T, tinne, the holly. Tuesday. Truith, the starling; temen, deep grey; July 8 until August 4.

TA, obs. water. Thus words such as tabach, marine. T-OSGAR, AN, the spirit of life; the life force. thought born with a finite life-spirit, which replenished but not to the point of immortality. the draining of the final dredges of this source of Men were could be Death was power.

TABH, TAIBH, the sea, the ocean, from ON. haaf, the open sea as opposed to inland or enclosed seas. In Norse mythology mer-people are referred to as the haafmannr. See tabhs. TABH, TABHALL, a sling, EIr. taball, a casting device, root tab, to fire, to sling, Eng. stab. Note next. TÁBHALL-LORG. Tablet staff, the wooden repositories for records, poetry, genealogy and history. Similar to the ollamhs, which were kept on simple rods of wood. The lorg were distinguished as taibhli-filidh, “poet’s staffs;” tamlorga filidh, “death staffs,” and flesc filidh, “feathered staffs.” The Brehon Laws said that none but poets could carry such property. Made of birch or beech, these tablets could be opened in the fashion of a fan. In a few instances yew wood was preferred. See ogham. TABHS, TAIBHS, TAIBHSE, a ghost, or spirit, of the dead; a ghost of the living; the visible totem animal of an individual. OIr. taidbse, a vision, closely allied with the

English phantom. Men were believed accompanied throughout their lives by invisible external souls termed the bafinne. At the approach of death these cowalkers appeared first to the victim and then approached his relatives to inform them of the passing. Eigheach taibhse an nochd, the cry of a spiritual manifestation. Taibhsean an tsleibh, the “ghosts of the moor.” Taibhseireireachd, the ability to perceive the ghost world, “second-sight.” the observation of the unseeen world. The warder of spirits of the dead was believed to be the detatched soul of the last person dead and buried in a given community. Guardianship of this kind was never considered an enviable posting and when two men died at about the same time their relatives struggled mightily to get their man or woman underground first. See fair’e chlaidh. TABHSEAR, TAIBHSEAR, a person gifted with the two sights, taibhs, apparition; ear, eastern. See an dara selladh. Related to the English seer. Dr. Keith Norman Macdonald speaks of an example of the second sight on the Isle of Skye: "At that time merry-making at harvest-homes was much more common than at the present day. A very handsome and well known couple were entertaining their workers and friends and, and everybody was as happy as possible. Among (the guests) was a well known taibhsear, or “second-sight seer,” who was noticed by a friend to turn ghastly pale all of a sudden and left the room. His friend followed him and asked what was the matter. The seer replied, "It does not concern you, but before long a tragic event will take place in this house." He had seen the hostess in her shroud. A fortnight after this occurrence the hostess, who was apparently in the best of health, was dressing to go out in a party when suddenly she dropped down dead in the bedroom." (Celtic Magazine, 1901, p. 147). TABHSEAR, TAIBHSEAR BREAMAS, the Brahan Seer; bra, mill-stone. Holed stones were often considered peep-holes into the unseen world. Brahan Castle was long the residence of the Mackenzies of Seaforth. Their doom was said predicted with uncanny accuracy by "Sallow" Kenneth,

"the Brahan Seer", who used his "long sight" to perceive the Count of Seaforth in bed with some French ladies. When he relayed this information to his mistress she reacted by having the soothsayer confined in a spiked barrel and rolled down a hill. Her husband arrived too late to save the magician from cursing the family with his dying breath. This is a colourful but unlikely tale since there is record of the seer's execution before the Earldom was created: In January 1577 a writ was issued to "apprehend, imprison and try Kenneth, alias Kennoch Owir, principal or leader in the art of magic." TABHSHEIS, the bull feast. A ceremony in which a high druid would eat the flesh of a bull and drink its blood. Sleeping with indigestion, this individual dreamed of the next high-king. It was thought that if he lied about things seen in the dream the gods would punish him. As part of the rites the king-to-be bathed in bull’s blood and ate and drank its substance. The bull-god was Lugh. See tarbh. TABHLEIS, TAIBHLEIS, obsolete game, fidchell, similar to Literally, "nicked at the tables," Having reference to its use as a form of taileasg, a board the English word tables. or “Taken to the cleaners.” tool of gaming. accident, a

TACHAIR, meet, happen. Manx taghyrt, an happening, from to + car, “to turn.” See next.

TACHARAN, a ghost, the yelling of a ghost; an orphan, one alone in the world. Particularly the spiritual remnant, or unattached befinn, of an unbaptized child. TACHARRA, changeling, a dwarf or pigmy. TADG, TADHG MAC CIAN, (Teig), A Poet, Many-Layered. Deep. The son of Cian, king of Munster. He allied himself with Cormac mac Art and was wounded in battle against the Ulstermen. Cormac promised him whatever land he could encircle with his chariot immediately after the battle. Cormac knew that Tadhg coveted Tara, which, at that time,

came complete with the high-kingship of Ireland. Since the hero was swooning from battle wounds, the king was able to bribe Tadhg’s charioteer to describe a path that would cut off Tara. Angered by this duplicity Tadhg slew his driver. As heir to a portion of Munster Tadhg made the rounds of his father’s kingdom, and happened to wander into Beire do Bhunadas in the far west of that land when a Fomorian pirate named Cathmann surrounded his party and took his wife Liban and his two brothers as slaves. Tadhg managed to cut himself free of his enemies and afterwards ordered the building of a curragh suitable for a long ocean-voyage into the western islands. “Very strong it was and had forty ox-hides on of red leather that had been soaked in bark. It was fitted with masts, and oars and pitch, and everything that was wanting. And they put every sort of meat and drink and of clothes in it, that would last them through the length of as year. It is said that they sailed beyond sight of all land and then rowed westward through twenty days and nights and finally came “to high land having a smooth coast.” Here, Tadhg and thirty of his men scouted the land but found vacant farms, wild sheep and a belligerent ram. Tadhg made a lucky cast of his spear and impaled and killed the animal. Afterwards “they found the bones of very big men on the island but did not know if they had died of sickness or were killed by the rams.” Leaving this island they sailed to two other islands where they noted birds, somewhat like blackbirds but the size of eagles “with red and green heads.” Their nests contained eggs that were coloured blue and crimson, and when they ate some they were troubled by allergic skin reactions. The “foreigner” who was their pilot said that he had come this way before, but now the ships turned into unknown waters through which they passed for a period of six weeks. When the wind rose the voyagers said that its sound was like that of many tramping feet, “and it piles up in great mountains which were hard to climb.” Finally, the curragh came into safer waters and

beached at a land where there was a beautiful inlet surrounded by green trees. It was said that the bottom of the estuary was of a glittering silvery sand. Two dozen explorers set out for the hinterland where they found fruiting apple trees, oak trees and hazels overburdened with nuts. Inland, they encountered three fortresses on hills overlooking a plain, and visited each in turn, where they encountered Gaelic heroes long dead. They visited last with the mythic Clidona and remained as her guests for a year. Afterwards they departed for Ireland led by a company of magical birds which guided them into the Atlantic. As they sailed away the Dead Isles became veiled in “druidic mists and they were plunged into a deep sleep which continued until they arrived at the Fomorian island of Fresen, which was ruled by their enemy, the king called Cathmann. After a hard fight Tadg liberated his wife and brothers and all returned safely to Ireland. TADG MAC NUADA. A druid and the father of Murna of the White Neck. She was the mother of the famed Fionn mac Cumhail. See Cumhail and Murna. TAGHAIRM, TAIGHAIRM, an echo, divination by listening to the fall of water. Ir. toghairm, a summons or petition, from OIr. togairm, an invocation addressed to the gods. From to + gairm, a call to the sky. Related is tagradh, a ghost. Said to be "the most savage of all sorcery." Described in A.J. Macdonald's book as "the most devastating and certain but also the most difficult (magic)." He defines it as "the spirit-call". The story-teller, Gary Hugh of Uist, says that a prince of the islands divided his inheritance between two daughters. Olga received Griminish and the west of Uist while Val was given Vallay and lands in the north. Olga, jealous of her sister on account of her great beauty, decided to eliminate her using sorcery. She made enquiries of the greatest magicians and hired Grimm. While Val and her retainers were at sea in a longship, the magician called upon a taghairm of rats and these spirits stirred up a violent storm that drowned all in the tidal

channel separating Rona and Grimsay. Val's nurse-maid became suspicious of the situation when Grimm was given Val's inheritance as his sorcerer's fee. She led resistance against Grimm and he and his forces were cut down at the River Bafinn. Olga was banished to a rocky ledge named Olga's Chair looking out over Sgrifearnach, ironically the place where the taghairm had been set in motion. In his book, Occult Elements, the Rev. Norman MacDonald says that the last taghairm was performed on the Isle of Skye during the 1770's. "Obviously, the taghairm, some forms of which could be used to bring about the realization of evil wishes, was very strongly frowned upon by the Church... Carmichael provides a rather detailed description of consulting an invisible oracle, which includes the taghairm of cats (1695). Mr. Alexander Cooper was one of his informants about the use of this rite as it occurred on the island of Lewis...the medium often reported severe after effects. In this taghairm, the medium was sometimes wrapped in a fresh cow-hide and left all night in a solitary place where he was expected to receive a visit from invisible catspirits who would provide an answer to his question or give other aid in achieving an evil wish. In the taghairm of cats, other activities were also involved...e.g. live cats would be continuously roasted on a spit. A legion of devils would then appear, in the guise of screeching black (spirit) cats with their master at the head." (The Hebridean Connection, p. 422). The Camerons of Lochiel tell us that the “Yell of Cats” was last heard on the Isle of Mull in the seventeenth century. “After the completion of these rights the votaries were entitled to demand two boons. A Cameron performed the ceremony as instructed and was given a magical silver shoe with instructions to place it on the left foot of every son born to the family. This custom was observed until the “fairy-shoe” was lost, and afterward Lochiel’s house was consumed by fire in 1747. It was said that the silver birth-

right invariably fit all of the children, except one, up until that time and that it protected them from premature death. The one child whose fit was a misfit turned his back on a foe at Sheriffmuir and was killed. TAGRADH, a ghost, Sutherlandshire, Scotland. Confers with the next. TAIBHS, TAIBHSE, TAIBHSEACH, TABHS, (pronounced tav), an apparition or ghost, Ir. taibhse, a vision, ghost, MIr. taidhbais, OIr. taidbse, from to-ad-bat, that which “shows itself.” a thing that “speaks.” related is the Eng. phantasm and phantom, runners for the souls of men. Ghosts of living men. Middle Irish, tadhbais a phantom. Tais, moist, damp, dank, soft, untempered, faint-hearted, cold, without spirit. pitiful. Taisbean, vision, revelation, apparition, taisdealach, wanderer, person who scuds or vanishes, ghost, taise, dead bodies, relics of saints, taisal, a ghost. The root word is tad, that which speaks or otherwise shows itself from the Old Irish togu, to taste strange things, to choose. The equivalent of the English fetch, co-walker, runner, soul-shadow, guardian, guardian angel, or double. a geist; the ghost of a living or recently departed individual. The Norse knew these as the fylgiar. More commonly, at present, an apparition or ghost, a vision. Confers with the English, phantasm. Runners were gifted upon people by the creator-god at birth, prominent individuals being given more than one protector. Taibhs acted as forerunners, making their human aware of future events; as backrunners, perceiving the past; and as spies on current events. They possessed ultra-sensitive vision, hearing, touch, taste and smell and travelled as invisible heralds or followers of their ward, but could appear as a totem animal. They sometimes materialized, leading to situations of bilocation. The runner appeared before each individual or his relatives as an omen of death, and they were then seen as fire-balls called corpse-candles or gophers. At night, the spirits of men entered their runners and

travelled with these wraiths. Bad dreams were seen as reflections of quarrels between runners. The runner was long absent in fevers and comas, and departed at death. People who could project themselves into their taibhs were said to have "an da shealladh", the two sights, and could predict the future. Those who lacked a guardian were known locally as jonahs, jinxers or "droch-chomhalaichean", rentpayers to hell, and suffered bad luck. Witches supposedly exchanged their runners for an imp, which took the visible form of a familiar. The equivalent of the English fetch, cowalker, soul-dancer, shadow-person, guardian or guardian angel. Runners were gifted upon people at birth, important souls receiving more than one protector. The taibh had the capacity to view the past or future and to examine distant events in the present. They were said to house a supplementary soul and travelled invisibly, or as a totem animal, with the person to whom they were assigned. They sometimes materialized giving rise to stories of bilocation, a person being seen at widely separated places at the same time. The taibh became a forerunner of death when it materialized face-toface with its master. As corpse-candles, gophers or fetches, these runners took the form of fireballs which warned relatives that a death was imminent in their family. The taibh sometimes announced death by becoming a knocker. At night the human soul was believed allied with its cowalker and bad dreams were seen as reflections of actually travels in some parallel world. The runner, and its travelling companion, were long absent in hallucinatory states, madness and comas, and departed together at death. The few Gaels who could project themselves into their taibh at will were said to have "an da shelladh", or the two sights, an ability to see the past and future. Those with no extra-sensory perceptions were the "droch-chomhalaichean" and suffered exceptionally bad luck. The boabh supposedly exchanged these useful spirits for a imp of the Devil. Whether the taibh was a normal runner, or a familiar of a witch, it

passed through the air in going about its business, and existed at the sufferance of the god Kari and his kind. As we have previously noted, familiars frequently showed their attachment to the wind-spirits by taking the form of crows, ravens, owls, eagles and other birds of the air. Mary L. Fraser described the appearance of a forerunner as a sea bird. Two Nova Scotian girls saw it on the beach. When one tried to approach it the other warned, "Leave it alone, don't touch it, it is a taibhs." "And what is a taibhs?" asked the second girl. "It's a spirit," she replied, "We're going to get some bad news." Discussing this phenomena in 1652, Lord Larbolt noted: "there were men and women and children who had the second sight; there were children who had it but not the parents; some people had it when they were old who did not have it in their youth; none of them could tell how they came to have it; but all said it was a gift of which they would gladly rid themselves if possible. They saw the vision only as long as they kept looking at it steadily. Those who had a strong heart usually took a good look at it, and they could see it for a longer time than the weak and timid. Those of strong will did not have visions of the dead, but saw the living, and had no doubt as to what they saw them do, or that what they saw happen to them would actually occur just as they saw it. They could not tell what time might intervene before the events in question might take place; but those who were accustomed to seeing such things had special rules by which they could make a close guess. For example, they could tell pretty well how soon a person was going to die by noting how much of his form was covered by a shroud. If the whole form was covered, the person was on his death bed." While visions were seen by sighted people, this was not a prerequisite; a man might be blind, but his secondsoul, housed in the taibhs, would not be afflicted. Thus, at Saint John in 1777, a blind man, far distant from the scene, was party to a vision of a judicial hanging. When he reported the details to his family, they were able to confirm that his description was complete and correct in

every detail. While most of these phantoms reported to their host by way of a vision, the other senses were sometimes involved; thus there are reports of men and women who tasted, touched, or smelled happenings from another time and place, or by one means or another, observed events at a distance. Mary L. Fraser noticed that many of her fellows in Antigonish County, Nova Scotia would not consider walking in the centre of a road after dark "for fear of encountering phantom funeral processions." Undertakers who worked with the dead throughout the year, often found their horse drawn hearses crowded about with a host of taibhs and were jostled and felt the touch of these runners for the dead as they tried to harness their horses. Often, the person gifted with one type of extra-sensory perception would lack other extra-sensory perceptions. Fraser noted "the persistent tradition that the spirits of the living (but soon to be dead) rehearse the making of coffins." English-speaking communities, this ability was often termed clair-audience (as contrasted with clairvoyance, or the ability to see hidden places and events.) In researching her books on folklore, Helen Creighton discovered that, "Many people are deaf to forerunners (that is, unable to detect them at any level). Of six people sitting in a room with the body of a man who had just died, only three heard him call out the name of his wife." Speaking of the taibhs as represented in the sense of touch Joe Neil MacNeil said: "Somebody (from the community) would say, rubbing his lips, "Indeed I feel the itch of a kiss (or the itch of a dram) today," And somebody else would say. "Oh, there is an itch in the palm of my right hand." Or someone else would say, "Indeed I am going to shake the hand of a stranger today." "And how do you mean that?" "Oh, there is an itch in the palm of my right hand." Or someone might say, "Surely I am going to receive money In

in a short time. There is an itch in my left palm." And another man would say, "And what does it mean when a person's eye is quivering?" It was good news if it was the right eye and it was poor news...if it was the left eye. And another might say, "Lord how hot my ear is! It's almost on fire with the warmth in it. Someone is talking about me." People would ask the man, "Is it your right ear or your left ear?" "Oh my left ear." "Oh, well then, that's good enough." "And what is the reason for that?"..."Well, when the heat is in your right ear, they are making a lot of talk about you, and indeed it is probably not very good. But when the great heat is in your left ear, they are making excuses for you." In each of the above cases the taibhs would be considered the agency responsible for the physical sensation, which was intended as a message or a warning. Mary L. Fraser said that "All the findings of Lord Larbolt hold good for the second-sight in Nova Scotia, where many people are endowed with the gift. Sometimes whole families have it to a greater or lesser degree The old people watched carefully the colours of the eyes of a child when it was born. If it had, say, one eye blue and the other brown, they were on the look-out for the second-sight; for if at the end of a certain number of weeks the colours had blended so that they could not tell which eye had been blue and which brown, the child was sure to have the gift. If the colours did not blend, the child was normal." Helen Creighton found that the forerunner "usually deals with sounds. Foresight, on the other hand is visual. On the island of Cape Breton it is known as double vision or double sight and people who have the gift are said to be double sighted. It occurs here mostly among those of Scottish descent although there are isolated instances among other groups...Perhaps the word gift...is inappropriate. For a gift is a pleasurable attribute. This is not, for the vision is usually that of a funeral..." At that, it has to be remembered that the taibhs was a ghost of the living thus Malcolm Campbell, of Cape Breton, contended that, "A forerunner can be when you see a living

person...A stranger was going to come. And you'd see a forerunner of a stranger. It might have no connection with death at all." Fraser commented that, "It was a popular belief among the Celts that if you wished yourself anywhere at night you were sure to appear there (at least as an invisible spirit). If harm befell these apparitions, the rash wisher was also harmed. The apparition could be (halted in mid-journey) if to the words "I wish from the bottom of my heart or soul I was there," there were added, "but not with (this) night's wish." Thus it is shown that the taibhs was considered an invisible double, a projection of a living person. It was held that these spirits were gifted upon men by the pagan gods, but they were counted as angels in Christian times, and the Cape Breton historian A.A. Mackenzie, assured his readers that the second-sight "is from God. It is only he who can really know the future..." The taibhs might be considered in this light, but these spirit was suspected to be something less worthy than a guardian angel. A Shelburne man confronted by the "ghost" of a sister, who was still among the living, gave his opinion as follows: "I wouldn't tell about it (the sighting) for ten years (until after her death) because it was considered bad luck to see a person who wasn't there." It used to be said that the mentally handicapped had the ability to travel through the air "at will." These people also possessed runners, but their night-worlds were thought to be less organized than that of normal men. Thus, it is likely that their psychic-travel was more a matter of random process than "a night's wish." Mary L. Fraser tells the tale of an East Bay, Cape Breton family, which possessed a set of hand-made hornspoons of a distinctive design when they lived in Scotland. They were forced to leave the old country in hurried circumstances, and these spoons were left behind. In the new land their handicapped son was often observed to fall into a trance-like state, and the family considered he was then "on his travels." After one of these incidents, the horn-spoons were found in his possession, and it was

assumed he had actually managed a passage to Scotland and back, without the aid of a sailing ship. When he was a young boy, Cleve Townsend, of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, says he was twice warned away from dangerous situations by his own forerunner, who came to him as a wraith-like boy. In the first case, he was about to go fishing alone on the harbour when the taibhs materialized from the floor boards of the wharf motioning him to return home. He refused, but on the water, found his foot caught up in the anchor rope and was hauled to the bottom with it. On the way down, he saw the face of the ghost-boy frowning his displeasure. This time, he escaped injury, but when he encountered the same apparition in the cellar of his own home, he retreated back up the stairs and "Forever after that I never went against them." The use of the word "them" in the above sentence is informative for it was understood that the gifted individual could often see much more than his or her personal runner. Townsend made this clear by saying, "My father, he'd go into the forest...and he'd sit down and talk with his own father...people in that world...I never went with him (but) I can still speak with my father...He's a young man now. When he comes he comes first with his (familiar) beard and everything as I knew him (in life). And then after I recognize him, he changes to what he is...My mother, the same." Usually messages of impending doom were left to the taibhs, but while Townsend was working as a Cape Breton steel plant in 1955 his runner warned him of approaching doom. When he failed to take heed his father's ghost approached him in broad daylight and said, "You stay on (working in) that plant much longer, you'll be leaving your bones there." After that, Townsend left steel-making for faith healing. Commenting on his knowledge of unseen worlds, the Cape Breton native said, "I've lived in two worlds for over seventy years...the spirit world and the earth plane. You don't see them unless God gives you clairvoyant sight. I can hear them...At the beginning their words are like listening to a mosquito, and after a time it

increases, until it's clear. And I can speak to them. That world is not a different world than the world we see. Sometimes when death comes to the physical body, the man will go over and that world is so much like this that he doesn't know where he is. He doesn't know he's out of body and dead. The inner man will live on, a million years, a hundred million years. There's no death for the inner man. The inner man is what controls this body, not you...There's no hell over there. But of course, if a man lives a pretty good life, why he's going to find over there it's really good and beautiful. But if he lives a life of sin and likes to kill or something like that, his home over there will be the same as down here, black as Egypt. And he may get one hundred years or three hundred years of that." Because of his gift, Cleve Townsend had expectations of disaster when he heard three solid knocks, and noted, "...when I was a boy, I wouldn't let anyone else go to the door but me. I knew there was nobody there they could see...there was always someone there from the other world...It would be like to bring a warning about a death...I'd receive the thoughts from their mind...I would see a form, see their face before someone was to die." Dan MacNeil of Cape Breton, had this to say of another gifted individual "the Mackenzie girl of Christmas Island." "... in the night-time there'd be a knock at the door and a little hand would show on the wall. And she'd go in what you'd call a trance...she'd go across to the other side...when she'd wake up from that trance she'd tell her neighbours, "this person, or that person died just a few minutes ago. I saw him entering into heaven." And by gosh the neighbour died at that certain time... They took her to priests and bishops and everything, and it was no use...she used to be like that every night...this last time, she went in a trance and this old lady that died up there rear of Christmas Island, she was in heaven. And she told her, she says, "You tell your father to go to my son, and look in the old trunk in the attic, and you'll find a ring there, "she says. "And get that ring,and put it on your finger and this'll never happen to

you again." This amulet negated the unwanted gift of precognition. Another local psychic saw no visions but could predict the future: "Before a death I feel something beside me all day and I can't get rid of it." Those that could not see or touch the intangible often heard sounds generated by the taibhs. Joe Neil MacNeil says: "And people might hear a sound as if somebody was on the threshold. They weren't hitting the door at all, you understand, there was no knock on the door but you would hear the stamping as if somebody put his foot on the threshold though no one was there. And they would say. "It won't be long before a stranger comes to the house." When it was suspected that men were in danger on the sea, their relatives used to consult gifted individuals, who might send their runners out looking for signs of their fate. Cleve Townsend was consulted by Mrs. Captain Dan Harris, who once piloted a coal boat between the Island and Halifax. After peering through the "eyes" of his informant, Townsend was able to reassure her: "Mrs. Harris, I got them. They're all right so far. But I can see them all working, cutting ice, and the boat is leaning over, top heavy...Tomorrow morning, ten o'clock, you look out the harbour and you'll see your husband bringing in the towboat." Townsend was also able employ his taibhs more directly when he worked as a telegrapher aboard the ship "Troja," which once sailed from Louisbourg to Saint John. This craft was off Grand Manan when, "The engine room was first to fill with water, the boiler room (went) dead, so there couldn't be a message sent... (nevertheless) a message was received in New Brunswick giving the exact longitude and latitude, our exact position." The "Troja" was rescued, and Mr. Townsend could only conclude that his cowalker had somehow managed to act on his behalf. Gifted individuals were thought related to the elder gods of the sea, thus they were never allowed to drown or die by fire. These "caul-bearers" or lucky individuals were

usually sought as ship-mates because it was believed that their protective spirit shielded any ship on which the individual travelled. On the other hand, the old gods were sometimes held in contempt as devils and Townsend had to admit that a sailor from Forchu, knowing his reputation as a psychic and faith-healer, refused to travel with him aboard ship. In the best situations, the taibhs was engaged at being helpful: Folklorist Mary L. Fraser claimed that her father had had a vision of her mother as a bride, long before the couple had met. She also noted that Bishop MacDonald, of Antigonish Nova Scotia, had routinely had childhood visions of his father returning from distant journeys accompanied by his two black horses. Members of the family were amazed when the eight-year-old's predictions always proved correct. The Nova Scotian writer Roland H. Sherwood claimed that a guardian of an individual working in the United States spoke to his mother at home in Nova Scotia, reassuring her that he had escaped death in the Spanish Flu of 1918. During the Halifax explosion, December 6, 1917, three children managed to avoid death by playing truant for the first time in their lives. Questioned about their actions, none of them could explain why they had stayed clear of a school that was almost totally demolished in the blast. All referred to having vague feelings of unease at the idea of going to school on that day, and one said simply "It didn't feel right!" There are many other instances of men and women who were warned, or even physically barred, from dangerous situations. In the days of horse-and-wagon, the animals often balked at bridges hidden by darkness and storm. However, when men tried to lead their animals into wash-outs they often ran up against invisible walls, were warned by seeming voices in the wind, or were met by apparitions which indicated that they should not continue on the way. At Antigonish, a runner provides provided light in one

such situation: "It looked like a great big star and was so bright that it lit up the bridge that was one thousand feet long." At that, most of the reports concerning the taibhs have represented the spirit as a forerunner of death. Helen Creighton was told that, "If a person is dying and thinking of someone (to whom he is attached), he can make his presence known (briefly, prior to death)." Presumably, the taibhs first presented himself to his host and then went travelling to inform the next of kin. Since the gifted regularly saw their own runners, this was not a matter for concern. Those who occasionally saw their taibhs as a retreating form were pleased as this was an omen of long life. "There (also) used to be a theory that if you saw a forerunner early in the morning it (death) was going to take a long time (occur at a remote time), but if you saw it late in the evening it was going to happen very soon." The main thing was that the taibhs should remain at a decent distance; when it approached for a face-to-face confrontation this was thought to spell immediate death. Sometimes the taibhs materialized in groups. This was the case at Southern Point, near Scatarie, Nova Scotia: At a shore-camp, which was a temporary home to a number of fisherman, the door suddenly opened at two o'clock in the morning. "In walked eight or ten men in their oilskins. And they sat around the fire. And after a while (the solitary resident) kind of rubbed his eyes and there was no one there." Two days later nine men fishing from the "Ringhorn" were lost at sea and the ghostly figures were taken to be forerunners of these men. Very few individuals were naturally equipped to view their own or other people's shades, and vague premonitions of danger were not always understood by the uninitiated. Perhaps recognizing this, the taibhs often intruded upon the dreams of the common folk. On a March evening, George Salter of Avondale, Nova Scotia, dreamed of drowned lumbermen being washed ashore. The night before five such men had left the Avondale wharf to raft timber down the

