS Server Setup and Configure Advanced Synchronization Options earlier in this guide.

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Step 2 Remote Server Migration: Migrate Content and Approvals
Remote server migration requires that you share the Content folder on each SUS server you want to migrate to the WSUS server (or use the default share to access the content folder). You do have to make sure that SUS is not synchronizing before you migrate content or approvals. You do not have to migrate both content and approvals from the remote SUS server. You can opt to initially migrate content and then migrate approvals at another time, or any number of combinations that suit your purpose. Use WSUSutil.exe to migrate content and approvals from SUS to WSUS. For more information about WSUSutil.exe, see Migration Command-line Tool earlier in this guide. If you intend to map SUS approvals to a WSUS computer group, first create the group on WSUS. For step-by-step instruction, see Create Computer Groups for Computers earlier in this guide. To share remote content on SUS for migration to WSUS 1. On the SUS computer, locate the SUS content store in the file system. By default, SUS content is stored in C:\SUS\Content\. 2. Right-click the Content folder, and then click Sharing and Security (or Sharing, on computers running Windows 2000). 3. In the Properties dialog box for the Content folder, click Share this folder. 4. Click the Security tab, and ensure that the Everyone group has Read NTFS permissions for the Content folder. 5. Click OK. 6. Repeat this step on each SUS server you intend to migrate. To migrate remote content and approvals from SUS and map approvals to a custom computer group on WSUS 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following:

wsusutil.exe migratesus /content LocationOfRemoteSUSContent /approvals SUSServerName "WSUSTargetGroupName" /logfile ame For example: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content \\sus1\content\cabs /approvals sus1 "all desktops" /log

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services remote_migration.log

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To migrate local content and approvals from SUS and map approvals to the All Computers target group in WSUS 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content LocationOfRemoteSUSContent /approvals SUSServerName /logfilena me For example: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content \\sus1\content\cabs \approvals sus1 \\log remote_migration.log To migrate only remote content 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder that contains WSUSutil.exe. 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content LocationOfRemoteSUSContent /log filename For example: wsusutil.exe migratesus /content \\sus1\content\cabs /approvals sus1 /log remote_migration.log To migrate only remote approvals 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder that contains WSUSutil.exe 2. Type the following: wsusutil.exe migratesus /approvals SUSServerName /log filename For example: wsusutil.exe migratesus /approvals sus1 /log remote_migration.log

Step 3 Remote Server Migration: Test WSUS (Optional)
Any computer that is going to connect to WSUS must have the WSUS client. When you installed WSUS, the client self-update feature was set up automatically by the WSUS installer.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services To deploy the WSUS client software for testing • Deploy the WSUS client in your environment to test WSUS (optional). See Update Automatic Updates earlier in this guide for instruction.

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Step 4 Remote Server Migration: Point SUS Clients to WSUS
Point the SUS clients to WSUS. As the SUS clients check in with the WSUS server, they will find the WSUS Web site and self-update to the WSUS client. To point SUS clients to WSUS • Use Group Policy or registry settings to point SUS clients to WSUS. See Determine a Method to Configure Automatic Updates Clients earlier in this guide for instruction.

Appendix A: Unattended Installation
You can use command-line parameters to run WSUS Setup in unattended mode. When running this way, WSUS Setup does not display a user interface (UI). If you need to troubleshoot the setup process, use the log files, which you can find at the following location: WSUSInstallationDrive:\Program Files\Microsoft Windows Server Update Services\LogFiles\ Use command-line parameters from a command prompt. Type the following command: WSUSSetup.exe command-line parameter /v" property="value" " where command-line parameter is a command-line parameter from the WSUS Setup command-line parameters table, where property is a property from the WSUS Setup properties table, and where value is the actual value of the property being passed to WSUS. Both tables can be found below. If you need to pass a value to WSUS Setup, use the command-line parameter /v along with a property and its value. Properties are always paired with values. Microsoft Windows Installer requires values passed using a leading and trailing space. For example, if you wanted WSUS Setup to install the WSUS Content Directory to D:\WSUS you would use the following syntax:

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services WSUSSetup.exe /v" CONTENT_DIR= "D:\WSUS" "

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If you need help with WSUSutil.exe, you can use the help command. For example, use the following command to display the list of command-line parameters: WSUSSetup.exe help WSUS Setup accepts the following command-line parameters. WSUS Setup Command-line Parameters Option /q /u /d Description Perform silent installation. Uninstall the product. Also uninstalls the WMSDE instance if it is installed. Use the existing database server (the SQL_INSTANCE property will define the instance to use). Overwrite the existing database. Display command-line Help Passes specified values to the Windows Installer package (.msi file). The property Name value pairs should conform to the format specified by Windows Installer. The properties should be enclosed in quotation marks with a leading and trailing space. Install WSUS in a special mode designed to be used with remote SQL. This option is used to set up the front-end of the WSUS installation, which includes IIS and the update storage location. For more information about remote SQL, see Appendix C: Remote SQL. Install WSUS in a special mode designed to be used with remote SQL. This option is used to set up the database on the back-end SQL server. For more information about remote SQL, see Appendix C: Remote SQL.

/o /? /v

/f

/b

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Option /l Description

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This option used in combination with a language variable allows you to force the setup wizard to use a different language than the one detected as the default. Use a colon followed by a language variable from the Language Variables table below to set the language. Use this option to perform an upgrade from the RC1 version of WSUS.

/g

Use the following properties to configure WSUS by using the command-line parameter /v. WSUS Setup Properties Windows Installer Property CONTENT_DIR Description The directory where content will be stored. Must be an NTFS drive and can be a non-local mapped network drive. Default is WSUSInstallationDrive:\WSUS\WSUSContent, where WSUSInstallationDrive is the local drive with largest free space. CONTENT_LOCAL If set to "1" the .cab files will be stored locally (this is the default). If set to "0" the client computers will be redirected to the Microsoft Update server for downloading the .cab files. WEBSITE If set to "0" or not present, the default Web site on the IIS sever will be used (default). If set to "1" the "Windows Server Update Services Administration" site will be created. INSTANCE_NAME The name of the SQL Server instance to be used. If an existing instance is not present, the default is "WSUS."

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Windows Installer Property WMSDE_DIR Description

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The directory where WMSDE database will be stored. The directory must be on an NTFS drive. The default is drive:\WSUS, where drive is the local drive with largest free space.

