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cos nx sin nx

sin nx cos nx

1
1

cos x sin x cos(n 1) x sin(n 1) x


sin x cos x = sin(n 1) x cos(n 1) x

cos nx sin nx
An

sin nx cos nx
4
n
4k r
k r
2 A E n 4k r ( r 0,1, 2,3) A A A (1) A

A , A

0 1

01


3 J=

An (aE J ) n Cni a i J ni
i 0

a n Cn1a n1 Cn2 a n2

n
Cn1a n1
a

an

Cnn1a

1 n 1
Cn a

an

Cnn

1 a 1
P (a 1,0), A2 E

0 2

2 A P

2
1 1 1 1 21

a 1, 1


2
0 1 0 1 0 1
2
1 0 1 0 1 0
1
a 0,
i 1 PBi P
0
2
0

0 2

2
2

1
B1
0

0
1 0
1 0
, B2
, B3

1
0 1
0 1

A E A E
2

3 A n X AX=XA X n
AX XA=0 n

A an an1 a1 0

A

C

4A B

5
A B AB B A A B AB B A
*

A B n 1 A A
*

Er 0
PQ
0 0

PAQ

Er

0
E
B B* r

0
0

1 r<n-1 n-1 n n-1 0

E
0

Er 0 0 0
r

2 r=n-1
B*

0 0
0 0 0 1

Bn1
Bn 2

Bnn

b11b12 b1n b11b12 b1n

Er 0 b21b22 b2 n b21b22 b2 n

0 0

bn1bn 2 bnn 0 0 0
Bn1

Bn 2

Er 0
B

0 0
0 Bnn

*
E 0

* r
B

0
0

6 r ( A) r ( A ) AX 0 ( AX ) AX 0 AX 0 A AX 0

7 aij I n

ai1 ai 2 w j 1 ai 3 w j 1 ain w j 1
1

n1

ij j 1, 2, n
j 1 nl

ij Kronecker l w

nw

j 1 n1

aij w

j 1 ni

aij

1 j 1 n1i
w

n
m

0 w n


1 x 1 x 1 x V 1x

2 W1 W2 Ws1 V
1 W1 W2 Ws1 Ws
2 W1 W2 Ws1 Ws
3 W1 W2 Ws 1 \ Ws Ws \ (W1 W2 Ws1 )
1
23 s k1 , k2 ,, k s
ki W1 W2 Ws
2
3 U tr(A)=0 n 1

0
4 V f an x

n 1

an1 x n2 a1 U

an an1 a1 0 U n-1
0
5 U= u1, u2 , u3 W w1, w2 U,W 4 5 Hermite

4 5 1 2
1 5
1 1
3 9
0 0 1 3

0 0 0 0

U W 3w1 w2
U 3w1 w2 u1 W 3w1 w2 w1 U W
3w1 w2 u1 w1

1 1 1 1
x y z w 0
r
2
1 1 1 1
x y z w 0

6 U W ( x, y, z, w)

dim U W 2,dim U W dimU dimW dim U W 4

U W 0,1,1,-1 1,1, 1, 1

7
1 x ( x 1)
j

j 1

a X x (x 1)
i

i 0

i 0

i 0

ai xi bi x 1 x j ( x 1 1) j C ij x 1 b j Ckj ak
i

i 0

k 0

k<j Ck 1
j

8 j1 , 2 ,, t A 1,2 ,, s 1, 2 , , t A
i r A s s t A Hermite 0 0
i i

dim U dim Z XA X F r AB r A r AB

U B Z XA x F n
n

a b y1
13
b c y2

2 x, y x1 , x2

a b
2
a 0, ac b 0
b c

2
3
1
3

2 ( f , f ) 0 ( f , f ) 0



f 2 0 f 2 0 f 0 f 0
2
2

a cos b sin 0


a b 0 f 0

a cos 2 b sin 2 0

|| h(t ) ||

3cos7 4sin 9 4cos9 3sin 7


2

1 AB i , X i ABX i iX i BX i 0
i 0 0 BABX i i BX i BA AB
dig 1, 2 ,n
2

0 2 2
2
3 1

2 1 3
T

e1, e2 , e3 e1, e2 , e3 A,

e1,

e2 , e3 '

e1' , e2' , e3' e1 , e2 , e3 PAP 1. e1, e2 , e3 P 1


1 0 0 0 0 1

e1 , e2 , e3
0 1 1 0 0 0

3V

e1 e2 e3 , e2 e2 e3 , e3 e3 e2
0 0 0
e1 , e2 , e3 e1 , e2 , e3 1 1 1 = e1, e2 , e3 A
1 1 1
PAP P e1 , e2 , e3 P
1

1 2
0 0
, P 1 AP

2 1
0 1

4 P

0 0
0
tr A 1,| A | 0, A P P 1
0 1
0

'

,e1

'

,e
2

e3 .

5 | Em AB |

mn

En BA 0 AB BA

2
6 1 x 8 x 7

2 | E A | 1 2 3
3 1

2 A E A 2E

1 2
43
A E A 2E 0 1

a 0
a 1
2
2
, B
f A f B x a , mA x a x a mB

0 a
0 a

7
1 A

a
0
2 A
0

1 0 0
a

0
a 0 0
,B
0
0 a 0

0 0 b
0

1 0 0
a 0 0
0 b 0

0 0 b

fA x a x b x a x b fB
3

m A x a x b x a x b mB
2

8
2

n
n
n
i 0, i j 0 0 i i2 i j i2

i 1
i 1
i j
i 1
i j
i1

i i 0 Shur P

0 * * *
0 * *

P 1 AP
=B

0
B 0, A PB P
n

i n 12 n
n

i 1

i 1

10

11

12

A A n
4.4.1

13


1
2
3
4

0
0
1

5 1 E A 0 6 2 2 2 4 10
0 3 5
4 7

0
0

2
0
4 4

2
1

0
0
0

0
3
-2
0

2 Jordan
3

2 1 0
0 2 1

0 0 2
AX=2X X 1 AX-2X= X 1 X 2 AX 2 X X 2 X 3

P X1, X 2 , X 3
6
7 0 0 0 Jordan 1 Jordan

0 1

0 1


J=

0
J r>1 0 Jordan
r

8 PAP

A Jordan

0 * 0 0
0 * 0

J A dig 1 , 2 ,, n
dig i M

0
n
1
n
M 0 ( P MP) o

A P1J A P P1dig i P P1MP D N


9 1, i , i

10 V e1e , e2 xe , e3 x e , e4 e
x

2 x

1
0
T e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 e1 , e2 , e3 , e4
0

1
0
E A
0

0
1
0
0

2x

1 0 0
1 2 0
e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 A
0 1 0

0 0 2

0
0
3
2, 1
-1 0
3
0 -1
0

11 A Jordan J1 , J 2 , J r
r

mA x mJ1 , mJ 2 , , mJ r , f A x f J i mJi x f J x f A mA
i 1

Jordan

1
1
2
3

AX X , AX X A* AX A* X , A* AX A* X x A* X , X A* x
*
AX X 0 X A X 0

A U *dig 1, 2 ,, n U

A* U *dig 1 , 2 ,, n U
AA* U *dig | 1 |2 ,| 2 |2 ,,| n |2 U

*
*
*
3
1 A U dig 1, 2 ,, n U A U dig 1 , 2 , , n U

2 2

m
*
m
m
m
3 A U dig 1 , 2 , , n U i i i 1 0

4
1
2

*
3
3
3
*
2
2
2
3 U dig 1 , 2 , , n U U dig 1 , 2 ,, n U i i i i A A

k
*
k
k
k
4 E A U dig 1 , 2 , , n U i i 1

A2 U *dig 1,1,,1U E

AB X AX B AX AX X X * A* X
*

AX B AX 0
AX 0 A
*

AB A

X * AX

1 b12 b13

2 b23
U * AU

6 U

b1 n

b2 n

bn1,n

| 1 |2
*

2
2
* | 2 | | b12 |
U * A* AU

*
*

n 1

2
| n | | bin
i i

( A ) 2 tr A* A

A U T dig 1, 2 ,n U U

7
Y UX
n

| X T AX || i yi2 | max | i | Y T Y CX T X C max | i |


i 1

8 A V PV (V ),VAV P
*

*
*
*
*
AB VABV PVBV AB BA PVBV VBV P

1E1

B11 B12 B1r

B B B
2 E2
2r

A
, B 21 22

r Er

Br1 Br 2 Brr
i AB=BA

Bij 0 i j B dig B11, B22 ,, Brr


Bii U1 ,U 2 ,,U r

dig (U1* ,U 2* ,,U r* ) Bdig U1 ,U 2 ,,U r U dig U1 ,U 2 ,,U r

U * ABU AB
9

P* 0 P B P*P P*B

10 A A

*
*
*
*
*
B Q 0 Q B P B B Q Q
*

P* P E, B* P 0 , *P
B 0 , *B B

Q Q
E

11

2
12 f A 1 ax b 1, 2 , 2

1 cos Re 2 ,sin Im 2
13 1
14 X V

TX , TX TX TX x 2YY T X

x
X
T

X T 2 XYY T X 2YY T

2YY T X

X T X 2 X T YY T X 2 X T YY T X 4 X T YY T YY T X
XTX
YY || Y || 1
T

15

1 2

*
3
1 T T E

TA TA A A
*

4 6
5

6
7 lim A A lim A lim A
n

8 1 f x
2

k 0

xk
2
A

k
2
2 x

f 1 2, f ' 1 2 f x 2x A f(A)=2A

m
9. 00.2 A 0

10 mA 2 1
2

11 mA 1

2 2 ,

12 1 2 3
1

2 P

P i eit
P 1 e 1 , P ' 1 te 1 , p 2 e
t

2t

P 1 e 1 , P ' 1 te 1 , P " 1 t e 1
t

13
1

eA eA
2

k 0

14
15

2 t

Ak
A
E (e 1) A
k ! k 0 k !

16
1 e am x am 1 x
A

m 1

a0 E

(e A )T ai ( AT )i A AT
i 0

e A ai ( AT )i e A e A
T

i 0

A T

e A e A
T

0e
E

R, C, Q, Z, N
i
Re()
Im()


f (x)
A1
A
Ai
Aj
A(i,j)
vec(A)
rvec(A)
AT
A
A>0
A0
AB
adj A
r(A)
tr A
(A)
(A)
|||A|||
||A||1 , ||A||2 , ||A||
|A|
Cnr
dk ()
ij
diag(1 , ..., n )
eTi
ej
Eij
HA
I, Im
J
Jk ()
N (A)
N (AT )
R(A)
R(AT )

, ,
, (),

()

f (x)
A
A Moore-Penrose
A i A i
A j
A {i, j}
A
A
()A
()A
A A A
A A A
A B ( Kronecker )
A
A
A
A
A
A
A lp (p = 1, 2, )
A A ( A ) A
n r
k
Kronecker , ij = 1 i = j; ij = 0 i
= j
1 , ..., n
(0, ..., 0, 1, 0, ..., 0) i 1
(0, ..., 0, 1, 0, ..., 0)T j 1
(i, j) 1
A Hermite
, m
Jordan
k Jordan
A
A ( A )
A ()
A ( A )

(x, y)
xy
Rn
Cn
Fn
Mn , Mn (F )
Rmn
Cmn
F mn
C[a, b]
Span{1 , ..., ak }
U W
s

Ui

x y
x y ()
n
n
F n
F n
m n
m n
F m n
[a, b]
1 , ..., k
()U W

V /U
1V
0V
dim V
r()
()

Im ()
Ker ()
Hom(V, W )
V
End V
W
V
PU
ProjU
|U
s

i

V U
V ()
V
V





V W
V
V
W

U ()
U
U
1 , , s

U V

E{x}
Ex

U V

x
x x

i=1

i=1

()U1 , , Us

16,22,23 b50
b

1. :

n
a 1

n
n


a 1

1 1
cos x sin x
.

a 1
; (3)
; (2)
(1)

1 1
sin x cos x

a 1
a



n
n
cos nx sin nx
cos n
sin n
4
4
; (2) ( 2)
: (1)
;( (1)
sin nx cos nx
sin n
cos n
4
4

.)
2. : n I.
: A = (aij ) A Eij , AEij = Eij A.
AEij j A i 0 Eij A i A j
0 A 0 aii = ajj A
.
3. A1 B CA1 ,

4
4 5 0 10
4 5 0
2
A = 2 3 1 , B = 2 3 1 1 , C =
2
2 7 9 3
2 7 3
2

5
3
7
3

0
1
.
9
7

24
0
60 175
1
0
24 48
92 ,
: A1 B = 24
10 35 45
98

24
0
0
0
24 2
1

CA1 = 24
96 216 18 .
112 192 22
4. A, B Mn , : adj (AB) = adj (B)adj (A).
(1) A, B
(2) x F , x , A xI B xI ,
x
adj ((A xI)(B xI)) = adj (B xI)adj (A xI).
i j x

opx x = 0 adj (AB) = adj (B)adj (A).