river, March 28, 1889. According to numerous witnesses they were heard the men singing a tune entitled "Drifting, drifting to our doom..." This was thought odd since it was always considered an ill-omen to sing songs of loss and destruction on the rivers or at sea. A woman of the district later said that she heard cries of terror and panic from the river at nine o'clock, but if so they were not heard by others, perhaps because the death throes were masked by chivaree celebrations going on simultaneously. At exactly this time, Della Sweet, the wife of John, one of the men on the raft heard her name called out, apparently in her husband's voice. It was five days before bodies recovered, and men agreed that they had witnessed the taibhs. Again, not many men experienced dreams that were as literal as that of George Salter. The taibhs was never deliberately vague, but the connections between his world and that of human kind seem to have been indistinct for most men. A coffin, or a coffin-shaped object, seen in a dream seemed to have a symbolism as direct as that of dead bodies; and funeral parties, hearses, and the like, seemed open to easy interpretation. Clergymen were seen as bad luck at sea, and in dreams, as they were funeral orators. Dreaming of fire, or of hell, was considered unlucky; but there were more obscure symbols of death: A boat seen landing might be considered innocuous, but people of earlier times remembered that the death-god often travelled by sea. Seeing teeth in a dream was considered a bad matter and people did not like to view broken eggs. Interestingly dreaming of an undertaker was thought to presage a long life. Where the taibhs was unable to gather the force needed for a materialization or the creation of a "sensible" dream it might still act as a harbinger in the form of an elemental fire, sometimes termed the "dead-light" or "corpse-candle." Summing up the views of numerous interviewees, Helen Creighton described this phenomena as, "a ball of light...with a tail. The corpse-candle might travel in either direction between the home and grave-site of one

destined for death." Mary L. Fraser noted that, "A light seen going very quickly towards the graveyard was regarded as a sure sign of death. A clear round light indicated the death of a man; a light with little rays or sparks after it, that of a woman. If you could see the house it started from, you would know where the victim was." This form of taibhs was so feared that a new boat built at Broad Cove, Nova Scotia, was abandoned to the shore after corpse-candles seen on board. When Cape Breton resident Malcolm Campbell was asked about the present seeming scarcity of spirits of the living, he said: "When people stop fishing, there's no fish there. I heard this now in 1937. They used to fish off Port Hood Island and Henry Island. And there was an awful lot of fish, everybody was fishing. And the reason somebody told me that there's no fish is nobody is fishing, there's no bait on the grounds. So why were the fish going to congregate there? It's the same with other things, like seeing things, like forerunners." TAIBHSEAR, a visionary. One who possessed the two sights, a foreteller and hindteller. Taibsearhachd, the art of the two-sights, bewildered conduct. It has been observed that during the event gifted individualks stared without blinking as long as the vision persisted. If a happening was observed in the morning it was considered to forecast events in the afternoon; if at noon, later in the day; if an nighht, before dawn of the next day. A shroud seen in the vision predicted a death in the clan or family, the imminence of the event being related to how much of the body of the person seen was enshrouded. If the shroud was about the feet there was little immediate danger; if about the middle, death was thought likely within twelve months; if it came as high as the head death was considered certain within hours. A spark observed falling upon a persons arm meant that that individual would soon cradle a dying child. Individual seers were not privy tro the same “waking dreams” but if one touched another while in the trance state the vision was

relayed. “By pretension to second sight, no profit was ever sought or gained. It is an involuntary affection, in which neither hope nor fear are known to have any part. Those who profess to feel it do not boast of it as a privilge, nor are considered bby others to be adventageously distinguished. They have no temptation to feign and there hearers ahve no motive to encourage an imposture.” TAIGEIS, haggis, the human scotum, a big-bellied person, from Scot. haggis, OFr. hachis, Eng. hash, allied with the verb to hack. TAILCENN, the Irish talcánta, strong. “Adze-headed,” The name given St. Patrick by the druids of Ireland. They had prophesied to King Laoghaire (428-463 AD) that “The Taillcenn will come over furious sea, his mantle head-holed (hooded) his staff crooked-headed. His dish shall be in the east, and all his children will evermore answer - Amen, amen!” The converted said of him: “Now Talcenn, the Patrick, has come into the land and has preached to us the One God and Christ His Son, by whose might the old days are done with, Finn and his Fionn, their fasting and hunting gone! Their songs of war and love have no reverence among us whose prayers instead go up to cleanse of sins and save us from the fires of judgement.” TAILEASG, a ghost,, sport, a game, mirth. TAILGEAN, obs. offspring of a god, Holy offspring, a Soldier of God. TAILGNEACHD, prophecy, see tairgneachd. TAILLEASG, ghost, sport, mirth, game, board game. See fidchell. TAILSE, spectre, apparition.

TAILTU. The daughter of a Firbolg king she was married to Eochaid mac Erc (sometimes equated with Manann mac Ler). She was the foster-mother of the sun-god Lugh and gave her name to present-day Telltown, Ireland. TAIMH, death, mortality, silence, fainting, EIr. tam, plague; confers with tamh, to rest. Skr. tamyati, choke. TAIMH-LEAC, stones placeed where a person has died. TAIMH-NEOIL, trance state, swoon, slumber, ecatacy. TAIMHALICH, the odd soundsd emitted by house spirits just before the dwelling is occupied by men. TAIMTHIU, bed-death. Never the preferred ending for a life. TÅIN, cattle, a drove, spoils (of a cattle raid). A plundering expedition. The most famous of these was the Táin Bó Cuailgne which led to war between Connacht and Ulster. TÅIN Bó CUAILGNE, the “Cattle Raid of Cooley.” The most famous epic in Gaelic mythology. The first reference to it in written form is mentioned by Senchan Torpeist, the chief poet of Ireland, who died in the year 647 A.D. Surviving texts date much later than this, perhaps as late as the eleventh or twelfth centuries, but essentially all describe the troubles that a Connaught queen named Mebd had while trying to capture the prized Brown Bull of Cuailgne, which was kept in Ulster province. She led a host of warriors against Ulster, whose warriors were rendered useless by “a strange debility inflicted on them by the the Macha.” Only the youthful champion Cú chullain was unaffected by this “curse of child-bearing,”since he was in training in the Land of Shadows at the time of pronouncement. He defended the northern kingdom at the Ford of Ulster, until these men were relieved and able to come to his aid. TÅIN Bó FRAOCH, the “Cattle Raid of Fraoch,” which starts with Fraoch’s attempts to woo Findbhair, the beautiful

daughter of Mebd and Ailill. In this tale, the hero encountered and overcame a powerful sea-serpent. Professor C.W. von Sydow (1923) suggested a correspondence between this story and the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf. TAIRCHEADAL, a prophecy. Same as next. TAIRGNEACHD, TAILGNEACHD, TAIRGIRE, a prophecy, Ir. tairrgire, a promise to be kept in the future, OIr. tairngire, a promise. Tairgreadh. obs. prophecying, a proverb. TAIRM, necromancy. The art of raising the dead in seeking prophetic answers to questions. See taghairm. TAIRNEANACH, thunder. See torrunn for root. Activity created by the actions of the god Tor. Tairneanaiche, thunderer. Tairn-thoirm, thundering noise. TAIS, cold, without spirit, moist, dank, damp, untempered, not hardy, blunt, fearful, timid. TAISBEAN, to reveal secrets. This word has the same origin as tabhs, which, see. Related to taisgeal, locating things, the finding of objects, taisgelach, a spy, betraying, from tosgeul, to tell stories, and thus taisgealadh, news. TAISBEAN, TAISBEIN, TAISBAN, vision, apparition. TAISBEANADH. Revelation, showing, disclosing, show, pageant, The Wepipphany, Twelfth Day of Twelfth Night. A dwemonstartion, celebration, apparition. TAISDEALACH, pilgrim, lounger, passenger, traveller, wanderer, hiker, person who passes quickly and is fleetingly seen, vagabond, itinerant, contemptible, a ghost. TAISEAL, ghost, flitting kind. any mysterious object of a fleeting,

TAISG-AODACH, winding-sheet for the dead. TAISLEACH, TAISLICH, ghostly sounds heard from the dark. TALADH, enticing, hushing, carressing, that which offers fascination, for example the solus an aigh, or “blesssed light,” often seen above graves. This apparition had the tendancy to act as a leading light, sometimes with dire results. ON, tal, a device or entrapment, AS tal, calumny; Lat. dolus, the Eng. doleful. TALADH NA MNA SITHE, the “Lullaby of the Fairy-Women.” According to folklore a fairy-woman appeared in the nursery of the MacLeod heir. The nurse was awe-struck as the woman took the baby in her arms, wrapped him in a shimmering cloth and intoned: Behold this my child, limbed like kid or fawn, smiting horses, grasping the harness of shod horses, of spirited steeds, mo leasnabh bheag. Oh that I might behold thy team, the men serving them, serving women returning home, the catanach sowing the corn... Not of Clan Mackenzie art thou, and not of Clan Conn: Bout of the race more esteemed, Leod of the swords and armour, whose father’s native land was Lochlann.” So impressed were these words on the nurse she never forgot them. When the fairy disappeared the servant hurried to the main-hall to show the assembly the strange relic which had been left behind on the child. For years after, all children were sung the croon of the fairy-woman as it was believed to be a seun which would protect the infant chieftains from evil. As for the “fairy-flag,” it was given to a custodian known as a duinbratach, or “standard-bearer,” who was given freehold lands near Bracadalke for guarding this relic. Afterwards the position became hereditary. There is a second version of this tale, in which it is claimed that the memento was obtained by the Chieftain in the Holy Land after he successfully “wrestled” with “an elfin adversary.” Afterwards this woman said that the Fair Flag might be unfurled three times, but no more, to the magical benefit of

Clann MacLeod. It was said that misuse of the flag would carry away the luck of the Clan. A third tales says that a MacLeod chieftain had sex with a fay-woman, who presented him with the favour as she returned to the Otherworld. The leave-taking place is still known as Drochaid nan tri Alli, the “Bridge of Brooks,” and is situated where the Portree, Dunvegan and Vaternish roads converge. TALLAGHT. A mound near Dublin formerly called the Taimhleacht Muintor Partholain, the “Plague Mound of the Patholonians.” It is said that 9,000 of Partholan’s people died and were buried here. TALAMH, earth; Lat. tellus, earth, flat, a board; Skr. talus, level ground. In times past men swore by the earth. When a Gaelic hero required retribution, his companions lifted bits of the ground and shouted “Vengeance!” In the Outer Hebrides there was, in every township a constabal baile, who represented the crofter in all dealings with the laird. His oath of office consisted of standing barefoot on the earth as he made his promise to represent them. The earth was formerly considered a living spirit the ultimate mother-symbol. At birth, Highland mid-wives traditionally gave new-born infants a small spoonful of earth as their first food, and as we know, it is still customary to throw a handful of earth on the breast of the dead. At the Quarter Days the earth was always given a libation of the food and drink, things seen to be derived from the soil. TAL-FURADHARC, foresight, the ability to perceive coming events. TALTIU, TELTA, a daughter/wife of Manan mac Ler. In some instances she is given as the foster-mother of the sun god Lugh. She was sometimes said to have married Eochy mac Erc, a king of the Firbolge. Taltiu's palace was at Tailtiu, now entitled Telltown. There she died and was buried, and her "son" is said to have created the great Lugnasad, or Telltown Fair in her honour.

TAIGH-FAIRE, the wake house, taig, a custom; faire, lands covered by the sea, "a hole". The Dead Lands, An Domhain. TAIRGNEACHD, TAILGNEACHD, TAIRGIRE, prophecy, promise, tairm, necromancy. The raising of omens through consultation with the dead. TAIRM, TAIRN, necromancy, superstition, enchantment, either Christian or non-Christian magic. See also taghairm. Specifically, the raising of the dead for purposes of divination. TALADH, enticing, hushing, caressing, ON. tal, an enticement, bait or trap. “Nursey songs” employed by the sidhe to hush abandoned children prior to making a changeling exchange. TAMH, rest, delay, sleep, dwelling, idleness, The Ocean, Plague, EIr. tam, rest, repose, plage, death, rooted in sta, to stand in one place, Eng. stand. Note taimh, death. Tamach, slow, dull. TAMHASG, also TANNAS, TANNASG. TANNHASG, a bodach, a brownie, a human blockhead. See amhas for the first part of this word. The ending is confluent with uruisg and tannasg. These are creatures of the sithe, which is the phonetic equivalent. A individual sith, indentured to a human household. tamhasg, tannasg, possibly from the root-word tann, long, thin, stretched out. A ghost of the departed as opposed to the "taibh" or ghost of the living; an apparition, wraith or spectre. Possibly confluent with the Brythonic tann, the Breton tan, an oak tree, or the Cymric, tan, fire. The Celtic ending asg is a preposition, indicating "out of". The equivalent of the Anglo-Norman revanter. Contrast with taibhs, immediately above. This invisible creature usually made its presence known through poltergeistic activity, but sometimes materialized in human form or that of a totem animal. It was thought that the spirit of a dead person usually combined with the spirit of his or her taibh, moving afterwards to reincarnation. It is uncertain

whether the "tannas" represented this combination in earthbound form or was merely an unemployed taibh forced to remain behind because of the trauma of a violent death. Some of the tannas were known to have been deliberately created to guard treasure, and these could only be unbound through the removal of their horde. In Gaelic communities it used to be thought that ghosts had unfinished business, the fingering of a murderer, the settling of a debt, or the righting of a wrong which occurred while the spirit lived. Some returned to fulfil an oath made while alive or to see that alms were given on their behalf. This disembodied spirit was often suspected of being malignant and it was sometimes thought wise to propitiate it, or exorcize it, through magical rites. The Celtic eve of the Samhain (Oct. 31) was a time for lighting the "samhnagan" or ritual fire, whose purpose was to scatter witches and other evil spirits. The souls of the departed hovered then, taking what comfort they could find before autumn to winter resigned the pale year. A ghost of the departed as opposed to a "taibh" which was a ghost of a living person. This being took his name from "tan" a Celtic word sometimes taken to mean fire, but also describing the oak tree and the colour imparted when people lie to long in the sun. The ending "asg" is a preposition indicating a spirit that "comes out of". The equivalent of the Anglo-Norman "revandir", which we commonly call a "ghost". This creature usually made its presence known through poltergeistic activity but sometimes materialized as the old totem animal of the dead person. Some tannas were deliberately created to guard treasure and these could only be allowed to pass on when the horde had been removed. It used to be thought that ghost had unfinished earthly business. Mary L. Fraser said, "It is a belief that the dead cannot rest easily if they have left debts unpaid, or wrongs done and not righted. Sometimes too, they have come back in fulfilment of a promise, or to request almsgiving on their behalf." Creighton thought that ghosts should be carefully watched: "Whether a ghost is coming towards you or

walking away is thought to determine the length of life of the person seeing the vision." The former indicated that spirits of the hereafter would soon come looking for a soul among the living; the speed of approach was thought related to the period of life remaining. This folklorist had thoughts about eliminating a bothersome spirit: "As to the way to lay a ghost, the method is the same as that used in (against) witchcraft. In comparing the two, it looks as if witches are more easily controlled than ghosts. Witches are always evil in their intentions while ghosts may appear for a variety of purposes..." The most persistent tannas in Celtic history was the "Rider" of Iona, Scotland, Ewan Maclain, of the Little Head. He fought in battle against his own father, Iain the Toothless, and persisted afterwards as "the Headless Horsemen" whose ghost rides to presage the death of any Maclaine of Lochbuie. His story is told in garbled fashion by Creighton, and with better understanding by Fraser. What is important here is the fact that this shade has been seen in Maritime Canada as well as in Scotland. In the battle, Ewans horse nearly threw a shoe and the haunt is invariably heard by the clinking of this loose shoe before it is actually seen. Old Macclaine of Inverness County, Cape Breton was struggling against "bas" while a Macdougall watched his wavering breath. Several times, the dying man was heard to say, "I'm waiting...waiting..." All at once Macdougall heard the rattling of a horse harness and looking from the window saw "a military man with a small head" ride to the front door on a grey horse. At this the attendant turned to see how the old man was faring and found him dead on his bed. Looking back through the window he saw a headless man riding away but he dissolved before reaching the forest. Mary L. Fraser has said: "It is a belief confirmed by many examples that the dead cannot rest easily if they have left debts unpaid, or wrongs done and not righted. Sometimes too, they have come back in fulfilment of a

promise, or to request almsgiving on their behalf." Creighton's work in Lunenburg County suggests that necromancy was still a known art at the turn of this century. At Madder's Cove, she encountered an individual who insisted that "There was a man at Mader's Cove who used to go to sea, and another fellow taught him how to talk to the dead. He used to do it, but he said that it was a great strain upon him." Strain, or not, there were benefits in conversing with the dead. Aside from information concerning past or future events which might be obtained from these shades there was a promise of longevity. A Hubbard’s resident put it this way: "If you see a person who isn't there it means you'll be a long liver." Opposing religions, supposing that the "other" had more evils to undo invariably saw more ghosts in their cemeteries. Thus at Wasabuckt, on the Bras D'Or Lakes of Cape Breton, the Roman Catholics always said that"...the Protestant cemetery swarmed with ghosts...The immediate neighbourhood was not considered safe even in broad daylight..." The reality of ghosts was also admitted in the Protestant camp. The Reverend Rev. Dean Cooper, a one-time cleric at Fredericton, New Brunswick, admitted "Yes I was called to perform the right of exorcism in Fredericton with the authority of the Bishop and following the form prescribed in the Church. The family concerned are very responsible people...I became thoroughly convinced that...some kind of "other world" activity was taking place in (their) house..." Although Cooper followed prescribed form Helen Creighton makes these suggestions concerning the tannas: "as to the way to lay a ghost, the method is often the same as that used in witchcraft. In comparing the two...it looks as though witches are more easily controlled than ghosts...Witches...are always evil in their intentions whereas ghosts may appear for a variety of purposes..." TANAISTE, next heir, tanist, heir apparent, second in status.

OIr. tanaise. The headship (whether chief or king) was hereditary only to the extent that the leaders were chosen from the righ-damna (king material). Beyond this, the tuatha, mortuatha, or tribe was free to elect the man (or woman) who seemed to incorporate the greatest degree of god-spirit. In later centuries, to avoid quarrels between royal relatives over succession, a king-elect, called the tanaiste was chosen, whenever a king was declared. Like the king, he had to be without physical deformity and when elected agreed to govern according to law and ancient custom. At the inauguration by an ollam, he agreed in public to abide by tradition, one foot being placed on the "homestone" as he swore to the conditions of his oath. Kings made the same testament with both feet on a sacred-stone. Non-observance of the swearing-in promises constituted grounds for deposition. When the power of a king was seen to flag, it was the duty of this individual to see that aging, or ailing king was “brought down.” In the earliest times the god-king sometimes agreed to ritual suicide, but where he could not be persuaded, he might be eliminated by one of his successor in the heat of battle or a cattle raid. TANNAS, TANNASG, apparition, ghost, from tana, thin, elongated, stretched out. Note that the Daoine sidh, or "little" people were never described as "small," the opposite of "big," but as men and women who were tall and so thin as to be and almost “invisible.” Related to the A.S. tangey or tyangie. Dialectic English of Scandinavian origin. Confers with the Danish tang, the Old Norse pang and the English word tangle. All refer to seaweeds of the genii Ascophyllum and Fucus, the species called Fucus vesiculosis being known as black tang. Tangy, or tangie, refers to either the sharp, tart pinching taste of these seaweeds or the spirit that resided in them on the island of Orkney. Like the kelpie, who lived in the kelp beds, this creature could take the form of any marine plant or animal, an ability gifted on it by the sea-giants. These sea-horses were commonly referred to as the eich uisge in the Gaelic tongue. They often came ashore as young horses or ordinary men and women. In a playful mood, they often invited humans to

mount them and carried them on a ferocious ride that ended with a ducking in some nearby fresh-water stream. They had kin among certain clans and these they warned from the possibility of drowning by setting up corpse-light over the water or moaning after the fashion of a banshee. Those without this useful connection were warned against mounting this kind when they were at the seaside for they were capable of rape and murder, the male tangie especially so since he had an oversized sexual apparatus. The seahorses seemed maddened in sight of the deep sea and invariably carried their victim to a drowning afterwards consuming every part of his body excepting the liver. In some respects this creature corresponds with the neas, which sometimes shape-changed into a horse. TAPAD, good luck, a clever feat. TAR. TARR, TER, TEARR, THAR, TOR, TORR, TUR, TUIR, evoke, ON. Thor, Thunar, Thuner, Thunor or Donar, the Old Norse god of thunder. Particularly seen in those parts of the old Gaelic realms where the Norse were in occupation. Confers with the continental Tyrr, a Germanic-Scandinavian god of war and agriculture and with the Gaulish Taranis. Probably related to the Gaelic tarachair, an augur taraid, a truncheon or staff of authority, taran, the ghost of an unconsecrated infant, tarabh, a bull, tarcuis, contempt, targadh, ruling body, governing assembly, targair, to foretell, tarlaid, a slave, tormach, to grow ripe or increase, tarnach, a thunderclap, tarsuinn, to traverse, to come across a distance, tartar, noise, tir, land, dry-land, torc, a boar, torchar, a fall usually resulting in death, torr, a conic hill, a tower, torrach, pregnant from tor, belly; a belly-full. torradh, a burial ceremony or wake, torrunn, thunder, any great noise, tuireann, a spark of fire, tur, a crowd, turguin, destruction, turlach, a massive fire, also a squat person, a round lump, turloch, a lake that dries in summer, turrag, a surprise, turradh, an accident, turram, a distant mummering, turus, a journey. AS. thunor, similar to their thunian, to stretch, D. donder, G. donner, OHG. donder ON. thôrr, all meaning thunder and Thor. Skr. tan, to sound, stan,

to thunder, Eng. astonish, detonate, stun, Thursday, tornado, terra, the Gaelic tir. Also the source of many northern family names: eg. Torry, Torey, Tori, Torquill,Torcail, Torcull, Thorkell, Maccoruodale. F. Marian McNeill says that the northern Scottish town of Harwick has as its “ancient slogan:” Teribus ye Teri-Odin “which is held to indicate (as does the word burgh) the Scandinavian origin of the community. Teri-Odin is believed to invoke two Norse deities -one either Thor the god of thunder, or Tir (also called Ti) the war god, the other Odin or Woden, the father of the gods. Actually, the pagans were no less facile than the Christians at uniting disparate gods, and Odin is known to have displaced the older Thor-Tyrr. The Harwick slogan seems to translate quite directly as “The land of ThorOdin,” but Sir James Murray thinks it is a contraction of an earlier expression: Tyr haebbe us ge Tyr ge Odin, which is “Thor be with us, Thor and Odin (be with us).” Thor is the Germanic Donar , the son of Jörd, or Erda and Odin . Remarkable for his childhood rages he was fostered out to parents whose names are a personification of sheetlightning. As one of these parents was Vingnir, the “Winged,” Thor is often referred to as Vingi-Thor. At the age of reason he was admitted to the Asgardr , the ruling faction of the gods. He built the distant realm known as Thrudheim where his palace, known as Bilskirnir (Lightning), was erected. It is noteworthy that this place was “the most spacious in all Asgardr, the “Home of the gods.” All thralls, or common folk, went there after death, and got as good treatment as their masters received in Odin’s Valhalla. Thor was the patron god of peasants and the lower classes. Note that he was always honoured as the first god of pagan Norway and elsewhere was referred to as “Old Thor, ” because it was said that “he belonged to an older dynasty of gods.” After he was displaced, Asa and his aides would not allow him to pass over the bridge Bifröst ostensibly “lest he set it aflame by the heat of his

presence.” This may be taken as representing a general fear that the lower classes might arise against their rulers. Thor’s weapons included a magic “hammer”, the “Crusher” which he threw at enemies. Like the cnap-starradh of the historic Gaelic warrior, it had the property of “always returning to his hand, however far he might hurl it..” This device, the emblem of thunderbolts, was always red-hot and to catch it on return he wore an iron-gauntlet known as the “Iron-gripper.” When he wore the magical belt known as the Megingiörd his already remarkable strength was doubled. Thor has been described as somewhat Celtic in appearance: “a man in his prime, tall and well formed, with muscular limbs and bristling red hair and beard, from which, in moments of anger, the sparks flew in showers. The first century Roman writer named Lucan said that Taranis, the Celtic god of thunder for Gaul (France) was one of three ruling gods, just as Thor was one of three similarly allied gods. This interchangeable trio also included Æsus, the Gaelic Uis, Ugh, or Lugh and the Cymic Hu. The third member of the group was Teutates who is the northern god Tues or Tyrr whose name is commemorated in Tues-dag. Therefore, see Aod, the day-god, who is the chief Gaelic side-form of Lugh. See entries immediately below. See Lugh, Uisdean, Aes, Asduinn. TARACANDACHD, obscurantism, secretiveness, the principles of the black arts. Note the relationship with the previous word. TARACHAIR, augur, SIr for tarathar. See tora, from Thor, the Teutonic god of lightning. See thoir and related words. Particularly, prognostication through observation of weather. TARAID, the truncheon or staff of authority, a billy club. Various woods were thought empowered by magic according to their incarnate spirits.