RETAIN_DATA

This option is used during uninstallation to define what data should be left. RETAIN_DATA=0 - Delete everything. RETAIN_DATA=1 – Leave the database. RETAIN_DATA=2 – Leave logs. RETAIN_DATA=3 - Leave the database and logs. RETAIN_DATA=4 – Leave content. RETAIN_DATA=5 - Leave the database and content. RETAIN_DATA=6 – Leave logs and content. RETAIN_DATA=7 - Leave everything (default).

Use the following properties in combination with the /l option. Language Variables Variable CHS CHT CSY DEU ENU ESN FRA HUN Language name Simplified Chinese Traditional Chinese Czech German English Spanish French Hungarian

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Variable ITA JPN KOR NLD PLK PTB PTG RUS SVE TRK Language name Italian Japanese Korean Dutch Polish Portuguese-Brazil Portuguese-Portugal Russian Swedish Turkish

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Appendix B: Install MSDE on Windows 2000
If you are using Windows 2000 for WSUS and do not have access to Microsoft SQL Server 2000, you should install Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (MSDE) prior to running WSUS Setup. This section gives step-by-step instructions for this task. Installing MSDE on Windows 2000 Server is a four-step process. First, you must download and expand the MSDE archive to a folder on your WSUS server. Next, use a command prompt and command-line options to run MSDE Setup, set the sa password, and assign WSUS as the instance name. Then, when the MSDE installation finishes, you should verify that the WSUS instance is running as a Windows NT service. Finally, you must add a security patch to MSDE to protect your WSUS server.

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Step 1: Download and Expand the MSDE Archive
You must download and expand the MSDE archive to a folder on your WSUS server. To obtain SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (MSDE 2000) Release A, go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=35713. To expand the MSDE archive 1. Double-click the MSDE archive (MSDE2000a.exe). 2. Read the license agreement and click I Agree. 3. In the Installation Folder box, type a path, and then click Finish. For example, type C:\MSDE2000. The MSDE archive copies MSDE installation files to the installation folder you specify. Installation Folder Page

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Step 2: Install MSDE
Use a command prompt and command-line options to run MSDE Setup, set the sa password, and assign WSUS as the instance name. When the MSDE installation finishes, you should verify the WSUS instance is running as an NT service. To install MSDE, set the sa password, and assign an instance name 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the MSDE installation folder specified in “Step 1: Download and expand the MSDE archive.” 2. Type the following: setup sapwd="password" instancename="WSUS" where password is a strong password for the sa account on this instance of MSDE. This command launches the MSDE setup program, sets the sa password, and names this instance of MSDE to WSUS. To verify that the WSUS instance of MSDE installed 1. Click Start, and then click Run. 2. In the Open box, type services.msc, and then click OK. 3. Scroll down the list of services, and verify that a service named MSSQL$WSUS exists. MSSQL$WSUS

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Step 3: Update MSDE
You must download and install the security patch described in the bulletin "MS03-031: Cumulative Security Patch for SQL Server." To obtain SQL Server 2000 (32-bit) Security Patch MS03-031, go to the Download Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=37271. To read bulletin MS03-031, go to the Microsoft Help and Support Web site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=37270. To install SQL Server 2000 (32-bit) Security Patch MS03-031 1. Double-click SQL Server 2000 (32-bit) Security Patch MS03-031 (SQL2000KB815495-8.00.0818-ENU.exe). 2. On the Welcome page, click Next. 3. Read the End User License Agreement, click I accept the license terms and conditions, and then click Next. 4. On the Instance to Update page, use the Instance box to select the WSUS instance, and then click Next.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services Instance to Update Page

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5. On the Authentication Mode page, select Windows Authentication, and then click Next. Authentication Mode Page

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Appendix C: Remote SQL
WSUS offers limited support for running database software on a computer that is separate from the computer where the rest of WSUS is installed. This section offers stepby-step instructions for how to install WSUS in this configuration. Setting up WSUS for remote SQL is a three-step process. First, run WSUS Setup on the front-end computer, which for WSUS is always the server running IIS in the remote SQL pair. Next, go to the back-end computer, which for WSUS is always the server running the database in the remote SQL pair, and then set up the WSUS database and configure permissions. Finally, configure the front-end computer to use the database on the backend computer, and then manually start the Update Service.

Remote SQL Limitations
• You cannot use Windows 2000 Server on the front-end computer in a remote SQL pair. • You cannot use a server configured as a domain controller for either the front end or the back end of the remote SQL pair. • You cannot use WMSDE or MSDE for database software on the back-end computer. • Both the front-end and the back-end computers must be joined to an Active Directory domain.

Database Requirements
You can use database software that is 100-percent compatible with Microsoft SQL and not listed in "Remote SQL limitations. " Microsoft SQL Server 2000 has been tested exclusively for use with remote SQL. WSUS requires SQL Server 2000 with Service Pack 3a. If you use the full version of SQL Server, the SQL server administrator should first verify that the nested triggers option on the SQL server is turned on. Do this before setting up the WSUS database. You cannot use SQL authentication. WSUS only supports Windows authentication. WSUS Setup creates a database named SUSDB. For more information about what is

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services stored in the WSUS database or how it functions, see Choose the Database Used for WSUS earlier in this guide.

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Step 1: Install WSUS on the Front-end Computer
Install WSUS on the front-end computer. This server will need access to the Internet or another WSUS server to obtain updates. You need to prepare this computer with all the prerequisites for a normal WSUS installation, except for database software. You run WSUS Setup from a command line, using the /f command-line option. This option installs WSUS as the front end of a remote SQL pair, skipping the database setup portion of the WSUS setup process and not starting the Update Service after installation is complete. Database setup is accomplished in Step 2: Install WSUS on the Back-end Computer. Manually starting the Update Service is one of the tasks you accomplish in Step 3: Configure the Front-end Computer to use the Back-end Computer. During this installation, be sure to note where you intend to store updates. Where you store updates dictates how you set up the back-end computer in Step 2: Install WSUS on the Back-end Computer. For more information about hardware, hard disk, and software requirements, see Install the WSUS Server. To install WSUS on the front-end computer 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder containing the WSUS Setup program, and type: WSUSSetup.exe /f 2. On the Welcome page of the wizard, click Next. 3. Read the terms of the license agreement carefully, click I accept the terms of the License Agreement, and then click Next. 4. On the Select Update Source page, you can specify where client computers get updates. If you click Store updates locally, updates are stored in WSUS and you can select a location in the file system to store them. If you do not store updates locally, client computers connect to Microsoft Update to get approved updates. To read more about update storage options, see Determine Where to Store Updates earlier in this guide. Make your selections, and click Next. If you click Store updates locally, make a note of the string used to identify the

