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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
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ABSTRACT

Medical images CT and MRI are combined to process into a single image by image fusion that remains more accurate, helpful

and complete than the earlier input images. In earlier days, numerous image fusion approaches have been recommended and

developed. Image Fusion techniques are regarded as into pixel, feature, and decision levels in order to the stage as a result of

which image information is integrated. Accuracy and reliability have achieved by Image fusion algorithms, feature vector with

higher dimensionality, more rapidly getting hold of of information and cost effective acquisition of information. The proposed

technique Fast Haar Wavelet Transform is an improved version of Haar Wavelet Transform which can be reduced by

calculation work and is able to improve the contrast of the image. The main achievement of fast HWT is sparse representation

and fast conversion. In fast HWT at each and every level, we require to store only half of the original data because of which it

grow into more proficient. In this paper we implement Image Fusion fast HWT ( Haar Wavelet Transformation) and relates its

performance with Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT) using performance metrics of standard deviation, entropy and quality

index. The fast method HWT shows better performance than the earlier methods. A systematic analysis and estimation of the

proposed algorithm is accompanied with the help of mathematical formulation.

Keywords: MRI, CT Image, Image Fusion, DWT, fast HWT, Graph Cut.

1. INTRODUCTION

A moment ago, civilian, medical, remote sensing applications, specifically in health-care, battleground observation,

and traffic control create widespread practice of imaging sensors. Nevertheless, the information is being provided by

the different imaging sensors are complementary and redundant [1]. The framework of the scene is given by visible

image, but the essentially required special objects, such as hidden guns or people are shown only by infrared image.

The microscopic imaging, computer vision [12] and robotics significantly require the successful fusion of images

picked up from different modalities or Instruments [8]. Image fusion of fast HWT can be defined as the process by

which several images or some of their features of images are combined together to form a single Image of more and

more importance than the original image. The results of image fusion are proposed for presentation to a human viewer

for at ease and enriched interpretation in areas such as medical imaging and thermal applications [1]. By the process of

image fusion the virtuous data from every single of the given images is fused together to form a consequential image

whose quality is more to any of the input images. This is attained by put on some method with a sequence of operators

on the images that would give the valuable data in each of the image prominent visible. The subsequent image is

formed by combining such prominent and enlarged data from the input images into a single image [4].This paper

further discusses Image Fusion Fast HWT Algorithms, Image Quality metrics, entropy, results with discussion and also

conclusion with future scope.

2. Image Fusion fast HWT Algorithms

The main discussion in this paper bring into line along two techniques. The previous used technique of DWT is

associated with the proposed Fast HWT method. The development of the research work into the arena of image fusion

can be generally put into the following two stages.1.Wavelet Transformation Method 2.Fast Haar wavelet

Transformation Scheme (Fast HWT) We implement the proposed improved version of image fusion FHWT (Fast Haar

Wavelet Transformation) algorithm and associate it with Wavelet based image fusion algorithm.

Implementation of Fast Haar-Wavelet

transform for image fusion using Graph cut

method

K.Srilatha

1

, S.Kaviyarasu

2

Assistant Professor

1

Department of ECE

Sathyabama University, Chennai, TN, India.

Assistant Professor

2

Department of ECE

MIET, Chennai, TN, India.

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2.1 General Method of Wavelet Transformation

In this method has been significantly used in many areas, such as texture study, data compression, feature recognition,

and image fusion. In this section, we briefly analysis and study the wavelet-based image fusion technique. The Discrete

WT can be taken as signal decomposition in a group of independent, spatially oriented frequencies. The signal S is

passed over two paired filters and appears as two signals, estimate and Details. This is called decomposition or analysis

[6]. The mechanisms can be assembled back into the original signal without loss of data. This process is called

restoration. The mathematical operation, which involves analysis and synthesis, is called discrete wavelet transform

and inverse discrete wavelet transform. An image can be decomposed into a sequence of different spatial perseverance

images using DWT. Wavelet based techniques for fusion of 2-Dimension images is refer to here [6]. In most of wavelet

transform based image fusion techniques the wavelet transforms W of the two registered input images I(x, y) and some

kind of fusion rule as show in below equation.