5. : A, r(A A) = r(AA ) = r(A).
. yAA = 0 , (AA ) = 0 (A)(A) =
0, A 0 A = 0. yAA = 0 yA = 0
.
6. : n A, r(An ) = r(An+1 ).
4

r(Ai+1 ) r(Ai ), A, A2 , , An+1 2 As At .


s < t. r(As ) = r(As+1 ) = = r(At ). r(At+1 ) = r(At ).
At+1 x = 0 . A At x = 0 r(At ) = r(At1 ) At1 x = 0
At x = 0 A At1 x = 0 At = 0. At+1 x = 0 At x = 0
r(At+1 ) = r(At ). r(Ai ) = r(Aj ), i, j s.
2
7. n ( = e2i/n = cos 2
n + i sin n ), Fourier

1
1
1
..
.

2
..
.

1
2
4
..
.

1 n1 2(n1)

n1
2(n1)
..
.
(n1)(n1)

.
F . 0 < j < n, wj wj = 1 ( j )0 + ( j )1 + +
( j )n1 = 0, F F = nI. F 1 = n1 F .
8. A = (aij )nn .




f (x1 , x2 , , xn ) =

:
0
x1
x1 a11

xn an1

xn
a1n

ann

A .
f xi

x1 a11



(1+i+1)
(1)
xj aj1


xn an1

a1,i1 a1,i+1

aj,i1 aj,i+1

an,i1 an,i+1

a1n

ajn

ann

j xj (1)j+1 Mij , Mij A


aij . , f xi xj (1)i+j Mij = Aij f A
A .
9. Frobenius : r(AB) + r(BC) r(B) + r(ABC).







B BC
B
B
.

AB
0
AB ABC
ABC
10. .
A 1 , , n k1 1 + + kn n = 0. A
B. P B = P A. B P 1 , , P n .
k1 P 1 + + kn P n = 0. .
5

11. A n , 0
= x F n Ax
= x, I A .
Ax
= x A 1, I A . A
(A) < 1, (I A)1 = I + A + A2 + + Am + (
).
12. n A , x y n . ( A + xy )1 , ShermanMorrison :
A1 xy A1
(A + xy )1 = A1
.
1 + y A1 x
A
A(A + xy )1 = I

xy A1
.
1 + y A1 x

(A + xy )A1 = (I

xy A1 1
) .
1 + y A1 x

I + xy A1 = (I

xy A1 1
) .
1 + y A1 x

( y A1 x ).
13. n A , B, C, D n m, m n, m m .

A B

C D



= |A||D CA1 B|.

I
0
1
CA
I



A B
C D


=

A
B
0 D CA1 B


,



A B
.
14. (1) A, C ,
0 C


A B
.
(2) A , D CA1 B ,
C D

1  1

A1 BC 1
A
A B
.
=
(1)
0
C 1
0 C
(2) 13 . 13


I
0
CA1 I



A B
C D


=

A
B
0 D CA1 B


,

(1) ( G = D CA1 B)



=

A B
C D

1


=(

I
0
1
CA
I

A1 A1 BG1
0
G1



1 

I
0
CA1 I

A B
0 G



=


1 


I
0
A B
1
) =
CA1 I
0 G
A1 + A1 BG1 CA1 A1 BG1
G1 CA1
G1


.

15. A A BC , A, A1 , B, C (A BC)1 .(:




A B
.)

C I


 

I 0
A BC B
A B
,
=
X = A BC.
C I
0
I
C I


A B
C I

1
=

I
0
C I



A BC B
0
I

1
=

I
0
C I



X 1 X 1 B
0
I


X 1 B
X 1
.
CX 1 I + CX 1 B


=

(2) X 1 = A1 + A1 BG1 CA1 G = I CA1 B (


G ).


0
In
2n . 2n M

16. =
In 0
M T M = . :
(1) 2n , ,
;
(2) 1. (: .)
(1) .
(2) M T M = |M |2 = 1, | M | = 1. |M | = 1
17. :

1 2 3 0
(1) A = 0 2 1 1 ;
1 0 2 1

1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
.
(2) A =
1 1 1
1
1
1 1 1

1 1 

1 1 1 0 0
0

(2) A =
1 1 0 1 1 1 ; .
1
1



1 0
1
2
3
0
(1) A = 0 1
;
0 2 1 1
1 1

18. ( I + aEij , i
= j, a
= 0) . ,
?
( I + aEij , i
= j, a
= 0) Eij (i
= j)
E12 . i = 1 Eij 2 j (
7

E12 ) 2 j 0 E12 . Eij (i


= j)
E12 .
aE12 (a
= 0 E12 . P = I + (a 1)E22 .
.
19. A A2 A + 2I = 0, A ? ? .
(A I/2)2 + 7I/4 = 0, (A I/2 + bI)(A I/2 bI) = 0( b2 = 7/4)
A .
(A xI)(A yI) = 0, A .
20. :(1) Hermite , .
(2) Hermite A L A = LL .
(1) A = A a C, . A = a,
. A = a
. = A = a( ),
= 0,
T AT = aT , A = a
a=a
. a .
A = A b
= a C, b , A = b.
a = (A) = A = (A ) = (A) = b , (ab) = 0, ab
= 0,
= 0 .
21. V = { }, F = R . V x y = xy (
;) V F k x = xk (). (V, , )
.
.
22. V = C \ {1}. V op:
a  b = a + b + ab.
 . , V op,
(V,  , ) R . .

(a  b)  c = (a + b + ab)  c = a + b + ab + c + (a + b + ab)c = a + b + c + ab + ac + bc + abc


.
00  a = 0 + a + 0a = a.
a
= 1 x, 0 = a  x = a + x + ax, x = a/(1 + a)( 1
).
 .
.
23. V = C \ {1} , op ,
oab = a + b + xabp, x . op op,
(V, , ) . . , C R ?
8

.
24. A = {a1 , a2 , , an } .
(1) : dim F F A = n;
(2) F A ;
(3) F A A .
(1) (2) fi F A fi (aj ) = ij , f1 , , fn F A
dim F F A = n.
(3) (2) F A
= HomF (F n , F ). A F A
= HomF (|A|, F ), F |A|
A .
25. : J = {1 , 2 , , s } K = {1 , 2 , , t } n
V , J . j J K , s t;
K s 1 , 2 , , s , K
.
i = a1i 1 + + ati t , 1 i s,
(1 , , s ) = (1 , , t )A(J = KA)
A = (Aij )ts F ts . J Jx = 0 0 KAx = 0 Ax = 0
0 s t.
L = {1 , 2 , , s , 1 , 2 , , t }. L s
1 , 2 , , s j K .
26. .
.
27. .
J, K A, B K = JA, J = KB. K =
K(BA). BA = I A B .
28. 1, x1, (x1)2 , , (x1)n R[x]n+1 , f (x) = a0 + a1 x +
a2 x2 + + an xn .
Taylor
2

f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x + + an x =

n

f (i)
i=0

i!

(x 1)i .

R[x]n+1 1, x1, (x1)2 , , (x1)n


n + 1 = .
29. : (, )1 (, )2 V , (, ) = (, )1 +
(, )2 V . V .
. .
30. x = (x1 , x2 )T , y = (y1 , y2 )T ,
(x, y) = ax1 y1 + bx1 y2 + bx2 y1 + cx2 y2 .
9

(x, y) R2 a > 0, ac > b2 .






a b
a b
.

b c
b c
a > 0, ac > b2 .
31. V = {a cos t + b sin t, a, b } . f, g V ,

(f, g) = f (0)g(0) + f ( )g( ).


2
2

(f, g) V , h(t) = 3 cos (t + 7) + 4 sin (t + 9) .


(f, g) V .h(t) = 3 cos (t + 7) + 4 sin (t + 9) 5.

a cos t + b sin t a2 + b2 .
32. R[x]2
1
f (x)g(x)dx.

(f, g) =
1

(1) 1, t, t2 ;
(2) f (x) = 1 x + x2 g(x) = 1 4x 5x2 .

2
0 2/3
1 G = 0 2/3 0 ; (2) 0.
2/3 0 2/5
33. ai , 1 i n , xi , yi ,
n
n
n



2
2
(
ai xi yi ) (
ai xi )(
ai yi2 ).
i=1

i=1

i=1

x = (x1 , , xn )T , y = (y1 , , yn )T Rn ,
(x, y) =

ai xi yi

i=1

(x, y) Rn a.
.
34. (1) C R 2 . C , i
1 + i C , ?
(2) R3 , e1 , e1 + e2 , e1 + e2 + e3
. e2 e3 ? ?
1.
2 e1 , e1 +e2 , e1 +e2 +e3 (e1 , e1 ) = 1, (e1 , e2 ) = 1, (e1 , e3 ) =
0, (e2 , e2 ) = 2, (e2 , e3 ) = 1, (e3 , e3 ) = 2.
((x1 , x2 , x3 ), (y1 , y2 , y3 )) = x1 y1 + 2x2 y2 + 2x3 y3 (x1 y2 + x2 y1 + x2 y3 + x3 y2 ).
10

35. 34 .

.
36. Cauchy-Schwarz .
Cauchy-Schwarz = 0
= 0.
t ( t, t) 0,
(, ) 2(, t) + t2 (, ) 0.
t = (, )/(, ) . (+)2 = 2 + 2 +2(, ) 2 + 2 +2||||||||
( Cauchy-Schwarz ).
37. R4 , 1 = (1, 0, 1, 1)T , 2 = (2, 1, 0, 3)T 3 =
(1, 1, 1, 1)T .

()1 = (1, 0, 1, 1)T / 3, 2 = (7, 3, 1, 8)T / 123, 3 = (3, 54, 23, 20)T / 3854.
38. V
d(, ) = || ||.
d(, ) V , :
(d1) : d(, ) = d(, );
(d2) : d(, ) 0, = ;
(d3) : d(, ) + d(, ) d(, ).
.
39. 2 V 1 , 2 ,


5 4
.
A=
4 5
V 1 , 2 .
1 , 2 1 = 1 + 2 , 2 = 1 2 1 =

(1 + 2 )/ 18, 2 = (1 2 )/ 2 . 1 , 2

1 = 1 / 5, 2 = (41 52 )/ 45 .
40. n V 1 , 2 , , n , A. , V
x y.
(1) (, ) = xT A
y . , V , (, ) = xT Ay.
(2) (1) .
1 B = (1 , 2 , , n ), = Bx = By (, ) .
(2) 1 , 2 , , n V G = ((i , j )). ,
u v. 1 , 2 , , n 1 , 2 , , n P . x = P u, y = P v.
i = BPi , 1 i n, Pi P i .
(i , j ) = (BPi , BPj ) = PiT APj , 1 i, j n.
11


G = ((i , j )) = P T AP .
v = uT P T AP v = (P u)T APv = xT A
y . (1)
( , ) = uT G
.
41. V = Mn (R) Mn (C). A = (aij ), B = (bij ) V .
(1) (A, B) = tr(AB ) V ;
(2) (1) , A ? ?
(3) : Eij , 1 i, j n V ;
(4) M2 (R) .
1.
2(A, A) = tr(AA ) =

n

2
i,j=1 |aij | .

) = tr(E E ). E E = E , tr(E E ) = 1
(3) (Eij , Ekl ) = tr(Eij Ekl
ij lk
ij lk
ij lk
jl ik
i = k, j = l tr(Eij Elk ) = 0. Eij , 1 i, j n V .







0 1
0 1
1 0
/ 2,
/ 2,
/ 2. (.)
4I/ 2,
1 0
1 0
1

42. V = R2 (). 1 = (1, 1)T , 2 =


(1, 1)T 1 = (0, 2)T , 2 = (6, 12)T V . j k
(1 , 1 ) = 1, (1 , 2 ) = 15, (2 , 1 ) = 1, (2 , 2 ) = 3.
(1) ;
(2) V .
1
(1 , 1 ) = 2, (1 , 2 ) = 1, (2 , 2 ) = 2.
(1 , 1 ) = 2, (1 , 2 ) = 12, (2 , 2 ) = 135.

(2) 1 = (1 + 2 )/ 6, 2 = (1 2 )/ 2 V ..
43. n V 1 , 2 , , n . C,
(1 , 2 , , n ) = (1 , 2 , , n )C
1 , 2 , , n V .
. A
AT A Q QT AT AQ = D .
D1 QT AT AQD1 = I, (AQD1 )T (AQD1 ) = I. AQD1 ,
R. A = RDQT = (RDRT )RQT . D RDRT R, Q
RQT .
1 , 2 , , n V 1 , 2 , , n P
(1 , 2 , , n ) = (1 , 2 , , n )P . C Q
12

P = CQ. (1 , 2 , , n ) = (1 , 2 , , n )CQ. (1 , 2 , , n )Q1 = (1 , 2 , , n )C


.
44. A
( AT = A ), :
(1) A 0 ;
(2) + i A , , ,
.
1 a A ( ) AT = a.
A = a
a = a
. a = a
a = 0
A = a
.
2 a
= 0 A( + i) = a( + i), A = a, A = a.
T A = T AT = aT . T A = aT aT = aT . a
= 0
T = 0.
45. A Hermite . x x Ax = 0, A = 0.
A 0 A A = 0.