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services

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location for local update storage. You must use the same string when setting up the back-end computer. Select Update Source Page

5. On the Web Site Selection page, you specify the Web site that WSUS uses. For more information, see Install and Configure IIS earlier in this guide. Note two important URLS: the URL to point client computers to WSUS and the URL for the WSUS console where you configure WSUS. Web Site Selection Page

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services

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6. On the Ready to Install Windows Server Update Services page, click Next. Ready to Install Windows Server Update Services Page

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 100

7. If the final page confirms that WSUS installation was successfully completed, click Finish.

Step 2: Install WSUS on the Back-end Computer
Install WSUS on the back-end computer. This server will need database software installed. You do not need to have IIS installed on the back-end computer. Except for IIS, all other prerequisites for a normal WSUS installation are required. The steps for configuring permissions on the back-end computer differ, depending upon whether you are using Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003. Both procedures are listed here. Make sure you use the right steps for the operating system you are using. You must run WSUS Setup from a command line so that you can use command-line options. Use the /b command-line option. In addition to running Setup with a commandline option, you must run a SQL script to identify how update storage is being managed on the front-end computer.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 101 These options install WSUS as the back end of a remote SQL pair, skipping most of the installation except for the database setup portion. After installation is complete, you must configure permissions on the back-end computer. For more information about hardware, hard disk, and software requirements, see Install the WSUS Server. Step 2 contains the following procedures: • Install WSUS on the back-end computer

• Run a SQL script to identify how update storage is being managed on the frontend computer • Configure permissions on the back-end computer

To install WSUS on the back-end computer 1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder containing the WSUS Setup program, and type the following command: WSUSSetup.exe /b 2. On the Welcome page of the wizard, click Next. 3. Read the terms of the license agreement carefully, click I accept the terms of the License Agreement, and then click Next. 4. On the Database Options page, you select the software used to manage the WSUS database. You must click Use an existing database server on this computer. Select the instance name from SQL instance name box, and then click Next. Database Options Page

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 102

5. On the Connecting to SQL Server Instance page, wait to be prompted with for a successful connection to the SQL server, and then click Next. Connecting to SQL Server Instance Page

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 103

6. On the Mirror Update Settings page, you specify the management role for this WSUS server. If you want a central management topology, or if this is not the first WSUS server on your network, enter the name of the upstream WSUS server here. If this is the first WSUS server on your network or you want a distributed management topology, skip this screen. Make your selection, and then click Next. For more information about management roles, see Choose a Management Style. Mirror Update Settings Page

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 104

7. On the Ready to Install Windows Server Update Services page, click Next. 8. If the final screen confirms that WSUS installation was successfully completed, click Finish. Once you install WSUS on the back-end computer, you must run a SQL script to identify how update storage is being managed on the front-end computer. The syntax of the SQL script you run depends on whether client computers are getting updates locally from the front-end computer or are downloading updates directly from Microsoft. You established where clients obtain updates when you installed WSUS on the front-end computer. If you cannot remember how you configured the front-end computer, you can find out by reading the log file located on the front-end computer here: %programfiles%\Update Services\Logfiles\WSUSSetup_InstallDate.log where InstallDate is the date you installed WSUS. From this file you need the value for two keys: • • HostOnMu LocalContentCacheLocation

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 105 To identify on the back-end computer how update storage is being managed on the front-end computer • At the command prompt, type one of the following commands, depending on how you set up the front-end computer: • If you chose local storage on the front-end computer, type:

"%programfiles%\update services\tools\osql\osql.exe" S SQLServerName -E -b -n -Q "USE SUSDB UPDATE dbo.tbConfigurationA SET HostOnMu = '0' UPDATE dbo.tbConfigurationB SET LocalContentCacheLocation = N'LocalContentCacheLocation Value'" whereSQLServerName is the name of the SQL Server instance that holds the SUSDB database; where %programfiles% is the location of the Program Files folder on the front-end computer; and where LocalContentCacheLocation Value is the actual string used to identify where in the file system of the front-end computer to store content, with \WSUSContent appended to the end. For example, if you used C:\WSUS on the front-end computer, you would type C:\WSUS\WSUSContent. Do not use a network location or a UNC path. Do not add a trailing backslash (\). • If you chose remote storage on Microsoft Update, type the following:

"%programfiles%\update services\tools\osql\osql.exe" S SQLServerName -E -b -n -Q "USE SUSDB UPDATE dbo.tbConfigurationA SET HostOnMu = '1' UPDATE dbo.tbConfigurationB SET LocalContentCacheLocation = N'%programfiles%\Update Services\WsusContent'" where SQLServerName is the name of the SQL Server instance on the backend computer; and where %programfiles% is the location of the Program Files folder on the front-end computer.

Set Permissions on Windows Server 2003
If your back-end computer is running Windows Server 2003, use the following procedure to set up permissions, and then see Step 3: Configure the Front-end Computer to use the Back-end Computer. To set permissions on the Windows Server 2003 back-end computer 1. On the back-end computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Computer Management.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 106 2. In the tree, expand Local Users and Groups, and then click Groups. 3. In the details pane, double-click WSUS Administrators. WSUS Administrators Group

4. In the WSUS Administrators Properties dialog box, click Add. 5. In Select Users, Computers or Groups, click Object Types. 6. In Object Types, click Computers, and then click OK. Object Types Dialog Box

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 107

7. In Select Users, Computers, or Groups, enter the name of the front-end computer, and then click OK. Select Users, Computers, or Groups Dialog Box

8. In the WSUS Administrators Properties dialog box, click OK.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 108

Set Permissions on Windows 2000 Server
If your back-end computer is running Windows 2000 Server, use the following procedures to set up permissions, and then see Step 3: Configure the Front-end Computer to use the Back-end Computer. To create a global security group and add the front-end computer as a member 1. On a computer with Active Directory Administrative Tools installed, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers. 2. In the tree, right-click the folder in which you want to create the new group. 3. Point to New, and then click Group. 4. Type the name of the new group. 5. In Group Scope, click Global. Global Security Group Dialog Box

6. In Group Type, click Security, and then click OK. A global security group is

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 109 created. 7. Double-click the global security group you just created. 8. In the group properties dialog box, click the Members tab. 9. Click Add. 10. In Select Users, Contacts, or Computers, click Object Types. 11. In Object Types, click Computers, and then click OK. 12. In Enter the Object names to select (examples), enter the name of the front-end computer, and then click OK. 13. In the global security group properties dialog box, click OK. To set permissions on the Windows 2000 Server back-end computer 1. On the back-end computer, click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Computer Management. 2. In the tree, expand Local Users and Groups, and then click Groups. 3. In the details pane, double-click WSUS Administrators. 4. In the WSUS Administrators Properties dialog box, click Add. 5. In Select Users or Groups, select your domain from the Look in drop-down list. Select Users or Groups Dialog Box

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 110

6. Double-click the global security group you created in the preceding procedure, and then click OK. 7. In the WSUS Administrators Properties dialog box, click OK.