TARAN, the ghost of an unchristened, or an otherwise unprotected infant. From toranach, a grub-worm, borer, corn-maggot; relating directly to Taranis, the Gaulish god of thunder who is the Old Norse Thor. See tabhs, a ghost. Notice that the svartalfar (dark elfs) of Scandinavia were said derived from the body of "the giant" killed by Odin. Since Odin displaced Thor as the chief god in northwestern Europe, this prime "rime-frost" creature may be thought of as the "dead" god personified. It is said that Odin "called forth" all of the elfs from the decaying flesh and gave them human form, but they were never gifted with nornir (bafinne), the guardian spirits of men. The taran were said to wander the waste-lands as "will o' the wisps" or "corpse-candles," disembodied spirits of the dead. The befinne were said to be tenuously attached to their humans in the first year after birth. Unable to provide much protection they sometimes went back to their source at the death of a child. Where this happened, the child was thought unable to reincarnate (or rejoin God or the gods) and the detached soul was forced to hover "at the borders of elfland, appearing as lightning before a storm. Many humans find these lights hypnotizing and will follow them wherever they lead, into bogs and marshes, and over cliffs." These are the "spunkies" of lowland Scotland and northern England, those that wander the world's oceans are entitled the thoirclann. TARBH, the bull, Cy. tarw, Cor, tarow, Bry. taro, Gaul. tarvos, Lat. tauris, perhaps from the root tu, in which case steer is related. AS. styric, a young bull or heifer, an animal prior to sexual maturity, from which the Eng. sterile. Usually an animal in its second year, a stirk, also, a coarse, bumbling stupid person. The Gaelic tearc, scarce, rare from the root ters, dry. See tir, “dry land.” The totem animal of the moon-god Nuada, and his “twin-brother,” the sun-god Lugh. In the Book of the Dun Cow it is said that the Irish kings were once selected as follows: "A white bull was killed and the Samhain-priest ate his fill of the flesh and drank its blood. A spell was chanted over him as he lay bloated in the trance-state. In the “dream sphere” he could

see the shape and appearance of the next man who would be king." (Celtic Monthly. p. 14). In 1678 a party gathered at Eilean Mourie (Mourie Island) in Loch Ewe, "for the purpose of sacrificing (a bull) in ane heathenish manner for recovering the health of Cirstane Mackenzie." She recovered. for she is subsequently described as, “formerly sick and valetudinaire.” The island of Mo-Urie or Mourie on which exercises of this sort took place was supposedly founded by Maol Rubha (640-722), an Irish monk, whose fame was only second to that of Columba. Midway through his career this Christian missionary built the monastery of Apurvhrosan (now called Applecross) on a sheltered part of the Rosshire coast overlooking the islands of Skye and Raasay. Here he died, and his grave is still sought out for magical purposes. The person who takes earth from above Maol Rubha is supposedly assured of safe travels. “The common oath of that country is by his name,” and he is remembered in various Scottish place-names. The sacrifice of the bull and the circumambulation of chapel’s associated with this saint’s memory by moonlight have led McNeill to the conclusions that this saint is ”merged with the earlier moon-worship,” and Maol-rubha is himself a survival of an ancient moon-deity. “Drawings of salmon and serpents appear on many of our sculptured stones (Scotland), and the bull is no less prominent. At Burghead, in Moray, six stones have been found in different spots, each with an incised outline of a bull, highly conventionalized, and ornamented with spiral curves. The designs vary slightly but all the drawings are strong and spirited. Similar stones have been discovered near Inverness, and in 1920 another was unearthed in the parish of Falkland, in Fife.’ (The Silver Bough, Vol. 1, p. 76). In 1695 the Presbytery of Dingwall reported that the people of Applecross "among their abominable and heathen practises were accustomed to sacrifice bulls at Certaine time upon the 25th of August, which day they dedicate to S.

Maurie, as they call him." Anciently, the bull was said to be attached to solar-deities and bull figures are seen carved on Pictish stones. At least seven representations were recovered from Morayshire, Scotland, suggesting that Burghead may be the site of Tarved (un)um, the “Bull Fort” mentioned in mythology. There is evidence for veneration of this beast in pre-Celtic Britain, when it may have been worshipped in the context of a solar cult. In this case it is often pictured along with swans, horses and stags. See MoÙr. TARBH BOIDRE, AOIDHRE, The “High Day Bull,” having reference to the god Aod. The latter spelling appears in northern Scotland. A monster, a demon, a god capable of shape-shifting. TARBH CHOINNLE, the “Candlemas Bull,” an element of divination at Hogmanay or Samhuinn. Watchers before dawn looked for the first bull of winter in the western sky. If it hung there, dark and forbidding, it gave the same omen as a cloudless sky, a year of death and want. Turning away from the dead lands, the diviner hoped that the “bull” would be in the north. If it was seen here as a large definite black mass with a soft outline, then it was expected that a year of plenty was forecast. If the cloud appeared frost- filled or hard-edged this was taken as bad news. A prominent cloud in the south indicated that the crop of straw would be adequate but the grains would be of poor quality. The eastern sky harboured the bull when a fair crop year was on the line. Many other things were determined from sky position, direction of travel of the cloud and its time of disappearance. TARBH, DUBH, the black-bull, the totem animal of Clan MacLeod. "A black bull is a very ancient symbol of royalty, and the presentation of a black bull's head symbolized the death of an enemy chief. A black bull's head was set before the young Douglas chief at the royal table in Edinburgh Castle before his summary execution in 1440. A decade or so earlier, the Macintosh guests massacred the feasting

Cummins at the entry of a black bull's head...Thus the MacLeod crest is a very ancient royal emblem as befits scions of the old pagan Norse sea-kings, and may well represent their victory over a rival royal line." (The Highland Clans, p. 66). Note that white bulls were identified with the sun god named Lugh who was sometimes termed Aod, the Day. These bulls were ritually killed at the time of Samhuinn. The white bull was the bull of Lugh or the summer sun; the black bull that of the Cailleach or Winter Hag. TARBH EITGH, fierce bull, eitgh, fierce, dismal, abomination, not housebroken. Trabh eithre in Skye. See neighbouring entries. This animal is distinguished from the ordinary variety by his short ears. The water-bull is frequently represented as friendly to highlanders. TARBH UISGE, tarbh (pronounced tar-ev), a bull; uisge, water. A water-bull similar to the Anglo-Teutonic bullerman. These confer with bull-beggar, bugleboo, bugaboo, bugbear and the Gaelic bogle (which, see). The MacLeods had this animal as their totem, which may explain their name, derived from the Old Norse "liot", "an ugly one". The black bull was a very ancient symbol of Scottish royalty and a beheaded bull was presented, as an explicit omen, on the table of a king whose powers were failing. The Scots were in the habit of transferring all the sins, diseases and guilt of their community to a king destined for death, thereby taking it to earth with his cremated corpse. A black bull's head was set before a young Douglas chief just before his summary execution at Edinburgh in 1440, and the Mackintosh used the entry of this dish as a signal to cut down their Cummins' guests. At a much earlier date, the druids are said to have sacrificed bulls to unspecified sea-gods, a procedure that continued in the west highlands of Scotland until well into the last century. Mannhardt supposed that human and animal sacrifices released god-spirits from their humanoid form, their periodic return to the earth being necessary to invigorate it

for crop growth and the health of animals that depended upon vegetation for food. This seems supported by the fact that bull was named as one of the kern, or corn, spirits. When the grain crop was luxurious in a part of the field men would say "the bull lies in the corn." Diabolical possession and exorcism remain a part of some Christian traditions. In County Fermanagh, Ireland a Catholic priest made a notable effort to help to troubled young girls but they were not freed of evil spirits until the family "retreated to America". One Irish immigrant to Cape Breton learned that not all of the "ghaists and gobbles" were halted thy the power of "the vast stream" (the Atlantic). After Old Man Riley was a few months in the New World her approached his village priest at Saint Peters. He told Father Henry McKeagney, that he was in "some trouble", having sold his soul to the Devil while still resident in Ireland. Old Scratch had just appeared to him, he claimed, saying that the contract still had to be honoured. He implored the priest to help, and being a decent man, the father put on his vestments, and "accompanied by a Frenchman carrying a blessed candle" marched out to Riley's place where he was met by "a great squall of wind." His Satanic Highness came down off the steep hill behind the house "in guise of a big black bull." The priest was a little surprised but held his ground, and after calling up the usual Christian god spells, demanded that Riley's soul be surrendered to God. At this the bull became "a great longeared black dog", that argued the case with the priest. The priest won more points for the dog "took off over the bay". The black bull was a very ancient symbol of Scottish royalty and a beheaded bull was presented, as an explicit omen, on the table of a king whose powers were failing. The Scots were in the habit of transferring all the sins, diseases and guilt of their community to a king destined for death, thereby taking it to earth with his cremated corpse. A black bull's head was set before a young Douglas chief just before his summary execution at Edinburgh in 1440, and the Mackintosh used the entry of this dish as a signal to

cut down their Cummins' guests. At a much earlier date, the druids are said to have sacrificed bulls to unspecified seagods, a procedure that continued in the west highlands of Scotland until well into the last century. TARCHADAIR, TARACHAIR, necromancer, seer, auger. One who raises the dead to gain their foretelling powers. Taircadaireachd, the art of nrecromancy. Tar, to evoke. After Thor. See next. TARGAIR. to foretell. See tairgneachd, taragaich, a presage or bodemont, targhail, to forebode, targradh, foretelling, prophecy, divination, predicting. TARLAID, “Thor’s weak ones,” a slave, a thrall, the Eng. varlet. TARAN, the spirit of an unbaptized child, taranch, spectral. TARMACHADH, dwelling, producing, originating, the source, Ir. tormach, increasing, ripe with things, magnifying, OIr. tormach, increase, from Tor + mag, power, the latter part of the word having reference to the May queen. TARRAGH, ingathering of crops at the harvest Harvest Home. Frequent movements to-and-fro. season.

TARRUINGEADAIR, an artist and a magician; tarruingeach, an allurement, that which attracts or draws. TARSGAL. Monetary reward offered for the recovery of stolen catt6le. In the past chieftains forced their vassals to his their dirk promising not to accept such remuneration upon pain of death. TARTAN. obs. hillock, clod. Surprisingly, the word arises from the Spanish tiritana, a cloth anciently woven from silk. From the Celtiberian world the word may have passed in use to Gaul, thus the French tiretaine, which is the coarser linsey-woolsey, a material made of a combination

of linen and wool. The word may have had original reference to the twisted nature of the thread, thus the French tourte, twisted, and perhaps the Gaelic torc, clefted or notched (a neck-piece). The word may also relate to the ancient lost kingdom of Tartessos, which was destroyed in some unknown calamity in the fifth century B.C. Their guardian god may confer with the continental Celtic thunder-god Taranis, who is equated with the Gaelic god Hu and the Norse Thor. Note the Gaelic Tartar, a sideform of his name. This word also identifies any loud noise. Tartan, the cloth of the old gods, was once widely used across Europe but is now thought of as a woolen material much worn in the Scottish highlands, where every clan is perceived as having an individual pattern consisting of checks or cross-bands of various colours. Actually clan tartans are a fairly modern invention created in the interests of trade and commerce. Tartaned wearing apparel was not a feature of British society until the time of Tighernmas ard righ , the seventh king in the Milesian line, which brought the weave from Spain. “To him, or his successor Eochaid, is credited the ancient ordinance which distinguished the various classes and professions by the colours of their dress: A king or queen might wear seven colours; a poet six, a chieftain five, an army leader four, a land owner three, a rent-payer two, a serf one colour only.” See cadadh, tartan cloth. TARTAR, noise; the replicated word tar or tor as seen in tòirneanach, from the “Gaulish” god Taranis, said to confer with the Gaelic Uisdean, the Roman Jove and the old Norse Thor. May confer with Lat. Tartarus, the underworld and with Tartessos, a Celtiberian kingdom anciently located in south-western Spain. In Gaelic this place was Tarsus, see note immediately below. This was the Biblical Tarhish, Jonah’s destination and perhaps a synonym for the Phoenician city of Tyre, for Isaiah, sermonizing about its destruction, advised, “Howl ye ships of Tarhish, for it is now laid waste.” Tartessos was in the general vicinity of modern Cadiz, and its people were called the Turdetani or

Turduli. Their trade ships were referred to by their neighbours as tarhish and this seems to survive in the Italio-French-Spanish tartana, a Mediterranean coasting vessel having one mast carrying a large lanteen sail, a bowsprit and staysail or jib. This last word may also confer with the Spanish tirtane, for which see tartan. TARSUS, the Biblical Tarhish as represented in Gaelic. See above entries. EIr. tarsnu, to traverse across (water), from tar, across. A pre-historic trading destination for the Gaels of Britain, believed to be Tartessos in Spain. There is reference in mythology to Longan Tharsuis, the “longships of Tarhish.” This name was eventually transferred to all ships having first-rate fittings whatever their port of origin. Thairis, over, across; thar, across, over, beyond, Lat. trans, terminus, Skr. tar, to pass through, bore, G. tarachair, an omen, torrach, fruitful (place), Taranis, the god of thunder conferring with the Gaulish Iove better known as Jove or Thor. Note the traditional tale which insists that the craftsman named Creidné, the chief smith to the Daoine sidh was drowned while “transporting gold ore from Spain.” TASG, TAISG, to store away. A spirit bird, a harbinger of death. Appears in different forms depending on the persoanlity of the person at risk. An aged fisherman might see his forerunner as agray gull while a young lassie would observe a pure white diove. Shooting an ill-omened bird created one’s tasg on the spot. TASGAIDH, taisg. a storage place, to deposit; a treasury. Toad-sec, having the idea of “Put there in the remote past.” Roughly, the female name Tasha. Another name for the Mhorrigan, who was the sovereign queen of the Gaels. TASGAL, money offered for the recovery of cattle lifted by freebooters. TASLACH, premonition, the ghost of living human. TASPAIR, a satirist, tasp. serious sarcasm intended to do

magical harm, taspullach, taspurladh. invective.




TATHA, the Eng. Tay, earlier G. Toe, “primarily the name of a goddess.” “the Silent One.” tathaich, having a frequent tendancy to vomit. Cy. Taw, silent, silence. A name given to several British rivers; tath, obs. lord, ruler, anger, slaughter, bail, security. See next. TATHACH, guest, tuathanach. visitor, stranger. May confer with

TATHAICH. supernatural knowledge of the doings of folk who are absent, ghost, apparition, tendancy to vomit, a craving. TATHASG, a shade, a spirit, a demon. Particularly that of an orphaned child, supposedly protected by the shade of his or her mother. Scondary meaning: a demon. TATH-BHEUM, a mortal blow, the effect of a well-cast stone or dart from the crann-tabhuil. The Mhorrigan wassd dispatched using this weapon. TE, woman, female, insipid, slightly fermented, thick. See Te-mor. TEADH-BHAIS, “drawn out and dead,” a phantom, a ghost. TEAGASGdruidism. DRUIDHEACHD. druidic teachings, sorcery,

TEALL. TEALLAN, philosopher, entries under teine. TEALLSANACH, astronomer. skeptic,









TEA-MOR, gen. TARA, sometimes TEAMHAIR, (T’yower, Tavvir), Confers with tè or tèa, insipid, slightly fermented, from the root teas, which confers with Eng. tepid. The

wife of the Milesian king named Eremon, the first high-king of all Ireland. He took possession of the Firbolge capitol on three hills overlooking the River Boyne and they became Tara, a corruption of the genitive case of this compound word. Teas, heat from teine, fire + mor, great, wide in expanse, the ocean-sea. Sometimes identified as a goddess of the Tuatha daoine who married one of the human kind. This fiery lady quarrelled with the wife of Eremon's brother, Eber, over possession of Tara. The war that followed ended in Eber's death and Tea-mor took possession of her heart's desire, which became the dun of the ard-righ. The greatest structure there was the Mi-Cuarta, or banqueting hall, which was larger than The House of a Thousand Soldiers. Each prince of the realm had a place on one of these hills, where he was in temporary residence at Samhain and Beltane. There too was erected the Grianan, or Sun-house, made especially for the provincial queens and their attendants. The Stronghold of Hostages was another necessary building as was the Star of the Bards, built for the poets, historians, judges and doctors of the land when they were called to assembly. During the early years of Christianity King Diarmuid became the last high-king to sit at Tara. In one of numerous quarrels with his provincial chieftains, the king commanded that all the duns should widen their doorways so that the king's spear carried horizontally might pass. Diarmuid sent a sergeant-at-arms throughout the countryside to see if this edict had been obeyed. In the process of carrying out the king's command, this overzealous bureaucrat intruded upon the wedding ceremony of King Aed of Connaught. In an understandable rage, Aed struck off the head of the intruder, and realizing the identity of the man fled to the monastery of Saint Ruadan of Lorra. Diarmuid was, in turn, angered by the presumption of the churchmen in shielding Aed and violated sanctuary to take him prisoner. Following traditional procedures Saint Ruadan led a

group of Christians to Tara and began a "black-fast" against the high-king. The high-king started a starvation regime of his own, but being in the wrong, was the first to break fast. Seeing that he could not overcome the tinkling bells and incessant prayers of the monks, Diarmuid made to join them, reasoning with them following the daily prayer meeting. At length, aware that the clerics would not yield to him, Diarmuid cursed Saint Ruardan. At this the churchman retaliated, cursing the high-king’s person and his dynasty, and promising that Tara would cease to exist as the residence of kings. In the year 563, Diarmuid was killed and the wild birds came to roost in the halls of Tara, the beasts of the field being the only residents of the place for many years. This place was also known as Drumcain, which, see. TE, TEA, a woman, a female, insipid, slightly fermented, tepid, after the mortal-goddess, the consort of the Milesian high-king Eremon. This monarch named his capital Teamhair, later Tara after her. Tebaid, a taunt, a repartee, teibidh, having a “cutting” tongue, the root be, to cut. But note also teamhaidh, pleasant, the Eir. temair, delightful. Also teas, heat, root tep, burn, Skr. tap, to be hot. Also from this root teine, fire and teasach, fever. TEACH, TECH, a house, OIr. tech, teg, having the sense of “roofed over.” Thatched. Cf. with Lat. tego, to cover, the Germ. dach, the Skr. sthagati, cover. Tigh is the nominative case. See tuath for more. TEALL, metaphysics, philosophy, from reckoning, the Scot. lauch, tavern talk. teine, fire; lach,

TEALLAID, a bountiful and/or lusty woman, tea TEARLACH, Thor the Flyer, less literally Charles. MIr. Toirrdhealbhach, anglicized as Tirlagh or Tourlough, Lat. Turrisformis, “built like a tower.” In Gaelic the related tear or tair, has the sense of superhuman. Hence M’Kerlie.

TEARMANN, a sanctuary, protection, possibly from Lat. termo, the Eng. terminus, the end of a race for life when one reaches church lands, i.e. the Termon landes. From this tearuinn, save, escape, the root rn, possibly the Eng. run. TEASD, die, fail, literally “I am not.” TECH DUIN, the House of Don, a gathering place for the dead, sometimes said to lie southwest of Ireland. A place presided over by Don, the god of the dead. TECH SCREPTA. The great Gaelic libraries dating from the sixth century B.C. Ireland was the seat of learning during the so-called Dark Ages, vast libraries being presided over by leabhar-coimdaech. Most of these were destroyed when the Old Norse went viking. TEGHAIN, The places where the Daoine sidh lived were teghain, lterally “thatched homes.” With a little twisting and turning through Gaelic the word teg can be shown to relate to tuath, the intermediate form being tugha. which indicates a simple roof-covering, especially a “thatch.” The latter Ennglish form is essentiallty the same word and they resemble the Latin tego, a “cover.” The root Gaelic is thought to be tog , “to raise up,” or possibly steg, which is also written stig. This word is the verb “skulking” and is not unlike the Old Norse stygr, “shy,” and their word stic, “ghastly.” This word appears in the Gaelic glastig, the “grey skulker,” a vampire-like sidh. TEIDH, wild, fierce, wild fire, see Te and teine. TEIDHM, Death, a curtain, a covering. Formerly, Related to teididh, wild-fire. pestilence.

TEIL, a name for the first of six planets which the druids claimed revolved about the sun. The others were: Riomhag, Saoghal, Corg, Bliugh, Rolag. TEIRIG, to fail, be spent, die, EIr. tarnic, “It is ended.”

TELLTIN, stringed, a harp TEOAS, the trade of the potter. One of the lesser magical arts. TEIDEACH. One of the two sons of the Dark Lord known as Cromm the Crooked. He is sometimes represented as a god although he is also given as a pagan chieftain opposed by Saint Patrick. His brother was Clonach. TEIN-AOIBHNEIS, a bonfire, a welcoming fire. A home- or hearth-fire. Aoibh, pleasant, comely, cheerful, after the god Aod. The fire devoted to the sun-god Lugh, a small personification of his being. The Old Norse, Loki, seen in English medieval literature as the lob- or hob-lie-by-fire. The hobgolbin. The former sanctity of this fire is seen in the fact that strangers were not invited to poke up the flame since this offered insult to the god of the hearth. In Gaelic parts it is a common belief that a hearth-fire cannot be lit if the fuel lies within a beam of sunlight. Presumably the god of that larger orb resents the presumption? TEIN-ATHAIR, the Allfather’s fire, fire from heaven, lightning. thunderbolt, fire-ball, luminous falling object.

TEINE, OIr. tene, Cym. tan, Bry. tan, the Celtic root te from tep, hot. as in teas. The Celtic root is in the goddess Te, see above notation. “The curious fear of ill-luck with the giving or stealing of fire assuredly derives from the druidic firefestivals.” On the eve of the Half Days all fire in the community was “put down” and ritually rekindled to resanctify the hearth. Saining with fire was once a common practise accomplished by carrying a “live” peat thrice round the domicile. The Samhain fires were kindled at dusk and those of the Beltane, at dawn. From the making of new fire flowed the tradition of throwing ashes and smouldering peat into the air, “always repeating a certain formula of words to bring luck. But the strictest secrecy is observed, lest the practise should reach the ears of the (Christian) minister.” There is a saying: “On the Quarter-Day, give nothing away!” and this was especially true of new fire (in the shape of a smouldering flame or kindling). In Rosshire it was said that even the youngest children were “well versed in fire lore.” The local baobhe often came begging wood, but

had to be refused at least three times or they might walk away “with the luck of the house.” One young girl explained: “’gin the cailleach had gotten the kindling, my father would get no herring this year!” To prevent newborn children from being taken by the sidhe a burning peat was taken in the right hand and the mother and child encircled seven times clockwise by the magician. This cermony was performed at sunrise and sunset until a child was baptized and the mother churched. Frequently a “fire cord” of scarlet thread was tied about the child’s wrist and a Bible placed beside it, with another volume placed beneath the mother’s pillow. TEINE-A-BHAIS, flame of Death. The cold light emitted from the residence of a person presaged for death. TEINE-DE, God’s-fire, Saint Anthony’s Fire, perceived amidst the rigging on ships at sea. Considered a good omen, herpes, tetter, ring-worm (a visitation from the gods?) TEINE-DREALLACH, uncontrollable wild-fire. The light given off by decaying wood or that emitted by marine organisms. TEINE-EIGINN, fire of necessity, a "teine-iotoiche" kindled to meet a special crisis (famine, flood, destruction by storm, or other willful maleficence of the gods or naturespirits. Besides the Quarter-Days, the Gaels turned to the ritual of fire in seasons of calamity. Throughout Europe such lightings were termed "need fires,” although they were sometimes entitled "wild-fires" to indicate the drastic character of the ritual. The Slavonic peoples frequently referred to these very special fires as "the living fires." The usual occasion for the teine-eiginn was an outbreak of plague among cattle, the complete blighting of a crop, or a virulent attack of disease among men. As a preliminary to the kindling of this fire, all the regular hearth fires were dampened, it being believed that any remnant spark would destroy the magic of the procedure. It was not unusual for the prohibition against "old fire" to extend across a parish between two streams or rivers of running water, these being considered the natural boundaries of magical practise.

The need fire was always "made" in the open air, the site of fire-creation being a cross-road, or a hollow on a highway. In wilder places the site was invariably an island or the highest hill in the region. The fire was always generated by friction, sometimes using a mechanical device known as the axle-wheel. Various local rules governed the number and makeup of the teams that created the "new fire" the main prohibitions being against men who were thieves, boundary-stone movers or murderers. Once alight, sick animals were driven through the smoke, through the ashes, or between two fires, the pigs first, cows next and horses last. After that family members blackened the beasts, and one another, with charcoal sticks from the spent fire. Finally this parade of people and animals passed through the streets of the nearest village, and it is recorded that the folk did not wash away the blackening "for a very long time." Extinguished brands were laid in the cattle barns and put in mangers where the cattle fed. Ashes from the need-fire were strewn on the fields to "chase away vermin." Sometimes the ashes were sprinkled on the ailing parts of men and animals, or mixed with water to be taken as an internal tonic. The fires in domestic hearths were rekindled from the need-fire, the first pot of water boiled over it being used as a disinfectant. "In the Highlands of Scotland the need-fire was counted a sovereign remedy against witchcraft." (The Golden Bough, pp. 741-742). Last kindled in Reay, 1830: North Uist, 1829; Arran, 1820 and Helmsdale, 1818. See acastair. TEINE-FIONN, TEINE-SIONNACHAIN, a will o' the wisp; foxfire. any phosphorescent light of supernatural or natural origin. tiene, fire, the same word as the English tan. Fionn, white; sionnachain, fox. See teine-side. This is the hauga elldr, or tomb-fire, observed by the Old Norse. "The northern nations always believed that the tombs

of their heroes emitted a kind of lambent light, which was always visible at night, and served to guard the ashes of the dead. It was supposed more particularly to surround such tombs as contained hidden treasure.” One North American Indian magician has explained that spirited objects, "hold a light" which may be felt on the palm of the hand in the daylight. "This is the same light animals leave behind on the stones along the river where they have passed the night." In Canadian legends of the white men and the Indians, natural night-lights were associated with the spirits of the dead. The Scandinavians referred to the light as "hauga elldr", or the sepulchral fire. All of our ancestors suggested that flame-spirits lingered at the burial site until the spirit of the dead moved on to another destination and eventual reincarnation. The Micmacs said that the skitekmuj provided faithful companionship after death just as it provided protection and advice during the life of the individual. In the Atlantic Provinces the flame carried by the guardian was referred to as a corpse-candle, since it was often observed marking the route that the burial party would follow from the home to the grave. The "candle" was called a "fetch" when observed at sea. These flames were not the elfs proper, but the the fires they carried. The spirits were known as the will o' the wisps in our region, but they have many other names: In Scandinavia they were referred to as the lyktgubbe or irrbloss and in Germany as the huckepoten or irrlichter. In Wales they were the ellylldan; in France, the Tan Noz (burnt nosed people), culards or loumerottes. The English once knew them as the elf-fire men, kit-wi'-canstick (candlestick), jack o'lanthorn, joan-in-the-wad, or hob-and-lanthorn (lantern). The English and Scottish spunkies were traditionally associated with the spirits of the unbaptized spirits of dead children. TEINE-GHEALAN. Phosphoric emission of light from decaying

wood. TEINE-IOTOICHE, fire at night. In the Gaelic communities the nights before the Quarter-Days were occasions for creating bonfires, but at times of crisis, teine-eigin, or need-fire, might be set "Tine or teind is the old Scots word for a spark of fire, and on the frolicsome eve - the nicht o'tine - there was fire everywhere - in the kitchen grates, in the kitchen grates for the nuts, in the candles of the turnip lanterns, in the village street, on the neighbouring hill. It was the old Beltane fire of the Druid, the Baalworshipper." . Sir James George Fraser has said that the gathering first prepared their foods and drink in the open air on some eminence. A pit was usually dug about the proposed firesite to contain the blaze so that it might not become uncontrollable. When the meal was done, the assembly entertained itself with "singing and dancing around the flame. Towards the close of the entertainment, the person who officiated as master of the feast (a one-time representative of the god Lugh or some local deity) produced a large cake baked with eggs and scalloped round the edge, called an bonnach beal-tine, i.e. the Beltane Cake. It was divided into a number of pieces, and distributed in great form to the company. There was one particular piece which whoever got it was termed Calleach beal-tine, the Beltane "carline," a term of great reproach. Upon his being known, part of the company laid hold on him and made a show of putting him into the fire (in pagan times they succeeded); but part of the company (representing a late-developing humane aspect) imposed, and he was rescued. In some places they laid him flat on the ground, making as if to quarter him (an completed act in earlier times). Afterwards he was pelted with egg shells and retained the odious appellation (of winter-hag) during the whole year. And while the feast was fresh in people's memory, they affected to speak of the Cailleach beal-tine as dead."

