P, pin, a chip of stone for filling crevices in a wall; a dwarf elder.

The letter “p” was not found in pre-Christian Ogham. Words beginning with this letter are derived from other languages.

PADRUIG, PARUIG,per form PARA, OIr. Patrice, said from Latin Patricius, a patrician, Saint Patrick. nickname Para for Gillephadruig, MG. Gillapadruig, Ir. Pádraig, Gillaphátraice, OIr. Patrice, Lat. Patricius, a patrician. Hence Mac-phatrick, Fitz-patrick, Paterson. Not a handsome man, Saint Patrick was probably not a single individual, but the sum of several early Christian missionaries. It is said that he was born in the Severn district of western Britain in 390 A.D., the son of a Roman administrative official, hence his nickname "the patrician." The "plebes" of Britain associated all of their rulers with "frogs" from their propensity to be always "croaking" about matters of little interest or importance. When Patrick was sixteen he was taken as hostage in a raid by the Irish king Niall of the Nine Hostages, who sold him to a farmer named Milcho. After six years of slavery, he escaped to the Continent. There he learned passable Latin, became an ordained priest and was ultimately named bishop to the Irish. In 432 he returned there with twenty-four companions, landing on the Wicklow coast, where missionaries had already been repulsed. Received with the same courtesy Patrick retaliated by magically converting King Nathy's domain into a salt marsh. His party then cruised up the coast, finally landing at Strangford Lough,

County Down. The local chieftain at that place, one named Dichu was as antagonistic, but when he lifted his sword, Patrick "pointed him out," and he found his arm suddenly paralyzed, and quickly reconsidered adopting the Christian faith. At that Patrick restored him to full health and the prince presented him with a barn and property which the young priest turned into his first church. Patrick understood that he could not dominate the people if he failed to convince their lords, so he travelled next to Tara to meet with Laoghaire ard-righ, the successor to Niall of the Nine Hostages. To reach Tara, the missionaries passed into the mouth of the river Boyne and walked to the green valleys of Meath, places rich in associations with the old gods. The river itself was considered a personification of Boann, wife of the ancient god Dagda. At Newgrange he passed the burial mounds of the three sons of Dagda. Knowing something of the pagan religion he timed his arrival near Tara for the eve of Beltane, which the Christians reckoned as Holy Saturday (the day before Easter on that particular year). On the Beltane Eve it was traditional that all fire be extinguished so that "new fire" could be ritually created. On that very night, Patrick and his men set a blaze of their own at Slaine, on the left bank of the Boyne. Seeing the fire from his court, Laoghaire demanded to know what individual had defied tradition. His frightened druids were forced to consider that this person might be the ultimate enemy of their faith. This man, they said, is very dangerous, "and unless the fire on that hill is extinguished this very night, then its fire will outshine all the fires we light, and his kingdom will overrule our kingdom." A splendidly determined pagan, the king instructed his troops to extinguish the fire, but these men were repulsed by magic and unable to carry out this demand. The druids, themselves, lay in ambush at dawn, but as the missionaries

walked in orderly procession towards Tara, Patrick led them in the chanting of the faed fiada (which see) which made them appear to their foes as a stag leading a bevy of does. In an attempt to awe the foreigners, Laoghaire called his court into full session, but Patrick made such a remarkable entry that Dubthach, the king's chief poet, rose in respect, as did a young noble named Erc (later converted and made Bishop Erc). The druids immediately attempted to subjugate Patrick by throwing down their staffs, which reformed themselves into attacking snakes, but Patrick threw his own staff to the floor and it became a huge snake which voraciously gobbled up the others. Impressed, if not inwardly swayed, Loaghaire promised tolerance for Patrick's mission and this opened the way for conversions throughout Meath. Patrick made a great point of appearing at the known sites of pagan worship, daring the early gods to do their worst. This adversarial approach to religious matters drew large crowds of people seeking entertainment. On the circuit in western Ireland, Patrick was opposed by druids who drew down a cloud of fog over the land, but he waved it aside noting, "they know how to gather darkness, but have not the means to spread light!" Perhaps at this time he is said to have magically toppled the gold statue of Crom Cruach, burying his circle of stone followers to their necks in the earth. In County Mayo he is supposed to have driven the "poisonous reptiles" from all of Ireland, but in fac the island never harboured any of these species after glaciation, being completely cut off from other places by the sea. In his circuit he was careful to befriend people in all of society and understood the advantages of patronage, giving generous gifts to his closest allies. Patrick thought that his role as bishop of the Church demanded that he travel regally in order to attract the notice of men in power. His generous life-style was looked on askance by