Step 3: Configure the Front-end Computer to Use the Back-end Computer
You configure the front-end computer to use the database on the back-end computer by editing the registry. With the registry changed, you manually start the Update Service. You are then ready to configure WSUS using the WSUS console on the front end. Step 3 contains the following procedures: • • Configure the front-end computer to use the database. Manually start the Update Service.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 111 To configure the front-end computer to use the database 1. On the front-end computer, click Start, and then click Run. 2. In the Open box, type regedit, and then click OK. 3. In Registry Editor, navigate to the following registry key: HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Update Services\Server\Setup\ 4. In the details pane, double-click the SQLServerName key. 5. In Value data, type the name of the back-end computer, and then click OK. When entering data, use the syntax servername\instance. If your server uses the default instance, you can omit the instance name—for example, servername. To manually start the Update Service 1. Click Start, and then click Run. 2. In the Open box, type services.msc, and then click OK. 3. In the details pane, double-click the Update Services service, and then click Start.

Appendix D: Security Settings
This appendix lists the recommended security settings for WSUS. The recommendations are categorized into settings for Windows Server 2003, IIS 6.0, and SQL Server 2000.

Windows Server 2003
The following are security recommendations for Windows Server 2003 with WSUS.

Audit Policy
Enable audit events to ensure that adequate logs are collected for system activities. Audit Policy Settings

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 112 Option Audit account logon events Security Setting Success, Failure Setting Rationale Auditing for successful and failed logon events provides useful data regarding password brute-forcing attempts. Auditing for successful and failed account management events tracks management activities. This is only important for domain controllers running the Active Directory service. Auditing for successful and failed logon events provides useful data regarding password brute-forcing attempts. Auditing object access is unnecessary and creates many unnecessary logs for WSUS activity. Auditing for successful and failed policy changes tracks management activities. Auditing for successful and failed privilege use tracks administrator activities. Process-tracking events are unnecessary for WSUS implementations. Auditing for successful and failed system events tracks system activities.

Audit account management

Success, Failure

Audit directory service access Audit logon events

No Auditing

Success, Failure

Audit object access

No Auditing

Audit policy change

Success, Failure

Audit privilege use

Success, Failure

Audit process tracking

No Auditing

Audit system events

Success, Failure

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 113

Security Options
Configure Windows Server 2003 security settings to help ensure optional security and functionality. Security Options Settings Option Accounts: Administrator account status Security Setting Enabled Setting Rationale Because it is necessary to have an administrator, the administrator account should be enabled for authorized users. Because it is risky to have guest accounts, the guest account should be disabled unless specifically required. Accounts with blank passwords significantly increase the likelihood of network-based attacks. Renaming the administrator account forces a malicious individual to guess both the account name and password. Note that even though the account can be renamed, it still uses the same well known SID, and there are tools available to quickly identify this and provide the name.

Accounts: Guest account Status

Disabled

Accounts: Limit local account use of blank passwords to console logon only Accounts: Rename administrator account

Enabled

Not Defined

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 114 Option Accounts: Rename Guest account Security Setting Not Defined Setting Rationale Because the guest account is disabled by default, and should never be enabled, renaming the account is not important. However, if an organization decides to enable the Guest account and use it, it should be renamed beforehand. This setting needs to be enabled for auditing to take place in the Event Viewer. The auditing setting can be set to Not Defined, Success or Failure in the Event View. For security reasons, this option should be enabled so that auditors will be aware of users creating backups of potentially sensitive data. Enabling this option shuts down the system if it is unable to log audits. This can help prevent missed audit events. Enabling very large log files on a separate partition helps mitigate this. Disabling this option ensures that only authenticated users can dock and undock computers. This option is not typically useful for desktop images.

Audit: Audit the access of global system objects

Enabled

Audit: audit the use of Backup and Restore privilege

Enabled

Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits

Disabled

Devices: Allow undock without having to log on

Disabled

Devices: Allowed to format and eject removable media

Administrators

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 115 Option Devices: Prevent users from installing printer drivers Security Setting Enabled Setting Rationale Because the Windows GDI system runs in kernel space, allowing a user to install a printer driver could lead to elevated privileges. Enabling this option prevents remote users from accessing the local CD-ROM, which may contain sensitive information. In situations where the server is physically secured and password authentication is required by the Recover Console, this option can be enabled to facilitate system recovery. Most driver software is signed. Administrators should not install unsigned drivers unless the origin and authenticity can be verified and the software has been thoroughly tested in a lab environment first. Since only senior administrators will be working on these systems, it is safe to leave this to their discretion. The ability to schedule tasks should be limited to administrators only. This option applies only to domain controllers.

Devices: Restrict CD-ROM access to locally logged-on user only

Enabled

Devices: Restrict floppy access to locally logged-on user only

Enabled

Devices: Unsigned driver installation behavior

Warn but allow installation

Domain controller: Allow server operators to schedule tasks Domain controller: LDAP server signing requirements

Disabled

Not Defined

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 116 Option Domain controller: Refuse machine account password changes Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always) Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale Enabling this option allows machine accounts to automatically change their passwords. If the domain controller is known to support encryption of the secure channel, this option can be enabled to protect against local network attacks. Enabling this option provides the most flexibility while enabling the highest security when the server supports it. Enabling this option provides the most flexibility while enabling the highest security when the server supports it. Disabling this option allows machine accounts to automatically change their passwords. Less-frequently changed passwords are easier to break than passwords that are changed more frequently. Enabling this option sets strong session keys for all computers running Windows 2000 or later.