1 1
46. A =
. R2 () < x, y > :
1 1
< x, y >= xT Ay.
? , , ,
.
A opa
0 . .
.
47. f (x, y) Cn
( f (x, y) = f (y, x) x y
).
(1) f (x, y) ;
(2) f (x, x) = 0 ;
(3) f (x, y) ( f (x, ) = 0, x Cn , = 0),
, f (, ) = f (, ) = 0 f (, ) = 1.
1f (x, y) = xT Ay, A AT = A.
(2) A aii = 0 ei f (x, x) = 0 . A
0 f (x, x) = a11 x21 + x1 + = 0 x1
0 A a11 0.

3 0
= = (bj )T Cn , 0 = f (x, ) = ni,j=1 aij bj xi

1 n 1 Cn
f (, ) = 0. .

48. x A x, x x Ax/x x(
Rayleigh1 , ). n x Ax A
.
1

Rayleigh , John William Strutt(1842-1919), , 1904 .

13

x a, Ax = ax. x Ax = ax x, a =
x Ax/x x. x a = x Ax/x x x Ax
x x = 1 A m M , m M
x Ax x x = 1 . A
.
49. Vandermonde ()2 Vandermonde . Vandermonde
.


1 1
Vandermonde a = 0, b = 1 (
.
a b

1 1 1
2 Vandermonde ). a b c
a2 b2 c2
Vandermonde a = b = 0, c = 1 .
50. I = I2 , X 2 = I . X n = In
(), n . (: .)
51. 1.6.1 . (.)
52. 1.6.1.
53. (1.6.3) .
54. (1.6.2) n C 1, x d
.
(1) : d d + d, x + x;
(2) d = e1 , x (I C)1 .
.
55. G

1
1
A(G) =
0
2

1
1
1
1

0
1
0
0

2
1
,
0
0

G.

Alexandre-Theophile Vandermonde(1735-1796), , .

14


27 (2)(3) (op) 28 b 50
b

1. : U V . U
F , , U , + U U .
b U o+pb U
o+po+pa1 = U V .
U 0 = 0 U, = 1 U , U b
2. b(1) : U V , W U , W
V ;
(2) () , ;
, U W U W .
1b
2 () ,
b
3. (1) V , U W V .
dim (U + W ) = (dim U + dim W ) dim (U W ).
(2) V . :
dim V = max{m | 0 = V0 V1 Vm1 Vm = V, Vi Vi+1 }
1 dim U = s, dim W = t, dim (U W ) = r. U W 1 , 2 , , r .
U W U W , U W U W ,
U W .
1 , 2 , , r , r+1 , r+2 , , s

(0.0.1)

1 , 2 , , r , r+1 , r+2 , , t

(0.0.2)

U W .
1 , 2 , , r , r+1 , r+2 , , s , r+1 , r+2 , , t

(0.0.3)

U + W . , U + W
.

k1 1 + k2 2 + + kr r + br+1 r+1 + + bs s + cr+1 r+1 + + ct t = 0.


15

(0.0.4)


= k1 1 + k2 2 + + kr r ,
= br+1 r+1 + br+2 r+2 + + bs s ,
= cr+1 r+1 + cr+2 r+2 + + ct t .
U W, U, W , + + = 0. = U , U W ;
d1 , d2 , , dr , = d1 1 + d2 2 + + dr r ,
d1 1 + d2 2 + + dr r cr+1 r+1 cr+2 r+2 ct t = 0.
(2) W , d1 = d2 = = dr = cr+1 = cr+2 = = ct = 0. ,
(1) U , (4) , k1 = k2 = = kr = br+1 = br+2 = = bs = 0. , (3)
.
U + W . U, W , = + . (1) ( 2)
U W , k1 , k2 , ..., kr , br+1 , br+2 , ..., bs l1 , l2 , ..., lr , cr+1 , cr+2 , ..., ct
= k1 1 + k2 2 + + kr r + br+1 r+1 + br+2 r+2 + + bs s ,
= l1 1 + l2 2 + + lr r + cr+1 r+1 + cr+2 r+2 + + ct t ,

= (k1 + l1 )1 + (k2 + l2 )2 + + (kr + lr )r +br+1 r+1 + br+2 r+2 + + bs s


+cr+1 r+1 + cr+2 r+2 + + ct t .
(3) . , (3) U + W .
2 dim V = n. 0 = V0 V1 Vm1 Vm = V
m n. , 1 , , n V
0 = V0 F 1 (F 1 F 2 ) (F 1 F m ) (F 1 F n ) = V
m = n. b
b
4. W1 , W2 , , Ws V ,
:
(1) W1 +W2 + +Ws dim (W1 +W2 + +Ws ) = dim W1 +dim W2 + +dim Ws ;

(2) Wj k=j Wk = 0, 1 j s, 1 k s;
(3) W1 + W2 + + Ws ;
(4) .

(1) (2) s k=j Wk b
(2) (3) W1 + W2 + + Ws = 1 + 2 + + s =
1 + 2 + + s i , i Wi , i.
i i =



(j j )
Wj
j=i

j=i

Wi , 2 i i = 0, i. b
16

(3) (4) b
(4) (1) (W1 + W2 + + Ws1 ) + Ws
dim (W1 + W2 + + Ws ) = dim (W1 + W2 + + Ws1 ) + dim Ws ,
dim (W1 + W2 + + Ws ) = dim W1 + dim W2 + + dim Ws .
5.

1 1 2
A = 0 1 1 ,
1 3 4

A .

R(A) = [(1, 0, 1)T , (1, 1, 3)T ], R(AT ) = [(1, 0, 1)T , (0, 1, 1)T ], N (A) = [(1, 1, 1)T ], N (AT ) = [(1, 2, 1)T ]
6. V , W1 , W2 , , Ws V . W1 W2 Ws = V .(
: Vandermonde .)
Wi j=i Wj , i. i Wi \ j=i Wj . t F

(t) = si=1 ti1 i sj=1 Wj b F t Wi0
(t). t1 , , ts F (i) = (ti ) Wi0 ,
s1
0
0
s1
(1) = t01 1 + + ts1
1 s (2) = t2 1 + + t2 s (s) = ts 1 + + ts s

Vandermonde i (1), , (s)


Wi0
7. V n , U V
. U V , U .
U bdim U = n2 1, U
b
8. V n , U = {f (x) V | f (1) = 0}.
U V , V .
U bdim U = n 1, U
b

9. U = [(1, 2, 3, 6)T , (4, 1, 3, 6)T , (5, 1, 6, 12)T ], W = [(1, 1, 1, 1)T , (2, 1, 4, 5)T ]
,
(1) U W ;
(2) U W , U ;
(3) U W , W ;
(4) U + W .

R4

1(1, 2, 1, 2)T ;
(2) (1, 2, 1, 2)T , (1, 2, 3, 6)T ;
(3) W = [(1, 2, 1, 2)T , (1, 1, 1, 1)T ];
(4) U + W = [(1, 2, 1, 2)T , (1, 2, 3, 6)T , (1, 1, 1, 1)T ].
17

10. U = {(x, y, z, w) | x + y + z + w = 0}, W = {(x, y, z, w) | x y + z w = 0}.


U W, U + W .
2, 4U W = [(1, 0, 1, 0), (0, 1, 0, 1)], U + W = F 4 , b
11. A, B n m, m p , V xAB = 0 .
U = {y = xA | x V } F n , U .
U bdim U = r(A) r(AB).
12. A n .
(1) A .
;
(2) A Hermite Hermite .
;
(3) R ;
(4) (1)-(3) .
1 A = 1/2[(A + AT ) + (A AT )] 1/2(A + AT ) 1/2(A AT )
b
b234b
13. F : f (x), g(x) ,
g(x) = 0, q(x) r(x)
f (x) = g(x)q(x) + r(x)
r(x) = 0 r(x) < g(x). .
g(x) f (x) b f (x) b f (x)
ng(x) m n f (x), g(x) F [x]n+1 b 1, x, , xm1 , g(x), xg(x), , xnm g(x)
F [x]n+1

f (x) = a0 1+a1 x+ +am1 xm1 +am g(x)+ +an xnm g(x) = [a0 1+a1 x+ +am1 xm1 ]+[am + +an xnm
b
14. (1) f . : f , ,
;
(2) (1) .
(1) f f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) a f (a) = af (1)b
b a1 , a2 , ai b, i b f
f (b) = lim f (ai ) = lim [ai f (1)] = f (1) lim ai = bf (1)
i

f b
2 f V R . f , ,
b 5 b
15. (1 ), (2 ), , (s ) , 1 , 2 , , s .
18

1 , 2 , , s . = 0. (1 ), (2 ), , (s )
1 , 2 , , s b
16.(1) U, V F (), Hom(U, V ).
(a) Ker() = 0;
(b) Im() = V ;
(c) .
, U = V , EndV ,
.
(2) Hom(U, V ) , , = 1 , = 1 ;
(3) 2 C .
(1) (a) b Ker() = 0 () = () ( ) = 0
= , b
(b) b
(c) bb
(2) b
(3) C 2
f : C C f : x + i y  (ax + by) + i (cx + dy)
ad bc = 0.
17. Hom(U, V ).
(1) Ker Im U V ;
(2) U/Ker Im .
(1) b
(2) K = Ker. f : u + K  (u) U/Ker Im
f f (u + K) = 0 (u) = 0, u K u + K = 0 f
f b f b
18. EndV V A. : EndV, = ,
A.
A b
A A = E12
1 , 2 , n E12 2 , 1 , , n E12
= .
19. F U V dim F U = dim F V .
b dim F U = dim F V . U
V
b
20. 22 23 ? Rn
.
1 b R1 b
19

21. U V , dim F Hom(U, V ) = (dim F U )(dim F V ).


Hom(U, V )
= F dim F V )(dim F U ) dim F Hom(U, V ) =
(dim F U )(dim F V ).
22. V F n , 1 , 2 , , n V . Mn (F ) F
n . End V , A() . End V
Mn (F )
:

End V

Mn (F )
A()

(, ), :
(1) A( + ) = A() + A( );
(2) A(k) = kA(), k F ;
(3) A( ) = A()A( );
(4) A() ; A()1 = A( 1 );
(5) A(0) = 0; A(I) = I.
b
23. U V n m F . HomF (U, V )
=
, V V .

F m n .

U V HomF (U, V )
A()
b
24. V . v V, f V , V V :
: v  (v) : f  f (v).
V V .
b V , V V
b (v) = 0 f V f (v) = 0 v = 0 b
V ()1 , , n V , V
1 , , n 1 , , n b (i ) = i b 1 : i 
i , 1 i n.
25. : f (x)  f  (x) 1, x , x2 , , xn1 1, (x a) , (x
a)2 , , (x a)n1 . ? .

0
0

0
0

1
0

0
0

0
2

0
0

0.
20

0
0

n1
0

26. V F n , V 0
. V . , ; V ,
.
bKer =
ImKer = b {Eij , 1 i, j n}( i j)
In(n+1)/2 0n(n1)/2 b
27. (1) V = F n . = (x1 , x2 , , xn )T ,
() = (x2 , x3 , , xn , 0)T .
;
(2) , EndV V , + V
;

A B
.
(3) A, D , B, C ,
C D
(1) n

(2) b

0 1
1 0

0
0

0
0

1
0

0
0

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
0


0 0 1
0 1
b(3) b A = D = 0 1 0 B =
0 0
1 0 0

E23 , C = E12 b
28. V F n , A V , P V
, A , P P . V
. , . V , .
{ = X | AX = 0}, = {Y | Y = AX, X V }.
b 0, b
29. V = R3 , (x, y, z) = (x + 2y z, y + z, x + y 2z).
(1) ;
(2) .
(1) Ker = [(3, 1, 1)], 1 Im = [(1, 0, 1), (2, 1, 1)], 2 b
(2) 0b
30. V n , U V . W = { V | (, ) = 0, U }.
W V V = U W .
W dim W = n dim U b
W U = 0 V = U W .
31. R(A) = N (A ) .
21

R(A) = N (A ). N (A ) A = 0b (A ) =
A N (A ) R(A) bb
32. V = R[x]n ,

(f (x), g(x)) =

f (x)g(x) d x.
0

U = {f (x) V | f (0) = 0}.