the Continental clergy, but his methods created churches in every part of the land, his own See, being put down at Armagh, at the old trysting place of the powerful goddess Macha. Patrick died in 460 A.D. and his biographers claim that during the twelve days of his wake "there was no night in Maigh Inis, but only light from an angelic radiance. This light persisted a whole year after Patrick's death." Of his retinue it was said" "There was a demon at the butt of every blade of grass in Erin before they came; but at those same butts, there stand now, angels of the Lord." PARTHANAN. A wraith from the Otherworld who, at the end of harvest, reaped and threshed any grain left standing in the fields. It has been suggested that this creature is a folk-memory of Partholon. A very exact counterpart is, however, found in Nordic myth: AS the winds blew fiercest in autumn and winter, Odin was supposed to prefer hunting during that season, especially during the time between Christmas and Twelfthnight, and the peasants were always careful to leave the last sheaf in the field, or the last measure of grain, out in the fields to serve as food for his horse.” PARTHOLÓN, later PARLAN, the Latin Bartholomaeus or Partholomaeus. a personage represented as the first human to arrive in Ireland, 278 years after the World Flood. Hence the clan M'Pharlain or Macfarlane. The next arrivals were followers of Parlan, in the early Irish Partholón. The Romans spoke of these people in the latter days as the offspring or Bartholomœus. There has been a suggestion that the name relates to the Celto-Spanish Bar-Tolmen, and Professor Rhys thought that they came from this land. All that is really clear is the fact that the name is non-Gael and probably pre-Celtic, since it has the forbidden “p” at the beginning of the word. The Celts Clann Pharlain by substituting an “f” for the “p,” thus we have Clan Farlane or Farland, the source of the M’Pharlain, known to

English-speakers as the Macfarlands. Gaelic historians say that the new arrivals came precisely 278 years after the Great Flood. If the flood occurred about the time of the Valders Re-advance as some scientists suspect, this puts their arrival at something before the year 10, 000 B.C. This man was a descendant of Magog and Japhet, (sons of Adam). It must be understood that the transcribers of unwritten tradition were Christians, who wished to give the Hibernians the best possible genealogy. Whatever his background, Partholonan followed the example of the Biblical Cain and murdered his father Sera, hoping to inherit his kingdom. This is very reminiscent of the killing of the Oolathair by his sons and this portion of the tale may be a reinterpretation of that myth as Sera appears to be a form of the Gaelic siar or iar, the “west.” Note that none of the murderers inherited their fathers holdings but were all forced into exile. It was thus that Partholon and a number of close friends set sail upon the ocean and finally settled in Munster, Ireland, arriving significantly on the first day of May, which is to say beulteinne. It was sometimes claimed that this hero came from Spain, but it will be recalled that the Gaelic for this place is more correctly understood as a synonym for the “dead-lands,” which were understood to be placed in the western Atlantic. Some biographers insisted that Sera had a kingdom in Scythia but our ballad-sheet has Tul-tunna, the survivor of the flood sing these words: When Partholan came to the island From Greece in the Eastern Land, I welcomed him gaily to my land And feasted the whole of his band. We think that this early Munster-man did not come from the west and have T.W. Rolleston for support. He says: “The Celts as we have learned from Caesar, believed they were descended from the God of the Underworld, the God of the Dead. Partholan is said to have come from the West, where beyond the un-sailed Atlantic, the Irish