I(x,y) =W-1 ( ( W( I1(x,y) ), W( I2(x,y) ) ) -------------------------------------(1)

In order to wavelet transform based fusion method, all individual wavelet coefficients from the input images are jointed

using the fusion rule . Meanwhile wavelet coefficients taking large complete values contain the information data

about the salient landscapes of the images such as edges and lines, a worthy fusion rule is to take the maximum of the

matching wavelet coefficients [8].

Following Step by step of wavelet transform based image fusion have been explained:

S.1: First of all read the set of multi-focus images i.e. in our proposed algorithm we have consider two medical images

which are equal size.

S.2: Apply wavelet decomposition on two images with the practice of fusion rule.

S.3: Extracts from the wavelet decomposition structure [C, S] the horizontal, vertical, or diagonal aspect.

S.4:Make average of estimate coefficients of both decomposed images.

S.5: Match horizontal, vertical and diagonal coefficient of both the images and apply maximum selection scheme to

select the maximum coefficient value by comparing the coefficient of the two images. Achieve this for all the pixel

values of image i.e. m x n.

S.6: Now apply wavelet decomposition on both the images with the use of fusion rule.

S.7: Display the final fused image.

S.8:Before wavelet decomposition apply graph cut method in

FHWT

2.2. Fast Haar Wavelet Transform

In fast Haar wavelet transform algorithm subsequently a DWT transform, the image is allocated into four corners,

upper left corner of the original image, lower left corner of the vertical details, upper right corner of the horizontal

details, lower right corner of the component of the original image detail (high frequency) [5].

LL3 LH3

LH2

LH1

HL3 HH3

HL2 HH2

HL1 HH1

Fig. 1: Decomposition of Original Image in Matrix Form

1,2,3 Decomposition Level

HHigh Frequency Band

L-Low Frequency Band

The LL sub-band (Low-Low) is in the upper left hand corner and derived from low pass filtering in both directions that

is the low resolution residual containing of low frequency (LF) modules and will be divided at higher level of

decomposition. Of all the four components, it is the added like the original images and thus called approximation. The

left behind all three components are called detail components. The upper right corner comes from the high pass

filtering (HPF) in the horizontal direction (Low) and low pass filtering (LPF) in the vertical direction (column) and so

labelled HL. The perceptible detail in this sub-image, such as, edge, have an whole vertical orientation then there

alignment is perpendicular to the direction of the high pass filtering (HPF). Consequently they are called vertical

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details. In Fast HWT, four nodes are considered at a time rather than two nodes as in DWT. The Figure.1 shows the

decomposition of original image in matrix form [9].

In fast HWT, four nodes are considered at a time in place of two nodes as in DWT. In fast HWT, first average sub

signal

X=(x

1

, x

2

...x

N

/2)

signal of length N

Y=(y

1

,y

2

,y

n

)

In Fast HWT, first average sub signal,

X=(x

1

, x

2

...x

N1

/2), at one level for a signal of length N i.e. is

X

M

=(y

4m-3

+y

4m-2

+y

4m-1

+y

4m

/ 4)--------------------------------------------------(2)

and first detail sub signal, at the same level is given as

Z

m

={[( y

4m-3

+y

4m-2

) (y

4m-1

+y

4m

)] /4,--------------------------------------------(3) m=1, 2.N/4

Now four nodes are considered at a time rather than two nodes as in DWT.We have considered the values of N/2 detail

coefficients zero in each step than to find the N/2 detail coefficients by DWT [13].

Fast HWT has done by performing the Subsequent steps here

1. Read two input image as a matrix.

2. Apply fast HWT, along row and column wise on whole matrix of the image.

3. From (b) we become a converted image matrix of one level of input image.

4. For reconstruction process, DWT is used on the image matrix obtained in step (b).

5. Calculate Standard deviation, Entropy and Image Quality index for reconstructed image. As shown in flow chart

in Figure 2 the task developed to perform the image fusion, has four basic blocks:

SECTION A: Images size testing. In this size of both the input images are tested. If the sizes of both the images are

equal then we said both the input images are registered with each other and send them to the next level block B for

additional processing. If the sizes of both the input images are not same then the algorithms shows the fault message

and discontinue processing. Image fusion using wavelet decomposes the input images I1 and I2 into estimated and

detailed coefficients at required level using DWT. The approximation and detailed coefficients of both images are

combined using fusion rule. Depending upon the maximum valued pixels between the approximations, a binary

decision map is produced gives the decision rule for fusion of estimate coefficients in the two input images I1 and I2.