(1) U V n 1 , U ;
(2) n = 3 , U U .
(1) x, x2 , , xn1 U b
(2) U = [3 + 12x 10x2 ].
33. Rn W , e1 + e2 W e2 .
n = 2 W = [e2 ]b n 3 W = [e2 , e3 , , en ].
34. : f (x) Fourier an , bn (n > 0) f (x)
cos nx, sin nx .


Fourier an = 1 f (x) cos nxdx, bn = 1 f (x) sin nxdx

(f, g) = 1 f (x)g(x)dx 2 b
35. U V , V, U . U
U .
bb U , = ( ) +
( ), U , U , || ||2 = || ||2 + || ||2 || ||2 . ,
U ,
|| || || ||,
U .
36. 5 V V ,
5. , V , Im . ,
Ker = Im , Im = Ker.
V = R6 , (e1 ) = e1 , (ei ) = 0, 2 i 6. (Im) = Ker =
[e2 , , e6 ].
(e1 ) = 0, (ei ) = ei , 2 i 6, Ker = Im , Im = Ker.
37. 0 V , () = 2(, 0 )0 , V .
(1) ;
(2) .
b
38. : V ( ((), ) = (, ()))
V .
22

V 1 , 2 , , n A = (aij ). (i ) =
k=1 aki k , 1 i n.

n

((i ), j ) =

n


aki (k , j ) = aji , (i , (j )) =

k=1

n


akj (i , k ) = aij .

k=1

aji = aij A b
39. R2 ,

P =


c s
s c

c2 + s2 = 1. , .
P 2 1 1, 1 1
y = x tan , c = cos 2.
40. 6 :

1
1

,
1
1
1
1

1
1

,
1
cos sin ,
1
sin cos

1
1

,
1

1
cos
sin

sin .
cos

(: 1 3 .)
A 3 1, A
() b
1 1 1.
1 R3 1 (2 ) A
b A A
A b
41. EndR2 . S = {(x , y) : 0 x , y 1}
G = (S) = {(x, y) : (x, y) S}. :
(1) G ;
(2) G , ?
(3) , G ?
(1) (ei ) = i , i = 1, 2. G = (S) = {(x, y) = (xe1 + ye2 ) = x1 + ya2 :
0 x , y 1}. 1 , 2 G 1 , 2 b
0 = 1 , 2 G b = 0, G
b
(2) G (1) 1 2 a
b
(3) (1).
23

42. (1) EndR2 . C (, ). (C)


( C );
(2) P n ( C n ), (Q)
;
(3) , , ;
(4) EndR3 . Q . (Q) ( Q
).
(1) C ( y = x2 ) b = 0 (e1 ) =
(a, c)T , (e2 ) = (b, d)T . ((x, x2 )T ) = (ax + bx2 , cx + dx2 ) X = ax +
bx2 , Y = cx + dx2 (x )b (a, b) (c, d) X + Y = 0
b (a, b) = (0, 0) a = 0. x
X 2 + 2XY + Y 2 + dX + eY = 0b
b
(2) n b
(3) y = ()x ax + by = ()cx+dy b
(4) (1) ab
43. Householder Hv v , .
Householder .
Hv v Hv (v) = vb
44. Givens G . x = (x1 , x2 , , xn )T , Gx
. x , Givens x e1 .
GGT = Ib i < j. Gx = x + [(c 1)xi + sxj ]ei + [(c 1)xj sxi ]ej =
(x1 , , xi1 , cxi + sxj , xi+1 , , xj1 , cxj sxi , xj+1 , , xn )T .
n = 2 x = (x1 , x2 )T c = x1 , s = x2 Gx = e1 b
45. (1) ;
(2)
: (x, y)T  (a1 x + b1 y, a2 x + b2 y)T .

: (x, y)T  (a1 x + a2 y, b1 x + b2 y)T .
, V , A, B , .

(a) ( ) = ;
(b) ( + ) = + ;
(c) () = , R;
(d) ( ) = ;
(e) = B = AT .
(3) .
24

(1) A
AT b
(2) (3) (e) b
(3) o A
AT p ( (1) )b
46. (1) Hermite Hermite ? Hermite
;
(2) , ( 2.4.5).
(1) ((x), y) = (x, (y)) ()b
(2) (2)()b
47. 1 , 2 , , n 1 , 2 , , m U V , (i , 0), (0, j ), 1
i n, 1 j m U V .
()b
48. U V 2 , U V
((u1 , v1 ), (u2 , v2 )) = (u1 , u2 ) + (v1 , v2 ).
U V .
ab
49. i Hom(Ui , Vi ), i = 1, 2. U1 U2 V1 V2 ( ui Ui ):
(u1 + u2 ) = 1 (u1 ) + 2 (u2 ).
.
b
50. i Hom(Ui , Vi ), 1 i n. i i -i - Ai .
Hom(

n

i=1

Ui ,

n

i=1

Vi )

n

i=1

i -

n

i=1

i -

n

i=1

n

i=1

Ai .

b
51. (2.5.11) .
52. 2.5.1.
53. 2.5.6.
54. V /U (2.5.12) .
55. 2.5.1.
56. (2.5.15)
. oU p

57. A Ms (F ), B, C Mns (F ). V , EndV . V

25


21-2449-63 b
1. 2 1.2.2 o 1.2.3p;
2. 5(2) opop;
3. 39(2) opop;
4. 46 opop

1. Schur .
n A |I A| =
s},

s

i=1

s

i=1

( i )ni , (A) = {i | 1 i

ni = n. A

B=

..
.

..

s bs = 1 b s = k b s = k + 1 3.1.1
B

..
.

..

s1
.

s1 s Ins

= s 1 = kb

3 2 2 3
2 1 1 2

2. A 1.2.3 A =
2 2 2 2 .
1 1 1 1
(1) Sylvester A A6 ;
(2) A , .
28

(1)


1
1 0 0 1 = LR.
2 0 1 1 0
1

3
2
A=
2
1

96 95

95

96

32 32

32

32

64 63 63 64

| I A | = |I LR | = 2 |I RL | = 2 (+1)(+2). A6 =
64 64 64 64

(2) J = (0) (0) (1) (2).


3. = (a1 , , an )T , = (b1 , , bn )T , x , A = xIn + T .
(1) |A|;
(2) Sylvester |A|;
(3) |A|.
(1)
(2) |A| = |xIn + T | = xn1 | x + T | = xn1 (x + T ).


(3) T 1 n1 0 T = ni=1 ai bi ,

A = xIn + T n 1 x x + T = x + ni=1 ai bi ,
| A| = |xIn + T | = xn1 (x + T ).
4. = ,

0
0
.

u
0

a b c
d e

0 x
0 0

, u = 0 a = 0, u = 1; v = 0

v
0

x = 0, v = 1.
5. (1) Schur ;
(2) Schur : A Mn (R), Q

QT AQ =

A2

..

Ai 1

A1

ai bi
bi ai

.
Ak


2 (bi = 0).

x, x x
(: , A , Ax = x, A
x =

, Rex Imx , , .)
29

(1)

0 1
1 0

(2) A ()


T
A1 n 1
Q Q AQ =
0 A1

..

s
0
0 0 A1

, , r A Q QT AQ =
1

A1 n s b A

b = + i, , R, = 0 A x = u + iv, u, v Rn
x, =
xx
b Ax = x, A
x =
u v
. Au = u v, Av = v + u. u, v ,
Q = (, , ) = (u, v, )R, R b R 2


B
T
S 1 , A1
S, Q AQ =
B = S

0 A1
n 2 b
6. a , V = {eax f (x) | f (x) Cn [x]} n .
(1) :  dd x V ;
(2) Jordan .
(1) b

a 1

a 1

a 1
(2) J = Jn (a) =

.
.. 1

7. V , EndV , A .
(1) A ();
s

(2) 1 , , s , A V =
Vi . A
, =

s

i=1

i=1

i , i Vi .

8. R3 , x = (x1 , x2 , x3 )T , (x) = (2x2 2x3 , 2x1 + 3x2


x3 , 2x1 x2 + 3x3 )T . R3 , .
(1, 2, 0), (1, 0, 2), (2, 1, 1) diag(4, 4, 2).


1 1
9. B =
, V = {X = (xij ) M2 (R) | tr X = 0}
0 1
(X) = B T X X T B, X V. V , .

30

0
0
0
E11 E22 , E12 , E21 1 1 1 .
1 1 1
10. A 0, 1, (1, 2)T , (2, 1)T . A
A.

4 2
1
.
A bA = 5
2 1
11. :

2 3
2
4
6 0
4
6 0
3 2
; (2) 0 5
4 ; (3) 3 5 0 ; (4) 3 5 0 .
(1)
4 5
0 2 1
3
6 1
3 6 1
(1) 2 8 + 7, (2) ( 2)(2 4 + 3), (3) ( 1)( + 2),
(4) ( 1)2 ( + 2), .
12.
(1)
(2)
(3)

,
;
;
.

(1) 0 E12 ; (2) diag(0, 0, 1) diag(0, 1, 1).


(3) A
b m(x) n(x) A
0 1b
13 n A . :
(1) A n k A k ;
(2) A , A .
(1) |I A| n k |I A| n k
(k )
A k b(
(1)k . )
(2) 0. (1),
b1 + + n =

0, 21 + + 2n = 0. i=j i j = 0

i j = 0

i,j=1

i=j (i

+ j )2 = 0, 0.

14. n A 1, , |A| 1.
A 1 + + n = n i 0, 1 i n. n
u = 1 n 1.
31

15. AB = BA, A B . ?
A V b AB =
BA = (B) B V , V B B :  B
V B V A B .
E13 E32 b
16. (1) (a) JnT Jn = (0) In1 , Jn JnT = In1 (0);
(b) Jn ei = ei1 , ei , e0 0 ;
(c) x Cn , (In JnT Jn )x = (xT e1 )e1 ;
(2) M N n . M N r(M k ) = r(N k ), k 1.
(1) b
(2) M N n Jordan bbb
r(M k ) = r(N k ), k 1 M N b
b
17. Jordan (3.2.3).
b
18. Jordan a = 1T e1 = 0 .

0 2 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0

A=
0 0 0 0 0 .
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
A Jordan .
J3 J2 .
19. Jordan Fitting :
V n , EndV , V = Im( n ) Ker( n ).
Jordan J 0 s n, J s = 0K
K . J n = 0 K ns n Jordan b V = Im(J n )
Ker(J n ) V = Im( n ) Ker( n ).
20. n A Jordan J, e.
(a) J Jordan m A ;
(b) J k Jordan k , Ak k , 0 k m.
k = 2k k1 k+1 , 1 k m.
(a) J Jordan m A n r(A) = A
b
k
k
k
m
(b) J = m
i=1 Ji , Ji (= ) ni b A J = i=1 Ji
, Jik ( i = 1, 2, ..., s ).

k k ni ,
k
Ji =
(0.0.5)
ni k > ni .

32

(0.0.5),

1 = A = N =

s
s



(Ni ) =
1=s=
k ,
i=1

2 = A2 = N 2 =
=

(Ni2 )

i: ni <2

i=1

k1

(Ni2 )

i=1

(0.0.6)

(Ni2 ) = 1 + 2

i: ni 2

(0.0.7)

k ,

k2

s

(Nij )
j = A = N =
j


i: ni <j

(Nij

) +


i: ni j

i=1

(Nij ) =

k k + j

k<j

k ,

(0.0.8)

kj

(0.0.6) (0.0.7) (??) . )??( (0.0.8) .


21-24 Jordan ,
s

( i )ni n A , (A) = {1 , 2 , , s }, gi i
|I A| =
i=1

.
21. Ei = {x Cn | (A I)ni x = 0}.

22. dim C Ei = ni , Cn =
E .(op.)
(A)

23. j Ei , 1 j gi , 1jgi {j , (A i I)j , , (A i I)mj 1 j }


Ei ( j ), Ei A .
24. Cn Jordan . A Cn
Jordan Jordan ( A x  Ax).
25. 3.3.2, A P .
26. 3.3.5 .