Disabled

Domain member: Digitally encrypt secure channel data (when possible) Domain member: Digitally sign secure channel data (when possible) Domain member: Disable machine account password changes Domain member: Maximum machine account password age Domain member: Require strong (Windows 2000 or later) session key

Enabled

Enabled

Disabled

30 days

Enabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 117 Option Interactive logon: Do not display last user name Security Setting Enabled Setting Rationale Hiding the last user name should be enabled, especially when the administrator user account is renamed. This helps prevent a passerby from determining account names. The CTRL+ALT+DEL sequence is intercepted at a level lower than user-mode programs are allowed to hook. Requiring this sequence at logon is a security feature designed to prevent a Trojan Horse program masquerading as the Windows logon from capturing users' passwords. An appropriate legal and warning message should be displayed according to the Corporate Security Policy. An appropriate legal and warning message should be displayed according to the Corporate Security Policy.

Interactive logon: Do not require CTRL+ALT+DEL

Disabled

Interactive logon: Message text for users attempting to log on interactive logon: Message title for users attempting to log on

[provide legal text]

[provide legal title text]

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 118 Option Interactive logon: Number of previous logons to cache (in case domain controller is not available) Security Setting 10 logons Setting Rationale This option is usually only appropriate for laptops that might be disconnected from their domain. It also presents a security risk for some types of servers, such as application servers. If a server is compromised, and domain logons are cached, the attacker may be able to use this locally stored information to gain domainlevel credentials. Password prompts should be aligned according to the Corporate Security Policy. Enabling this option allows a domain controller account to unlock any workstation. This should only be allowed for the local Administrator account on the computer. If this system will not be using smart cards, this option is not necessary. If this system will not be using smart cards, this option is not necessary. For systems communicating to servers that do not support SMB signing, this option should be disabled. However, if packet authenticity is required, this can be enabled.

Interactive logon: Prompt user to change password before expiration Interactive logon: Require Domain Controller authentication to unlock workstation

14 days

Enabled

Interactive logon: Require smart card

Not Defined

Interactive logon: Smart card Not Defined removal behavior Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (always) Disabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 119 Option Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (if server agrees) Microsoft network client: Send unencrypted password to third-party SMB servers Security Setting Enabled Setting Rationale For systems communicating to servers that do support SMB signing, this option should be enabled. If this option is enabled, then a third-party SMB server could negotiate a dialect that does not support cryptographic functions. Authentication would be performed using plain-text passwords. This should be set appropriately for the enduser system such that idle connections do not linger, consuming resources. For systems communicating to servers that do not support SMB signing, this option should be disabled. However, if packet authenticity is required, this can be enabled. For systems communicating to servers that do not support SMB signing, this option should be disabled. However, if packet authenticity is required, this can be enabled. Enabling this option prevents users from logging on after authorized hours.

Disabled

Microsoft network server: Amount of idle time required before suspending session

15 minutes

Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always)

Disabled

Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (if client agrees)

Enabled

Microsoft network server: Disconnect clients when logon hours expire

Enabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 120 Option Network access: Allow anonymous SID/Name translation Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale This option is highly important for securing Windows networking. Disabling it severely restricts the abilities granted to a user connecting with a Null session. This option is highly important for securing Windows networking. Enabling it severely restricts the abilities granted to a user connecting with a Null session. Because “Everyone” is no longer in the anonymous user’s token, access to IPC$ is disallowed. Pipes that are explicitly set to allow anonymous are inaccessible because the SMB tree connection to this share fails. This option is highly important for securing Windows networking. Enabling it severely restricts the abilities granted to a user connecting with a Null session. Because “Everyone” is no longer in the anonymous user’s token, access to IPC$ is disallowed. Pipes that are explicitly set to allow anonymous are inaccessible because the SMB tree connection to this share fails.

Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts

Enabled

Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and shares

Enabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 121 Option Network access: Do not allow storage of credentials or .NET passports for network authentication Network access: Let Everyone permissions apply to anonymous users Network access: Named Pipes that can be accessed anonymously Security Setting Enabled Setting Rationale Enabling this option prevents the storage of sensitive passwords in the computers’ cache. Anonymous users should have no access to computers. Named pipes should be restricted anonymously. Restricting named pipes breaks some inter-system processes, such as network printing. Registry paths should be restricted from remote access unless for monitoring circumstances. No shares should be accessed anonymously. Limit all local accounts to Guest privileges. Enabling this feature deletes the weaker LAN Manager hashes, reducing the likelihood of password attacks from sniffing the weak hash over the name or from the local SAM database file. This option should be enabled as part of the acceptable policy.

Disabled

Not Defined

Network access: Remotely accessible registry paths

Not Defined

Network access: Shares that can be access anonymously Network access: Sharing and security model for local accounts Network security: do not store LAN Manager hash value on next password change

None Guest only – local users authenticate as Guest Enabled

Network security: Force logoff when logon hours expire

Enabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 122 Option Security Setting Setting Rationale Sending LM is less secure than NTLM, and should only be enabled if the system will communicate with computers running Windows 95 or Windows 98. Additionally, use NTLMv2 only; however, computers running Windows 95, Windows 98, or un-patched Windows NT4.0 will not be able to communicate with servers running NTLMv2. Require signing when authenticating to third party LDAP servers. This prevents attacks against rogue LDAP servers and clear-text submission of passwords over the network. The NTLM hashes contain weakness that attacks may exploit. Enabled, these requirements strengthen the authentication algorithms for Windows. The NTLM hashes contain weakness that attacks may exploit. Enabled, these requirements will strengthen the authentication algorithms for Windows.

Network security: LAN Send NTLMv2 response Manager authentication level only

Network security: LDAP client signing requirements

Negotiate signing

Network security: Minimum Require NTLMv2 session session security for NTLM security SSP based (including secure RPC) clients

Network security: Minimum Require NTLMv2 session session security for NTLM security SSP based (including secure RPC) servers

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 123 Option Recovery console: Allow automatic administrative logon Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale If automatic administrative logon is enabled, then a malicious user that has console access could simply restart the computer and gain administrative privileges. However, an organization may enable this feature if the computer is a physically secure server, allowing access to the system if the administrator password is forgotten. The recover console can be used as an attack method to gain access to SAM database files offline; therefore, this option should be enabled to prevent those files from being copied to a floppy disk. This option is used to prevent users without valid accounts from shutting down the system, and is a good precautionary measure.

Recovery console: Allow Disabled floppy copy and access to all drives and all folders

Shutdown: Allow system to be shut down without having to log on

Disabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 124 Option Shutdown: Clear virtual memory pagefile Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale Clearing the memory pagefile at shutdown can help prevent offline analysis of the file, which might contain sensitive information from system memory, such as passwords. However, in situations where the computer is physically secured, this can be enabled to reduce time required for system restarts. Protecting local cryptographic secrets helps prevent privilege escalation across the network, once access to one system is obtained. Require stronger, standard, and compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing. Administrators should only have access to the created file. Require case-sensitivity for non-Windows subsystems, such as UNIX passwords.