SECTION B: Convert to fast Haar wavelet domain. Afterward registering the both input images with each other we

will send these input images to Wavelet domain for more processing.

SECTION C: fast Haar wavelet domain fusion. In this level we decompose the images into some components and

applied the fast haar wavelet function on these components for getting the preferred result.

Block D: Graph-Cut Fusion Algorithm Multi Label Formulation. The proposed image fusion is applied in graph

method domain as follows

=min E() and E()=KT()+cS()----------------------------------------------------(4)

Fig. 2: Flow chart of Image Fusion methodology

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where, y is a labelling function by which each and every point in image domain is assigned to a label l, defining

the intensity of fused image at that point.

:N (N) L--------------------------------------------------------------------(5)

I denotes a nearby finite set of integers. The Information term KI is defined as,

K

T

()= K

TN

((N)) N

= I L N R

i

[W

1

(L-e

1

(n))2+W

2

(L-e

2

(n))2]---------------------(6)

Where, c1R and c2R represents the input images, and Rl is the label one region. W

1

and W

2

are weights

defined as follows:

W

1

=[(|e1|*K)/ (|e1|*K)+ |e2|*K)] and

W

2

=[(|e2|*K)/ (|e1|*K)+ |e2|*K)]------------------------------------------------(7)

K denotes the kernel function. W1 and W2 determine the solution toward strong edges in e1 and e2, respectively. S is

the Smoothness term which provides smooth solutions by making the neighbouring pixels to have related fused-image

values

S ()=(r,q)R S((r), (q))-------------------------------------------------------(8)

Where, P is a set of paired of pixels r and q in a local neighbourhood of r and s(y (r) ,y(q)) is defined as

S ((r), (q))=min(c , |lp-lq|)--------------------------------------------------------(9)

Where c is a positive constant. Alpha-Blending Reformulation. The number of labels looked-for to express the

output image must be equal to the number of all possible pixel values. This reasons a high computational load in the

case of images with large dynamic ranges, as is common in medical imaging. Hence, so as to reduce the number of

labels, the data term is reformulated as a transparency labelling,

e

= e

1

+(1-)e

2

----------------------------------------------------------------------(10)

Where o denotes the output fused image. Based on (10), the data term in (6) is reformulated as follows with I o being a

reduced set of non-negative integer labels {0, 1, 2, . . .,N

l

}, parameterized by the user specified number of labels N

l

.

Graph-Cut Optimization.

I l n n Rl [w

1

(e

(n,l)-e

1

(p))2+w

1

(e

(n,l)-e

2

(p))2] Where

e

(n,l)=(1/N

1

)* e

1

(p)+(1-1/N

l

)e

2

(n); l L

-------------------------------------------(11)

With I o being a reduced set of non-negative integer labels {0, 1, 2, . . .,N

l

}, parameter by the user listed number of

labels N

l

. Graph-Cut Optimization.

In proposed method is related to efficient graph-cut optimization [6]. Just one label is specified to each pixel in the

image, with related data and smoothness costs given to the links in the graph. Let G ={M, Ew} be a weighted graph,

where contains a set of nodes for each pixel in and for each label in L. There is an edge e{r,q}between each pair of

nodes p, q. A cut C Ew is a set of edges sorting out the label nodes from each other. A cut C with the lowest cost is the

minimum-cut problem. The cost of this minimum cut |C| is equal to the sum of the edge weights of C. For real

computation of minimum-cost cuts, it is necessary to properly set the weights of the graph. A switch move starts with a

labelled graph and determines for a given pair of labels, r and q, whether each node having a value in r, q would be 1)

hold its current label or 2) be rationalized to the other label in the pair. Every swap is proficient globally in an exact

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manner by result the minimum cut on a binary graph containing of only two labels. This can be comprehensive to the

multi label example by iterating over the set of all probable pairs of labels. The minimum cut is designated at each and

every stage, with the final labelling consistent to a lowest of the energy function. Here we get lowest graph cut

optimization then this applied to next level as following

SECTION E: inverse wavelet transforms. After reunion all these decompose component with each other we become the

final fused Image. The fused image I might be acquired by taking the inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) as:

I={[DWT(I

1

)+DWT(I

2

)]/2}--------------------------------------------------------(12)