1
2 1

1 2 1

2 0 0 1
P =
0
2 2 0
1

1 1 0 0
1
1

0
1 0 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
33

, b

27. Jordan :

0 1 0
2 6 15
9
(1) 4 4 0 ; (2) 1 1 5 ; (3) 18
2 1 2
1 2 6
18

4 6 15
0 4 0
4
(4) 1 3 5 ; (5) 1 4 0 ; (6) 5
1 2 4
1 2 2
6

6 2
12 3
9 6

5 2
7 3 .
9 4

(1) J2 (2)(2); (2) J2 (1)(1); (3 J2 (3)(3); (4) J2 (1)(1); (5) J2 (2)(2);


(6) J2 (0) (1).
P 1 AP = J:

2
2
1
1 3 2
.
2
5
3
2 4 2

1 1 2
2 0 1
= 1 1 3 ; (2)(1) J2 (4) (4), P = 0 0 1 ; (3) J2 (1)
1 0 0
1 0 0

1 0
2 0
.
3 0
3 1

28. Jordan ,

3 2
4 2 10

0 4
(1) 4 3 7 ; (2)
1 2
3 1 7

(1) J3 (2), P

1 1
1 0
J2 (1), P =
1 0
1 0

2
1
1
0 ; (3)
1
5
1

29. 4 , :

3 3 2
0 1 1
0 1 1
0 1 2
A = 7 6 3 , B = 4 4 2 , C = 3 1 2 , D = 0 1 1 .
1 1 2
2 1 1
7
5
6
0 0 2
A C b
30. (1) ;
(2) A A . A .
(1) 0 b
(2) A
b
31. A A = D + N , D , N
, DN = N D.( Jordan-Chevalley3 .) .
b J = D + N A Jordan D N J
b DN = N D. A = P JP 1 = P DP 1 + P N P 1
P DP 1 P N P 1 (P DP 1 )(P N P 1 ) =
P DN P 1 = P N DP 1 = (P N P 1 )(P DP 1 ).
3

Claude Chevalley(1909-1984), , , ,
.

34

b Jordan b J = D + N =
D1 + N1 N N1 = D D1 . p(x), q(x) C[x]
p(A) = D, q(A) = N , D1 , N1 A D, N b D D1
, N N1 b 0.

0 0 1
32. A = 1 0 1.
0 1 1
(1) A A100 ;
(2) A Jordan-Chevalley ?
(1) 1, i , i ; A1 00 = I;
(2) A = A + 0, A b
33. p() = (1)n [n an1 n1 an2 n2 a1 a0 ].

an1 an2
1
0

0
1
C=
..
..
.
.
0
0

a1 a0
0 0

0 0

..
..
.
.
1 0

p() . n A (1)n p().


(1) C ;
(2) n = 2 , A C A ;
(3) (2) . (: Frobenius .)
(1) |I C| = (1)n p() = n an1 n1 an2 n2 a1 a0 ;

a1 a0
, A 2 a1 a0 . a21 + 4a0 = 0
(2) C =
1 0
b a21 + 4a0 = 0 C A
Jordan .
(3) b
34. V ex , xex , x2 ex , e2x . V
: T (f ) = f  . T Jordan Jordan .
J = J3 (1) (2). Jordan 2ex , 2xex , x2 ex , e2x .
35. A , A Jordan ?
A Jordan Jordan = b
36. ( Fourier ) Cn , ((x1 , x2 , , xn )T ) =
(x2 , x3 , , xn , x1 )T . :
2i

(1) n = 1 j = e n j , 1 j n;

(2) j j = (j , 2j , , nj )T , ||j || = n;
(3)1 , , n Cn ;

35

(4) x = (x1 , x2 , , xn )T j x =
xk =

n

j=1

aj e

2i
j
n

n

j=1

aj j ,

(5) aj = (x, j )/n =

1
n

n

k=1

xk e

2i
jk
n

(6) 7 Fourier , .

0 In1
, 0 Cn1 . 33 ()
(1)
1 0T
n 1b
(2) nj = 1 (j ) = (j , 2j , , nj )T = j (j , 2j , , nj )T

||j || = nb
(3) b
(4) (3) b
(5) b
(6) (3) F =

1 (1 ,
n

, n ) F 1 = F b

9 1 1
37. A = 1 i 1 .
1 1 3
D = diag(2, 1, 1),
1.5, D3 : |x 3| 1.5.

20 3

38. A =
2 10
8 1

DAD1 D1 : |x 9| 4, D2 : |x i |

1
2 A .
0

D = diag(1, 1, 0.5), B = DAD1 , B T D1 : |x 20| 6, D2 :


|x 10| 3.5, D3 : |x| 6. A [16, 24], [6.5, 13.5], [6, 6].
39.

7
16 8
A = 16
7
8 .
8
8 5

(1) A ;
(2) A (1) .
(1) b
(2) A (+ 9)2 ( 27).
36

40. Hilbert4

A=

1
2

2
3
3
4

3
42

n
n+1

..
.

1
22
2
32

..
.

6
..
.

n
(n+1)2

n
(n+1)3

1
2n1
2
3n1
3
4n1

..
.
2n

, A .
Rj = 1

1
(1+j)n1

< 1 n b

41. Ostrowski :

1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.5
3
0.1
0.2
.
A=
1
0.3
1
0.5
1.2 0.6 0.2 3.6

b
42. (A) G(A) G(AT ).
(A) G(A), (AT ) G(AT ), (A) = (AT )b
43. A

3.05 0.06 0.02


0.06 6.91 0.07 .
0.02
0.07 8.44
A .
D1 : |x 3.05| 0.08, D2 : |x 6.91| 0.13, D3 : |x 8.44| 0.09
[2.97, 3.13], [6.78, 7.04], [8.35, 8.93]b
44. (A) = P G(P 1 AP ), P . P
?
P (A) = (P 1 AP ) (A) = P G(P 1 AP )
b D (A) = (D1 AD) (A) = D G(D1 AD)
.
45. A = (aij ) s , r(A) s.
s s r(A) s.
46. n A = (aij ) n 1 , ,
A .
4

David Hilbert(1862-1943), , , 1900


23 . Hilbert : We must know, we shall know.

37

|aii | > Ri , i = 1, n 1| ann | = Rn . D = diag(1, , 1, 1 + b), b >


0.
(1/pn )

n1

pj |anj | = Rn /(1 + b) < |ann |,

j=1

i = n
(1/pi )

n1

pj |aij | = Ri + b|ain |.

j=1

b > 0 Ri + b|ain | < |aii | i = n G(D1 AD)


D1 AD A b
47. Hadamard5 : n A = (aij ) |A|
:
(1) A , |A|

n

i=1

n
n 

( |aij |2 )1/2 .

i=1 i=1

aii ;

(2) C , |aij | C, 1 i, j n, |A| C n nn/2 ;


(3) aij = 1, 1 i, j n, (2) |A| nn/2 . , A
Hadamard . A Hadamard AT A = nIn A .
(1) A ( A ) A
1 |A| 1 (A) 1!
(2) (1) b
(3) bb A . AT A = D =
diag (d1 , , dn ) di i = n D = nIn .
b A n1/2 , (A) 1/2 , |A| (nn/2 )n b
A Hadamard A = nn/2 A (
) AT A = nIn b
48. A = (aij ) , D = diag (a11 , , ann ). D (I
< 1.

D1 A)

A 0 D (A )b I D1 A

a
0 i j=i | aijii | < 1. (I D1 A) < 1.
49. Ostrowski Brauer .
50. Ostrowski .
51. Brauer .
5

Jacques Salomon(1865-1963), , ,
Hadamard : k, 4k Hadamard .

38

52. , Brauer .

1
1
A=
0
0

1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
.
0
1

53. a0 = 0, a1 = 1, a2 , , an , an+1 = xan1 + an , n 1, an


, x . ( x = 1 , Fibonacci .)
54. A n , y T A = y T y A
. : A ( = ).
55. ()
d
, C . C = dx
:
: f (x)  f  (x).
() . .
56-60 Jordan - (
) , , n . -
().
56. r - A() () (
A() Smith )
diag (d1 (), d2 (), , dr (), 0, , 0),
.
di () di ()|di+1 (), 1 i r 1. di () A()
57. A() ,
A()
. Jordan ,
.
58. I A I B .
59. A B I A I B .
60. A Jordan .
61. ?

0 1 0
(1) 0 0 1 ,
1 0 0

0 1 0
(2) 0 0 1 ,
1 0 1

0 1 0
(3) 1 1 1 .
0 1 0

62. 3.5.1.
63. A , (I A)P = P
(A) < 1.(: ( I A)1 0, (A) < 1.)

39


1. 50
2. 30 35
(2) 37 log46
3.
(1) 13 3
;
(2) 46

1. , , U , U AU :

1 i 0
0 i 1
i i 0
(1) A = i 0 i ; (2) A = i 0 0 ; (3) A = i 1 0 .
0 i 1
1 0 0
0 i i

i
1
i

(1) U =

(2) U =

6
2
6
i
6

0
i
2
1
2

(3)

3
0
13
, U AU = diag (1, 1, 2);
i
12
3

1
1

2
2

i
2i
, U AU = diag (0, 2, 2);
2
1
12
2
(A A 6= AA ), .

2. . ?
A = 0, A A = 0. A A A = AA , AA = 0,
(A )A = 0 A = 0 N (A) N (A ).
)
(
0 1
N (A) = {(0, x)T : x C}
A =
0 0
N (AT ) = {(x, )T : x C}.
3. .
A B
A B
4. A Cnn , A A n .
A U U AU = D
AU = DU U A
5. A n , x .
(1) A xI ;
(2) x, Ax A x ;
(3) A A ;
(4) A .
37

(1) U AU = D U (A xI)U = D xI
(2) (Ax) (Ax) = x A Ax = x AA x = (A x) (A x), Ax A x
;
(3) U AU = D U A U = D A U = D U U
A
(4) ().
6. A ,
(1) A Hermite A ;
(2) A A 1;
(3) A A 0 1;
(4) A 1 , 2 , ..., n , AA A A |1 |2 , |2 |2 , ..., |n |2 .
?
(1) 20.
(2) U U AU = D A
D D 1 A
1.
(3) U U AU = D A D
D 1 0 A 1 0.
(4) U U AU = D = diag (1 , 2 , ..., n ) U A U = D ,
U AA U = (U AU )(U A U ) = DD = diag (|2 |2 , ..., |n |2 ) = U AA U .
)
)
(
(
2 1
1 1
T
1, 3
AA =
. A =
1 2
0 1
)
(

1 1
T
(3 5)/2.
A A=
1 2
7. A ,
(1) A , A Hermite ;
(2) A3 = A2 , A2 = A;
(3) A Hermite , ( Ak = I), A ( A2 = I).
U U AU = D
(1) A2 = A, (3) A 0,1 A
(1) A Hermite .
(2) D3 = D2 D 1 0, D2 = D A2 = A;
(3) A 1 D2 = I A2 = I.
8. : A Hermite , 1 2
n , :
x Ax
x Ax
k = minn max
min
=
.
max
06=xwi
06=xwi
wi Cn
wi C
x x
x x
1ink

1ink

1ink

1ink

,
max = n = max

x6=0,xCn

min = 1 =

min

x6=0,xCn

x Ax
x Ax,
= max
x x=1
x x
x Ax
= min
x Ax.
x x=1
x x

38

U U AU = D = diag (1 , 2 , ..., n )
A = U DU x 6= 0,
x Ax
(U x) D(U x)
(U x) D(U x)
=
=
,
x x
x x
(U x) (U x)
U x = y, x 6= 0 y 6= 0. w1 , , wnk Cn
max

06=xwi
1ink

x Ax
x x

= max

06=yU wi
1ink

y Ay
y y

y y=1,y1 =y2 ==yk1 =0,


ywi ,1ink

2
i=1 i |yi |

y y=1,ywi
1ink

max

= max

2
i=1 i |yi |

= max

|yk |2 ++|yn |2 =1,ywi


1ink

i=k

i |yi |2 k .

9. A = (aij )nn , 1 , 2 , , n A n .
n
n

(1) (Schur )
|i |2
|aij |2 ;
i=1

(2) A

i=1

i,j=1

|i |2 =

i,j=1

|aij |2 .

(1) Schur U AU = B , U AA U = BB .

AA BB . tr(AA ) = ni,j=1 |aij |2 BB i


n

|i |2 .
|b2i1 + b2i2 + + b2ii |, tr(BB ) |b211 + b222 + + b2nn | =
i=1

i=1

|i |2

|aij |2

i,j=1

B A , (2).
10. () , .

A U U AU = T , A
T T
11. A n , A Q QT AQ =
A1 A2 As , Ai 1 , Schur .
Schur

A1

A2

( 5) Q QT AQ =
= B
.
.

.
0
Ak
Ai , 1 i s 1 ( A ), Ai , s+1 i n Schur ( A
, ). A 1 , 2 , , n
k
k
s
n

tr(Ai ATi ).
|Ai | =
|Ai |2 +
|i |2 =
A n . tr(BB T ) = tr(AAT ) =
i=1

39

i=1

i=s+1

i=1

B
12. : Hermite A k () A
k .
Hermite A k 1 , , k
1 , , k i Ai = i (i i ) = i (i i ) > 0 A k-
Span{1 , ..., ak } .
13. (1) : (
) ;
)
(
1 1
?
(2) 2
1 1
)
(
1 2
, ;
(3)
0 3
;
(4) 3 .
(1)

Schur

1 , 1
1 1 , 2 1 . i 6= 0 2 , ,
. ,
(), (). (, ) = ((), ()) = (, )A, A
)
(
a b
, |A| = a2 + b2 6= 0.
( () () ), A =
b a
Schur A
(2) (1) (

2 ).