In "modern times" the old Cailleach was replaced at the next Beltane by a new victim. In the elder days the ashes of this dead fool-king were scattered upon the adjacent fields. The fire itself had the virtues of the sungod, cleansing the land, cattle and people wherever its rays struck. Created by friction from an axle-tree, the fire appeared almost magically as if derived from heaven. "They esteemed it to be a preservative against witchcraft, and a sovereign remedy against malignant diseases both in the human species and in cattle; and by it the strongest poisons were supposed to have their nature changed." It was noted that the addition of human "potash" to the soil had a beneficent effect on crop growth. Dead Gaels were routinely burned, the ashes being scattered on fields where crops were due to be planted. TEINE NUAD, new fire. In ancient Ireland all fires burning locally were extinguished before "new fire" was created and carried back to the individual households. It is known that the Celts dated their year from Samhuin day and that the fires were thought to have a protective influence against witchcraft wherever its rays happened to fall. What is now Hallowe'en was also a festival for the dead when the souls of departed friends and relatives returned briefly to the warmth of former hearths. But these were not the only visitors for the gods were all unbound at this time as were the bhoabhs and the sidh; all visitors "when autumn to winter resigns the pale year." T h e planting of the new grain came well before the first of May, but that was the time when the buds burst, and new life was seen to flourish. It is also the time when cattle are reintroduced to their highland meadows. In the Old Gaelic calendar the first day of May was the end of winter and the last day of April time for the Beultainn (Beltane) fires. These varied little from the fires of Samhuinn. In western Perthshire the Beltane was still practised in the last century with participants being invited to take

portions of "an bonnach beal-tine" (beltane bannoch bread) from a cap. One of these contained a portion that was blackened with charcoal, and this was said the part of the "devoted person". Strangely he was not honoured but was said to be a sacrifice to "baal" (a general name for any local god). In that day, this unfortunate was only required to leap three times through the flames, but Fraser suggests "there is little doubt of inhuman sacrifices having been once offered in this country..." and he saw this as a surviving rite. At both holidays, in more demanding times, participants are known to have gathered fuel for the fire while chanting "Gie us peat to burn the bhoabhs". As with the Samhuinn fire, new fire was set and cattle driven three times about the blaze with the expressed intention of protecting them from witchcraft and "murrain". Each man took home fire to kindle his own blaze. Fraser has said that these customs persisted in Ireland "down to a time within living memory." (ca 1922). While more publicity has been given the "witch festival" of Beltane, the Gaels themselves described Samhuinn or Hallowday as the time of their great "feis" or feast. Originally "it lasted for three days before Samain and for three days after" and included a political assembly, fair, marriage brokerage and entertainment in addition to the religious rites. A great assemblage for games and sports was held on the plains of Muiremne, in Louth during three of the days of samhuinn.

TEINE-SIDE, the sithe-fire, "fairy" fire. TEINE SITHE, wild-fire. Fire burning thought caused by the Daoine sidh. without constraints;

TEINE-SIONNIC, SIONNACHAIN, fox-fire. luminiscence at sea. rainbow of light seen in spindrift, a whirlwind. will-o’the-wisp. See also teine fionn, the sean na gelagie or Iiam na lasoige, “Jack of the Bright Light,” or William of the Little Flame. Sometime interpreted as a dispossessed bafinn, or as a lost human soul. Its wanderings as an isolated sphere of light, or carrying a light, have warned and terrified travellers. Called the fetch in many parts of Atlantic Canada. See thoir. TEIN’-OIDHCHE, “night-fire,” same as tein-athair. TEINE-THALL, the tall-fire, a ghost "fire-ship." One of the most noted ships of this type is that seen periodically off the Island of Eigg, Scotland. "The phantom ship careens wildly past the island at lightning speed, and on the deck is a long, lean black creature, with a fiddle in his hand,and he is ever playing and dancing and laughing...awful was the howling from below (decks)...Doubtless the fire ship was conveying the soul of some unrighteous Southern Lord..." (Kenneth MacLeod). The fire-ships were often said to be piloted by Manann mac Ler, Lugh, or some other noted Gaelic

god. TEINE THARA, The “will-o’-the-wisp; a haunt of the fens and moors. TENED, genitive of tene or teine, fire, the Anglo-Saxon tannal. Eng. tan, cf. with Gaelic goddesses Te who may be linguistically allied with Anu or Danu. A district fire as opposed to local bonfires. In the Orkneys the Lugnasad or Lammas fires persisted as the great “tannel” of the year. Until the last century it was lit “on the last day of July, St. Margaret’s Day, or Lammas Eve,” according to local preference. “Formerly,” said a writer of that time, “it was customary to do a reel about the tannel, but that has fallen into desuetude.” TEIN-THARA, the will o’ the wisp in English folklore. Also entitled Dain Iain Ghobha. TEINTIDH, “firey creature,” a dragon. TEIRIDNEACH, having medicinal value, curative powers. TERIRMEAG ORT! An infamous curse: “Mishap on you!” TEó, warm, a nickname for Lugh, god of the sun, a male form of Te, cf. deas, right, south, dia, a god. Same as the Eng. tepid. Matching the Gaullish god Teutates the “god of the people” mentioned by Lucan in the first century. Sacrificial victims dedicated to him were drowned in a vat or cauldron. TETHRA, teth, hot. A Fomorian warrior, “The Lord of the Joyous Otherworld,” therefore, a side-form of Manann mac Ler. He took part in the second battle of Magh Tuireadh and lost his magic sword Orna, which was subsequently found and used by the god Ogma. TEUD, string, cord, rope, stringed instument and by extension music, teudaiche, a harper.One of the magical arts.

TEUMANNAN, magically inspired whims, temptations, inclinations, teum. a bite, a wound, sarcasm, a fit. TEURMNASG, bandages tied to the thumbs and big toes of a dead person to keep his spirit from harming his living foes. THALL, Beyond, Over, abroad, the other side, the Otherworld. THENEVA, te, she the patroness-saint of Glasgow, Scotland, possibly in remembrance of the pagan goddess Nemain or Macha. A princess of the Picts she defied her father by refusing to marry Owen, prince of Cumbria. Driven from home she sheltered with a swineherd, who was a Christian, and taught her his faith. At some point Theneva became pregnant, and the doubly enraged father commanded she be thrown from a cliff into the sea. Miraculously she survived this mishandling and escaped from the place by boat. Guided by a shoal of fish she came to Culrose and there gave birth to a son. A hermit resident on the island, baptized mother and son, and afterwards Thevena moved to Glasgow. Her son grew up to be the famed Saint Mungo, and is currently copatron of Glasgow. See Mungan, Neimhidh. THOIR, a fetch, the "dead-light" seen at sea. After the ON. Thor, the Gaelic Tor, Tar or Taranis, a god of the upper air and the controller of thunder. Thoir-clann, a taran, the unconsecrated ghosts of the dead particularly when seen over the sea as “corpse-candles.” The equivalent of the land-based fear dreag (which, see). Based on the Irish tabhair (a "crushed" form of the word), give thou, fetch information. The early G. is toir, to pursue, perhaps based on the English Tory. Related to G. torrunn, thunder and to Thor, the Old Norse god who preceded Odin as the preeminent god of the north. See also tabsh, an apparition or ghost. Lighting effects seen over the open ocean, the spirit of Thor incarnate, observed hovering as a globe of light above the waters. In later days, the "dragon-ships" of the Old Norse carried lights at their bows and these were harbingers of death and destruction. The "fetch-light," or

"corpse-candle" had the appearance of a land-travelling "will o' the wisp, " or "jack wi’ lanthorn." As a rule it commenced action as a pin-point of light which expanded to the size of "a puncheon head." It behaved erratically over the water, sometimes rising vertically "to the height of two vessel spars", and zig-zagging as it travelled. In Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, it was termed "Jacob's ball," while those who lived in northeastern New Brunswick referred to it as "John Craig's light." Some observers insisted the light was carried across the waves by a ghostfigure, but whatever the format, the thoir was considered to presage storms at sea, probably accompanied by loss of life. It was sometimes thought that these "fetches" represented the bafinne of the living, spirits that travelled from the wreck of a ship, to land, to report the impending death of the human who was their cowalker. Unemployed after the death, some such spirits seem to have been condemned to repeat these last actions although this was not invariably the case. At the entrance to Antigonish Harbour, Nova Scotia: "People saw it wend its way up the channel and disappear. A strange boy was drowned just where the light appeared, and his body was taken up the channel (by boat) for burial. It was believed that the light was the forerunner of this death, for it was never seen afterwards. (Folklore of Nova Scotia, p. 50). TIACHAIR. perverse, troublesome. ill-disposed, sick, a dwarf, MIr.

TIADHAN, a little hill, a small stone, Ir. , a testicle. TIADHLAIGEAN, TIADLAIGEAN a laoighcionn, calf, calf-skin, enclosing a tiadhan, testicle, a magic amulet, but also a play on words, being also testicles in their scrotum. A charm. “That which would make anyone who had them get anything he wished.” TIAMHAIDH, gloomy, dark, afraid. lonesome, dead. Death, Ir. tiamdha,

TIBIRT, fountains (Uist). “The custom of visiting wells on the Quarter Days, or days of the saints, may be traced to a pagan water-cult of pre-Druidic origin.” See tobar. TIDE, time, tide, from Icelandic tith, As. tid, Germ zeit, Eng. tide, as in Yuletide. TIGH, for taigh, a house, a place in which the druids taught classes. The last of these was on North Uist in the Hebrides. Missionaries and their adherents fired these buildings following the excesses of the Reformation (16181625) in Scotland. The form is properly taigh or teach, OIr. teg, covered over, the Eng. thatch, conferring with tuath, which see. TIGHEARN, house-owner, Lord, chief ruler, baronet, master, superior, proprietor of an estate, today: any land-owner no matter how insignificant. After an unfortunate Irish king whose people were largely destroyed by the god known as Cromm. TIGH DIOCUIL., astronomical observatory of the druids. TIGH DO, TIGH DON, TIGH DOMH, the “House of Don,” There was a second branch of magic-makers aside from the House Of Lera. Not much is known of the antecedents of the House of Don: The patriarch is said to have been Mathgaman, from math, a bear, good, forgiving, tame; combined with gamhainn, (the French gamin) a year old animal or stirk. It is thought that the word may compare with the Welsh madawg, a fox, and that it may appear in the Gaullish names Matugenos, Matuus and Teutomatus. Note that this last interpretation brings us full circle to the god Teus the Gaelic Hu. This last word becomes the Welsh huan, the sun. Hence, mathgaman, the “bear-god.” The high-bear is of course mathair, the Welsh modryb, the Latin mater, the Norse móthir, our word mother. In Welsh myth the patriarch of all the land gods was

said to be Mathonwy. Please note the corresponding Brythonic “god” Artair who seems to derive from arto-s, a bear. From him we have clann M’Artair, the Mac-arthurs. This shadowy figure, who may be cognate with Don himself, probably gave rise to the Gaelic goddess Danu, who the Welsh labelled as Dòn. Her brother was named Math, creating another element of confusion with the parent-gods. Fortunately Math had no offspring of his own, but Danu, sometimes called Anu, Boann, Boyne or Dana married Beul, the Mouth (of Death) creating the hierarchy of land-gods for the people known as the Tuatha daoine, literally, the folk of Danu. Beul, whose holiday was the Beultuinne (fires of Beul) was the son of Mangan, a “brother” to Mathgaman, since his name translates as “one born of the bear,” and is quite probably a side-form of Mathgamon. Beul (pronounced beahl), or Bile, or Bil, who the Welsh called Beli, and the Gauls Bele, was informally the Dagda, the “daddy” or father of the deagh, the good ones, or the gods. In Irish myths the sons of this Union were Ogma of the Honeyed Tongue, the god of politicians and tricksters; Aonghas Og, the Young and Choice One, the god of love; and Lugh, god of the sun, and Nuada, god of the moon. A daughter was Bridd, or Bride, who the Christians preferred to name Saint Brigit or Brigid. There were, of course, many extramarital children, the most fearsome the multi-headed Macha who had a heart made of ice. In Welsh myth the genealogy is more complex, the children being noted as Gwydion, the slayer of Pryderi, the keeper of the gates of the dark land; Arianrod, a dawngoddess; Gilvaethwy; Ameethon, god of agriculture; Govannan, the smith-god (who is noted as the Goban saor in Irish myth); Nudd or Lludd, the sky-god; Pendaron, a goddess and the “twins” Nynniaw and Peibaw. within these lines, Gwydion the defender of men and the gods against the dark lords married his sister Arianrod, giving us Nwyvre, Dylan and Llew or Llaw, the last being cognate with the Gaelic sun-god Lugh. This being the case, Lugh of The Long Arm is

a third generation god. The sun-god may correspond somewhat with the second-generation Welsh Llud, who is also a sky-god. His son was Gwy, warder of Hades sometimes called Avalon, an island of the west. To confuse the issue, Pendarun a sister to Lugh, married the god the Welsh called Llyr, giving rise to the House of Llyr or Ler. Thus it is clear that the sea gods and the land gods were one race rather than separate entities as Tuathan mythology sometimes suggested. It is critical to note that Don is an inextricable mix of local gods including Ler, Manann mac Ler, and Beul (the continental Dis) in the Fomorian camp, and Dagda and Lugh in the Tuathan division. Within the genealogical chart of the House of Don, the dark lord is seen “married” to Danu, the mother-goddess, but in a parallel diagram of relationships for the House of Ler, this same lady (albeit given the name Domnu) is shown as the thronemate of the sea-god. Things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another; Q.E.D. Danu is Domnu and Don or the Dagda or Beul is Ler. The bear-god is, therefore, the representative of the ultimate creator-god on earth, a single entity fractioned in the memories of diverse peoples. He is man-god, born to die because of miscegenation, his immortal genes overcome by mating with lesser folk. This dawn-being (the English word confers) is a dual personality, with a summer and a winter face; having alter egos, symbolizing day and night, the sun and the moon, heat and cold, good and evil, male and female, the athair (father) and the nathair (snake, one who is not the father). The same may be said for his mate, the goddess Danu of the House of Don, or Domnu of the House of Ler. In sum they are the Daoine sidh, the “people of peace,” the lightbearers, who strove and defeated the Fomoraigh or under sea folk, creatures of ill and darkness. In a sense, the problems between the land and sea-people are reflected in the attempts of men to overcome their dark nature. The Gauls affirmed that they were descended from Dis, who the Romans called Dispater: “For this reason the determine all

periods of time by the number, not of days, but of nights, and their observance of birthdays and the beginning of months and years always follows night.” The English term “fortnight” speaks of this older measurement of time TIGH LEAR, the “House of Ler.” islands in the western Atlantic, the great ocean proper. TIGH SUNTAIS, a gymnasium, a place used in the evening for story-telling, music, and dancing. Associated with the druidic academies. TIGHEARNA, AN, The Lord (God). The first bearing this name was the son of Follach, “Lord of Death,” so called from his worship of Cromm. In the king lists he is given as the twenty-sixth high-king of Ireland, in the Milesian succession. He was the first to mine gold in Ireland, introduced tartans as symbols of rank, and created the worship of Cromm Cruach. He and most of his people mysteriously died during worship of that idol. Cognate with Don, the god of the Otherworld. This word was latterly applied to the Christian god. Also the Gaelic counterpart of the Middle English Allfather. Always referred to obliquely for fear of drawing his unwanted attention. Some called him An Tigherarna (The Lord). Others identified him as An Olathir (The Father of Drink). He was also Uil-athir, the All-embracing Father). More often he was simply An Athir (The Father of All) or Ard Athir (The High Father). From this last we have the English name Arthur. Be-al was another name given the creator-god. Thomas Bulfinch says the name is Druidic in origin and has translated it as "the life of everything," or "the source of all being." Bulfinch though it likely that Be-al, sometimes given as Be-ul or Be-ol or Bail, had affinities with the Phoenician Baal: "Druids as well as Phoenicians identified this (god), their supreme deity, with the Sun. Fire was regarded as a symbol of the 1 divinity..." TIGH MOR, the Lord's house, Heaven. Possibly conferring with the earth- bound Tea Mor , “Great Tea,” or Tara. After

Eremon’s wife. TINNEAS, illness, evil, distemper. Similar to the English attenuate. Tinneas-na-gealaich, lunacy, an eclipse, tinneasna-Domhnullach, a pulmonary infection, also termed glacach. The Macdonalds possessed this remedy after saving and showing kindness to a shipwrecked foreign sailor. This was managed by reciting a duan over the patient who was then touched with the right hand. TINNSGEADAL, a bad omen, tinn + sgeach, sick + hawthorn. The hawthorn flowers were said to bring illness when taken into the homes of men. This plant was said to grow at the entrances of the homes of the Daoine sidh and was associated with them and their magic. In general the fruit of this plant and the wood was considered beneficent. TIOBART, obs., a well, OG. tiprat, Ir. tiobar, EIr. tipra, Celtic verb bervo, to seethe, to boil over, Germ. brunnen, Eng. burn. Similar to G. tobar, which, see. TIONNAIL, likeness of a person or thing. An object of sympathetic magic. TIOR, dry, kiln-dry, EIr. tir, to dry, see tir. Cf. tiorail, warm, cosy, sheltered, familiar, pleasant. Tiorc, to save, deliver from disaster. TIR, TIRE, TIREAN, land, earth, country, region, shore, beach, coast, terra firma, The root appears to be ters, to be dry. Confers with tuatha, We have previously argued that the Tuatha daoine were outlawed from Ireland to the northwestern sea islands including those beyond the West Isles and the Hebrides, and their places of refuge are almost universally prefixed with the GaelicTir. This archaic word is usually translated English as land, but is fairly certain to be the name of the old northern god, who the English still remember in Tues-day. As we have shown elsewhere this word compares with Tuatha, “the people of Tua,” and these all confer with the Gaelic tugha which is the English word

“tiled,” and the Middle-English Tyle. A similar Latin form is terra from ters, “dry,” buttressing out idea that the original form of the word implied a surround of water. See tuatha. Tireachadh, colony, the act of settlement on foreign shores, disembarkation. Tireanach, landsman, similar to tuathanach. TIR-A'-GHEALLAIDH, the Land of Promise. associated island. Hy-Breas-il or an

TIR BREG, The names Bregon and Ith presumably originated in the west (although the Milesians said otherwise) but Muster itself was sometimes entitled Tir Breg and its inhabitants were referred to as Bregians. It was supposedly named after their place of origin, a far western land. In later days the Munstermen became associated with the Celtic redoubt known as Bregançon an island in the Bay of Hyéres, France, but this does not mean that this was their old homeland. The Gaelic brèagh, passes into English as fine or bright. An earlier Middle English form of the word was breht; another was brig, conferring with the Gaelic brig, a heap, a pile, possibly suggesting an ocean-island. The Norse form of this is brik, from which “brick,” suggesting a block-shaped place. The related brigh infers power, dignity or rank but bris, lively, brittle, or hasty suggests men of a quixotic nature, while bras is the Gaelic for rash. All of these words settle on Breas, the one-time High King of Ireland, who unknown to everyone but his mother, was halfFomorian. It was his rejection by the Tuatha daoine that led to the convulsive war between the “giants” and the “gods.” Tir Breg is probably the Hy Breasil to which this unfortunate loser was banished. Something can also be made of the name given his son Ith. As a verb the Gaelic ith means to eat, and what the islanders ate was ioth, or corn. We may presume that the Tir Breg was aiothlann, or cornland, as dead as it may have been in other respects. See the goddess Breg. TIR FO-TONN. the Land Under the Wave, the Undersea Kingdom of the Fomorian giants. fo + tonn, “under a wave,”

EIr. tond, the root tu, boiling up, to swell to bursting, Lat. tumeo, Eng. thumb, AS. theótan, to howl, the ON. thjóta, howl, whistle (as the wind, etc.) Perhaps allied with the Lat. tund, to beat, Skr. tud, to push, the dia. Eng. fuck. From the same root, tón, the anus, the Eng. thigh. See G. famhair. A “fairyland” far out in the western Atlantic, which seemed to sink into the ocean as mariners approached. Actually there were a number of such hidden islands, in fact a fair number of European islands are said to have been reclaimed at the expense of Fomorian holdings. Among these are three Norwegian islands said to have been former huldrelande, or “fairy-lands.” The derivation of this word is from the ON hulder, i.e. “holers” or “hellers,” those living in the Underworld. The Gaelic toll, a hole, all after the famed goddess Hel. Nansen says that hulder also means “hidden,” in which case reference is made to islands of a hidden people or islands which are hidden. Notice that the Norse referred to the early Scots as Hellr. When Bran, the mariner, encountered Manann mac Ler on the high sea, the lord of the dead, who was travelling eastward, paused to explain that Bran was voyaging above Magh Mell, the “Happy Plain (of the Ocean),”, where people were sitting at their tables, catttle grazing, and great forests growing all unperceived. This was the Gaelic Tir fo-Tonn. Nansen has noted that the way to these “hidden lands” was always”through darkness and mist, or sea and water. He also says: “A blending of the fairies (sid-people) and the inhabitants of these lands is particularly observable in the Irish legends. The people of the sid dwell partly in the grave mounds (and are thus like our haugebonde or mound-elf), they also live in happy lands far west in the sea or under the sea, and are thus sea-elves.” We are informed that Nordfuglöi, to the north of Karlsöi was originally “troll-ridden, under the sea and invisible to men, thus a “huldre” island. But certain trollhags (witches) betook themselves to towing it to land; a Lapp hag who happened to cast her eye through the dooropening saw them come rowing with the island, so that the

spray dashed over it, and cried, “Oh, what a good fertile land, we have now obtained..” And thereupon the island stopped at the mouth of the sea, where it now stands (Nicolayssen, 1889). It is claimed that Buskholm at Sunnmör in Norway was similarly recovered and that Svinöiin the Faeroes was once a fay-island. The former was said once “inhabited by underground beings and protected, i.e. thoroughly overgrown with trees and bushes.” Legends of “floating” and “sinking” islands are legion throughout the Atlantic. The foremost floating-island was perhaps Eiru or “Ireland,” which was said to be quite without roots at the time of the great World Flood. Lucas Debes (1673) has said that “at various times a floating island is said to have been seen among the Faroes; but no one can reach it. The inhabitants also tell of Svinöe, “Swine Island,” how that in the beginning it was a floating island; and they think that if one could come to this island, which is often seen, and throw steel upon it, it would stand still... Many things are related of such floating islands, and some think that they exist in nature.” For his own part Debes concluded that such islands were most likely icebergs calved off Greenland. Others thought they were constructions of the Devil or the Söe Draulen, or “sea-trows.” It is said that the Svinöi in the Faeroes was brought to light “through a sow on which steel had been bound.” If some islands have been rescued from the deep, others remain elusive as well as illusive: In 1125 A.D. Augustodunensis wrote concerning the Atlantic islands of the Hesperides, “that have the golden apples... To these islands belonged the great island which according to the tale of Plato sank with its inhabitants, and which exceeded Africa and Europe in extent, (and which lies underwater) where the “curdled sea,” (the Arctic?) now is... There lies also in this Ocean an island called the Lost (Perdita); in charm and all kinds of fertility it far surpasses every other land, but is now unknown to men. Now and again it is found by chance; but if one (actively) seeks it, it cannot be found,

and therefore is called “the Lost.” Men say that it is this island that Brandanus (Saint Brendan) came to.” In a similar vein, Columbus says in his diary, that the inhabitants of the Canary Islands reported seeing land in the west where none was to be detected. Expeditions were mounted to find this western mirage, which the Dutchman named Van Linschoten (1589) speaks of as the beautiful lost land of San Borondon (Saint Brendan). This he asserted was a place “a hundred leagues (about 300 land miles) west of the Canaries. Its inhabitants are said to be Christians, but it is not known what nations they are, or what language they speak; certainly the Spaniards of the Canaries have made many vain efforts to find it. This same island, which sometimes shows itself, but withdraws when one tries to approach it, still lives in Spanish folklore under the name “San Morondon.” Off the coast of Britain one finds similar floating island; “They always fly before ships and one can never land there. They are drawn along by the devil, who compels the souls of drowned men who have deserved Hell and are damned, rto stay in such places till the Judgement Day. On some of them the roar of a terrible beast is heard; and sailors look upon the meeting with such an island as a sinister warning.” There are even North American floating islands, and the Iroquois of the eastern coast imagined that the earth was the creation of a god who ruled from an “island” in space, a place surrounded by realms of eternal peace and solitude, very like the Celtic An Domahin, where there was “no desire, no sorrow, no pain, and where Death had no presence or dominion.” This “Isle of the Blest,” was sometimes said to be located in the Ocean east of Boston, “a green land; it flies when one approaches, and no white man can ever reach its shores. According to Harriet Maxwell Conversly, this island was distantly perceived by an Indian who pursued it as his Death approached in 1886; “He disappeared (in a canoe) in a

storm the likes of which had never been known and after this the enchanted island was never seen again.” The idea of a floating mirage is found embodied in the Norse word Villuland (from villa ; illusion, glamour). Interestingly, this name was applied to the mythic island of Frisland (said to lie southwest of Iceland) which in one manuscript is called Villi-Skotland. This might make it the equal of Irland it Mikla, “Ireland the Great,” another supposedly fabulous Atlantic island. Are Marsson supposedly travelled to Villuland and remained a resident for a number of years. Many of the undersea islands were abroad by night but had the habit of falling back into the sea at night. “If one could only bring fire, or steel, upon them, then the spell of submergence was broken and they remained up, but the Undersea folk avenged themselves on the people who caused such loss, and many humans were turned to stone.” Because animals were often used to rescue sea-lands, some were afterwards named after the species to which steel was attached. Many of the lakes of Ireland and Scotland contained mystery islands, but the ultimate Gaelic Island was Hy Breasil which Geraldus Cambrensis (12th century) said could be seen from western Irish shores on every clear day, “but vanished when people approached it.” Many came within bowshot, and at least one sailor shot a red-hot iron arrow-head on its shores after which it became fixed for a time. Hy Breasil was reported to be above water once in every seventh year. See separate entry under this designation. The Land-Under-Waves was a desired haven for the drowned. A Hebridean woman questioning the spirit of her departed husband asked if he were not “cold in your bed?” He responded: “Here it is neither too cold, nor too hot, but what a man might get if granted that which he wished.” Well she mused “It must be lonely, at least?” “Nae,” he said, “ the best heroes of Alba strand beside me, the best bards of Ireland; and what they do not know the seals and swans tell us!” “Aye,” noted the woman, “are we not foolish

to weep after men-folk and they so happy!” It is said that more than one shade from the ocean has returned to the shore entreating a wife not to mourn and thus sully his happiness in the Otherworld. In the islands it is guessed that. “The sadest death ius the two-fold death. This comes to the man who drowns once in the Ocean and once in the salt of a loved-onne’s tears.” The sea-sorrow is also considered a danger to the person who mourns. To sing a drowning-song more than twice , especially at sunset, not only sorrows the dead but can anger them. There are stories without number of dead who have come back ashore to upbraid their women-folk. Excesses of joy and grief are thought to tempt any Providence in the old gods. “Laughing ovrermuch is an omen for tears; but weeping overly is tatramount to far greater evil.” On the whole, if there must be excess, the folk suggest equal parts of laughter and tears, for that totally confused ocean-spirits. TIR IATH, Tiree, “the land of Eth or Ith, Latin, Ethica Terra. Also seen as Heth, Heth regio, terra Heth. Later iath. ON. Tyrvist. Their form for Uist. See Ith. TIR MÄG, MAGH, the “Lazy Bed Land,” or the “Fertile Land,” as a result of indolence? More directly, mäg, a paw, a hand, a ridge of arable land, EIr. mác from the root man, a hand, magh, a fertile plain or field. One of the lands in the western Atlantic. TIR MÓR, the Great Land, which Nansen thinks may confer with the ON. Vithland, better known in mythological history as Vinland the Good. Another of the mythic Atlantic islands. TIR-NAN-BAS, Land of the Dead. The people who travelled with Lady Cassir, the daughter of Bith were spoken of as the descendants of Nodha. Writers of the Christian era assumed that they were the “sons of the Biblical “Noah.” This seemed to be reinforced by the myth that they came to Ireland from a land named Tir-nan-Bas, which they took to mean “the Land of Basques.” They equated with modern