System cryptography: Force strong key protection for user keys stored on the computer

User is prompted when the key is first used

System cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing System Objects: Default owner for objects created by members of the Administrators group System objects: Require case insensitivity for nonWindows subsystems

Not Defined

Administrators group

Disabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 125 Option System settings: Optional subsystems Security Setting Enter POSIX here only if expressly required Setting Rationale The POSIX execution layer has had multiple local exploits in the past, and should be disabled unless required by third-party software. It is extremely rare for POSIX to be required by commercial software packages. When certificate rules are created, enabling this option enforces software restriction policies that check a CRL to make sure the software's certificate and signature are valid.

System settings: Use Certificate Rules on Windows executables for Software Restriction policies

Not Defined

Event Log Settings
Configure Event Log settings to help ensure an adequate level of activity monitoring. Event Log Settings Option Maximum application log Size Security Setting 100489 kilobytes Setting Rationale A large event log allows administrators to store and search for problematic and suspicious events. A large event log allows administrators to store and search for problematic and suspicious events. A large event log allows administrators to store and search for problematic and suspicious events.

Maximum security log size

100489 kilobytes

Maximum system log size

100489 kilobytes

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 126 Option Prevent local guests group from accessing application log Prevent local guests group from accessing security log Prevent local guests group from accessing system log Retain application log Security Setting Enabled Setting Rationale Guest accounts should not be able to access sensitive information in the event log. Guest accounts should not be able to access sensitive information in the event log. Guest accounts should not be able to access sensitive information in the event log. After a week, logs should be stored on a centralized log server. After a week, logs should be stored on a centralized log server. After a week, logs should be stored on a centralized log server. Overwrite audit logs as needed when log files have filled up. Overwrite audit logs as needed when log files have filled up. Overwrite audit logs as needed when log files have filled up.

Enabled

Enabled

7 Days

Retain security log

7 Days

Retain system log

7 Days

Retention method for application log Retention method for security log Retention method for system log

As Needed

As Needed

As Needed

System Services
Enable only services that are required for WSUS. Enabled Operating System Services

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 127 Option Alerter Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale The alerter service is of most use when an administrator is logged into the network and wants to be notified of events. For computers running WSUS, the service is not necessary. This service is only necessary when installing new applications to the environment with Active Directory. This service is required in order to support a fully patched operating environment. This service is unnecessary to the WSUS environment. The COM+ event system might be used in the Webbased application. The computer browser service is required on interactive workstations. DHCP is necessary to have an IP address on the WSUS server. DFS is used for file sharing across multiple servers, which is not needed for WSUS. This service is only appropriate if a domain has distributed link tracking configured.

Application Management

Manual

Automatic Updates

Automatic

Clipbook COM+ Event System

Disabled Manual

Computer Browser

Automatic

DHCP Client

Automatic

Distributed File System

Disabled

Distributed Link Tracking Client

Disabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 128 Option Distributed Link Tracking Server Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale This service is only appropriate if a domain has distributed link tracking configured. This service is only appropriate if a domain has distributed link tracking configured. DNS is necessary for IPaddress-to-name resolution. The Event Log service is important for logging events on the system and provides critical auditing information. This service is used for file replication and synchronization, which is not necessary for WSUS. This service is required for WSUS administration. This service is used by IIS. This service only needs to be enabled on domain controllers. This service is required if the local ICF firewall is being used. This service is required if IPsec has been utilized. This service is enabled by default in order to join and authenticate to Windows Server 2003 domain controllers.

Distributed Transaction Coordinator

Disabled

DNS Client Event Log

Automatic Automatic

File Replication

Disabled

IIS ADMIN service Indexing Service Intersite Messaging

Automatic Manual Disabled

Internet Connection Firewall / Internet Connection Sharing IPSEC Services Kerberos Key Distribution Center

Manual

Automatic Disabled unless functioning as a domain controller

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 129 Option License Logging Service Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale This service is used on systems where application licensing must be tracked. This service is used in logical disk management. This service is used in logical disk management. This service is only necessary if NetBIOS messaging is being used. This service is necessary to belong to a domain. NetMeeting is an application that allows collaboration over a network. It is used on interactive workstations, and should be disabled for servers as it presents a security risk. This service allows network connections to be managed centrally. Network DDE is a form of interprocess communication (IPC) across networks. Because it opens network shares and allows remote access to local resources, it should be disabled unless explicitly needed.

Logical Disk Manager Logical Disk Manager Administrative Service Messenger

Automatic Manual Disabled

Net Logon

Automatic

NetMeeting Remote Desktop Disabled Sharing

Network Connections

Manual

Network DDE

Disabled

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 130 Option Network DDE DSDM Security Setting Disabled Setting Rationale Network DDE is a form of interprocess communication (IPC) across networks. Because it opens network shares and allows remote access to local resources, it should be disabled unless explicitly needed. The NTLM Security Support Provider is necessary to authenticate users of remote procedure call (RPC) services that use transports such as TCP and UDP. This service is only necessary when logs and alerts are used. Plug and Play is needed if the system uses Plug-and-Play hardware devices. This service is necessary if the system is used for printing. This service must be enabled because the IIS Admin service depends on it. Enable this service only for RAS servers. Enable this service only for RAS servers. This service is required for RPC communications. This service is required for RPC communications.

NTLM Security Support Provider

Manual

Performance Logs and Alerts Manual

Plug and Play

Automatic

Print Spooler

Disabled

Protected Storage

Automatic

Remote Access Auto Connection Manager Remote Access Connection Manager Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Locator

Disabled Disabled Automatic Manual

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 131 Option Remote Registry Security Setting Manual Setting Rationale Remote Registry is a key target for attackers, viruses, and worms, and should be set to manual unless otherwise needed, where the server can enable it. For a dynamic server, this service is necessary. Enable this service only for RAS servers. This service should be enabled, as it manages local accounts. This service should be enabled or disabled as necessary. The service supports file, print, and named-pipe sharing over the network for this computer. Because users will not be using smart cards for twofactor logon authentication, this service is unnecessary and should be disabled or set to manual. This service is needed for COM+ events. This service should be enabled/disabled as necessary. The service enables a user to configure and schedule automated tasks on this computer.