(3)

(1, 3 + 10)T , (3 10, 1)T ) (7 + 2 10, 9 + 3 10)T , (1

10, 3)T ).
(4)

)
(
P B
,
14. P, Q m n , : m + n A =
0 Q
P, Q , B .
A B = 0, A
.
15. Sylvester , Hermite ,
( 0 ) .
Hermite A, B ,
0 (0 0)
40

Ip (Iq ) 0nr p, q
, r = p + q . A B

2 1 2
16. A = 13 1 2
2 , .
2 2 1

1 3i
1 + 3i
)(
),
|E A| = ( 1)(
2
2
A

1
2

3
2

3
2
1
2

.
1

1 =

1 (1, 1, 1)T ,
3

. 3 .

1 0 0
17. 33 S , C, C 1 SC = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1

7 4 4
S = 19 4 1 8 , C.
4 8 1
S , , S 2 = E,
= 1, S , . C =

2 2 1
1
2 1 2 , C 1 SC = diag (1, 1, 1).
3
1 2 2
18. 1 .

i 1
i
1
;
(1) P = 2 0 1 , P AP =
1
i 1 i
2

0
2
2
0

2 .
(2) P = i i
i , P AP =
1 1 1
2
19. ( 4.2.1) .
A n , A (A) = {1 , 2 , , s }, i
ki . s n P1 , , Ps Pi2 = Pi ; Pi Pj = 0( i 6=

j ); si=1 Pi = I; r(Pi ) = ki , 1 i s; si=1 ki = n, A = si=1 i Pi .


T
T + T + +
Pi = i1 i1
i2 i2
i,ki i,ki
ij , 1 j ki ( i ) . Qi (i = 1, , s)
41

i Pi =

i=1

i Q i

i=1

Qj si=1 i (Pi Qj ) = j Qj ; Pi i Pi Qj = j Pi Qj . i 6= j,

i 6= j Pi Qj = 0 si=1 Pi = si=1 Qi () Pi Pi = Pi Qi , ()
Qi Pi Qi = Qi , Pi = Qi .
20. A A =

i=1

i i i , :
1

1
i i
=
i
i=1

.
i A i A A1 1

i
n
1
1

i , A1 =
i i i A
i=1

21. A = LU , L U ,
U 0 A = L0 U 0 .

L0

: ( A = LU ) 22.
)
(
0 1
.
A=
1 0

0.
23. Cholesky ( 4.3.2) .
A = GGT = HH T G, H
H 1 G = H T GT
1
h1
ii gii = hii gii hii = gii
H = G
24. Hermite Cholesky .
A = GG G
25. 4.3.3.
A = LU A i Ai ( i i )
Li Ui |Ai | = |Li ||Ui | = |Ui | 6= 0. A 0. A
0 Gauss A

L
26. A Cnr , A , A = U R, U Cnr r
,R Crr . .
A R
42

2 1
12
27. A = 1 1 , b = 6 .
2 1
8
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

R(A) ;
A QR ;
Ax = b ;
u1 = (0, 1, 0)T , u2 = ( 12 , 0, 12 )T , R(A) , R(A) A

(1) R(A) 1 = 13 (2, 1, 2)T , 2 = 62 (1, 4, 1)T ;


2
2
(
)
3 6
3 53

2 2 , R =
1

(2) A = QR, Q =
;
3
3
0 32
2
2
3 6
(
)( 2
) 12 ( )
1
2
2
5
3
3
3
3
6 = 4 .
3

(3) x = R1 QT b = 12
2
2
2 2
2
0
3
6
6
3
8
(4)
28. QR :

1 0
2 2 1
0 1 1
(1) A = 1 1 0 ; (2) A = 0 2 2 ; (3) A = 0 1 .
1 1
2 1 2
1 0 0

(1)

(2)

1
2
1

3 2
23

(3) A =
29. A, B

0
1
2
1
2

2
6
1
6
16

1
3

13
1
3

1
2
3
6

1
2
1
6
2
3

1
2 2 32 32
2

1
4
7

3
;

3 2
2
2
3 2
1
2
4
3
3
3

(
)
1
1

2
6
2 12

0
.
6
6
0
1
1
2

2
6
Cmn . : A A =
0

B B U B = U A.

A B A = UA PA , B =
UB PB , UX PX A A = B B, PA PA = PB PB ,
PA2 = PB2 . PA = PB = P .
B = UB P = UB UA UA P = U A, U = UB UA .
30. 28 .
(1) A A

2 2 + 1. () (1, 2 2, 2 + + 2)T ,
()
3

43

(2) A ( 1)(2 25 + 64).


1

1
1
3 0 ( 1
6
2
3
1
1 1

1
2
2

0 1
(3) A = 6
.
2
3
1
12
2
1
2

0 0
0

N (A) =

{(0, 0)T }; A

R(A) R(AT ) = F 2 ; N (AT ) = F (1, 1, 1)T .

31. A Cmn , :
min (A) = min{(x A Ax)1/2 , x x = 1},

max (A) = max{(x A Ax)1/2 : x x = 1}.

8
32. : x = x a(x, w)w, x Rn , w 1 , a ,
? w , ?
a = 0, 2. w = 0 a w 6= 0, a =

2
.
w2

33. A Cmn r > 0, A A = U diag(s1 , ..., sr , 0, ..., 0)V ,


)
(
A
.
B=
A
) (
)
(
U
U )(

A
2D 0
2
2
=
V.
B =
U
U
A
0
0

34.

S1

x2

y2

= 1 A =

2 2
1 1

)
. A

.
x2 /8 + y 2 /2 = 1.
35. (1) ;
(2) Jordan Jn () .
(1) A = P U = QV A P, Q U, V
P 1 Q = U V 1
P = Q. A P, Q
(2)
36. A A .
A = (aij )mn r, Sylvester AA A A
()12 , 22 , , r2 , A A 1 , 2 , , r
37. n A A = P eiH , P , H Hermite
. .
H Hermite , ei H U
ei H ( log. )
38. A = P U A , A P U = U P .
P U = U P . U P = P U . A = U P AA = P P =
44

P 2 , A A = U P P U = P U U P = P P = P 2 .
A AA = P 2 = U P 2 U . P 2
P U P 2 U U P U P = U P U .
39. , x Cn .
A Cmn , m n. P Cmm
U Cmn ( U U = I) A = P U .
x
x = 0, x = 0e1 . x 6= 0, x = ||x||( jjxjj
).
40. .
A A = U U = diag (1 , , n ) A
D = diag (d1 , , dn ), i = 0, di = 1,

di = i /|i |. D D = I, A = U D (D)U V = DU,


= D A

U
A=V
41. A = U DV m n A , r = r(A),
(1) U r A ;
(2) V r A ;
(3) U m r A ;
(4) V n r A .

1 0 1
A = 0 1 0 .
1 1 1
V U
(4) R(A) A N (A) (1, 0, 1)T ; R(AT ) A
N (AT ) (1, 1, 1)T .
42. n A , max (A) || min (A). ,
.
Jordan
43. A Cmn , r = r(A), i (1 i r) A . tr(A A) =

2
i=1 i .

A = U DV A A = V D2 V i2 (1 i r) A A

tr(A A) = ri=1 i2 .
44. x, y, , Cn , x y = = 0. A = x + y , A F- .
||A||F = ||x||2 ||||2 + ||y||2 ||||2 .
45. A Hermite P P 1 AP .
A Q Q1 AQ =
D Q Q = P U P U 1 (P 1 AP )U =
D P 1 AP .
46. A = A0 = Q0 R0 n A QR . Am+1 = Rm Qm .
Ai A = A0 , A ,
45

A0 , A1 , , Ak , A . A ,
?
Am = Qm Rm Am Rm = Q1
m Am , Am+1 =
1
Rm Qm = Qm Am Qm Am A0 , A1 , , Ak ,

)
(
0 i

i 0
47. , , .

48. 4.6.3 (), 9 .


9
49. A, B

Cmn .

: x N (A) N (B)

A
B

)
x = 0.

50. : A Cmn 1 2 n , :
k =

min

wi Cn
1ink

||Ax||2
= maxn
wi C
||x||2

max

06=xwi
1ink

1ink

min

06=xwi
1ink

||Ax||2
.
||x||2

,
max = 1 = max

||Ax||2
||Ax||2 ,
= max
x x=1
||x||2

min = n =

||Ax||2
= min
||Ax||2 .
x x=1
||x||2

x6=0,xCn

min

x6=0,xCn

51. : A, B max (A + B) max (A) + max (B).


52. ( ) Amn r, A = U DV , U =
(u1 , , um ), V = (v1 , , vn ). k < r,
Ak =

i ui vi , k < r.

i=1

:
min |||A B|||1 = |||A Ak |||1 = k+1 , k < r

r(B)=k

2
2
min |||A B|||2F = |||A Ak |||2F = k+1
+ k+1
+ + r2 .

r(B)=k

53. , .
54. () A, B m n . U, V
D, A = U DV , B = U V A B AB .
?
46

1. 48-54 .
2. 13 16 ;
3. 61 a;

1. || || Cn , :
(1) ;

= 1;
(2) x :
||x||
(3) || x|| = ||x||;
(4) | ||x|| ||y|| | ||x y||.
(1) ||0|| = ||0x|| = 0||x|| = 0;

= 1 ||x|| = 1;
(2)
||x|| ||x||
(3) || x|| = | 1|||x|| = ||x||;
(4) ||x|| ||x y|| + ||y||, ||y|| ||x y|| + ||x||.
2. : x Cn ,

(1) ||x||2 ||x||1 n||x||2 ;

n||x||1 .

(2) ||x||1 ||x||1 n||x||1 ;

(3) ||x||1 ||x||2

x = (x1 , , xn )T , a = max |xi |.


|2

1in
2
1/2
|xn | ) |x1 |

(1) ||x||2 = (|x1 + +


+ + |xn | = ||x||1 (na)1/2 =
(2) ||x||1 = a ||x||1 na = n||x||1 ;

(3) ||x||1 = a ||x||2 na = n||x||1 .

n||x||2 ;

3. (1) R2 , p- ;
(2) ;
(3) R3 (1) (2), 1- - ;
(4) 0 < p < 1 , lp , .
p = 1/2, 3/2 , p < 1 p 1 .
(1) p- ;
(2) ;
(3) ;
(4) p . n = 2, p = 1/2
xi , yi 0. |(x1 +y1 )1/2 +(x2 +y2 )1/2 |2 = (x1 +y1 )+(x2 +y2 )+2[(x1 +y1 )(x2 +y2 )]1/2
1/2

(x1 + y1 ) + (x2 + y2 ) + 2[(x1 x2 )1/2 + (y1 y2 )1/2 ] = [(x1


4. Minkowski (5.1.1).

47

1/2

+ x2 )1/2 + (y1

+ y2 )1/2 ]2 .

5. (1)


||x + y||2 + ||x y||2 = 2(||x||2 + ||y||2 ).
(2) ;
(3) : ,
;
(4) (3) lp , .
.
(1) || || (, )
||x y||2 = (x y, x y) = (x, x) 2(x, y) + (y, y).
||x||2 = (x, x),
(2)
(3) (x, y) = 12 [||x + y||2 ||x||2 ||y||2 ]. . .

(x, x) = ||x||2 . 4(x, y) + 4(z, y) = 2[||x + y||2 + ||z + y||2 ||x||2 ||z||2 2||y||2 ] =
||x + 2y + z||2 ||x + z||2 4||y||2 = 4(x + z, y), .
n (nx, y) = n(x, y)
q (qx, y) = q(x, y). f (t) = t2 ||x||2 + 2t(x, y) + ||y||2 , t R.
t f (t) = ||tx + y||2 . f (t) t R
, t R, f (t) 0. 0, |(x, y)| ||x||2 ||y||2 .
a R b Q |(ax, y) a(x, y)| = |((a b)x, y) + (b a)(x, y)|
|((a b)x, y)| + |(b a)(x, y)| 2|a b|||x||2 ||y||2 . > 0, b Q
|a b| < , |(ax, y) a(x, y)| , .
(4) l2 .
6. 5.1.4.

7. 5.1.1 .

||x|| = ||Ax|| = 0. || || Ax = 0. A
x = 0
8. 5.1.3.
v,
lim ||xn v|| = 0 lim ||xn v|| = 0,

n1

n1

C1 > 0 ||xn || C1 ||v||


lim ||

n1

jjvjj
jjvjj

xn
v
xn
v

|| = 0 lim ||

|| = 0,
n1 ||v||
||v||
||v||
||v||

C1 .