Spain. It was, therefore, supposed that the folk of the patriarch named Bith or Ith must have sailed to Spain out of the Eastern Ocean, now known as the Mediterranean Sea. Nodha is, of course, a form of Nuada (pronounced nood-a), the “New-One,” the twin-brother of the creator god Lugh (pronounced look-a) and has no connections with Christian mythology. Bas is the Gaelic word for “death,” so their origin was in “The Land of the Dead,” which traditionally lay on an “island” somewhere in the Atlantic. This interpretation makes their seven year journey to Ireland more plausible. A cruise along the Mediterranean would hardly have required that length of time. The Basbreton, or Basques, probably received their names from their war-like habits, as well as from the fact that they claimed decent from the “Lords of Death.” The place where Fintann’s folk settled was ultimately named Munster and it became a province in the south. The name is an anglicized form of the Gaelic Muhan with the Old Norse ster ending. Earlier forms were Mumu and Muma. The Munster kings only grudgingly admitted kinship with other people in Ireland, and only recognized the high-kingship at Tara in the ninth century A.D. TIR N-AM-BUAIDH, Land of Virtue, or Victory, OIr. buaid, Eng. booty, ON. byta, exchange, barter, Eng. boot, formerly that seized as plunder. One of the mythic Atlantic sealands in the western ocean. Notice that the “sea-masks” or respirators worn by the sea-trows were sometimes referred to as the “caps of virtue.” See cuhulann druidhean. TIR-NA-FER, The Land of Men, comparable with Tir-na-mban. “It may further appear that there is some connection between the ideas that appear in certain Irish legends of the land of virgins - where there are no men, and the virgins go to the neighbouring land of men to be Married (Zimmer, 1889). This is similar to the conception of the island of Sena, off the coast of France, where a group of “virgin” priestesses served prophets to seamen of that coast. As the presence of men was thought to negate their powers of

prophecy, these “morgans” “had to visit men on the neighbouring coast, and return after having intercourse with them.” TIR-NA-FER-FIONN, the Land of White Men, another mythic oceanic place mentioned in Irish tales from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The white men (fer fionn) seem to confer with the L. albati, the white-robed men of the British Isles, the G. Alba. This land may also be the Norse Hvitramannaland, “White-man’s Land,” supposedly sited somewhere in North America. Nansen says that all these names are “direct renderings of the Latin Terra Albatorum, “the land of the baptized who are dressed in white. Those so costumed wore the baptismal garb for a week after their plune, dip or sprinkling. Björn Asbrandsson appears in the Old Norse Eyrbyggja Saga as the illicit lover of Snorre Gode’s sister, Thurid, the wife of Thorodd. By her Björn had an illegitimate son named Kjartan. Björn had to leave Iceland in a hurry because of this affair and made the error of leaving land in late autumn with his lady-friend on board. “Afterwards the ship was not heard of for many days.” Gudleif Gudlaugsson now enters the story as a wealthy merchant trading out of Dublin in the last years of the reign of St. Olaf of Norway. He sailed westward making for Iceland and encountered fierce north-east winds so that he was driven than he wished into unknown waters. Finally, his ship came upon a great land previously unknown to the Norse. Although no one knew any of these people it was soon observed that they spoke Irish. Soon several hundred of these folk swarmed about their craft, seized and bound them, and drove them into the interior of their country. They were brought before some kind of judicial forum and a sentence, which they could not understand, was pronounced on them. They did, however, understand that some of the assembly wished to have them killed, while others suggested they simply be utilized as slaves. While this was going on, a great band of men on horseback approached, many

carrying banners. They were led by a stately man of great age, and from his white hair, they guessed he might be their chief. All those in attendance bowed to him, and he went straight to the Norsemen and addressed them fluently in their own language. After he had heard that most of them were Iceland, he began to talk knowingly of all the important men in that place, and he enquired particularly after various people in particular Kjartan, who was now a principal figure in Iceland. After this, the big man turned to discuss the fate of the Norse with his countrymen, and then he turned and gave the Icelanders leave to depart. Although the summer was almost over, this man advised them to make their departure immediately as the temper of the country could not be trusted. He would not reveal his name saying only that he had relatives in Iceland and did not wish them to undertake a long sea-voyage to find him as he was elderly and probably would not be found alive. Further, he noted, that without his presence foreigners were likely to be treated with far less respect. After this their patron had a ship fitted out for them, and when a favourable wind arose bid them farewell at the quay. As they were about to part, he handed Gudleif a gold ring and a sword saying, “If chance allows you to return to Iceland give the sword to Kjartan, and the ring to Thurid, his mother.” When Gudleif asked if there was any message to accompany these gifts. The master of the far land said enigmatically”: “Say to them that he who sent these goods was more a friend of the mistress of Frotha than of the “gode” of Halgafell, her brother...” Gudleif then put to sea and he and his men did make Ireland late that autumn. They stayed the winter at Dublin, and the following summer sailed to Iceland where they delivered the gifts of Björn Asbrandsson. Norse historians say that the leading character in this tale had adventures very like those of Are Mársson who appears in the Landnáma. In this book Are is said to have made a crossing from Iceland to Hvitramannaland, or “White man’s land,” “which some call Irland hit Mikla, or “Ireland the Great.”

This account tells us less than we would like, but does note that it lay “near Winland,” somewhere in the western ocean, “six dœgr’s sail to the west of Ireland proper. Are, who was also an Icelandic chief was driven there by storms, but was never allowed to depart although he was baptized in that country and held in great esteem by the populace. The White man’s land is also mentioned in the Saga of Eric the Red, who said it lay “opposite Markland,” which is most often taken to be present-day Quebec or Labrador. Finally in the Eyrbyggja Saga there is another tale of a voyage which had this same country as its object, although it was not mentioned using either name. It has been noted that Thorkel Gellison is given as the source of information about this place in the Landnáma. As he lived at the close of the eleventh century, the tale could hardly be much younger than that date. White man’s land might be thought to have a reference to skin colour, a surprising anomaly in North America at that century, but it might have other connotations as well: The Old Norse hwit , confers with the Anglo-Saxon wit , a “wise man,” the opposite of wit-les. These men were foregathered to create the witan, the Anglo-Saxon councils that advised the high-kings. The word can be show to derive from the Old Norse god Odin or Woden and to have side forms as: wood, weather and witch. There is a Celtic form of this last word, probably derived from English, viz. buitseach. Related to this is buitseach, a “witches curse or a threat.” This is thought to lean on boid, a vow, hence, “those who have taken vows.” This takes us back to the ancient Irish Isles of the Blest, the Tuatha daoine and the druids. Tartaned wearing apparel was not a feature of British society until the time of Tighernmas ard righ , the seventh king in the Milesian line, which brought the weave from Spain. “To him, or his successor Eochaid, is credited the ancient ordinance which distinguished the various classes and professions by the colours of their dress: A king or queen might wear seven colours; a poet six, a chieftain five, an army leader four, a land owner three, a

rent-payer two, a serf one colour only.” Tradition says that the Milesians arrived in Ireland about the year 1000 B.C. Before this time the entire population, male and female, rich and poor, wore the highnecked, long-sleeved garment which the Romans termed an albus. They selected this word, which means “white,” because this belted shift was made of linen, which is naturally brown in colour but bleaches in the sun to dazzling whiteness. From this, the Latin Albion, a name for all of Britain, and from it the Gaelic Alba , which now applies to Scotland alone. In some parts the chieftains distinguished themselves by wearing the orange kilts, which are still seen in paraded of modern Irishmen. In later times wool supplanted linen as the material of choice for the nobility. The Tuatha daoine, who were in power when the Milesians arrived in Ireland never surrendered the traditional white linen albus and this was also true of the conservative druidic class that managed religious rites. When Christian missionaries came to Britain they had the smarts to make themselves indistinguishable from the vates by wearing white linen, and many Christian priests still wear this basic uniform beneath their black supplice. In the Navigatio Brandani the travellers landed on an Insula Viroum Fortium, an “Island of Virile and Strong” people. In that same tale this place is also referred to as “The Isle of the Anchorites.” It was said that three generations of men dwelt there. The youngest generation had “clothes as white as driven snow.” Their parents wore clothes the colour of hyacinth, and the oldest generation wore clothes of purple. Notice the connotation of white with virginity and wholesomeness, one which has translated into the “White Christ,” and white baptismal garments, the latter was termed the albati. Things get even stranger, for the Irish legends are fond of naked old men who wear nothing other than their white hair. The old man who welcomed Brandon to his promised land was one of anchorites, his body covered with

dazzling white feathers, like a dove or a gull.” In a Latin account of Brendon’s life this man is identified as Paulus, and again he has no clothes, but is here described as “covered with white hair.” In both cases the man is said to have come to this remote oceanic island from Ireland. In Maelduin’s voyage, which is older than the travels of Brendon, the hero meets similar hermits, one on an island which he shared with sheep, and another on “a rock in the sea.” These men were also Irish and used their body hair for clothing. On two other islands Maelduin encountered islands having “soil as white as feathers,” with naked men to match. Again in the Navigatio, Brendon meets an aged man “with hair the colour of snow with a shining white countenance. His head and hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; his eyes as flames of fire.” Notice that the druidic bards who were at the head of their profession wore bird-feather cloaks but these were parti-coloured, so the Christian motif may have been a rejection of this style, a return to ultimate basics. The character mentioned above, who was found on the Insula Alibius is understood to be Jesus Christ incarnate. Not all the hairy creatures of western Europe were Christian, thus we have the Germanic wildermann, the villemand or “wild man” of certain Norwegian tales. These are the woodwose of England, the brownies of the Shetlands and the bodache of Scotland and Ireland and there elders were always described as white-haired. Among the Gaels, in general, there was an attachment between whiteness and supernatural beings. The national hero of the south was Fionn mac Cumhail , and while fionn is frequently translated as “fair-haired” it actually indicates “white.” Bebhionn or Vivienne the giantess who comes from the west seeking Fionn’s help is characterizes as “the white woman,” because she had “dazzling white hair.” The physician Labhra, at the court of Manann mac Ler, has three beautiful white-haired daughters, and the “billow-maidens” of the god himself show their hair in the

breaking waves. When Mider, the king of the side-hill tried to lure Etain away from her husband he says: “Oh, white woman, will you not go with me to the Land of Marvels?...thy body is one in beauty, whiteness to the very crown of your head.” Again, Saint Brendon finds a corresponding seamaiden, “whiter than snow or sea-spray.” Again, the women of the Daoine sidh are frequently described as “the white women,” and the ban-sithe; or “white sids,” are definitely of this class, as are the fates, who are termed the basfinne, the “death-women.” The Norse elfs of the upper world are similarly identified as the liosalfar, the “light-elfs,” and they have their uncanny counterpart in the svartaffar or “dark elfs.” The elf-maidens of Sweden were said to be “slender as a lily and white as snow,” and are frequently designated as albae nymphæ, “white nymphs.” During the transformation on the mountain the Bible says that Jesus’ face “did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light.” In another place it says, “his raiment was as white as the light.” This conference of pagan and Christian ideas led to the concept that the world beyond the grave (in the west) was “a fair shining land.” Thus, in the Floamanna Saga Thorgil’s wife saw in her dream “a fair country filled with menn bjarta, “shining white men.” and her husband said this was “the other world” where one could expect help from “holy men.” In Eric the Red’s Saga the Hvitramanalandrs go about in white clothes, carrying poles before them, crying aloud as they proceed. As these are “poles to which strips are attached,” there is a strong suggestion that the island of “Greater Ireland” hosted holy day parades which now continue as ecclesiastical processions. In earlier times, these may have arisen from pagan models just as the white mitts out in the ocean appear to represent pagan supernaturals of an earlier age. The Gaelic fionn, “white,” has at its root the Celtic vid, “to see,” and a variant appears in the Gaelic word fion, which relates directly with the Latin vinum, the English wine and the Old Norse

win or vin, “white or clear wine.” This confluence explains the confusion of some of the place names seen in medieval literature and on maps of the period: Hvitramanaland seems to be represented in Ranulp Higden’s Polychronicon as Wyntlandia. In the various editions of Higden’s maps it is called Witland, Wintlandia, and Wineland, and this is the short list of variants. In this work the islands (bordering the Atlantic Ocean) are given as follows; “Insulae Fortunatæ (furthest south), and immediately after Dacia (Denmark), and to the west of this island Wyntlandia which stands beside Islandia (Iceland), which has Norway to the south and the Polar Sea to the north. Tile (Thule) is the extreme island on the north-west.” The description suggests that this White- or Wine-land may be an oceanic island, but the fact that it is mentioned as neighbouring Dacia may mean it was confused with Vendland. The Polychronicon was largely borrowed from an earlier English book, the Geographica Universalis, which was written in the thirteenth century. In it the inhabitants of this particular Winlandia are represented as wizards who sell the wind to mariners. Further it is placed on the continent of Europe on the sea-coast bordering Norway on the east. It is therefore Finnland, particularly the province of the Lapp wizards known as the Finnmark. In the same way the Vinlandia mentioned in the Lubeck manuscript of 1486-1488 and described as “an extensive island reaching as far as Livonia ,” appears to be this same mainland. Having said this it is still true that the word Winland sometimes described an western oceanic landfall, and this appears to be the case with the “fairytale land” of Hvittenland mentioned in Faroes lay Finnur hinn Frithi: In it the jarl’s son, Fionn the Fair, who has a notable correspondence with the Gaelic Fionn mac Cumhail, courts Ingesjörg, the daughter of an Irish king. She is as beautiful as the sun, “the colour of her maiden cheeks as blood dropped upon snow.” This last is exactly the description given the crow-goddess Mhorrigan. When he asks for her hand she insists that he first kill the three “Wine-

kings” who live in the western sea, and who are apparently bothering the northern isles. Fionn conscripted his brother Haldan to go an echtral and afterwards they hoisted their silken sails setting forth on the Winland Sea. At their destination Fionn killed Thorstein the first king who came at him as a magical black horse, by slashing him across the navel, a feat similar to the disembowelment of Don by the Dagda. The second, tried a similar unsuccessful attack on the hero, but the third shape-changed into a dragon. He posed a much bigger problem and he shot venom from his mouth into Fionn’s coat-of-mail. Thinking he was near death Fionn removed his golden arm band and gave it to Halfdan instructing him to take it back to Ingebjörg bidding her to find some other mate. At this Halfdan “sprang into the air and seized the third Wineking tearing him off at the navel.” After this he returned to Ireland told the maiden of this unfortunate reversal and gave her the ring as he been instructed. To recompense Halfdan, the girl slept with him for three nights, but finding him unequal to her prince charming, died of grief. Halfdan erected a fortress in Ireland, but never ceased mourning the loss of his brother. Nansen thinks that this solitary tale is “the last echo of the Irish mythological ideas from which the Wineland of the Icelanders arose.” Although some of the Old Norse tales conclude that the land was named after the grape vines found there it must be noticed that no notice is taken of finding grape-vines in the earliest versions of the discovery of North America. Notice that Odin’s vines were the witches’ brooms, the nether reaches of the white-beech trees which were regarded as his places for rest and contemplation, and this might be the source of the name Vinland. TIR MÔR, The exchange name for Tir Fionne the Norse Hvitramannaland in the sagas was Irland hit Mikla, “Ireland the Great.” In Ireland itself Tir-nan-Iongnadh, the “Land of Wonders,” was often called Tir Mór, the “Great Land,”a

place stated to be “two or three times as large as Ireland.” This name confers with Tuatha Mór, “Northern Land.” The name relates directly with the Old Norse Tile or “Thule,” and it is our guess that it was the home-away-from-home for the banished Tuatha daoine, the fay-people of Ireland. Notice that iongnadh, “wonder,” is based on in-gnàth, “not customary,” “not traditional,””not usual,” “not a known entity,” a weird place. Among its unusual features was the Trág Mór , which Nansen equates with the “Great Strands” seen by the Norsemen when they came to North America. This is a mistranslation of the Gaelic as tràigh is any shore and not a sand beach. The ultimate root for the word is troigh, to “draw down,” and it resembles traogh, to “ebb,” and trai, the “ebb-tide, hence traeth, a shore at ebb tide. This is, therefore, a name descriptive of a place where there were great expanses of shore exposed at the ebb-tide. In North America only one place deserves this name and that is the Bay of Fundy, which has the highest tidal ranges in the world. By implication Nova Scotia and New Brunswick may represent “Ireland the Great,” or the “White man’s Land.” There is a seemingly inconsistent passage in the Sturlubôk where Wineland and Ireland are both alluded to: There, Wineland seems to be called Irland et Goda , “Ireland of the Gods,” or less closely “Ireland the Good.” This is strange since the mention follows reference to Irland et Mikla. It will be remembered that Vinland is mentioned elsewhere as being close by “Ireland the Great,” which makes Ireland of the Gods confer with Vinland. This is generally supposed to be a doubling up of a single name due to a copyist’s error, but this is a very rare error and Nansen says “Nothing of the same sort occurs in the transmission of other geographical names.” He suspects that Ireland of the Gods represents the original form for Vinland, and says there may have been two places in the west peopled by the Irish. In any instance he thinks that et goda or hit gótha has a foreign ring in combination with Norse names. He notes that this combination only appears in three other northern place name, “Landegode,” which was

originally “Landit Gotha.” One is a landfall located on an island west of Bodö on the coast of Norway, Peter Clausen has said that this name was a substitution for Jomfruland, a tabooed designation which fishermen would not use when passing this place. The hidden name has reference to a “Jonah’s wife,” a person possessed by demons and driven to consistent bad luck. This “Land of the Gods,” or “Land of the good-folk” is “a common superstition among sailors and fishermen that various things were not to be called by their usual names while they were at sea, presumably a relic of heathen belief in evil spirits, whose power it was hoped to avoid by not calling their attention by mentioning themselves or objects with which their evil designs were connected. It was rather hoped to be able to conciliate them by using flattering words instead of the proper ones. The three islands in point were all so situated in the fairway that they must have been unusually dangerous for coasting traffic in former times.” Other mythologists have suggested that the case is simpler and that Landegod in Sumnmör is called the “good land,” for being the first decent landfall in treacherous waters. If Irland et Goda disguises a tabooed place, this is not without precedent for fairylands are universally referred to in English as the “Good Lands.” and in the Scandinavian countries Landit Gotha was understood to be possessed by the huldrefolk , or “cow-people,” the liosalfar of Sweden. Nansen has suggested that their lands were indeed “good” places since they were exceedingly fertile meadow-lands. The Germanic people, in general, whistle in the dark when they compliment the elfs as “good-fellows” or “godfellows.” In Nordlands, the huldrefolk are in fact called the godvetter, i.e the “good wights.” Among the Lapps these are the güvitter , a name reserved for supernatural humanoids living underground or in the sea. The northern Swedes sometimes speak of the goveiter. The Old Norse mound elf or haugbui (mound-bound one) is called in Nordland godbonden. The Icelandic underground folk are ljúflinger, the German equivalent is the guten Leute .

In English speaking places, they are “the good folk,” “the good neighbours,” or “the good people.” These answer to Daoine magh , the “great people,” in Gaelic places and to dynion mad in the Welsh countryside. In Sweden and Denmark we also see house-spirits entitled nisse god dreng, the “niss good-boy,” or goda-nisse. In Norway the creature is go-granne , the “god neighbour.” In Danish there is also kære granne the “dear neighbour,” and in German guter nachbar or gutgesell for a goblin. In Thuringia the correct parlance is gütchen or gütel and in England he is the goodfellow, sometimes personalized as Robin Goodfellow or Robin Hood. The epithet “good” or god-like” was of course applied to the human dead as well as to supernatural beings in the hopes that these spirits would interfere in the lives of men. Nicknames were thought preferable to the hidden names of such spirits, since the naming of names was thought to case these creatures to become incarnate. Fear was the impetus for these pet names, the same principle as that used when the Swedes refer to thunder as gobon or godbonden rather than mention Torr , the name of the god thought responsible for generating the phenomenon. This similie is like the Gaelic gobhal, “forked.” Hit Gotha has the connotation of godlike, “the altogether good,” “perfect in every respect.” Here it must be remembered that most of the elfs, fairies and Daoine sidh abandoned Europe as it became clear that Christianity was not a passing fancy with the human population. It is also necessary to remember that the “sidehill people,” were sometimes identified as the aes side or oes side , the “wise side-hill-dwellers” because of their skills as craftsmen and magicians. The Milesians who banished them remained aware of their superiority in the healing arts and their gods were incorporated into the pagan theology of the sons of Mil without question. When the Romans discovered the religions of Britain they carried them back to Rome and there the Tuathan “gods” were absorbed as the dei terreni or “gods of the earth. Note that the Latin terra confers exactly with the Gaelic tir and with tuath , “a northern people,” people found to the “left” in the

Atlantic Ocean. These words are similar to the Latin toto, the “state, “ as well as to Teutonic , Deutsch and Dutch. Notice, as well, that the Atlantic southwest of Ireland was called the “Green Ocean,”in medieval times, while waters to the northwest were known as the Oceanus Deucalidonius , the “Ocean of the Caledonian gods,” who were, of course, the Daoine sidh, at first known as the Tuatha daoine, their leaders being the reincarnate mortalgods of the earth. This takes us full circle to the Irland hit gotha and the sister place which is called Vinland hit gotha, “Wineland the Good,” in some of the texts. Since the combination of hit gotha with a proper name is not seen in Scandinavia, Nansen thinks it was used to set aside any “fairyland” in the western ocean. TIR N’ IONGNADH, the “Land of Wonder.” North America? TIR MUCCE, the Land of Pigs, from Manann mac Ler’s magical “pigs of the sea.” muc, a pig, mucce, pigs, Cy. moch, pigs, Lat. muc, mucus, phlegm, also the G. mug, cloudiness, gloom, surliness, allied with Eng. mug, pug, bog, buck and pig and with muggy and muddy. The Roman historian Tacitus, who lived in the first century A.D., produced a map showing the nations of northwestern Europe, and on it the Ocean of the Caledons is called Mare Pigrum, the portion between the Orkneys and Thule being given as Apertum Mare, the “Open Sea.” Pigrum is the Latin superlative of piger, “slow, reluctant, lazy, indolent, inactive, dull, sluggish, inactive, unfruitful,” all modifiers which apply to the arctic waters. But the word may have been intended for its connotations: hence the related pigneror, an (evil) omen, “to take a pledge.” Those who were pledged or mortgaged to evil men (or gods) were termed the pigneratori (the pigs of Tor), and it will be recalled that the Tuatha daoine were indebted to the sea-gods for their lands in the west and were in fact referred to as Aitchech tuatha, the “Rent-payers,” and sometimes as the “Rent-payers to Cromm, “ the Gaelic death-god. We also have the Latin piget, “it disgusts, it displeases, it grieves, it pains one (to see such servitude).”

The Tuatha daoine pledged themselves before the seagod, Manann mac Ler, and it will be remembered that they got invisibility, homes, and virtual immortality for their part of the mortgage. The latter was made possible at yearly festivals where the fay people took part in “Feasts of Immortality,” at which they drank the wine and consumed the flesh of the pigs of the sea, creatures that were immediately reincarnate on the following day. It is obvious that these creatures represented the spirit of the ocean, and may be thought of as a god-sacrifice. In Gaelic the pig is referred to obliquely as a muc , the English “mucker” from its habit of drooling “mucus,” but in earlier times it may have been identified using the more general name bòc, one having “swelled cheeks.” This is the English “buck” a word now applied to the male of any kind of deer, goat, hare or antelope. Bòc and muc may be dialectic forms of the same word, and the former is the source of the Gaelic bòcan, “generated by a buck,” a hobgoblin or sith. This is also the origin of boc-sith , an apparition or ghost. There are all kinds of associated words, as: bochd, poor; bodach, a male member of the Daoine sidh and boabh, a female of this species. Thus, you are what you eat! Note also the connected Welsh, bwg and the Cornish bucca, which are the English bug, pug, bugbear, bogie, boggle or boogey-man. These are all allied with the Gaelic pucca, the Norse pukka, the English hobgoblin who is called a “puck.” Puck can be shown to confer with the god Lokki. and he is derived from the Gaelic Lugh (or the reverse). Thus, the sun-god Lugh is the ultimate source of sustenance for the Daoine sidh. While he is the lord of life, his dark side is seen in Cromm an’ Cam , “Cromm the Crooked,” the lord of death, and god of the night. The pig was the totem of all the Firbolg people of Ireland, and when the Milesians invaded they referred to that place as “the sow-backed country,” a pointed reference to the continued existence and power of the Firbolgs. The Tuathan god Manann

mac Ler had constant problems with place at his annual banquets may submission to him. Pigs seem to be concept of lands of the gods, but the the Danish bigge, a “swine.”