Fairyland...the Land of the Happy Dead, was placed. His father’s name was Sera (the West?). He came with his queen Dealgnaid and twenty-four men and an equal number of female companions. He is recorded as having three legitimate sons, the eldest named Eber (the same name as one of the sons of Mil), and one “a hireling.” His other sons were Rudraihe (Roderick) and Laighhlinne (Lochlann), and an unnamed by referred to as “the hireling.” When Rudhraidhe died his was buried by his father in a place which erupted water from the grave-site, and this flood continued creating the modern Loch Rudraidhe. The first record of fornication in Ireland was followed by a second. The queen was “ignored” by her husband and while he was away on a journey she had an affair with a household servant named Todga. When the leader returned he forgave his mate, noting that he was not blameless and had been wrong in leaving her without company. When the Partholonians arrived in ancient Eiru it was a wilderness embracing three huge lakes and nine rivers on a single plain. The persistence of these numbers in druid magic dates from these early observations. The new men on the land are said to have hunted the plain, set up the first hostels, and cleared the land for agriculture. The old tales insist that the Farlanders had two ploughmen in their retinue and that these men were equipped with four working oxen and ploughs with iron blades. These men were not long in place before they met the sea-roving Fomorians led by Cichol Grinchenghos (the Footless). This race emerges again and again in the Book of Invasions and they are hardly ever represented as a “civilized race,”an epitaph which Donnelly gives them in his book Atlantis the Antediluvian World. They did come with “sixty ships and a strong army” as this writer suggested, but they did not kill Partholon and they failed to defeat his people as he suggests. Some of the Irish claim descent from the sea-folk of the underwater kingdoms, and perhaps

Ignatius Donnelly is one of these! A greater number of Irish have taken the other court, e.g. Katherine Scherman: “In Partholan’s time these savages lived on costal islands, and fought against Partholan’s race although equipped with but “one foot, one hand and one eye.” Some men said that these intruders were shape-changers, cannibals often observed to have the heads of animals (probably because they wore the hides of their totem animals), Strangers always have an uncanny appearance! This historian thought that the Fomors were probably some faint racial memory of Mesolithic man, a stone-bearing creature “who crept round the edges of the country catching what food he could with his rude weapons and eking out a static existence...presenting his infelicitous countenance and his paltry resistance to more progressive successors.” The Fomorians were not all that ineffectual although Partholon did meet and defeat these hordes who were led by Cichol Grinchenghos. The Farlanders actually fell prey to the first plague in Ireland after they had gathered for some unstated purpose near the Old Plain called Senmag. Tallaght, on the west slope of Dublin mountain. This place is notorious as the traditional site of the death of nine thousand men and women, the descendants of the original settlers. It is claimed that they all expired within a week and those who survived gave them a mass burial. One can see tumuli on the hillside which seem to support this myth. In the year 774 A.D. the king of Leinster gave this place to Christian monks for a monastery, but even less remains of their monastery. This place was much too close to a very good harbour, which the viking Norse preferred when they came to establish a settlement at Dublin. This leaves only the telling of the tale of Tuan which was preserved in The Book of the Dun Cow a manuscript from about the year 1100 A.D. This Farlander was the son of Starn who was the son of Sera and the brother to Partholon. After the great pestilence this sole survivor wandered about from one vacant settlement to the next, but

saw nothing except wolves. For twenty-two years it is said that he lived without comfort or company, until at last he fell “into the decrepitude of old age.” He was apparently unaware of the presence of a parallel character, the flood survivor Finntann. Speaking of the Partholons this character says, in the 1913 ballad: Again, strangers I roamed the land merry and free, Both careless and fearless of dangers Til Blithe Nemid came over the sea. They were successful in battle against the sea-giants, but Partholón himself was not as lucky in love. While he was away from his settlement his wife had an affair with a servant named Todga, but he excused her noting that it was his fault for ignoring her. His eldest son was Eber, the others Rudraidhe and Laighlinne. It was said that he introduced agriculture to Ireland and among his folk there were two professional ploughmen were equipped two iron ploughs and four trained oxen. The Partholonians set up the first hostels in Ireland. PATHADH NA CAORACH, "the thirst of the sheep." A curse, a malediction intended to wish bad luck on another. PEALLAIDH, peirid, a ferret, a Scot. peerie, or “little hillman, a fairy; the species of sithe seen in the Shetlands. the chief of clann urusig at Breadalbane, Scotland. His name is still seen in Obar Peallaidh, which has been anglicized as Aberfeldy. His footprints are preserved in stone upon a rock at Glenlyon, and the burn of Inbhir inneoin, near the foot of this glen was his favourite haunt. There is also a cataract on the river which is called Eas Pheallaidh. See urusig. PEALARACH, PEALDREACH, the stormy petrel, a harbinger of weather. PEIGHINN PISICH, a “lucky penny.” A coin turned three times when death seized on these