Removable Storage Routing and Remote Access Security Accounts Manager

Manual Disabled Automatic

Server

Automatic

Smart Card

Manual

System Event Notification Task Scheduler

Automatic Manual

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 132 Option TCP/IP NetBIOS Helper Security Setting Automatic Setting Rationale This service is used in Windows networking for computers running an operating system earlier than Windows Server 2003. This service is not necessary in this environment because telephony devices are not used. The telnet service should be disabled and its use strongly discouraged. Terminal services should be enabled or disabled as necessary. This service is necessary if a UPS is used. Users may choose to use Windows Installer to install .msi packages on the system, and therefore this service should be set to manual. WMI provides extended management capabilities. WMI Driver Extensions allow monitoring of NIC connection state in the taskbar. External time synchronization is required for Kerberos key exchange in Active Directory environments. The workstation service is necessary for Windows networking.

Telephony

Disabled

Telnet

Disabled

Terminal Services

Manual

Uninterruptible Power Supply Windows Installer

Manual Manual

Windows Management Instrumentation Windows Management Instrumentation Driver Extensions Windows Time

Manual Manual

Automatic

Workstation

Automatic

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 133

TCP/IP Hardening
Microsoft recommends that you harden the TCP/IP interface for WSUS servers. HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\SynAttackProtect Security Setting REG_DWORD = 2 Setting Rationale Causes TCP to adjust retransmission of SYN-ACKS.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\tcpmaxportsexhausted Security Setting REG_DWORD = 1 Setting Rationale Helps protect against SYN attacks.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\TCPMAxHALFOPEN Security Setting REG_DWORD = 500 Setting Rationale Helps protect against SYN attacks.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\TCPmaxhalfopenretired Security Setting REG_DWORD = 400 Setting Rationale Helps protect against SYN attacks.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\AFd\parameters\enabledICMPr edirect Security Setting REG_DWORD = 0 Setting Rationale Prevents the creation of expensive host routes when an ICMP redirect packet is received.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\tcpip\parameters\enableddead gwdetect

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 134 Security Setting REG_DWORD = 0 Setting Rationale Prevents the forcing of switching to a secondary gateway.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\tcpip\parameters\disableipsou rcerouting Security Setting REG_DWORD = 1 Setting Rationale Disables IP source routing.

HKLM\SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\tcpip\parameters\ipenabledrou ter Security Setting REG_DWORD = 0 Setting Rationale Disables forwarding of packets between network interfaces.

IIS 6.0 Security Settings
The following are security recommendations for IIS 6.0 with WSUS.

URLScan
Use the following settings in URLScan to help protect the administrative Web page for WSUS. The complete Urlscan.ini file is located at the end of this topic. Option UseAllowVerbs ISEC Setting 1 Setting Rationale Uses the [AllowVerbs] section of Urlscan.ini, which only allows GET, HEAD, and POST.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 135 Option UseAllowExtensions ISEC Setting 0 Setting Rationale Uses the [DenyExtensions] section of Urlscan.ini. Allow the following: ASP Request: .asp, .cer, .cdx, .asa Executables: .bat, .cmd, .com - Note that .exe must be enabled for WSUS. Scripts: .htw, .ida, .idq, .htr, .idc, .shtm, .shtml, .stm, .printer Static Files: .ini, .log, .pol, .dat NormalizeUrlBeforeScan VerifyNormalization 1 1 Canonicalizes URL before processing. Canonicalizes URL twice and reject request if a change occurs. Does not allow high bit characters. Does not allow any periods in paths. Removes server information from header response. Enables the PID in Urlscan.log. This allows extra logging information for URLScan. Ensures that URLScan is a high priority. Specifies that URLScan produces a new log each day with activity in the form 'Urlscan.010101.log'.

AllowHighBitCharacters Allow Dot in Paths Remove Server Header Per Process Logging

0 0 1 1

AllowLateScanning PerDayLogging

0 1

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 136 Option UseFastPathReject ISEC Setting 0 Setting Rationale Specifies that URLScan uses the RejectResponseUrl or allows IIS to log the request. Specifies that only 1K can be logged per request.

LogLongUrls

0

IIS Security Configuration
Consider enabling the following three security settings on the IIS Web server to help ensure secure WSUS administration.

Enable general error messages
By default, IIS gives detailed error messages to remote Web clients. We recommend enabling IIS general (less detailed) error messages. This prevents an unauthorized user from probing the IIS environment with IIS error messages. To enable general IIS error messages 1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrator Tools, and then click Internet Information Services Manager. 2. Expand the local computer node. 3. Right-click WebSites, and then click Properties. 4. On the Home Directory tab, clickConfiguration. 5. On the Debugging tab, click Send the following text error message to client.

Enable additional logging options
By default, IIS enables logging for a number of options. However, we recommend logging several additional key options. To add key IIS logging parameters 1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrator Tools, and then click Internet Information Services Manager.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 137 2. Expand the local computer node. 3. Right-click WebSites, and then click Properties. 4. On the Web Site tab, click Properties. 5. On the Advanced tab, select the check boxes for the following logging options: • • • • • Server name Time taken Host Cookie Referer

Remove header extensions
By default, IIS enables header extensions for HTTP requests. We recommend removing any header extensions for IIS. To remover headers extensions for HTTP requests 1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrator Tools, and then click Internet Information Services Manager. 2. Expand the local computer node. 3. Right-click WebSites, and then click Properties. 4. On the HTTP Headers tab, select X-Powered-By: ASP.NET, and then click Remove.

SQL Server 2000
The following are security recommendations for SQL Server 2000 with WSUS.

SQL Registry Permissions
Use access control permissions to secure the SQL Server 2000 registry keys. HKLM\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\MSSQLSERVER

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 138 ISEC Setting Administrators: Full Control SQL Service Account: Full Control System: Full Control Rationale These settings help ensure limited access to the application’s registry key to authorized administrators or system accounts.

Stored Procedures
Remove all stored procedures that are unnecessary and that have the ability to control the database server remotely. Unnecessary SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedures

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 139 Description Delete the following stored procedure by using the following command: use master exec sp_dropextendedprocstored procedure where stored procedure is the name of the stored procedure to be deleted. Stored Procedures • • • • • • • • • • • • • Xp_regremovemultistring • • • • • • • • • • • • Xp_regwrite sp_sdidebug xp_availablemedia xp_cmdshell xp_deletemail xp_dirtree xp_dropwebtask xp_dsninfo xp_enumdsn xp_enumerrorlogs xp_enumgroups xp_eventlog Sp_OACreate Sp_OADestroy Sp_OAGetErrorInfo Sp_OAGetProperty Sp_OAMethod Sp_OASetProperty SP_OAStop Xp_regaddmultistring Xp_regdeletekey Xp_regdeletevalue Xp_regenumvalues Xp_regread Rationale Remove all stored procedures that are not necessary for WSUS and could possibly give unauthorized users the ability to perform commandline actions on the database.