“wild pigs” and their point to their final unconnected with the Middle English pigge is

Sir Thomas Palgrave notes a host of related words: the Anglo-Saxon pœcan, to seduce or deceive; the Low Saxon picken, to play in the fields, to gambol; pickeln, to play the fool; pukra, the Icelandic for a murmuring noise, also to steal away in secret; pukka, the Danish verb to steal. He further adds that the Swedish poika, is an “endearing” term for a “boy,” and says that the Anglo-Saxon and Swedish piga, and the Danish pige stand for “girl.” Thomas Keightley is sure that these words all connect with the Slavonic bog, which is another form of the English word “god.” Notice, as well, that the Gaelic and Gael, the name of the language and people of the highlands of Scotland, both confer with the English “good,” the German gut, and other expressions of “goodness” or “god-hood” mentioned above. The Welsh for an Irishman is Gwyddel and it compares with the Gaulish Geidumni which is very likely the Latin hoedus, a goat; thus, “goat-men,”” good-men,” or “god-men.” The Gaelic rootword appears to be ghadh from which their word gabhar and gabhlan, a wandering man, one devoid of care. Thus, the prohibition against seamen speaking the word “pig” at sea. Doing this draws the undesirable attentions of a god known for his warped senses of humour. As we have seen, “pig” once had the force of an oath against “god,” and saying the word suggested that one might be ready to take an oath of allegiance to these old sea-gods. Hy na-Beatha, the “Land of (Eternal) Life;” Trág Mór, the “Great Ebb-tide (Place),” the “Great Strand;” Tir nIongnadh , the “Land of Wonder;” and Tir fo-Tonn, the “land Under Waves.” TIR-NA-M-BAN, usually given as the Land of “Females” or “Women,” but equally valid as bàn, in which case, the Land of “Whites.” or Whiteness. Hence, a cloudy place. The root

bhâ, to shine, Skr. bhânù, light, The Eng. bale, as in bale-fire. A mythic Atlantic Island, later represented as the Island of Virgins; first noted in the seventh century Echtra Brain maic Febail. This was a place where thousands of amorous women were assembled, all ladies “without care, without death and without sickness or infirmity.” Bran and his men lived there for some time “each living sumptuously” with a woman of his choice. Ordinarily, these perpetual virgins travelled to Tir -na-Fer, the “Island of Men,” to obtain sex and reproduce their kind. In historic times there have been tales of similar islands west of Scotland where men would expire after a short residence. TIR NA-M-BUADHA, BUIDHE, the Land of “Virtues,” Land of the Yellow (Plants), buidhe, yellow, Lat. badius, Eng. bay; hence perhaps also the Land of Embayments. Buidheachas, gladness, thanks, “a safe place.” Note also the conferring AS. béodan, the Eng. bidden as in for-bid. Also referred to as Hy-na-Beatha. A mythic Atlantic “island.” TIR NAN-INGHEAN, INGNAD, INGEN, the Land of “Daughters,” or “Young Women,” and not necessarily “Virgins,” as some authors suggest. The word may have something of the sense of the Latin indigena, the Eng. indigenous, hence a place of “native” peoples. The root is gen, to beget. Loosely translated as the Land of “Marvels.” One of the mythic Atlantic sea “islands.” Confers with Tir na-m ban. TIR NAN-IONGNADH. INGNAD, TIRIB IGNAD, the Land of Wonder, OIr. ingnád, the negative prefix ion + gnàth, customary, usual, the root gen, to beget, to know. Not natural, an “unkind” place. A dwelling place of the Fomors. TIR-NAN-OG (teer nanh ock). Land of Youth. After the god Aonghas Og who may confer with Ogma. Hy-Breas-il or an associated island-kingdom in the Atlantic. Osygia or Ogygia was the Grecian flood-survivor. Homer said that the island named after him was located upon the “Boundless Sea,” and that the place was ruled in the latter days by Calypso, the sea-nymph who tried to detain both Odysseus and his son

Telemachus. Plutarch (d. 120 A.D.) reported this island as a real place within the Atlantic, located five days sail due west of Britain. The Gaelic Tir nan Og was named for Aonghas Óg , Angus Young; also entitled mhac Óg, the younger son (of Dagda). His “brothers” were stated to be Ogma, the god of eloquence and Midir , the god of the underworld. He has an extremely close correspondence with the sun-god, Lugh, who is sometimes given as his father or brother. This was a land where folk drank the waters of tobar n’og, the well of youth and thus lived healthy lives, their persons being virtually indestructible except through accident. It was not until the mainland of North America was encountered in 1513, that the Legend of the Fountain of Youth became a subject of conversation and astonishment at the Spanish court. The peninsula of Florida is clearly marked on the de Cosa map of 1502, but it was the experiences of Ponce de León that eventually led to the idea that there was very possibly a continent in the western ocean. Earlier visitors to that general region had heard the Indians say that there was a fountain that could restore the dead and reverse the aging process on an island named Bimini. Juan Dias de Solis, among others, was said to have stumbled upon it “at a distance of 325 leagues from Hispanola (Spain).” Writing of similar discoveries Italian historian Peter Martyr d-Anghiera said, “those who have explored ann island which is called Boyuca or Ananeo, have found there a fountain which has the virtue that by drinking its water, old men are rejuvenated.” Somewhat later, this coast was identified with that explored by de León. Running into the land at the place where he thought this island might be located, the latter explorer named the northern part of the peninsula Florida, allegedly because he arrived at Pascua florida, or Easter Sunday. The southern part, which he interpreted as an island, he called Bimini, a name now applied to a different place in the Bahamas. Ponce de León did not discourage the rumour that there was a fountain of regeneration as he

needed all the backing he could get to get royal permission to found a colony in Florida. His story was upheld when Peter Martyr met a Lucayo Indian, who attested to the fact that his elderly father had gone to Florida and come away a new man. This Indian, the captured by Spanish slave-raiders was taken to Spain, learned Spanish and was baptized Andres Barbudo, a name derived from the unusual fact that he was bearded, unlike most southern Indians.This story was backed by other reputable men including Vázquez de Ayllón, a high official in the Spanish court. Most of these witnesses attested that they had been prevented from actually seeing the spring by the ferocity of the Indians, who had effectively beaten off several packs of Spanish “tourists.” De Ayllón managed to contact an Indian captured in a raid in southern Georgia. “This man, named Chicorano is by no means stupid,” wrote Peter Martyr,”and was able to learn Spanish with relative ease.” Clever or not, Chicorano told a number of “tall-tales” to anyone who would listen. His repertoire of mythic places and peoples included a place he called Duhare where the residents were all white-skinned and had red hair. Their king was a giant named Datha, and their queen of almost equal stature, had five sons, all nearly their equal in height. Near this kingdom was Xapida, where pearls were taken in great quantity and where more giants tended herds of domesticated deer, which they milked, using the product in cheese-making. He identified a third mainland kingdom called Inzingnanin. Long ago, he said, a people had come there by sea. This race had inflexible tails, like crocodiles. In order to sit in comfort they constructed chairs with a hole in the middle. A sea-people, like the Fomors, they ate raw-fish, but because this product was lacking in their new locale they quickly died of a deficiency disease. It was in Duhare, however, that Chicorano said that the Spaniards would find the fountain they sought. Here all men were of the same age, and were continually renewed from drinking the water. See Coire na Dagda .

TIR-NAN-SMEAR. the “Fat Land,” smeur, smiar, anoint, smear, Ir. sméaraim, fat, grease, to smear with grease, smeur also identifies the black-berry from its tendency to stain; from the root smior, marrow, Cy. mer, AS. smeoru, lard, the ON. smjörr, butter. “Butter-land.” A Norse fairyland off the coast of Scandinavia was named Smjörrland or alternately Flajgland, the “Flying Land,” or Sjóhaj. a “Mirage on the Ocean.” The first name was tendered because the place was exceptionally fertile. All Norwegian names bearing the prefix smjörr have this laudatory implication. “Similarly, in the place names of Shetland we note: Smeerin (smjörr + vin, “fertile pasture); Smernadal (valley with a fat pasture), de Smerwel-park and de Smerr-meadow, all derived from the Old Norse tongue; “Even in early times the word “smör” was used to denote a fat land, as when Thorolf in the saga said, “it dripped butter from every blade of grass in the land they had found (in this case Iceland).” A general name visited on mythic lands located westward in the Atlantic. TIR NA T’SAMHRAIDH, the earth goddesses of the Brugh na Boyne, had this place as their ultimate death-world, Tir na t’Samharaidh, the “Land of Summer,” was a place closer Tir nan Óg than the dreary northern nether lands usually associated with An Domhain. The dead lands generally included the Fomorian “winter-islands” of Dun Sgiath, the “Fortress of Shadows,” and Hy-Falga, the “Hidden Place.” Summer Land was, or lay close by Magh Mell, the “Plain of Happiness,” and Tir na mBeo, the “Land of the Living.” Samh was the goddess of the easy season, the ritual bride to the kings of Tara, one of the Daoine sidh, who came annually out of the Brugh na Boann to celebrate beultainn, the “Fires of Beul.” Her name, like that of her male associate Beul , has gathered about it the characteristics of numerous local deities such as the bas-finne, the “death-maidens” who the Norse called the valkyra. Particularly allied with Samh is the Fomorian sea-goddess known as the Mhorrigan, the youthful form of Mebd and Macha. She is often also seen as

affiliated with Aoine and the matriarch of the Daoine sidh, the deity called Anu or Danu, who is ultimately Domnu, the creator-goddess equivalent of the male Don. Her overwintering form, the Macha was most often referred to, less formally as the Cailleach bheurr, or “Winter Hag,” although she was sometimes designated as Cailleach beara, the “Bear Woman.” She was also called Bui, the “Pale Yellow One,” goddess of the winter son, the half-year mate of the enfeebled and white-haired Lugh, in his guise as the god of the dead lands. Because she controlled the winds of winter this goddess was alternately called Fea the Hateful, from the Gaelic ve, the verb “to blow.” Bui is obviously Búanann, also seen as Boann or Boyne, the Mother of Heroes. In some tales. she is spoken of as “the lady who taught martial arts and ran a school for warriors. The name signifies ‘lasting one, ’ “ but she is more obviously Boanu or Anu, the “Cow-fire” goddess. Also associated was Cathubodua, the “Warrior cow-person.” TIR-TAIRNIGRI, literally the “Land of Thor’s Daughter;” the Land of the Dead. Tairneanach, thunder, relating directly to the Teutonic god Thor, G. Tar or Tor. tir, land; tair, I arrive at, come to; nigh, probably from the ON Nissa, the sea-name for Odin. From this also the Eng. Old Nick and Ness, a seaserpent. In modern Gaelic nigh, to wash clean, nighean, daughter Confers with the Latin nigri, black, and the Eng. negro. The land of Manann mac Ler, the ferryman of the dead, in which was located Emain Ablach, the “Place of Mangled Carcases.” This land was said to be located at the rim of the western ocean. Corresponds with Hy- Breas-il. TIR-TUATH. Land of the Northerners. At various times northern Ireland, northern Scotland and islands in the western ocean. See tuatha and tigh. TIR-UAINE, “ Terra, or Land (which is) Green.” T h e designation “Greenland” has troubled historians who note that land mass is not particularly verdant, but

climatologists have noted that the place was more temperate when the Norse settled there. On the other hand there is a minority opinion that the name derives from Old Germanic models and ”comes from the inhabitants being bluish-green in colour.” This is interesting because of reports suggesting that some of the Daoine sidh were of exactly this complexion. Nansen has said that “the Skraelings (natives) of Greenland are called troll or trollknour in the Icelandic narratives.” These are the trows of northern Scotland, corresponding in most details with the sithe. Professor Torp, a consultant to Nansen noticed that the trolls, like the black elfs, were spoken of as svart , or “black” in complexion and character. But the word svart really implies something which is “blueblack,” and this is “an uncanny colour, a common Germanic trait; cf. Rolf Blue-beard (an infamous murderer and magician).” Here again the blue means green. In the mid-sixteenth century, Green Island (sometimes entitled Grass Island) started to appear on charts and maps. Several historians suggest that the designation is interchangeable with Hy Breasil, in which case it may confer ultimately with present-day Cape Breton Island or mainland Nova Scotia. On the Gestaldi map of 1548 it is represented as ye verdi and is positioned due south of or bellandi and the Labrador coast, somewhat west of a scattering of islands which seem to represent a fragmented Newfoundland. In 1564 we see it as y da grasa and this time it is southwest of Newfoundland on the Grand Banks. Eleven years later, Zalterrius has it as verde and has tucked it into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence between Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island. By the following century this mythological island was a non-entity. There is evidence that Greenland proper had a Celtic past. In the summer of 981 Erik went to Greenland “to see it there was any habitable place.” Erik’s landfall is given as Midjokul . “middle Glacier,” suggesting preconceived Norse knowledge of the coast. Some authors have said that he

searched the east coasts, others the west. Mowat says there is no chance that he would have found any thing of the sort on the “inhospitable eastern coast.” We pass this question for the moment, but note that the Olaus Magnus map of 1557 shows a monastic community far up the eastern coast. In any event, Erik cruised southward until he came to Hvitserk, or “Whiteshirt,” presumably the southern glacier. Somewhere nearby, apparently around the western corner from the most southern extremity, he located and settled Eriksfjord. During the 1920’s Scandinavian archaeologists excavated one of his supposed buildings at Brattalid, “the earliest house known in Greenland.” This place is not at the site of the multi-roomed ruins ascribed to Erik’s tribe, and it has some features that are not characteristically Norse. The entryway is that side,forming a typically Gaelic “half-house.” The hearth is centred in line with the door, rather than in the central location preferred by Norse builders. The ratio of length to width and the very thick stone walls are more Irish or Scottish than Norse, There was a system for conveying running water, which involved a subterranean conduit from an outside spring, an interior holding basin and a drainage ditch leading out through the doorway. Excavations of another local ruin show Norse additions to a much older core-home which archaeologists date from the turn of tenth century. Again, this place is narrow like Irish homes of the period and the house walls are a full six feet in width. It also has internal “plumbing.” The rune-sticks recovered here show that there were Norse tenants, but no stratification was established at this site and none of the other relics are exclusively Norse in design or function. Mowat has suggested that thick walls had a protective function, and thinks they originally housed the Celtic Westmen who logically feared the Norse settlers who were nipping at their heels. It is said that there are church documents suggesting a Celtic Christian missionary presence in Greenland. Lewis the Pious, the Pope of the day, is said to have

taken a special interest in the work of two Benedictines named Witmar and Ansgar. They had been preaching their Gospel in the north prior to 831 A.D. and apparently did a bang-up job for Ansgar was appointed archbishop of all the northern countries. The appointment edict gave him care and control of “Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the Faeroes, Cronland, Helsingoland, Island and Scritfinnland.” Island is “Iceland” and Cronland, “Greenland,” so it can only be assumed that there was some European presence in both places at this date, long before Norse interests developed in these places. It was 846 by the time Ansgar had a papal bull in hand. In 858 Pope Nicholas renewed his charge and over the following sixty years four other decrees confirmed the authority of his successors as archbishop of the north. Over the years the spelling Cronland evolved through Gronland to Groenland or “Greenland.” As noted earlier, Cronland seems to confer with the Greek Cronusland and the Cronian Sea mentioned by classical writers. It is also noteworthy that Pope Nicholas (1448) refers to Greenland as a country of Christians “for six centuries past.” This would place the conversion of that land two hundred years before Norse settlement. Nicholas also credited the evangelization of Greenland to St. Olaf, who was born at the millennium. Nordic scholars ppicked on this as proof that Nicholas either erred in speaking of the date of the establishment of Christianity, or thought that the Nordic element must have been present two centuries before it was generally supposed. The more logical supposition is that Nicholas wished to remember this Nordic Christian saint rather than the now defunct Celtic missionaries, whose occupation of Greenland was extremely tenuous. By the middle of the tenth century the viking “dogs” were no longer biting, and it is guessed that many Celtic clerics went back to Ireland or Scotland on the trading ships which must have occasionally run between western and eastern ports. There may have been a Celtic presence in Greenland as

late as the fourteenth century, if we can believe the Zeno narratives: It is said that Nicolo Zeno, living in Iceland or Shetland, heard of Engroneland, “The Green Land,” from fishermen and sailed there in 1393 or 1394. His three small barks set sail in July and on the east coast he found a monastery of “Friar Preachers.” and a church which he said was dedicated to Saint Thomas. It stood “hard by a hill which vomited fire after the fashion of Versuvius or Etna.” TITHINN, obs. the sun, tit, the earth; ann, living. TIU, TIUGH, thick rather than slender, frequent, coarse, corpulent, hazy, foggy. Possibly a characterization of the god Hu, the Tiu of Tues-day. Also a foggy land. See the above. Corresponds with tir, land. TLACHTGA. A goddess, the daughter of the druid named Mug Ruith, a resident of West Munster. She was raped by the sons of Simon Magus and gave birth to triplets from the seeds of three different fathers. She died in childbirth but left her name on the Hill of Tlachtga. The hill, now known as the Hill of Ward, is located near Athboy, County Meath, twelve miles from Tara, and was particularly associated with Samhain rites. TO. TOE, “As a river name it was doubtless primarily the name of a goddess.” (Watson, p. 51). It means silence, stillness, earlier “The Silent One.” Converted into Tatha in modern Gaelic. Eng. Tay. The Amra Coluim Cille mentions the Tuatha Toi, or “People of Tay” saying that they lived near a river of this name in Alba. In another place mention is made of a high-king with this name, a personage defeated by the Romans. A Latin tract of the twelfth century gives the sppelling as Tae (nominative case). Cy. Tawy. At least one saiint of the Christian church bore the adjecvtive tua, “the silent one.” TOBAN, cowl, hood, wreath. The dress of the fay-folk. TOBAR, well. From the roots To, see above and , bhurr or

bhur, to well up, to boil, to seethe, the Skr. bhur, to move quickly. Associated is tibirt, a fountain. In Celtic societies, the mortal god-king, and his queen, were seen as the “fountain” and the “well” of regenerative spirit, thus their place at the centre of the community, within a holy circle which conferred with “The Cauldron of the Dagda.” Mrs Macleod Banks says that “wells, springs streams and pools have all been accredited with healing powers wherever man has had ailments to cure and Scotland with its numerous mountains and glens was famed for healing waters. Long before the Christian era, springs endowed with magical virtues were regarded as bringers of health from the heart of the earth, or as forces able to work destruction in overflow and flood; both hope and dread urged the adoption of ceremonial visiting rites.” Thus the Gaelic notion of wells as doors to the Otherworld and the habit of visitations to them at the Quarter Days. Even at present it is said that there are up to 600 known “holy wells” in Scotland alone, and they are certainly not unknown in the rest of Britain and North America. In earlier times each well was considered a local deity, or nature spirit, which could incarnate itself as a guardian. Sometimes the genius of the well was seen as being resident in animal form. The Well of Kilbride contained a single trout and it was treated with extreme respect. At the Well of Kilmore, in Lorne, there were a pair of iasg sianta, holy fish that were left undisturbed. Most of the well spirits were thought beneficent but some were baneful in spite of attempted exorcisms by druids. In the sixth century the Picts were glad to have St. Columba work his magic against one of their more fearful spirits, for they noted that even touching this water created illness. Columba after an invocation washed his hands and feet in the well and drank the water, showing that the demon of the well had passed on. The well at Yelaburn, in the Shetlands, was said to be that of a Water Trow (Troll) a species of very quixotic temperament.

The reconsecration of pagan wells to Christianity is a matter of record: On the Isle of Eigg there is now Saint Catherine’s Well which was rededicated by Father Hugh, “a Popish priest.” In that process, the priest demanded that all the local residents of the community gather at the well. He then required them to create a great cairn at the head of the well by way of penance for their past use of heathen powers. This done, he said a mass at the well, and consecrated it to Christ. He gave each person present a waxed candle, which they lighted and carried “all the way sun-ways, round the well.” From that time it was considered unlawful to use the water of this well for anything other than the curing of injuries. “The natives observe St. Catherine’s Anniversary: all come to the well, drink of it, and pass dessil round it sunwise; this always on the 15th day of April.” The potency of wells was considered strongest at the Quarter Days, but they were not often visited in the winter months due to cold weather. By tradition some of the wells were visited on the first day of the Quarter Week, elsewhere it was on the first Sunday, which was dedicated to the sun-god Lugh or on Monday which was the day of the moon-goddess Samh. In many places the pilgrimages to wells became commercially important and were attached to “holy fair.” It was considered good form to arrive at the well after dusk and before dawn since wells were considered the province of the Samh: “Above all the suppliant had to perform the ceremonies in strict silence and in the absence of the sun - indeed the pilgrim was careful to be out of sight of the well before sunrise.” Some of those who came to well rites were perfectly healthy and bent on revelry, the fair being a good excuse for entertainments that ranged from simple greetings through badinage and gossip to drinking, fornication and prostitution. These “relics of the old nature festivals” were not appreciated by clerics of the Christian Church but were hard

to eradicate. The rites performed by those who sought health or good fortune are well known, having persisted in a few places to the present time: The pilgrim first walked three times around the well (sunwise in Christian versions of reality). He then “silvered” the water by throwing in a few silver coins to draw the attention of the water-spirit. In later days a bent coin did duty. Drinking the water, the suppliant made his wish. Before his departure he pinned his attendant evil spirits to a tree or some other associated relic, catching in up in a bit of his own used clothing. By this act he passed the evil forces into the cloth and anyone who stole or removed these rags automatically acquired the troubles of the original owner. The wells are often associated with particular antique trees or standing stones. At Loch Shiant in Skye the well spirit is though partially resident in a coppice rather than a tree, and no one will venture to cut a branch from it for fear of “some signal judgement.” In Easter Ross, one well is known as the Well of the Yew, but that tree is long gone from the place. The Healing Well on Isle Maree has as its tree a venerable oak, which is itself labelled the Wishing Tree. Before landing on the Isle of Maree, where the tree and the well are located, the boat bearing pilgrims encircles the island three times. At each round the patient (with safety rope attached) is thrown into the Loch and retrieved. After he drinks the healing water from the well the sufferer leaves his ills behind by placing some “offering” on the tree, either a rag nailed to it or a coin driven edgeways into bark. The decoration of a nearby tree with clouts , or rags, explains why so many are known as the “Cloutie Wells.” Within Gaeldom there are many Tobar Mhoirean or wells dedicated to St. Mary, and these hold special appeal for those having “female complaints” or troubles due to childbirth or barrenness. Since Saint Mary’s Day (August 15) nearly coincides with the old Quarter Day known as the Lugnasad pilgrimages were made in that month. John R. Allen claimed to have spied on women and their rites: “The

auld wife gave them the sign to step around her and away they went, one after another, wi’ the sun, round the spring, each holding up her coats like she was holding herself to the sun. As each came anent her, the auld wife took up the water in her hands and threw it on their wames (wombs). Never one cried out at the cold o’ the water...Three times round they went. The old wife made a sign at them and they dropped their coats to their feet...so that their paps (breasts) sprang out...They doiun on their knees before her, across the spring, she took up water in her hands, skripit on their paps, three times the three. Then the auld wife rose and the three barren women rose. They put on their claes and drew their shawls and left the hollow without a word spoken.” Soon afterwards all became pregnant. Similarly, there are a few wells which were said to be useful against leprosy. One in the Border Country is specifically named the Leper’s Well, and it lies in dark woods near Earlston. The spring near Ayr is said to have cured Robert Bruce of this disease. Very few wells bear their old pagan names but the goddess Bridd continues to exist in Saint Bride and there are a number of wells bearing this name especially in the region between Wigton and Aberdeen on the western coast of Scotland. St. Bride’s Well at Piltlorchy was a famous retreat for consumptives. The various Wells dedicated to Nine Maidens have obvious connections with this goddess. In pre-Reformation times it was common to “dress” these female wells. On St. Margaret’s Day (July 20) the well at Dunfermline, was decorated with greenery and flowers, and in the Christian era a procession of monks and nuns visited the well, entertaining it with praise and song. Other wells were done up on the saint’s days and visited by hundreds of people seeking help for their ills. Many of the wells were considered to have precognitive as well as healing powers. The Dripping Well at Avoch, in Ross, was sought to counter deafness: “Whosoever drink of these waters shall be placing two straws of wood

on the surface, ascertain whether he shall recover or no. If he recover the straws will rotate in opposite directions, but if he is to die soon, will lie motionless in the water.” St. Andrew’s Well, in Lewis, is consulted less directly; “A tub full of water is brought from the well to the patient’s room, care being taken not to let it touch the ground on the way. A wooden bowl is set afloat in it. If the bowl moves sun-ways, the omen is favourable...” The Well of Beothaig, the “Living Reaper,”on the Isle of Gigha, off Kintyre, was alone in commanding the winds. It was built up on all sides with stones, and when a fair wind was needed mariners went there and cleaned the well with a wooden bowl or a clamshell. Water from the well was thrown, three -by-three times, in the direction from which it was desired the wind should blow. “ It was customary,” says one contemporary, “for great numbers of persons to go on a pilgrimage, bare-footed, to Christie’s Well in Menteith and there perform certain superstitious ceremonies to the great offense of God and scandal of the true religion.” The position of the commonfolk was represented by Jock Forsyth, who addressing God, said, “”O Lord, Thou knowest that well it would be for me this day an I had stooped my knees and heart before Thee in spirit and truth as often as I hae stoopit them afore this well.” Nevertheless he continued the pagan process affixing an offering to a nearby briar bush as was the tradition. In May 1624 the Privy Council went after his kind appointing a number of gentlemen in each district to stand near the wells to “apprehend all such superstitious persons and put them in the castle of Doune.” Notwithstanding, the rites continued until 1649 when the kirk sessions interfered with these “holywell annuals.” TOBAR CHALUIM CHILLE, “Saint Columba’s Well,” near Loch Saint Clair on the island of Barra. It is said that Columba placed a spell on this well. Fishermen refer to this as St. Clair’s Well, and at one time they used to drink from it on Sundays supposing that the amount they consumed would relate to the size of their herring catches in the coming

week. In pre-Reformation days people of this islands travelling to the only Christian church at Eoligarry hedged their bets by taking drinks of water from this well. TOBAR CLÙD, “Cloutie’s Well, the “Well of Old Rags,” Munlochy, Scotland. Also known as St. Boniface’s Well. Sick people visiting this well look for a cure by leaving behind a rag from one of their older garments. The rag is rubbed on the afflicted part before being hung on a bush near the well. As the rag decays it is believed that the spirit of disease crumbles. Anyone destroying a rag or removing one takes up the donor’s illness. It is estimated that there are currently fifty thousand rags at this site. TOBAR BHAN, the “White Well, flowing into a burn at Glen Elg, Scotland. A healing well which once contained a sacred trout. Nearby the water-cress and a plant locally termed “the flower of the three mountains” was gathered for medicinal uses. Another well bearing this name is found at Bernera, in Glen Elg. An elderly woman named Anne MacRae was for a time responsible for cleaning this well. She also sprinkled the approaches with gravel “to keep it pure.” The sacred trout contained here disappeared at the death of this custodian. TOBAR BRIGHDE, Brigit’s Well, near Moore, Ireland. “Where the multitudes assembled to celebrate what they termed patterns... when I pressed a very old man to state what possible advantage he expected to derive from the singular custom of frequenting in particular such wells as were contiguous to an old blasted oak, or an upright ubnhewn stone, and what the meaning was of sticking rags on the branches of such trees, and the spitting on them - his answer was that his ancestors did it - and that it was preservative against Geasa-Draoidacht, i.e. The sorceries of the Druids, that their cattle were preserved by it from infections and disorders; that the daoine maethe, i.e. The fairies, were kept in good humour by it; and so thoroughly persuaded were they of the sanctity of those pagan peactises, that they would travel bare-headed and bare-

footed, from ten to twenty miles, for the purpose of crawling on their hands and knees round these wells, and upright stones, and oaktrees...” (Philip Dixon Hardy, The Holy Wells of Ireland, 1840, p. 100). TOBAR MOR, The “Great Well,” located on the Isle of Gigha in the Western Highlands. The MacNeil pirates used to put in there when wind-bound, and there they stirred the water with a stick in order to raise the wind so that they could go on their way. The well was covered with a flat stone and this was always carefully replaced from a fear that the land might be inundated. The captains of foreign vessels made no direct use of the well, but used to pay locals to consult the guardian of the well making a request for wind or calm as it suited them. All strangers passing the well were expected to leave a coin or a pin as oblation to the spirits of the well. TOBAR NA BREAC, “Well of the Trout.” In the south of Skye. It contained a solitary trout sometimes accidentally removed in a bucketful of water, but always replaced with extreme care. TOBAR NAM BUAIDH, the “Well of Virtues.” located on the island of St. Kilda. Earlier it was known as Tou-birnimbuey. St. Martin wrote of this as a place of “excellent fountains and springs.” In 1746 Rev. Kenneth MacAuley noted that “the water here was a sovereign cure for a great variety of distempers, deafness particularly, and every nervous disease.” On an altar, not far off, visitors left offerings. TOBAR NA CATHE, the “Well of Battles.” near Kilbar, at the north of Barra, Scotland. An ancient writer has said that there was a spring associated with it and noted that one local insisted that it predicted the coming of war at which time “certaine drops of blood hath oftymes bein sein in it.” Rory MacNeil, the chief of that region, added that appearance of”little bitts of Peitts” in the water indicated the coming of peace.