in the pocket to avert the “evil eye” or bring good luck. Always turned at the first glimpse of the new moon, preferably silver, often an heirloom. See piseach. PEITHIR, BEITHIR, a beast, forester, messenger boy, thunderbolt, a mythic use of the word. The gods were thought to take their rest in trees struck by lightning. The chief of this kind was the lightning good Tor, who the Norse called Thor. PISEACH, prosperity, luck, Fate, a kitten, a young cat, sorcery, witchcraft, divination; MIr. pisoc, charm; Confers with Ir. piseog, witchcraft, Manx pishag, charm, Cor pystry. witchcraft, Br. pistri, a medicine box, a poisoner. Confers with pixie and the Gaelic piseag, a kitten and the Eng. pussy. See Peallaidh, above. Note also cat and urusig. PISEAGAICHE, enchanter, wizard, a superstitious Pisearlach, juggling, conjuring,, superstition. PISREAG, obs. sorcery, superstition. PISEAR ARD-RIGH. In the third year of imrama on behalf of the god Lugh, the Tuireens approached the “Land of the HotSpear,” a possession of Pisear ard-righ. Again they appeared as poets and asked for the spear as a return for their praise-song. This king was less gracious than the last and fell into a rage, during which fighting broke out. This time, Brian hurled the Apples of the Sun at the king and shattered his skull. The boys then fought their way to the ice-house where the spear was kept, tore it from the block and used it in their escape. person.

PISEOG, BISEOG, pios+eug, “cup of death,” witchcraft, a pussy. Eug, the Lat. nex, death, Skr. nac, to perish. The baobhe were noted for their knowledge and use of poisons. The cat-folk of Britain were the Silurs of south-western England. Their chief symbol, a cat’s head, appears on stones at Caerleon in Ireland. There we find reference to “Cairbre

Cat-head,” “a divine ancestor of the Erainn.” In Irish tradition, the flesh of the pussy was used by those responsible for divination and prognostication. Cormac notes that in the rite of himbas forosnai, the flesh of a red pig was chewed along with that of a cat or dog. An incantation was said over the masticated mass and it was then offered up to “the idol gods.” The use of cats is also mentioned in bringing about rain and in the context of the Scottish taighairm. In one of the Irish “voyages” a catt bec, or “little cat” was encountered as the guardian of valuable treasures. He leaped at a potential thief, and flames up, reducing the man to ashes.. In “The Adventures of St. Columba’s Clerics,” two men landed on an island inhabited by men with cat’s heads (Fomors).” PIT, a hollow or pit, from Pictish language perhaps through the AS. pyt. Used in Gaelic as a prefix in farm and township names, thus “a farm portion.” PLAIDE, a blanket, Ir. ploid, Eng. plaid, Scot. plaiden, coarse woolen cloth, very like flannel in texture but of a twilled weave. Confers with G. peallaid, a sheepskin. PLEOISG, PLODHAISG, a booby, a simpleton, an idiot, cf. Cy. bloesg, a person who stutters and stammers, Skr. mlecchati, one who murders language, a person who talks in barbarous fashion, mleccha, an outlander, Lat. blaesus. A quarter-day victim, an outlander. PLUR NA M’BAN. The “Flower of Women.” The daughter of Oisinn and the goddess Niamh, the latter a daughter of Mannan mac Ler. POLL, a pool, a hole, a nostril, mud, said to be from L.Lat. padulus, a pool. Magical powers were attributed not only to the deep-water wells but to certain river embayments, notably those near fords or bridges, especially places “where both the dead and the living pass.” Thus water from places near burial grounds was collected and used against the “evil-eye.” Such water had to be taken in absolute