C2 > 0

jjvjj
jjvjj

C2 .
48

9. 5.1.8 .

lim ||fn ||1 = 0, lim ||fn ||1 = 1.

n1

n1

10. , x, y , x + y
, , + = 1. 5, .
||x|| = ||y|| = 1, + = 1, 0, 0, ||x + y|| ||x|| + ||y|| = 1,
x + y . .
11. .
A = (aij ), B = (bij )
||AB||1 = max

1jn

n
n
n
n

|
aik bkj | ( max
|aij |)( max
|bij |) = ||A||1 ||B||1 .
i=1 k=1

1jn

1jn

i=1

i=1

12. A F- a, U , AU U A F- ?
.
a. F- U .
13. 1- , 2- - 1- , 2- -
().
A = (aij ), x = (x1 , , xn )T 6= 0, ei i .
(1) 1- :
||Ax||1 =

n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

|xj | = ||A||1 ||x||1 .


|aij |)
|aij | |xj | ( max
|aij | |xj | =
aij xj |
|
i=1

|||A|||1

i=1 j=1

j=1

max

x6=0

|||A|||1 max
x6=0

jjAxjj1
jjxjj1 .

1jn

j=1 i=1

i=1

j=1

||Aei ||1 A i ,

jjAxjj1
jjxjj1 .

(2) 2- ( |||A|||2 = max

(A A)

|||A|||2 = A max ,

16 ):
||Ax||22 = x A Ax. A A x A Ax

Ax 2
|| jjxjj
||2 =

x A Ax
jjxjj22

|||A|||22 . A A max

Ax 2
A A = max , || jjxjj
||2

A A

= max = |||A|||22 .

(3) - : 1-
14. : (1) 1- , 1- ,
;
(2) - .

(1) A 1- |||A||| = ni,j=1 |aij |. |||AB||| = ni,j=1 | nk=1 aik bkj |


n
n
n
n
k=1 |aik ||bkj | = ( i,j=1 |aij |)( i,j=1 |bij |) = |||A||||||B|||, .
i,j=1

1- n ||x|| = n||x||1 = n( ni=1 |xi |.


49

(2) A - |||A||| = max |aij |. A = J 2 1 (


1)

|||A2 |||

=2>1=

1i,jn
2
|||A|||

15. (5.1.12).
x 6= 0,

jjAxjj
jjxjj

x
= ||A jjxjj
||

x
jjxjj

16. (1) |||A|||2 = ((A A))1/2 , A


;
(2) ;
(3) A , A (A);
(4) V Hermite , V
. ?
(1), (2) (3) 13
(4) Hermite (2) V .
)
)
(
(
1 1
1 1
, (AB) = 2 >
,B =
A =
0 0
0 0
)
(
1 1
= B,
1 = (A)(B). Hermite A =
1 0
(AB) = 3 >

3+ 5
2

= (A)(B).

17. A 2 1/3.
1?
)
(
2 0

1- 1- 1/6 A =
0 0
. 1

18. (1) : ;
(2) || || || || , p > 0.
[(|| || )p + (|| || )p ]1/p
?
(3) (1)?
(1) || ||i , i = 1, 2, , n ,
|| || =

ai || ||i , ai > 0.

i=1

|| ||
||x + y|| =

i=1

ai ||x + y||i

ai (||x||i + ||y||i ) =

i=1

i=1

ai ||x||i +

ai ||y||i = ||x|| + ||y||.

i=1

(2) || || = [(|| || )p + (|| || )p ]1/p . || ||

50

(||x + y||)p = (||x + y|| )p + (||x + y|| )p (||x|| + ||y|| )p + (||x|| + ||y|| )p
[(
)1/p (
)1/p ]p
p
p
p
p
||x|| + ||x||
+ ||y|| + ||y||
= (||x|| + ||y||)p .
||x + y|| ||x|| + ||y||.
(3)
n
i
(1) ai = jjIjj
i=1 ai ||I||i = 0.5
2n , ||I|| =
1.
19. A A .
?
(1) ||| ||| || || . A
|||A||| = supx6=0

jjAxjj
jjxjj

jjAjj
jjjj

= .

(2) A .
20. (5.1.13) ||| ||| .

21. T , A Rnn . :
(1) |||T |||2 = 1;
(2) |||A|||2 = |||T A|||2 ;
(3) .
(1) (2).
(3) 2- 1 (2) 2-

22. A, B n , A B , ||| ||| . A


Cond(A) = |||A||||||A1 |||. : |||A B||| 1/|||A1 |||. .
A1 (A B) = I A1 B. A1 B 1 I A1 B
|||I A1 B||| 1. |||A1 ||||||(A B)||| |||A1 (A B)||| 1.
|||A B||| |||A|||/Cond(A). Cond(A) = |||A||||||A1 |||
|||AA1 ||| 1, A

23. () A Cmn , 1 , 2 , , n A . :
(1) Cond(A) = 1 (A)/n (A), 1 (A) n (A) A .(
4.5.5.)
)
(r
2 1/2 = (tr(A A))1/2 ;
(2) |||A|||F =
i=1 i
(3) |||A|||2 = max (A).
24. (1) 5.1.3;
(2) U, V (), Hom(U, V ). :
.
25. 5.2.1 5.2.1.

51

(
26. Ak =
(

k2 +k
k2 +1
(1 k2 )k

1
k2

, lim Ak .
k1

)
.

0 1
2 e2

27. limk1 Ak = A.
(1) Ak , A ?
(2) Ak , A ?
(3) Ak , A ?
(1) A
(2) A
(3) A
28. lim An = B, B .
n1

B 2 =

lim An

]2

n1

= lim A2n = B.
n1

29. 5.2.1.
)
(
1

Ak
2 12
,
30. A =
.
2 0
2k
k=0

)
4 1
.

4 0

0.6 1 0.8
31. A = 0
0.2 0 . A .
0.6 1 0.8
(

.
(
32. (1) A =

(2) J =

(
(1)

(2)

1
2

0 0
1 2
2

)
, eA , sin A, cos A;

, eJ , sin J, cos J.

1 1
1

2
) (

12 e2 e2

e2

e e
e

0
0
1
2 sin 2 sin 2

) (
,

1
2

12 cos 2

sin 2
sin 1

e2

cos 1
sin 1

0
cos 2

)
.

cos 2

sin 2

33. (1) 5.3.1;


(2) (1) 1 , .
52

cos 1 sin 1
cos 1
cos 2

(1) A f (A) f (A) f ()


A f (A) Pi A
(2) f (t) = et , sin t, cos t,
f (At) = U f (Dt)U .
(i) f (At) = U diag (f (t), f (t), f (2t))U =

f (t) + 3f (t) + 2f (2t) 2if (t) if (2t) f (t) 3f (t) + 2f (2t)


1
.
2if (t) + 2if (2t)
4f (t) + 2f (2t)
2if (t) + if (2t)
6
f (t) 3f (t) + 2f (2t) 2if (t) 2if (2t) f (t) + 3f (t) + 2f (2t)

(ii) f (At) = U diag (f (0), f ( 2t), f ( 2t))U =

2f ( 2t) +2f ( 2t)


2 if( 2t)
+ 2
if ( 2t)
2f
( 2t)
+ 2f( 2t)

1
2t)
2 if ( 2t) 2f (0) + 2f (
2t) + 2f
( 2t) 2f (0) 2 if (2t) 2if ( 2t) .
4
2 if (
2f ( 2t) + 2f ( 2t) 2if (0) + if ( 2t) + if ( 2t)
2f (0) + f ( 2t) + f ( 2t)
34. 5.3.3 5.3.4(2).
eA 5.3.3
5.3.4(2).

deAt
dt

= AeAt

35. A, eAt :

2 2 3
0
1
0
2 1
3
(1) A = 1 1
1 , (2) A = 0
0
1 , (3) A = 0 3 0 .
1 3 1
8 12 6
0
2 2

(1)

(2) e2t

e3t
et
2 + 2
3t
t
e2 + e2
3t
t
e2 + e2

(3)

5 t
6e
5 t
6e

2t2 +2t+1

2(t+1)

4t2

4t2 +2t+1

8t(t5)

3
11 2t
+ e10t
15 e
3
1 2t
+ e10t
15 e
3
14 2t
+ e10t
15 e

56 et +

et
11 2t
+ 25 e3t
3 15 e
t
1 2t
e3 15
e
+ 25 e3t
t
14 2t
e3 + 15
e
+ 25 e3t

1 2
2t
t2 t

4t(2t3) 2t2 12t+1

e2t 5e2t +6te2t +5e3t e2t +3te2t


0

e3t

2e2t 2e3t

e2t

36. : cos A, sin A, eA :


(1)A ;
(2)A ( A2 = I).
(1) I + ( cos 1 1)A, ( sin 1)A, I + (e 1)A;
(2) ( cos 1)I, ( sin 1)I, eI.

sin t cos t t
d
d2

A(t),
37. A(t) = sint t
A(t).
et
t2 , t 6= 0. lim A(t),
t0
dt
d t2
3
1
0
t
53


0 1 0

1 1 0 ,
1 0 0

cos t

sin t

t cos t sin t
t2

et

sin t


2t , (2 t2 ) sin t 2t cos t
0
3t2

cos t
et
0

2 .
6t

1
t2
e2t tet t2
d
A(t) d t
A(s) d s.
38. A(t) = et 2e2t 0 ,
dt 0
0
3t
0
0
1 2
2t2

2
1
1
e
t2 et t4
2 (e 1)
3

2
2
1 e1 e2 1 0 , 2t et 2e2t 0 .
3
0
0
3t2
0
0
2
39. : (1) A , eA ;
(2) A Hermite , eiA .
T

eA (eA )T = eA eA = eA+A .
(1) A + AT = 0 eA (eA )T = e0 = I.
(2) A = A, iA + (iA) = iA iA = 0. eiA (eiA ) = e0 = I.
40. 5.4.2.
A Jordan P 1 AP = J = J1 Js , f (A) = g(A)
P 1 f (J)P = P 1 g(J)P f (Ji ) = g(Ji ), i. f (i ) = g(i ), f 0 (i ) = g 0 (i ), , f (ki 1) (i ) =
g (ki 1) (i ), i = 1, 2, , s.
41. 5.4.1 Lagrange .
Li , i = 1, 2, , n + 1 n ()
n + 1 R[x]n+1 n
.
42. (1) Jn () n Jordan , sin Jt, cos Jt;
(2) n A, sin At cos At .
(1) Jn () m(x) = (x )n . f (x) =
n1
ak xk . f (A) = g(A) f (k) () = g (k) (), k =
sin (tx), sin Jt = f (A), g() = k=0
n1 k
0, 1, , n1 ak = tk sin (t+k/2)/(k!). sin Jt = k=0
t sin (t+k/2)/(k!)J k .
cos Jt , .
(2) A = P JP 1 , J A Jordan sin At = P ( sin Jt)P 1 .

1 1 0
43. (1) A = 0 2 1 , eAt , sin At, cos At;
0 0 3
(
)
0 1
(2) A =
, eAt , sin At, cos At.
1 0
(1) A m() = ( 1)( 2)( 3).
f (t) = et , eAt = f (A), g() = a0 + a1 + a2 2 . f (A) = g(A) f (i) = g(i), i =
1, 2, 3 a0 = 3et 3e2t + e3t , a1 = (5et + 8e2t 3e3t )/2, a2 = (et 2e2t + e3t )/2.
54

eAt

et et + e2t (et 2e2t + e3t )/2


. .
e2t
e2t + e3t
=
3t
e

(2) A m() = 2 + 1. f (t) = et , eAt =


f (A), g() = a0 + a1 . f (A) = g(A) f (i ) = g(i ) a0 = (ei t + ei t )/2 =
)
(
cos t sin t
i
t
i
t
At
.
cos t, a1 = (e e )/2 = sin t. e =
sin t cos t
44. 5.4.2 Lagrange-Sylvester .(:

f (x)
mA (x)

Lagrange .)

t
Nt
45. N n , dedt = N eN t 0 eN s ds.

2
tn
t t2!
(n)!

t2
ts1

2!
(s1)!

t Ns
..

.
.
.
0 e ds =
..
..

2
.
t
.

.
2!
t
)
(
t
1 0
, 0 eAs ds;
46. (1) A =
1 0
)
(
0 1
, eA eAt ;
(2) A =
1 0
t
(3) A2 = A, eAt 0 eAs ds.
t
(1) (3) A2 = A, eAt = et A, 0 eAs ds = (et 1)A.
)
)
( t
(
(e + et )/2 (et et )/2
(e + e1 )/2 (e e1 )/2
At
A
.
;e =
(2) e =
(et et )/2 (et + et )/2
(e e1 )/2 (e + e1 )/2
t
47. A2 A + 2I = 0, eAt 0 eAs ds.
: A 2 . f () = et , eAt = f (A), g() = a0 + a1 .
1 t

2 t

1e
=
f (A) = g(A) f (i ) = g(i ), li (i = 1, 2) A a0 = 2 e 2
1

t
2 t
et/2 [ cos ( 3t/2) (1/ 3 sin ( 3t/2)], a1 = e 11 e
= 23 et/2 sin ( 3t/2). eAt =
2

et/2 [ cos ( 3t/2) (1/ 3 sin ( 3t/2)]I + 23 et/2 sin ( 3t/2)A.