TOBAR NA CHINN, the “Well of the Head,” located in that part of Skye known as Strath. Here Lauchlan MacKinnon avenged himself on Donald Mor, beheading him and washing the head in this well. See each-ursainn. TOBAR NA CILLE, “Well of the Church,” alternately called Saint Brendon’s Well. On the mainland near St. Kilda’s. If the winds for reaching the island wells, people who were ill selected this as their alternative. Men putting out to sea came here regularly to stand astride it for a few seconds, and thus ensure safe return to the land. TOBAR NAN FION, the “Well of Wine,” among trees at the parish church of Glen Elg. It has a three-corner configuration, now said to honour the Holy Trinity. TOBAR NAN GAM, Gam’s Well, beneath Sliab Gam, Ireland. A young man named Gam was decapitated and his head thrown into the local well. At this desecration, the waters reacted magically, running sweet for half the year but having a taste of death in the other part. This phenomena was regarded as one of the wonders of Old Ireland. TOBAR NAN CEANN, Well of the Heads. In 1660 seven men were beheaded for murder and their heads washed in this spring near Invergarry, Scotland. Following this event, this well was named, and in 1812 a distinctive monument and fountain was erected featuring the seven severed heads. There is another “Well of the Heads” on the island of Vatersay, near Barra in the Outer Hebrides. Here three brothers were murdered and their heads thrown into the water. The father of the men removed the heads from the well and carried them home for burial. On the journey one of the heads, upon passing a standing stone, spoke to his father explaining that he had recently fathered a child who would exact revenge. This accomplished, the fourteen year-old threw the head of the murderer into another well causing it to be renamed Tobar a’ Chinn, the “Well of the Head.” Notice that the ancient Celts placed severed heads upon standing-

stones, when they wished to communicate with it. In this place severed heads were observed to sing and talk and even move about. Some will recall that the demented Suibhne was actually pursued by five bristling grey heads which came down the road after him. A monument, inscribed in Gaelic, commemorates this unusual happening: Erected at Loch Oich, the Gaelic pillar is surmounted by seven “tetes coupees.” Seven wells on Skye have names of heads associated with them and a story to match. One of these located in the moorland known as Druim Ghiurain was the site of the murder of a young girl who had money hidden in her hair. She was robbed and murdered by MacRaing, a celebrated brigand. When MacRaing’s son attempted to denounce him, the father cut off his own son’s head and threw it into one of these wells creating a local haunt. Notice that one of the Irish wells is called Tobar nan Ceann, and this last word has special reference to a head severed in battle. The cult wells have, surprisingly, given way to legends and pseudo-history, stories used by the locals to explain supernormal incidents which are not otherwise comprehensible. “This aspect of the Celtic cult of the head, allied with the veneration of wells and springs, is one of the most convincing features of native cults, where an unbroken continuity can be adequately demonstrated.” - Anne Ross. TOBAR NA H’OIGE, the “Well of Youth,” located on the Isle of Iona. The American equivalent was Le Grand Source, which used to be located near Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. A second well of this name was located on the slopes on Connchair, Scotland. An aged St. KIldan supposedly found this well and drinking it found his energies restored. As he was carrying a sheep on his shoulders, he staked it at the place as a marker, and hurried to the village to tell others of his find. A crowd of villagers came back with him, but neither sheep or well was located and this well is now entitled the “Lost Well of Youth.” It is noted that this unfortunate happening could have been avoided had the discoverer had the foresight to leave a bit of iron by the

well: “The Little Folk would have been unable to reclaim the well that had the power of restoring youth and vigour (in this instance).” TOBAR TIPTRA SEN-GARMAN, A woman named Sen-Garman was killed at this place in Ireland. Her body was thrown into the water and her head erected on a post in approved Gaelic fashion. This head was intended to have a magical as well as a psychological effect on her clansmen. The magical effect of a severed head in a well is illustrated by an example from the Dindshenchas: In a fight between opposing Irishmen three heads were removed and thrown into a well. A man named Riach was the only survivor among the military and realizing that the well now contained an evil spirit he sought to contain it by building a wooden structure over it. In spite of his efforts, the well boiled up in fury and overflowed drowning a thousand dwellers in the nearby glen. Note also Loch Cend. TOCMARC, wooing. A class of prime-tale. TOGAIRT, the act of directed desire, often thought to end with wish fulfillment to the disadvantage of the wisher. TOICHE, Fate, destiny, obs. wall-eyed. TOINEAL, in a trance. TOINNEAMH, toinn, to twist, twine, spinn, wreathe, plait + neamh, the skies, heaven, the abode of all bliss. In the past, Death. The befinde or Fates were known to weave their “cloth” as clouds in the sky. Toinnte, thread of yarn, possession of one’s faculties; toinnteau, a filament or long thread developed through spinning. These magical arts were those of the boabhe. TOIRM, a noise, after Thor, the ON. god of thunder. Toirn, a great noise, toirt, giving. TOIRCHOIS, conception, increase, plenty, foetus. Toir,

pusuit, pursued, pursuers, persecution, help, enough. Confers with the Norse god Thor. Confers with toireann, thunder, toireannach, impetuous, boisterous, toireis, anxiety, toirmrich, noise of thunder or of a marching army, toirneamh, punishment, toirteachd, fruitful. TOISEACCH, a beginning, a chieftain, Ir., a captain, a leader, from OIr., “I lead.” Toisg, an occasion, a state visit, journey, business. TOISGEAL, the left, unlucky, also a reward given for finding a lost object. TOLA, a dining table in the Land under Waves. TOLL, a hole, Bry. toull, the root being the Celtic tuk, to pierce or punch, hence that which is holed with tools. All openings were considered passageways to the Otherworld. Confers with Hel, the Norse goddess of the Underworld. TOLL DRAGON, Dragon Hole. A hole on the “front” of Kinnoul hill, which stands above the Tay at Perth, Scotland. This hole, now about ten feet deep, was said to have been much larger in times past, but is still capable of holding a dozen people. Of extremely difficult access it was the site of Beltane rites until the end of the seventeenth century. TOLL-DUIN, a man living in a toll or tolg, a hole or hollow, in the earth cf. the goddess Hel. Collectively the Daoine sidh. See this entry for the linguistic connections. These are the ON. huldufólk, hul + dul + folk, the “hole + mystery + folk.” They were led by the hulidsverur or “elemental beings.” They were said to resemble men, “being of the same size, eating the same foods, enjoying fishing and berry picking, and raising cattle or sheep like their visible neighbours. Considerate farmers have been known to leave fields intact because huldufólk also needed hay for invisible livestock. Skilled midwives have been called upon to help deliver huldufólk babies some of whom have only one nostril. When interviewed a few years ago, only 10% of

Icelanders thought that the existence of these folk was an impossibility and 55% insisted they were a fact of life. Five percent admitted seeing these mound-dwellers. Folklore collector Jón Aranson has quoted these “hole-dwellers” in their denial that they are alfar, or “elves.” TOLL-SITH, the "elf-bore" of lowland Scotland, any small opening in wood through which one may peer to see the world of the Daoine sidh. Not a recommended practise since observers have seen things better left undisclosed. Men have been blinded by "elf-arrows" shot out through these holes from Never-Land. TOLL TUINDE. “Hole in the Wave.” Forty days after Lady Cassair’s landing in Ireland, Finntann, her husband (or son, or both) fled to Toll Tuinde. Here he survived the Great Flood in a flood-barrel, a cavern, or perhaps shape-changed as a salmon. TOM (towm), a hillock, English tomb, Latin tumulus. TOM AN IONGHNAIDH, the “wonder-tuft.” An animal found amidst the grain, a shape-changer typically seen as a gray stone. When met in harvesting, the “corn” around this creature was left standing so as not to antagonize it. This creature was credited with human rapes and abductions when annoyed. TOM-CNOC, tom, tufted; + cnoc, hill, such as that favoured by the Daoine sidh (which, see). The first word has come into the Scottish vernacular as toom, conferring with tomb, a hollow place. Hence the knockers that dwell in mines and caverns. Similar to the house-dwelling knowie-booh, or knocky-booh. The English word tommy was applied to soldiers in both World Wars had reference to their toomshaped helmets. By association, a tommy came to be recognized as any individual who offered his labour in exchange for little more than food or clothing. In Gaelic lands, he was called the bodach na' cnoc, or bodach of the hollow-hills. The local tommy knockers

correspond with the wichtlein (little wights) of Southern Germany. Keightley says they were "about three-quarters of an ell (33") high. Their appearance is that of old men with long beards. They haunt the mines, and are dressed like miners, with a white hood to their shirts and leather aprons, and are provided with lanterns, mallets and hammers. They amuse themselves by pelting the workmen with small stones but do them no injury, except when they are abused and cursed at. They show themselves especially where there is an abundance of ore, and then the miners are glad to see them; they flit about in pits and shafts and appear to work very hard, though they in reality do nothing. sometimes they are seen as if working a vein, at other times putting the ore into buckets, at other times working at a windlass, but all is show. They frequently call, but when one comes there is no one there. At Kattenburg, in Bavaria, they are very common and they announce the death of a miner by knocking three times, and also knock three times when any misfortune is about to happen." These spirits are mentioned briefly in Bluenose Magic:, A miner at Springhill told Helen Creighton, "I've heard of Tommy Knockers having been heard before an accident. Men have often seen lights before an accident and they would quit and come up." Again at Stellarton, Nova Scotia, a resident suggested, "If miners heard a certain tapping in the mine they would close it down and stop work for the day." A third respondent from Port Mounton said that the "knockers" were known in Queens County mines. Completely typical is a tale that came from the Mount Pleasant tin mine in Charlotte County, a hard rock mine that is now closed. Igneous rock mines are generally less susceptible to cavein than coal mines, but this one was penetrated by vertical cracks filled with white clay and fluorine crystals. When surface water created a washout of this material there was some danger than a miner might be buried or drowned. In this instance, two miners were working at reinforcing the timbered roof of a kaolin "plug" when three determined

tapping noises were heard. Since the incident took place in "modern times", these fellows were not superstitious and probably knew nothing of tommy-knockers. They would probably have ignored this warning if they had not been pelted with rock shards. Thinking that other miners were "having their fun" they charged up the tunnel to do battle, but found nothing in the darkness. Behind them they heard the swoosh of water as an underground lake emptied into the portion of the mine where they had stood. A less usual tale was that of Lazy Lew and the "Devil's imps". This miner was employed in the Maccan coal mine which used to be found a mile west of Maccan River. This mine was opened in eighteen sixty one and extracted about twenty tons of coal each day. While working underground Lew claimed he had contracted with a devil, perhaps the Devil, to exchange his soul for help at work. Lew's coworkers thought this a pitiful tale but were surprised when the miner commenced to send up twelve carts of ore per day where his former record had been four. It was evident that something was helping Lew as ordinary men were only able to produce six in a working day. A burly miner agreed to spy out the situation and arrived at the "front" to find Lew lying at ease, his hands behind his head, while the eerie sound of several picks was heard knocking away the coal. After coal was slid down the balance into the level, Lew moved to help in filling the cart, but other invisible shovels were heard in the piles of coal. Lew's life style changed for the better but on one shift no cars came up from "the devil's workshop". Fearing the worst, men rushed to the rescue and found a solid wall of coal filled in across the mouth of the level. They dug in it and rescued Lew, who following hospitalization, quit the mine. The bodachs of the mine, he explained, had become frantic workaholics and hemmed him in with coal, almost claiming his soul. Creighton reveals the fact that, "Tommy Knockers used to be heard in the mines in Queen's County (Nova Scotia)..." In the Springhill coal mines they were routinely heard before disasters. "Men have often seen lights before

an accident and they would quit and come up. Before Christmas if one were killed there seemed to be three...In Stellarton (Pictou County, N.S.) if miners heard a certain tapping in the mine they would come up and stop work for that day." In his History of the Great Disaster At Springhill Mines, R.A.H. Morrow adds that "Distant rumblings, sepulchral voices, human beings with flaming fire-heads and spectre-like visages, clattering hoofs and other unique surroundings, are more than convincing that if this place is not the abode of "the angels which kept not their first estate, " it is certainly not the paradise of the righteous..." In the Cumberland coal mines a mine horse named Spot hauled thirteen coal cars up and down the slope in one of the seams. Encountering invisible tommyknockers the animal refused to move forward and the roof caved in trapping the unfortunate animal but saving the lives of those who tried to get him to move. After that the mine manager found himself paced by footsteps whenever he entered the mine. When he stopped in his tracks, the following steps ceased and when he took up he was certain he was paced by an unseen being. For their part, the miners insisted that they saw a recurring ghost of the old horse complete with boxcars. TOM CHALLTUINN, the Hazel mound. Site of the great sithean near Aberfeldy. Associated with the fairy mounds of Cnoc forbaidh and Craig Scriadhlain. It is said that visits between the mounds took place triennially. TOM NA-H IUBHRAICH, hillock of the Yew wood. Also known as Tomnahurich Hill. A noted sidh-hill in Inverness, Scotland. See iubhar, yew. A fiddler who fell asleep on this summit was invited to play for the Daoine sidh. Shouting out a Christian holy name he found himself returned to the Upper World, but several hundred years had passed while he entertained residents of the Otherworld. The 13th-century poet, Thomas the Rhymer is said buried in the hill along with his men and a white steed. Like King Arthur he is said to be on call, to return to Scotland in a time of future need.

TOM NA SHIRICH, the “Hill of the Sidh,” near Inverness, Scotland. TONAG, a rear end, describes Tonasg, a clew of yarn; the basic tool of witchcraft. Ton, the the buns, the anus. Therefore, tonag also a broad-beamed lady. Tonair, a broad-assed man. ball of yarn.

TOR, TORR, TAR, the Old Norse god Thor or Thorr, Germ. Donar, cf. AS. Thur, as seen in Thurs-day, the god of Thunder. Also, a conical hill or castle, a heap. In Norway, Iceland and northern Scotland he was preferred over Odin being conceived as the chief helpmate in war. He was seen as healing disease, warding off demonic forces, and was the god approached in contracting marriages. His name is seen in the Gaelic torr, a conic hill or tower. Note also torrach, pregnant, fruitful and torradh, the wake, funeral solemnities; also torrunn, a great noise, thunder. In Gaul the god was called Taranis and in Italy Jove. There are many other related words (see below). Thor, or Donar, is known to have ruled the north before Odin, and he was always personified in sheet lightning, which was supposed to represent his rage. The god of thunder he was always honoured as the ultimate god of Norway, and everywhere he was called, “old Thor.” In Sweden it was rumoured that he often wore Odin’s broadbrimmed hat, under which storm clouds gathered, and Thor’s hat was a name given one of the tallest peaks in Norway. The roar and the rumble of thunder used to be attributed to Thor’s goat-drawn chariot moving across the skies. As Thor’s control diminished, the southern Germans pictured him as a travelling tin-smith, the noise in the sky being the sounds of pots and pans clanging against the sides of his peddlar’s wagon. It was said that Thor married twice, initially to the goddess Iaranasaxa, the matriarch of the Anglo-Saxons, and later to Sif. He wore three silver stars in his deep steel-blue head

circlet, and it is no surprise to find these represented in the heraldry of the Royal Scottish House of Moray. The house of Moray were, literally, “The Kings of the Sea,” and thus the three “stars of the north” are a Fomorian device. He is given as the son of Jörd (also called Erda) of the giant-kind. Even as a child he was of remarkable size and strength and capable of terrible rage. His mother unable to control him fostered him out to Vingnir and Hlora, who taught him restraint. It would not be difficult to give the Host to Tyr, and even earlier god who was once the most widely worshipped metaphor for war and agriculture. In the newer order he ranked below Odin and Thor in the gatherings of the twelve principal deities of Asgard. Tyr is identical with the Saxon god Saxnot (from sax, a sword) and is therefore the male form of Irenasaxa, and coherent with various sword-gods including Twe, Er, Heru, Cherrui, Cheruski, and the more distant Gaelic deities Hu and Aod. In some countries he was considered a god of the sun, his shining sword blade being pictured as the emblem of its rays. Like many of the northern Scots Tyr was lefthanded, and like Odin, one-eyed. The various sword dances of Europe all spring from rites associated with this somewhat blood-thirsty god. The sword is, of course, a powerful phallic symbol, the counterpart of the womb, referred to as the Cauldron of the Deep. According to legend the sword of Tyr was fashioned by the same dwarfs as those that fashioned Odin’s spear, and it was said that those who held this talisman were certain of victory in war. When it was stolen from a grove in northern Europe the Vala (Valkyra) who guarded it predicted that its power would continue but those who held it would eventually die by it. Not long after the weapon was found being carried by Vitellius, a Roman prefect, who was eventually hailed as emperor. The new ruler was however addicted to food and drink, and carelessly left the sword in an antechamber. A German soldier, replaced the magic blade with his own rusty one without the emperor noticing the exchange. Later, defending his rights, Vitellus did discover the

substitution, and overcome by fear attempted to escape his fate. He eventually came face-to-face with the German thief who cut off his head using the scared sword. The German knowing the dangers in holding the sword used it for a time but buried it on a riverbank before it could live out its promise of death. The next individual to appear before his troops with this ancient sword was Attila the Hun. The sword-god was considered dead by his time, but the north Asia tribesman claimed to have received it as a revelation of his promise as a world-conqueror. Attila was secretive about the source of this finely crafted weapon, but it was whispered that a herdsman, travelling in the wilderness found one of his animals wounded by something sharp in the earth. Seeing, and fearing, the Spirit of Death which he had recovered, the peasant took it to Attila, who had no fear of it. He was helped in his wars by the reputation of this magical piece but should have taken more notice of the curse that went with it. The Burgundian princess named Idico, wishing to avenge her dead kin, used it to despatch Attila. Again, this dangerous toy disappeared for a time but was used by the Duke of Alva in defense of Charlemagne’s interests. After the victorious battle of Mühlberg in 1547, the Franks used the gleaming blade as a symbol for their yearly martial games. When these people renounced the heathen gods the weapon was supposedly given (for safekeeping) to the archangel named St. Michael, who presumable still carries it in defense of Christendom. The single-eyed, single-handed condition of the sword-gods harks back to the sea-people, and this orb was known to represent the sun at its blighting best. In some parts of German, all these old gods were preempted by the Saxon god Irmin. He also possessed a ponderous brazen chariot in which he rode the skies with the expected sound effects.! It was said that he rode upon the path we call the Milky Way, which was once known as

Irmin’s Way (or as Vrou-elden-strat, the Street of the Old ones). This thunder-chariot never left the skies and was said seen in the constellation of the Great Bear, where it used to be known as Irmin, Odin or Charles’ Wain (wagon). In the Middle Ages, when even the names of the gods was forgotten by most men, the leader of the Raging Host was guessed to be other noteworthy heroes or devils, among them, King Arthur, Frederick Barbarossa, Charlemagne, the Squire of Rodenstein, Hans von Hackelberg, or some noteworthy local Sabbath-breaker. In the Christian world, folklore had it that the Host was condemned to ride the winter sky in punishment for sins. For a while the Host of England was known as the Herlathing after the semi-mythic King Herla. In northern France the term Mesnée de Hellequin was preferred, in honour of the goddess Hel. In the Celtic world, the gatherer of souls was always the Cailleach bheurr, or Winter Hag, the game-keeper of the north, the patroness of all wild things. Fleeing Scandinavia this alter-ego of the youthful winter- goddess Skadi, created Scotland for her animals by carrying earth across the North Sea from Lochlann. A giantess, with a single eye, she accidently spilled earth from her creel, thus creating the western isles. She also inadvertently carried some of the troublesome human-kind across from the continent. Unfortunately, from her point of view, these little vermin flourished, but wherever she could she blasted them with lightning from her staff (some say from her hammer, thus allying her with Thor). A frosty character, befitting a death-goddess she shed snow wherever she travelled and as a grey mare (symbolizing storm clouds) hopped from one mountain top to another. The sight of her was said to presage storm and men were careful not to mock her passage by imitating the sounds of her ever-circling host. Those who shouted to the skies with genuine enthusiasm were not likely to be troubled and she always fancied a little graio left standing in the winter fields.

Those who were of the sea-blood of Mhorrigan were in less fear of seeing crows flying the cold steel-grey skies, but even they hated to be gifted with the small black dog which the Host sometimes boarded upon people. This cur whimpered away the entire year unless it could be frightened or exorcised away. The winter-deity and all his (or her) spectral kind hunted, raped and pillaged the earth, the object of their fury being principally the god or goddess who represented the summer sun. In some cases the animal that was chased is thought to have been a horse or a boar, but in some cases the victims were the white-breasted Moss Maidens, wood-nymphs, thought to represent the last leaves of autumn. Wherever in Europe men stood, the folk believed that winter-storms represented something more sinister than the interaction of the elements and they especially feared the howling of a dog upon the wind, for Uller and Cromm the Crooked were invariable accompanied by at least two fierce black, bloodthirsty dogs, who were as apt to carry off the living as the souls of those whose time had come. TORA, an augur. The Ir. tarachair;$Lat. terebra, the root being the Gaelic thar, across, from beyond, from times past. The Lat. trans; OIr. ter, to pass through or bore. See entries below for comparable words. TORADHAIR, a monster, a dwarf. TOR BEALLTUINN, the Beltane Hill when sited on a torr, a conic hill. The Norse god Thor has his name on this form of hill. TORC, hog, a boar. Obs. Lord, Sovereign, the heart, the face, a torque or collar. One of the totems of the god Lugh. Reference is made in the Leabor Gaballa to “Brigit, the poetess, a daughter of Dagda , she who possessed Fea and Femen, the two oxen of Dill.. With them was Triath, king of all swine, for who is named Treitherne . Among these animals was an outcry of three demon voices, whistling and groaning and seeking the plunder of Ireland.” Another

mighty boar is mentioned in the Fenian tales. This animal was Formael who once killed fifty hounds and dispatched an equal number of warriors. This was “a black, shapely, dusky swine.” He was further characterized as blue-black in colour, earless, tailless and without testicles, “his teeth standing out long and horrid from his big head...his mane raised so high and rigid that apples might have been impaled on the rough bristles.” See mucca. And next. TORCHOS-BREIGE, the fabulous moon-calf. TORCRAD, torc, boar; rad, collective, feminine, folk. Ancient Gaelic name for a sept or clan of the region. TORCULL, Torcall, Torquil from ON. Thorkell, a shortened form of Thorketill, Thor’s kettle. Also Corquodale. TORMADH, pregnant, growing big. Torr, the womb, conical hill or mountain. Torraich, to make pregnant. TORMOID, Tòrmod, dial. Tormailt, earlier Tormond and Tormode from the ON Thórmóthr, the “wrath of Thor,” more literally the mother of Thor, Norman. Eng. mood. The name has the sense of “under Thor’s protection.” Confers with Germ. Gearmailt. TORRACH, “struck by Thor,” pregnant woman, related to toradh. fruit. Note tor, a heap, belly. fruitful,

TORRADH, the charming away of milk from cows; also the waking of the dead, funeral solemnities, EIr. torroma, standing by, watching, attending; to-rad, to give, to produce fruit. The continuance of this evil over a long period typically led to the death of the animal. See thoir. A practise associated with northern wizards, adherents of Thor. Because of the value of cows to the Gaelic economy, this was the most feared of evil influences. Note that it was directed against a "blessed" animal, under the patronage of the pagan goddess Boanne.

The devices used to part a cow from its milk were extremely varied. On Eriskay an owner noticed that his cow gave little milk, and examining the milking-station found, just below the ground, a magical "vessel" woven from the hair of various others cows in the neighbourhood. It was supposed that in milking the milk passed into this reservoir rather than the usual milking pail, being retrieved by the baobh in the dead of night. Another man who knew his cows were being "troubled" went to the home of the person he suspected. Finding only a child at home he asked, "Where does your mother get the milk she gives you to drink?" Without hesitation she pointed out the cauldron chain just under the smoke hole in the centre of the room: "Out of the chain!" "Come, little one, show me how she gets it." "Like this," said the child, and as she drew down the chain milk flowed readily from it. Seeing this, the visitor tore down the chain in spite of prohibitions against even touching it. After that the milk returned to his cows. Fortunately there are as many cures for the torradh as there are means of extracting milk illegally. Some cow-herds attached the buarach (which, see) to their animal just prior to milking, but were careful to put it away afterwards supposing that loss of it would give the finder permanent control over the flow of milk. The simple act of publicly rebuking a milkpirate was often enough to bring the stealing to an end. "If a person is very much afflicted in regard to the "torradh" he is wise to adopt the following remedy. Whenever one of his cows has a calf. to take it away before any milk is drawn. Then taking a bottle he is to draw milk from the four teats, this to be done kneeling. The bottle is then tightly corked; this is important, for carelessness in this respect might give access to the torradh and upset everything. Another method is for a man - a woman won't do - to go to the house of the suspected person and pull off from the roof as much thatch and divots as his two hands will hold, and over this to boil what little milk is left until it dries up. Another informant advised burning the thatch under the churn, instead of under the milk. Another means of removing this blight from one's cattle is to bury the carcass of one of the victims by a boundary stream. Similarly you may transfer

it (the curse) to your neighbour by burying the corpse on his land." In the most extreme case where cows were milked to death by wandering spirits during the night it was suggested that the hide of the most recent victim should be placed on the thatch of one's house. Invariably the totem bird of the baobh would be drawn to, and perch upon, this remain. The next calf to be born was then named after this bird, thus ending the "murrain" for the entire herd. TORRANAN, the figwort (Scrophularia), G. Torr, ON. Thor; annamh, rare, not-tamed. A species found in rocky places in the uplands of Scotland. The flower is white and forms a cuach or cup which is breast-shaped. It is said that this part fills with dew on increase of the tide, but dries on the ebb. To obtain the significant virtues of this plant it had to be picked at the time of high-water, or at least on the gathering of the tide. There are pagan and Christian incantations associated!with taking this plant (See the Silver Bough p. 24). The torranan, once obtained is placed under the milk pail and circled three times while repeating an appropriate eolas or spell. This act was said to insure the free flow of milk as well as proper maturation of milk and cheese. The leaf was applied “to cuts and bruises to sores and tumours,” supposedly with good effect. In the western isles of Scotland the plant was placed over animal byres for general protection and “to ensure milk in the cows.” A charm for plucking the figwort translates into English as follows: “I pluck the figwort with the fruitage of sea and land. It is the plant of joy and gladness, of rich milk, as the lord of heaven ordained. It puts milk in breast and testicle, places substance in udder and kidney. It is with milk, with milkiness, with buttermilk, in produce, whisky whey, in milk-product. I pluck for the spotted female calves, those without male calves. It brings progeny, joy, fruitage, love, charity and bounty.” TORRDARROCH, Hill of the oak. In Shaw country. The location of a ring-cairn that”marks the mid-summer moon-set.”