The fusion rule used at this time simply means the estimate coefficients and picks the detailed coefficient in each sub

band with the principal magnitude. Also, extra weights may be selected along with the DWT of the images. The fused

image can be acquired by taking the inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) as:

I={W

1

*[DWT(I

1

)+W

2

*DWT(I

2

)]/(W

1

+W

2

)}------------------------------------(13)

3. IMAGE QUALITY METRICS

The broad requirement of an image fusing process is to sphere all valid and valuable information data from the source

input images, however all at once it ought not present any distortion in resultant fused image. Performance measures

are used essential to measure the possible assistances of fusion and also used to compare results gotten with different

algorithms.

a) Peak Signal to Noise Ratio: The PSNR is use to calculate the relationship between two input images. The PSNR

between the source image R and the fused image F is defined as

PSNR=10*log

10

( )----------------------------------------------------------------(14)

For enhanced fused image PSNR value must high.

b) Normalized Cross Correlation: The Normalized Cross Content between the source image R and the fused image F

is defined as

NCC= R

ij

F

ij

/ ----------------- (15)

c) Entropy (EN): Entropy is used to estimate the amount of information. Higher value of entropy shows that the

information data upturns and the fusion performances are upgraded.

E -------------------------------------------------------------------- (16)

Fig.3: Histogram Of 50 MR Images

Fig.4: Histogram of 50 CT

Fig.5: Histogram of After Pre-processing CT and MRI

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BEST VISUAL QUALITY OF DIFFERENT ALGORITHM

Fig.6: Different algorithm with wavelet transform with visual quality in % percentage

4. RESULTS

The fusion was done on 15 sets of input pair of images. The fused images were tested for their feature depends upon a

perfect image in each of the sets. A set of 15 image metrics were executed to measure the fused image quality. The

fused images of each set had been also measured based on their visual superiority by ten respondents selected in

random. The quality valuation based on the image metrics established and visual perception had compared to assess the

reliability of the image metrics. In any other image fusion techniques, three very basic fusion techniques has existed

Averaging Method, Maximum and Minimum Selection Method, Five pyramidal methods and Two of basic wavelet

methods were Haar Wavelet and DBSS(2,2) Wavelet Methods. The readings produced by the 50 image metrics

developed - MSE, PSNR, SC, NCC, MD, NAE, LMSE, AD used to assess the best fusion algorithm using Pareto

optimality method. DWT with fast Haar based fusion method have assessed best. The assessment had shown that the

fused images produced by Morphological Pyramid (MP) Method have the evaluated most low-grade in quality. This

algorithm have also assessed based on the visual quality of the fused images. 50 people had chosen, in random manner,

to visually evaluate the fused images made in each of the 10 sets and asked to choose the finest and worst image they

found in each image set. The results validated the results made based on image metric. DWT with Haar was rated 64

%, which was higher rating given to the other algorithms.

Fig.7: sample input CT image sample

Fig.8: sample input MR image sample

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Fig.9: Image fusion using Harr wavelet transform

5. CONCLUSION

In this paper we have practically study and analysed image fusion techniques specifically Discrete Wavelet Transform

method and Fast HWT (Fast Haar Wavelet Transformation) method using Entropy, Standard Deviation and Quality

Index Image Metrics. These investigates were conducted by using MATLAB.Depending upon the purpose of a given

application, 1.we may be desire a fusion result that display more aspect in colour, for enhanced image interpretation or

mapping; 2.who one want a fusion result that develops the accurateness of digital grouping; and (3) someone want a

visually good-looking fused colour image, merely for visualization purposes. Hence, distinct techniques for mapping

oriented fusion, classification-oriented fusion, and visualization-oriented image are in demand. Conclusions have been

drawn from new results: fast HWT (Fast Haar Wavelet Transformation) have better Image quality Index as compare the

DWT Image Fusion Method.it has better Standard deviation as compared the DWT Image Fusion Method and have

better Entropy as compared the DWT Image Fusion Method. The complete evaluation display that Fast HWT method is

far superior to DWT image fusion method. In future study we can combine mixture technique (Fast HWT and Pixel by

Pixel) to accomplish better image fusion result than the earlier methods and also iterative combination of fuzzy logic

and iterative neuro fuzzy logic to fuse the images that we have discussed.

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