48. (1) Jacobian ;


(2) Jacobian ;
(3) 5.5.6 . 2 ( 2 )
Jacobian . n ?
49. f = (f1 (x), , fn (x))T g = (g1 (x), , gn (x))T n ,
J(f T g) 5.5.1(2) .

55

50. x = (x1 , x2 , , xn )T , A n , n (||xAx||2 )2 Hessian


.
51. 5.5.8 .
52. 5.5.2.
53. (1) 5.5.3, J(tr(AX)) J(tr(XB));
(2) (5.5.17).
54. , 5.5.3 .
55. (5.6.5) (5.6.2) .
.
56.
(1) x0 (t) =

1 2
4 3

)
x(t);

0 1 1
(2) x0 (t) = 1 1 1 x(t).
0 1 1

)
(
)(
1
2et + e5t e5t et
c1
;
(1)
c2
3 2e5t 2et 2e5t + et

2 et + tet tet 2 + 2et + tet


c1
c2 .
1 + et
et
1 + et
(2)
t
t
t
t
t
1 e + te te 1 + 2e + te
c3
57. x0 (t) = Ax(t) x(0)
(
(1) A =

(
(1)

)
( )
0
1 12
;
, x(0) =
1
3 1

e7t e5t
+ e5t )

1 7t
2 (e

; (2)

1 3t
2 (e
1 3t
4 (e
1 3t
2 (e

1
1 2 1

0 .
1 1 1 , x(0) =
(2) A =
0
2 0 1

+ et )

et ) .
et )

58. 5.6.2.
.
59. (1)


1 0 0
1
0

x (t) =
2 1 2 x(t) +
0 e2t .
3 2 1
0
(2) x0 (t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) x(0) ,

6 1 0
2
1
A = 11 0 1 , B = 6 , u(t) = 1, x(0) = 0 .
6 0 0
2
1
56

(1) x(t) = e2t 45 .

(2)

7
5

11 3t
+ 13
3 e
16e2t + 11e3t

et 4e2t +
5et

6et 12e2t +

22 3t
3 e

7
3

60. y 000 + 6y 00 + 11y 0 + 6y = et y(0) = y 0 (0) = y 00 (0) = 0 .


1
1
3
et + tet + e2t + e3t .
4
2
4
61. (1) x0 (t) = Ax(t) + eat x(t) = eat (aI A) = ,
, n , a C;
(2) x0 (t) = Ax(t) + e2t C,
(
A=

3 1
2 2

)
( )
)
(
0
1
.
, x(0) =
, C=
1
1

: (1) x(t) = eat , (aI A) = . ,


(aI A) = , x(t) = eat .
)
(
1 1
= C = (1/2, 1/2)T , (1)
(2) (2I A) =
2 0
x(t) = e2t . x(t) = eAt x(0) + e2t .
62. 5.7.1 .(: 5.7.1.)
x(0) 0, u(t)
x(t0 ) x(t1 ). x(0) = 0 x(t1 ) .
t
, u1 (t) x(t1 ) 0, 0 = eAt1 x(t1 ) + 0 1 eA(t1 t) Bu1 (t) d t.
t
t
x(t1 ) = eAt1 0 1 eA(t1 t) Bu1 (t) d t = 0 1 eA(t1 t) B(eAt1 u1 (t)) d t. eAt1 u1 (t)
0 x(t1 ).
63. (1) A , ;
(2) A Jordan , ;
(3) A Frobenius ( (5.6.10) ),
B en , . .
: (1) A = diag (a1 , , an ), B = (b1 , , bn )T .

b1

b2
W = (B, AB, , An1 B) =

bn

1 a1
1 a2
diag (b1 , , bn )

1 an
57

a1 b1 a21 b1
a2 b2 a22 b2

an bn a2n bn
a21
a22

a2n

a1n1 b1
a2n1 b2
=

n1
an bn

a1n1
a2n1
.

n1
an

|W | = b1 bn V (a1 , a2 , , an ), V (a1 , a2 , , an ) Van der Monde .


r(W ) = n A B 0 ().
(2) B = (b1 , , bn )T . r(W ) = n bn =
6 0.

0
0

0
0
0

(3) W = (B, AB, , An1 B) =

0
1
a1
1 a1 a21

1
a1
(1)n2 a1n2
(1)n1 a1n1

W .
64. 63 , .
)
)
(
(
2 0
2 0
, B = (1, 0)T ;
, B = (1, 1)T ; (2)A =
(1)A =
0 1
0 1
)
)
(
(
a 1
a 0
T
, B = (c, d)T .
, B = (c, d) ; (4)A =
(3)A =
0 a
0 b
(1) (2) (3) abcd 6= 0; (4) d 6= 0.
65. 5.7.6 .
)
(
a
b
. M ab(1 2 ) 6= 0.
M =
1 a 2 b
66. 5.7.4.
.
67. (1) A , ;
(2) A Jordan , ;
(3) A Frobenius , C
eTn , . .

C
CA

M =
M T = (C T AT C T (AT )n1 C T )
..

.
CAn1
. 63
(1) r(M ) = n A C ( C 0 ).
(2) C = (c1 , , cn ). r(M ) = n cn 6= 0.
(3) M T , M .
68. 67 , .

)
(
a 1 0
a 1
, C = (c, d)T ; (2)A = 0 a 1 , C = (c, d, f )T .
(1)A =
0 a
0 0 a
: (1) d 6= 0;

(2) f 6= 0.

58

: 19 .
: P231 6

1. 6.1.1.
2.3.2
2. P1 , P2 , :
(1) P = P1 + P2 P1 P2 = P2 P1 = 0;
(2) P = P1 P2 P1 P2 = P2 P1 = P2 ;
(3) P1 , I P1 , T 1 P1 T (T ) .
P 2 = P
3. R3 L e = (1, 0, 0)T .
(1) M = (1, 1, 0)T = (1, 1, 1)T , PL,M x =
(2, 3, 1)T M L ;
(2) PL x = (2, 3, 1)T L .

1 1 0
1
(1) PL,M = 0 0 0 , PL,M x = 0 ;
0 0 0
0


1 0 0
2
(2) PL = 0 0 0 , PL x = 0 .
0 0 0
0
4. 6.1.3.
A2 = A = A, Ax = b Ax = Ab. Ab
.
(
5.

A
0

)y

= (Ay , 0).

.
6. 6.1.1.

Ay A AAy . A = U V A

, Ay = V y U , A = V U . y , U, V ,
R(Ay ) = R(A ), N (Ay ) = N (A ).
7. A Cmn , U Cmm V Cnn . (U AV )y = V Ay U .


A = P
Q A , U P
Q V U AV .

y
(U AV )y = (U P
Q V )y = V (Q
P )U = V Ay U .
8. H Hermite , H y = H.

59

H Hermite , , H = U DU , D
, D = Im 0 = Dy . H y = U Dy U = U DU = H.
9. Ay = A A2 Hermite r(A2 ) = r(A).

A = U V A , r(A) = r. Ay = V y U . , Ay = A,

A2 = Ay A = U y U = U (Ir 0)U , A2 = A4 , r(A2 ) = r = r(A). , A2
Hermite , 6.1.1 A2 , A2 = PR(A2 ) . r(A2 ) = r(A),
AA = A2 = PR(A2 ) = PR(A) . A A Moore , Ay = A.
10. : A , Ay A = AAy , (An )y = (Ay )n , n .
A = U DU , Ay = U Dy U, An = U Dn U, (An )y =
U (Dn )y U . Ay A = AAy , (An )y = (Ay )n .
11. Eij Moore-Penrose {1}- .
y
T = E F nm .
: Eij mn . r(Eij ) = 1, (6.2.2) Eij
= Eij
ji

A{1} = {Y + (1 yii )Eji | Y = (yij ) F nm }.


12. 6.1.2.
: (3) (4) . (1),(2),(5),(6),(7),(9) A .
(8).
13. 6.1.11. F [x]3 (f, g) =
Moore-Penrose y .

f (x)g(x) d x,

14. (1) r(BC) = r(B). D B = BCD, C(BC) B {1}.


(2) r(BC) = r(C). D C = DBC, (BC) B C {1}-
.
: (1) r(BC) = r(B) = r(0, B) = r(BC, B). BCX = B X = (BC) B,
D.
(2) (1) .
15. (1) A m n , B m r , AA B = B D
B = AD;
(2) A mn , B rm , BA A = B D B = DA.
(1) . D B = AD, AA B = AA AD = AD = B. ,
D = A B .
(2) (1) .
16. 6.2.2.
.
17. 6.2.4.

60

Ay = (A A)y A , (6.2.7) (6.2.4) .


18. A Moore-Penrose

1 0 2
1
1 0 2

; (2) 1
(1)
0 1 0
2
1 0 2

{1}- , .

0 1 1
0 1 1 ;
0 2 1

0 1 1
1 0 0 0
0 0
0
.
(1) 0 0 1 0 ; (2)
0 0
0
0 0 0 0
0 2 1

19. :(1) A , A , ;
(2) A , A . , ,
.
20. 6.3.1.
21. 6.3.1.
22. 6.3.5.
23. : (AB)y = B y Ay Ay ABB A = BB A BB y A AB = A AB .
24. 6.4.1.
25. 6.4.1.
26. {1, 2}- :
(
(1) A =

2
1
(1) Ay = 1
3
1
(
1 2i 1
(2) Ay =
1 i
3

1 2 1
0 1 1

)
;

i 0
(2) A = 1 i .
0 1

3
0 ;
3
)
i
.
2

27. {1, 3}- :

1 1 0 1
(1) A = 0
0 2 2 ;
1 1 0 1

1
1 1
2
0 2
.
(2) A =
1 1
1
3 1 3

28. 6.4.2.
29. {1, 4}- :

(
)
1
1
2 1 1

(1)
2
2
; (2)
.
1 2 0
1 1
61

30. 6.4.3.
31. 6.4.3.
32. (1) {1, 2}- ?
(2) {1, 4}- ?
33. 1 .
34. {1, 2}- {1, 3}- {1, 4}- ?
35. {1, 2}- {1, 3}- {1, 4}- ?
36. {1, 2}- {1, 3}- {1, 4}- ?
37. A .
(1) Ay = 2 A;
(2) A {1, 2}- , {1, 3}- {1, 4}- ;

2 1
1
(3) (1) (2) 1 2 1 .
1
1 2
38. L, M Cn . :
(1) PL+M = (PL + PM )(PL + PM )y = (PL + PM )y (PL + PM );
(2) PLM = 2PL (PL + PM )y PM = 2PM (PL + PM )y PL .
39. : Ay = A(1,4) AA(1,3) .
40. A1 , A2 18 (1) (2), b1 = (1, 1, 0, 1)T , b2 = (1, 1, 2)T .
A1 x = b1 A2 x = b2 .
)
)
(
(
2
1 2 1
. Ax = b .
,b=
41. A =
1
0 1 0
)
( )
(
2
1
2 1
. Ax = b .
,b=
42. A =
0
1 2 1
43. 6.5.1.
44. AXB = 0 , 6.5.6.

1 0 0 1
1 1 0 0

.
45. A =
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1
(1) b = (1, 1, 1, 1)T , Ax = b ?
(2) b = (1, 0, 1, 0)T , Ax = b ?
, ; , .
46. Ax = b AAy b = b. A Cmn , b Cm .
47. AXB = C , ,

62

)
(
1 1 1
1 1
1 2 1
; C = 2 2 2 ;
(1) A = 1 0 ; B =
1 1 1
1 1 1
0 1

1 0 1
1 0 2
1 1 0 1
0 2 2 ; B = 1 0 2 ; C = 1 0 1 .
(2) A = 0
0 2 1
1 0 2
1 1 0 1

48. Ax = a x = Ay a + (I Ay A)y(y) Ay a + N (A)


. :
(1)
, Ay b (I Ay A)y , y;
(2) Ax = a Bx = b Ay a B y b N (A) + N (B);
(3) Ax = a Bx = b . .
49. A, B, C, D n , AX = B XC = D . :
(1) AD = BC;
(2) . .(:
.)
50. min{xT x}, Ax = b , .
= I AAy .
51. min{tr(X T X) 2tr(X)}, XA = 0 X
52. U W V , , V . ( + U ) ( + W ) 6= . :
(1) ( + U ) ( + W ) = + PU (PU + PW )y ( ) + (U W );
(2) ( + U ) ( + W ) = + (PU + PW )y PW ( ) + (U W );
(3) ( + U ) ( + W ) = + (I PW PU )y PW ( ) + (U W ).
(: 75.)

63