silence from the backwater of the current, and care was taken that its container should not touch the earth on the trip home. In use a wooden ladle was dipped into the water and silver was placed in it. The victim was given three sips of this “silvered” water and the rest was sprinkled over and around him. The water of rivers flowing southward “to meet the sun” were always preferred as were waters flowing with uniform speed. A bargain made over water was considered legal and irrefutable. Lovers wishing to engage in informal marriage simply clasped their hands over a pool, thus plighting their troth. Water placed on the thumbs of lovers could also be pressed together in a similar binding rite. The insane used to be carried to the Holy Pool, of St. Fillan, near Tyndrum in Perthshire, Scotland. Here the current sweeps about a high projecting rock forming two pools Poll nam Ban, the “Women’s Pool” and Poll nam Fear, the “Men’s Pool.” The patient was led three times around the appropriate body of water, in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. This over he was laid on his back in St. Fillan’s churchyard and ingeniously bound to two sticks on either side. If he managed to get free of this restraint before dawn it was observed that he invariably recovered from his mental debility. See also tobar. PONACH, a boy, a lad, cf. Cy. ponnair. A dialectic form of bonach. Bonnanach, a stapling fellow, bonnanaich, active young men (Skye). PRAT, a trick; pratail, tricky. protaig, from Scand. prattick, a trick, stratagem, AS. prætig, trickery. ON. prettr, a trick, Eng. pretty. All god-given assets. PISERALAS ORRA, the forked stick, piseach, prosperity, good luck; orra, a charm. Ir. piseog. superstition, witchcraft, Manx pishag, charm, Cor. pystry, witchcraft, Br. pistri, a poisoner. Similar to Latin pyxis, medicine box and the English pixie. See piseach, piseog. PREACHAN, a crow, a kite, the moor-bittern, Ir. preachan, same + the osprey (varying with adjective applied), MIr.

prechan, a crow or raven. Perhaps allied with breeachd, seizing. Note also preachan, a great orator, the Ir. preachoine, a crier (in the wilderness). PRIOBAID, a trifle, priobair, the “high-trifler,” a worthless fellow, related to Scot. bribour, a mean beggar, a low fellow, MEng. bribour, a rascal or thief, from OFrench. bribeur, a vagabond briber or beggar, related to G. breab, a kick.

PUC, push or jostle, related to Scot. powk, to thrust or dig, MEng. pukken, poken, to thrust forward, Eng. poke, Germ. poken, to knock, based on the field-spirit known as puca, which can be related to the old god Lugh. From this word we have the G. fuc which is the Eng. fuck. See puca. PUCA, PUCCA, the phooka, "wicked-minded, black-looking, bad things, that would come in the form of wild colts with chains hanging about them; poca, a bag, pocket (a diminutive), pocan, he-goat, from Scand. pock, AS poca, ON,

poki, the English spirit known as the puck, the lowland Scottish pawky. These relate to G. puc, to push or jostle, Scand. powk, to thrust or dig, ME. pukken, pouken, pòken, to thrust or poke, Ger. poken, to knock, dialectic fùc, fùcadh, the fulling of cloth, the Eng. fuck, a rude word for sexual congress, G. pucaid, a pimple. See boc and related words. PUIRT ROINNEANT, PORT, a satirical burlesque put to music or song, port, a tune; roin, a horse-hair (played on the "hairs.") PUIRT-A-BEUL, mouth music, port, tune; beul, mouth. Humming with magical intent in imitation of the sound of pipes or bagpipes. PUIRT NA DELIG, the “Haven of the Pin,” on Torry Island, off Northwestern Ireland. It was predicted that Balor of the Fomors would be killed by his own grandson, thus he sequestered his daughter. Nevertheless, she was made pregnant by a Tuathan. In due course Ethlinn gave birth to three sons, and Balor reacted by commanding that they be drowned in a nearby whirlpool. The henchman who was given the deed of murder tied the new-borns in a sheet, but on the way to the coast, one of the thorn stay-pins came loose and one child tumbled out on the ground at a place still called Puirt na Delig, the “Haven of the Pin.” The other two were killed and the servant reported his mission complete. The child who escaped became the sun-king named Lugh. PUTHAR, power, from the English word power. The aim of the old Gaels was the accumulation of power in the interest of becoming as god-like as possible.