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 140 Description Stored Procedures • • • xp_findnextmsg xp_fixeddrives Rationale

xp_getfiledetails • • • • • • • • • • • • • • xp_getnetname xp_logevent xp_loginconfig xp_makewebtask xp_msver xp_readerrorlog xp_readmail xp_runwebtask xp_sendmail xp_sprintf xp_sscanf xp_startmail xp_stopmail xp_subdirs

xp_unc_to_drive

Urlscan.ini file
The following is a facsimile of the complete Urlscan.ini file.
[options] UseAllowVerbs=1 ; If 1, use [AllowVerbs] section, else use the ; [DenyVerbs] section. ; If 1, use [AllowExtensions] section, else use ; the [DenyExtensions] section.

UseAllowExtensions=0

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 141
NormalizeUrlBeforeScan=1 VerifyNormalization=1 ; If 1, canonicalize URL before processing. ; If 1, canonicalize URL twice and reject request ; if a change occurs. ; If 1, allow high bit (ie. UTF8 or MBCS) ; characters in URL. ; If 1, allow dots that are not file extensions. ; If 1, remove the 'Server' header from response. ; If 1, log UrlScan activity. ; If 1, the UrlScan.log filename will contain a PID ; (ie. UrlScan.123.log). ; If 1, then UrlScan will load as a low priority ; filter. ; If 1, UrlScan will produce a new log each day ; activity in the form 'UrlScan.010101.log'. UseFastPathReject=0 request. LogLongUrls=0 ; If 1, then up to 128K per request can be logged. ; If 0, then only 1k is allowed. ; If 1, then UrlScan will not use the ; RejectResponseUrl or allow IIS to log the

AllowHighBitCharacters=0

AllowDotInPath=0 RemoveServerHeader=1 EnableLogging=1 PerProcessLogging=1

AllowLateScanning=0

PerDayLogging=1 with

; ; If UseFastPathReject is 0, then UrlScan will send ; rejected requests to the URL specified by RejectResponseUrl. ; If not specified, '/<Rejected-by-UrlScan>' will be used. ; RejectResponseUrl= ; ; ; ; ; ;

LoggingDirectory can be used to specify the directory where the log file will be created. This value should be the absolute path (ie. c:\some\path). If not specified, then UrlScan will create the log in the same directory where the UrlScan.dll file is located.

LoggingDirectory=C:\WINDOWS\system32\inetsrv\urlscan\logs ; ; If RemoveServerHeader is 0, then AlternateServerName can be ; used to specify a replacement for IIS's built in 'Server' header ;

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 142
AlternateServerName= [RequestLimits] ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

The entries in this section impose limits on the length of allowed parts of requests reaching the server. It is possible to impose a limit on the length of the value of a specific request header by prepending "Max-" to the name of the header. For example, the following entry would impose a limit of 100 bytes to the value of the 'Content-Type' header: Max-Content-Type=100 To list a header and not specify a maximum value, use 0 (ie. 'Max-User-Agent=0'). Also, any headers not listed in this section will not be checked for length limits. There are 3 special case limits: - MaxAllowedContentLength specifies the maximum allowed numeric value of the Content-Length request header. For example, setting this to 1000 would cause any request with a content length that exceeds 1000 to be rejected. The default is 30000000. - MaxUrl specifies the maximum length of the request URL, not including the query string. The default is 260 (which is equivalent to MAX_PATH). - MaxQueryString specifies the maximum length of the query string. The default is 2048.

MaxAllowedContentLength=30000000 MaxUrl=260 MaxQueryString=2048 [AllowVerbs] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

The verbs (aka HTTP methods) listed here are those commonly processed by a typical IIS server. Note that these entries are effective if "UseAllowVerbs=1" is set in the [Options] section above.

GET

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 143
HEAD POST [DenyVerbs] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

The verbs (aka HTTP methods) listed here are used for publishing content to an IIS server via WebDAV. Note that these entries are effective if "UseAllowVerbs=0" is set in the [Options] section above.

PROPFIND PROPPATCH MKCOL DELETE PUT COPY MOVE LOCK UNLOCK OPTIONS SEARCH [DenyHeaders] ; ; ; ; ; ;

The following request headers alter processing of a request by causing the server to process the request as if it were intended to be a WebDAV request, instead of a request to retrieve a resource.

Translate: If: Lock-Token: Transfer-Encoding: [AllowExtensions] ; ; Extensions listed here are commonly used on a typical IIS server. ; ; Note that these entries are effective if "UseAllowExtensions=1" ; is set in the [Options] section above. ; .htm .html .txt .jpg

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 144
.jpeg .gif [DenyExtensions] ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Extensions listed here either run code directly on the server, are processed as scripts, or are static files that are generally not intended to be served out. Note that these entries are effective if "UseAllowExtensions=0" is set in the [Options] section above. Also note that ASP scripts are denied with the below settings. If you wish to enable ASP, remove the following extensions from this list: .asp .cer .cdx .asa

; Deny ASP requests .asp .cer .cdx .asa ; Deny executables that could run on the server ;.exe .bat .cmd .com ; Deny infrequently used scripts .htw ; Maps to webhits.dll, part of Index Server .ida ; Maps to idq.dll, part of Index Server .idq ; Maps to idq.dll, part of Index Server .htr ; Maps to ism.dll, a legacy administrative tool .idc ; Maps to httpodbc.dll, a legacy database access tool .shtm ; Maps to ssinc.dll, for Server Side Includes .shtml ; Maps to ssinc.dll, for Server Side Includes .stm ; Maps to ssinc.dll, for Server Side Includes .printer ; Maps to msw3prt.dll, for Internet Printing Services ; Deny various static files .ini ; Configuration files .log ; Log files .pol ; Policy files .dat ; Configuration files [DenyUrlSequences]

Deploying Microsoft Windows Server Update Services 145
.. ./ \ : % & ; ; ; ; ; ; Don't Don't Don't Don't Don't Don't allow allow allow allow allow allow directory traversals trailing dot on a directory name backslashes in URL alternate stream access escaping after normalization multiple CGI processes to run on a single request

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