Nearby at Daviot there is an oval-shaped ring-cairn “said to indicate the path of Venus at the four quarters of the year.” TORRUNN, thunder, EIr. torand, related to Gaul god. Taranis as well as the Teutonic Thor. G. Tor or Tar. See thoir. TORMAS GOBHA, literally Thor of the huge buttocks (read genitals), the Wayland Smith of English mythology. Confers with Culann or Manann mac Ler. TOR MOR, great tower, tor, Thor; mor, great; great tower, great Thor. See thoi. This place, said to concentrate the forces of the sun, was located on Torrry Island, northwest of Ireland. Balor of the Evil Eye, the chief Fomorian at this place, may correspond with Thor. The former god-giant struck at men with "a single glance from his venomous eye," while Thor killed men with lightning bolts. On the Continent, Thor predated Tyrr and Odin as the penultimate mortal god. His name is recalled in the families named Tormoid, Tormod, Tormailt (Thor's protection) and Torquil, Torcull, or Torcall, from the Norse Thorkill a shortened form of Thorketill (Thor's kettle) elaborated in Gaelic as Corgitill, Mhac Corcadail and anglicized as Maccorquodale. TORA, augur, prognostication, divine wind, Ir. tarachair, EIr. tarathar, Cy taradr, Br. tarazr. Latin terebra, from ter, to pass through. From the god Tor or Thor. TORC, a torque. An ornament of twisted metal worn on the arm or at the throat. “They have a religious connotation and are often seen on the necks of gods as well as heroes.” The Old Irish word torc, in fact, signifies a chieftain or hero. TORMAN MULAD, murmur of sadness. The bittersweet cry of the banshee, announcing the death of any of the Firbolge. TORTHAIR, monster, dwarf. TOSCAIREAN DOISGEUL, a propagandistic or revisionist historian, an indoctrinator, a proselytizer, in particular, a

Jesuit missionary TOUTA, adjectival, tout-s, left-handed, good, good-omened, see tuathal, Tuatha daoine, etc. The “flitting-time” for farm workers and “fairies,” i..e. the Quarter-Days. TRASG-DUBH, the black fast. An attempt to obtain justice by fasting on the doorstep of an individual wrong-doer. The offensive party could mount his own fast and the survivor was considered the offended party. TRAOGH-CHAIRN, the shore of the cairn-stones, conferring with the Norse Helluland. Ciabhan was exiled here after his unfortunate affair with the Fomorian princess named Cliodhna.. In historic times this land was located in North America, often being associated with Baffin Island. TRAOGH MÓR, properly traeth, shore (and not necessarily “strand” as some authors suggest). Mór, great. Root of the former is trag, to leap or draw, having special reference to the ebb-tide. A mythic Atlantic land, also termed Tir nam Beo. Quite possibly within the Bay of Fundy, in Maritime Canada, since this is the only North American coastal location having extreme tides. TREANADH, lamentation, wailing. Also the Gaelic name for Whitsuntide, the week from Thursday to Thurday immediately following Whit Sunday. Treann, field-rites. TREN FHER, strong man; a champion of a principality or country. Required to answer all challenges to single combat, appearing as a substitute for his leader. An avenger of insults. The name is anglicized as Traynor. TREOGH DUBH, the black shore. The upper intertidal zone, where seaweeds are deposited by the tide, the boundary beyond which supernaturals of the land dared not pass. Similarly they could not pass over a flowing stream. TREUN-DHAN, an epic or heroic poem.

TREORAICH, soul blessing at death. TRI, three, triad, etc. The gods and goddess of the Gaelic lands were frequently represented as trinities. It was not uncommon for Celtic artists to represent their deities and heroes as three-headed. See entries below. TRIALL, going, journey; originally two parts, tri-all, going through. The migration to and from the hill-pastures at the time of Beltane and Samhain. The removal took place on the first day of May, the triall being led by sheep, cattle following according to their age, goats similarly arrayed, with horses positioned at the rear. When different clans met, great courtesy was demanded: they were all required to bless the passing procession wishing luck and prosperity even to enemies. In the upper hills families went to their traditional hill-crofts where a male lamb without blemish was killed and eaten. See Samhuinn for an explanation of this latter-day activity. Until this century, “Throughout Lewis the crofters of the town-lands go to the sheiling (countryside) on the same date each year, and they return to it the same date each year. the sheep and cattle know their day as well as do the men and women, and on that day...all the ni’ flocks are astir and restless to be off.” TRI-AN, the third part. In the lowlands, this was a portion of land known as the “Gudeman’s Croft,” “Halyman’s Rig,” “Cloutie’s Croft,” the “Black Faulie,” or the “Devil’s Half Acre” It was variously deeded to the gods, earth spirits, the side, witches or the “Goodman,” the Devil of the witch fraternity. No spade or plough was permitted to touch this land which was often smaller than the name might suggest. There were “crofts” associated with large estates and the smallest peasant holdings. The procedure was to enclose a selected spot, repeating words that deeded it to whatever devil the land owner feared. In token of the promise, stones were cast over the enclosing dyke built around the land. This procedure of dedicating land to the old gods continued into the last century and was intended to placate an evil

inherent in the land. Obsolete, the Christian Triune. TRIAN-RI-TRIAN, “third-against-third,” the peculiar cry of the bird known as the corn-crake. This was a bird of ill omen, not to be harmed. TRIATH, lord, chief, Lat. tritavus, any ancestor as far back as the sixth degree. TRID, a rag, a clout, to pass through. A means of eliminating evil spirits by attaching them to a rag of clothing once worn by the victim. Anyone contacting this bit of material was thought to acquire this unwanted “ghost.” TRI DE DAOINE, “The Three gods of the People,” “The Three gods of Danu.” See Daoine sidh and Lugh. TRIDUAN, the “three poems.” Also the fasting for three days which went with this ritual. Fasting and chanting was the means to attaining shamanistic “madness” and the following enlightenment. Three days and nights was the time allowed this procedure. TRILIS, locks of hair in bunches of three, cf. Eng. tress, from Lat. tricia, a plait. Thus braided hair, in three parts, from the root tri. Honouring the tripartite goddess Mhorrigan. TRI PEATHRAICHEAN COIMHEAC, the “Three Weird Sisters,” the Fates, the Bafinn; individually, Mhorrigan, governess of past events; Badb or Mebd, the present; and Macha, the future crone. The suppliers of individual befinds to men and the gods. Those that govern men for good or ill. This is the triad which the southern Irish hero Fionn perceived in a dream: They came as three black birds, like eagles or vultures. They settled beside him and he saw that they had become women, but the ugliest he had ever seen: "terrorlike, disgusting, screeching, destructive, clawing, lashing (all of these words are alliterative in Gaelic and thus are hallowed in use). They had straggly black hair down to their loins and it badly needed combing. They were

goggle-eyed. They had long wrinkled, corrugated faces that needed washing. the look of unhappiness was on their faces. They had bent noses like a sickle. Their nails were as long as a rooster's spurs and as bent. They wore short outlandish dresses all in tatters and it would have been better had they been longer...their voices were high and piping." While they had formal names, the three sisters, who the Anglo-Saxons called the Wyrds, were known in Gaelic folklore as Gorag (Foolish), Grodag (Rotten) and Robag (Filthy), and this was particularly the case with the advent of Christianity. Notice that these three are the models for the witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth. The following story involving these ladies is recounted by J.G. Campbell: Fionn was supposedly encamped with his men at the Hill of Howth, in Alba, when they saw a boat emerging from the west “with all the blackness of a shower.” While they watched the ship was drawn ashore to seven times its length and a sheiling built at the sea-side. Observing that the building which was put up was of a much finer craftsmanship than was general for Ireland, Fionn went down to see what was afoot, and was surprised to find three Fomors. When he asked about their mission in Ireland they openly replied that the King of the West had sent them to do open combat with the Fionn. Mac Cumhail was surprised to hear this since he had parted from the west leaving those people as allies. When the giants asked if Fionn was in the region, he said “Probably not!” and retired leaving the big fellows pinned down by an enchantment which prevented them from leaving the general area until they saw him a second time. Thinking it best to check matters with Abartach the king of the Undersea Kingdom, Fionn launched his one-man coracle on the sea and hoisted “the spotted towering sails” to the wind. After landing in the far country, Fionn was picked up by a man questing after a dwarf for the king. At the court incognito , he and his dog Bran made spectacular entertainment, but came to be most appreciated by the king

for overcoming “a great Monster who wants my daughter and half my kingdom to himself.” The creature that was taken down was much like the Anglo-Saxon Grendel, destroyed by Beowulf, but in this version of the tale, it was the dog and his “venomous boots,” that did in the sea-creature. “He struck the monster on his breast bone and took the heart and lungs out of him.” The father of this creature showed up for battle on a subsequent night, and this time Bran was a more reluctant ally, but he did accomplish what Fionn was unable to do in single combat. On a third night, the “mother of all evil” appeared looking for satisfaction, but this hag was put down with poison. The king recognizing the fact that he hosted a great eastern hero asked the name of his guest and was pleased to hear that he entertained the renowned Fionn mac Cumhal. For his part Fionn was surprised that no mention was made of any vendetta, and when he asked why he was pursued by three Fomorian warriors, the king of the west explained that these “heroes” were not his men, but those of three sith (the Bas-finne). Although the King of the Big Men could not recall these warriors he was able to tell Fionn that the three women had given their lovers shirts which gave them the strength of a hundred men, and that it would be advisable to approach them at night when their shirts were removed. Fionn was now given every honour and allowed to depart. Just as he was pulling away, three sith men seeking work appeared at the quay, and they were hired to relieve the problems in managing an ocean-going coracle singlehanded. Back in Ireland, Fionn was able to make immediate use of the individual skills of these men, for the soothsayer was able to tell him when the Fomorian giants were bedded down for the night, while the thief was able to relieve them of their magic-shirts. At first light Fionn appeared at the door of the Fomorians, beating on his shield for attention and as a challenge. Seeing that they were not outfitted to beat down their opponent, the Fomorians admitted their inability to do combat and their connection with the

Mhorrigan and begged forgiveness. Fionn swore them to the cause of the Féinn and they proved faithful to his cause from that time on.

TRIONAID (tree-ahn-ahj), OIr. tridoit, from Latin, trinitas, from tre, three. The old pagan trinities of gods and goddesses. See entry immediately above; also, Bafinn. The concept of triads is prominent in Celtic rites. Diogenes (2nd century B.C.) mentioned that the druids imparted their knowledge in lessons which were parcelled in threes. The numbers three, and three times three, permeate Gaelic philosophy and art. Hilary, Bishop of Portiers in 350 A.D., the first Celt to become a force in the Christian movement, wrote Di Trinitate in defense of a tripartate Christian God. Hilary was imbued with the tradition of his people and the concept of a Holy Trinity probably owes more to paganism than to Judaeo-Grecian ideas. In earlier times the trinities were honoured by the creation of pleated wreaths made of ivy, woodbine and rowen. These were placed on the lintels of buildings to safeguard against the evil eye and murrain. Not that druidic ranns were also triads:

Strength in our hands, Truth on our lips, Purity in our hearts. TROISGEUL, not. ill-omened, general intelligence, ill-omened or

TRIOCHILEAN. A dwarf, the Willow Wren. TROISGEUL, ill-omened augury, unlucky news. Before delivering such information of death, destruction or ill-will it is best to preface it with: “Away with this ill-news!” Otherwise it is implicit that bad luck will fall within the house where this news is revealled. TRIPLEAG, a “fairy” spell. TRITHEANN, obs. The Holy Trinity. TRIUCAIR, a rascal,, from Scot. truker, a deceitful person, OF. tricher, to trick. TROICH, TROICHILEAN, a dwarf, the willow wren; of which this is a dialectic form. See trow. see droich

TROM-LIGHE, nightmare, trom. heavy; lighe, flood. Also known as the "alp" or ailp (which, see). Those who slept under the weight of this sigh often reported sensations of rape, suffocation or drowning. TROMAN, dwarf, elder, OIr. tromm, also troww and droman (which, see). The sea-going water troll. Related to Middle English troll from the Old Norse trold. A dialectic form used in northern Scotland, confers with trough, any container hollowed from wood, for example a butter bowl. From this we have trow, a boat carved from wood and trough, the hollow of a wave. The word troll from the German trollen, to wander in far places, is confluent. The Scottish word trow has been used to identify devils and the

Devil, but it is properly applied to the more or less malignant spirits of the northern Scottish islands. The trows of the sea are known as haafs in continental Europe. Those of the land are, "of diminutive stature, and usually dressed in gay green garments...They inhabit the interior of the green hills...They marry and have children (and) are fond of music and dancing...The trows are not free from disease but they are possessed of infallible remedies, which they sometimes bestow on their (human) favourites...When they want beef...they betake themselves to the Shetlanders scatholds, or townmails, and with elf-arrows bring down their game. On these occasions they delude the eyes of the owner with the appearance of something exactly resembling the animal whom they have carried off, and by its apparent death by some accident...Lying-in women and bairns they considered a lawful prize. The former they employ as a wet-nurse, the latter they rear as their own. In case of paralysis Shetlanders hold that the trows have taken away the sound member. They even sometimes sear the afflicted part, and for want of sensation in it boast of the correctness of this opinion." TROSCAD, a “hunger strike.” The black-fast. Men who felt offended fasted on the doorstep of the offender. This individual could mount his own fast and the survivor was considered to be the offended party. TROST. a sturdy little human, a dwarf, the clank of things in contact, particularly metals. Confers with the next word. TROW, TROWW, dwarf from Sc. trold, one of the little people of the earth. Malformed individuals, as opposed to the svartalfar, or dark elfs, who were bound to the Underground. In most parts of Gaeldom the under-hill people were known as the Daoine sidh, an exception being northern Scotland and the Isles where they were called the trow, ON. troll. On the Shetlands it was said: "The trows are of diminutive stature, and they are usually dressed in gay green garments. When travelling from one place to another

they may be seen mounted on bulrushes and flying through the air. If a person should happen to meet them he should if he has not a bible in his pocket, draw a circle round him on the ground, and in God's name forbid their approach. They are fond of music and dancing...they are free from disease because they possess infallible remedies (against disease)... They have all the picking and thieving propensities of the Scandinavian trolls. The dairy-maid sometimes detects a trow-woman secretly milking the cows...she sains herself and the thief takes to flight leaving behind a copper pan of a kind not often seen. When they want beef or mutton, the trows betake themselves to the Shetlanders' "scatholds" (towns) carrying their elf-arrows to bring down "game." On these occasions they delude the eyes of the owner with the appearance of something exactly resembling the animal whom they have carried off, and by its apparent violent death by some accident...It is on this account that the flesh of such animals is regarded as improper food. A Shetlander who is yet alive (1880) affirms he was once taken into a hill by the trows. Here one of the first objects he met was his own cow, that was brought in to furnish for a banquet... On returning home he learned, to his great surprise, that at the very moment he saw his cow brought into the hill, others had seen her falling over the rocks." "Lying-in women and unchristened bairns they regarded as lawful prize. The former they employ as wet-nurses, the latter they rear up as their own. Nothing will induce parents to show any attention to a child they suspect of being a changeling. There have been persons who undertook to enter the hills to regain a lost child. In cases of paralysis (the islanders) believe the trows have taken away the solid member and left a log behind. They sometimes even scar the part, and from the want of sensation boast of the correctness of this opinion." (Gnomes Fairies Elves and Other Little People, p. 166). See also trow n' muir, for an account of the seatrows. TROW NA' MUIR, the “sea trow, or troll.” "With respect to the sea-trows, it is the belief of the Shetlanders that they inhabit a region of their own at the bottom of the sea. They

require a peculiar atmosphere and live in habitations constructed of the choicest submarine productions. When they visit the upper world on matters of business or curiosity, they are obliged to enter the skin of some animal capable of respiring the water. One of the shapes they assume is that commonly called a merman or mermaid. But there most favourite vehicle is the skin of the larger seal for this animal is amphibious and can land on some rock. There they can cast off their sea-dress, and amuse themselves as they will in the upper world. They must, however, take especial care of their skins, as each has but one, and if it should be lost, the owner can never re-descend (to the deep). (Gnomes Fairies Elves and Other Little People, pp. 166-167). TRUAILL. a sheath, the foreskin, from the Celtic root trod, to push, Lat. trudo, Eng. thrust, trod, trom. As a verb, to pollute, violate, OIr. druailnithe, to corrupt or spoil. Thus the modern druis, lust, and druiseach, lecherous. Confers with draoi, a magician, a druid. TUAGE. A mortal love interest of Manann mac Ler. He sent the druid named Fer Ferdiad to fetch her from Ireland. The druid lulled her to sleep with music and led her, in a trance, to Ibhear Glas on the western coast of Ireland. While he sought a ship to transport her to the Otherworld the tide came ashore and drowned Tuage. For this dereliction Manann mac Ler slew the magician. TUAICHEAL, dizziness, tuachioll, winding about, eddying, moving widdershins, i.e. against the course of the sun, “left=about, “ Ir. tuachail, going about in a confused state, tuath + cell, left (north) going. Compares with tuaineal,. dizziness, stupor, Ir. toineall, a fay-induced trance, a swoon. Cf. tuaitheal, wrong, left-wise, Ir. tuathal, the left hand, awkward. See tuatha. TUAIR, obs. bode, portend, predict, tuairneadh. foreboding, tuairp, prophecy.

TUAITH, skill.







TUAM, TUAMA, a tomb, Lat. tumulus. TUAN MAC CAIRELL. The tale of Tuan which was preserved in The Book of the Dun Cow a manuscript from about the year 1100 A.D. This Farlander was the son of Starn who was the son of Sera and the brother to Partholon. After the great pestilence this sole survivor wandered about from one vacant settlement to the next, but saw nothing except wolves. For twenty-two years it is said that he lived without comfort or company, until at last he fell “into the decrepitude of old age.” He was apprently unaware of the presence of a parallel character, the flood survivor Finntann. Speaking of the Partholons this character says, in the 1913 ballad: Again, strangers I roamed the land merry and free, Both careless and fearless of dangers Til Blithe Nemid came over the sea. According to Tuan the new arrivals were relatives led by Nemed the son of Agnoman, another brother to Partholon. We are not told how Finntann greeted these folk, but Tuan kept his own company As Tuan approached old age, he enacted no magic but was spontaneously transformed into a deer and regained his youth following a full cycle for this animal he was again reborn as a black boar. After a time the old Farlander began to suspect that some powerful force was responsible for his rejuvenation, and having time for thought recalled that in old age he had always sought out a cave in Ulster. The next time he became aged, Tuan tested this theory and found himself reborn in another animal body. The place of rebirth was obviously a “kettle of regeneration” some reflection of the Fomorian “womb of all things” which the land people had not yet pirated from the when death seized on these

sea-folk. Our ballad has this to say of the next wave of visitors to Ireland: The Firbolgs and roving Firgallions Came next like the waves in their flow; The Firdonnans arrived in battalions And landed in Erris - Mayo. Then came the wise Tuatha de Danaans, Concealed in black clouds from their foe; I feasted them near the Shannon Though that was a long time ago. After them came the Children of Mil From Spain, o’er the southern waves; I lived with the tribes as their Filea (poet) And chanted the deeds of their braves... His final demise is not recounted.

TUAR, hue, appearance, but in MIr. an omen or foretelling, a presage, root ver as in fuathair. See fuath. TUASGART, obs. north. Still seen: tuaisgeart, The High North. Same as tuath. TUATH, people, tenants, tenantry, rustics, north, northerners, OIr. left, north, the Hebrides. Possibly rooted in tu, to grow large, to increase, to be powerful; taugh. Dominion; tuathach, lord, ruler; tuir, lord, general, leader; tura, much, plenty, abundance; tormach, an increase; and tuirean, a troop or multitude. Note the related adj. touto, left-handed, "good", "well omened." The root-word may be su, "turning toward", to twist. Cf. OIr. tuath, populace, Cy. tud, country, nation, Cor. tus, Br. tud, Gaul. nation; One wordsmith has it that he is “one of the Germanic races, adherents of this god of war and agriculture. Teo, an old Gaulic name for “god,” is also Teutates, the name of a Gaullish deity. The root is found in Teutomatus, the name of

a king of the Nitibriges, and in Teutobodiaci, the name of a people of Galatia..” This is probably too specific the god being rather more generally known as Tout, Teuto, Due, Tue, Tyrr, Thor, the Gaelic god Hues. Latin toto, the state, also that for the Germanic Deutsch as well as the people of the neighbouring low country, the Dutch. See Aog. Confers with ME. tyle, tile and thule. Applied variously to northern Ireland, northern Scotland, to Greenland and to the mystery islands of the Atlantic. These were the Tuatha daoine, people of the goddess Danu, residents of Ireland with seats at Tara and Armagh. Defeated by the Milesians they were driven to the offshore islands and into the Underworld where they were slightingly called the Daoine sidh, or people of the side-hills. The "wee-folk", the "little people" corresponding with the Teutonic "elfs" and the British "fayries." TUATHA CRUITHNE, Cruithne. the Picts, Northern Britons, see

TUATHA DAOINE (tootha donnu) Ir. TUATHA DANANN (tootha dah-nan), the Northern People. “People of the goddess Danu.” Also called the Firdonnans. In the myths it was held that they lived originally “in the northern isles of the world learning lore and magic and druidism and wizardry and all cunning until they surpassed the sages of heathendom. They came from four cities, somewhere in the north, to wit Falias, Gorias, Murias and Findias. Here they supposedly learned their arts and crafts, their science and the diabolic business. Out of the first island-kingdom came the Stone of Fal, which was in Tara. It used to roar under every (legitimate) king that would take the realm of Ireland. Out of Gorias was brought the spear that Lugh had. Out of Findias was brought the Sword of Nuada. Out of Murias was brought the Dagda’s cauldron.” What is not mentioned is that all of these magical devices were booty from An Domhain. Gerald Hawkins has identified these "northern isles"

as belonging to the Greecian landfall, rather than the far north of Scandinavia. In addition to their lore, magic, druidism, wisdom and cunning, the Tuathans came to Ireland as possessors of "the diabolic arts" and were practitioners of "every sort of paganism". Their magic included arts of conciliation, for it is recorded that they "travelled between the Athenians and Philistines", apparently as mediators. According to one legend, the Tuatha daoine were descendants of a few Nemedians who had returned to Greece after their abortive settlement of Ireland. The old homeland was not forgotten and they sailed away "in great speckled ships" to reclaim the land of their forefathers. It is said that they came specifically "to take the land from the Firbolg". They landed on the first day of May, which they perceived as the annual time for the final battle between winter and summer. They equated themselves with the gods of light and the Firbolgs with those of darkness, thus this augured well for the beginning of combat. In putting down the Firbolgs, the Tuathans had assistance from the Fomorians, the alliance being firmed up by marriage between the two tribes. Among their champions, the warrior-magicians numbered Breas, whose mother was a Tuathan princess, while his father Elatha was chieftain of Fomorian sea-pirates from the Hebrides. Unlike most of his Fomorian kin, Breas was a handsome youth and completely without blemish. When King Nuada lost his hand and throne, the Tuathans assembled and elected this young man as his successor. Breas managed to keep Ireland for seven years. The Tuatha daoine expected him to show favouritism toward his fathers race, but were incensed when he refused to take action against the Fomorians who raided their villages. He was not, however, deposed for mismanagement as much as meaness. In those days an open hand was more important than a open heart, patronage being expected of the high king. "The knives of his people", it was noted, "were not greased at his table, nor did their breath smell of ale at the banquet.

Neither their poets, nor their bards, nor their satirists, nor their harpers, nor their pipers, nor their trumpeters, nor their jugglers, nor their buffons, were ever seen engaged in amusing them in assembly at his court." As a consequence there was constant grumbling among his retainers for the king represented the collective spirit of his people and meaness was considered a disgrace. To compound his niggarliness, Breas committed the unforgivable sin of insulting Cairbre, the greatest poet and songsmith in the land. The poets required a minimum of twelve years of apprenticeship. The lowest grade of bard had mastery of sixteen of the three hundred and fifty different metres of poetry. The king-bard had mastered all of these forms and could compose impromtu shorter poems on any subject which happened to be suggested. The poet-ollam was, additionally, a master of history, the antiquities and genealogies of the leading families of the land, and could recount them on request. Although poets were attached to certain principalities, they frequently went on circuit, visiting minor and major kings, chanting their praises in direct proportion to the patronage they received. Every poet travelled with a retinue of from ten to twenty-four attendants, but the most famous travelled with three or four times this prescribed number. All courts and residences were thrown open to a visit from the ollam which was usually restricted to a single night. In later days, poets sometimes imposed themselves on a particular prince for days, weeks, months or even years, his company being supported by the host. The tongues of the poets were feared because of their ability with satire, and the fees they received were usually voluntary and generous. Breas may have been unfamiliar with the customs of the Tuatha daoine respecting their poets. Cairbre expected a lavish banquet and quarters, but the King placed him in a bare cold apartment and presented him with a few dried

oat-cakes on a small platter. The ollam said nothing but departed with unusual haste and composed a withering satire, which was repeated throughout the land. Incensed by this final evidence of avarice, the people rose and drove this boorish Fomorian from the throne of Tara. They recalled King Nuada Airgead Lam (of the Silver Hand) and restated him as king in spite of his "blemish". Breas fled to the Hebrides, where he complained to his father Elatha. The latter collected a mighty sea-fleet and soon filled the ocean from Scotland to Eirinn with a host of Fomorians. Among these was Balor Beimann, a chieftain whose people occupied Tory Island, off the northwestern coast of the Tuathan island. Balor was reputed to live in a "crystal" palace which had the ability to collect, focus and direct sunlight with devastating effect against distant targets. It may be relevant that the Gaelic verb "bailim" still means "to gather or collect". This "bal-or", or "god of the sun" has been represented not as a technologist but as "Balor of the Evil Eye" or "Balor of the Piercing Eye" in Celtic myth: "His one eye was never opened but on the battlefield, when four men thrust a polished handle throught the lid to lift it. Then men died by the thousands from the venomous fumed that emanated from it."1 The palace of Balor was constructed by the Goban Saor (Gaelic, "mouthy sawyer, or carpenter). He and his son finished their construction for the this Fomorian but, "he did not wish to let them go back (to Eirinn), for fear they should make for another man a palace as good as his." While the builders were on the topmost scaffolds, Balor ordered the lower parts taken away, "for he wanted to let them die on the top of the building." This might have been the end of both carpenters, but the younger sawyer had developed a friendship with a girl of the clan, and passing, she suggested, "...It is easier to throw seven stones down than

Scherman, Ibid, p. 56.

to put one up..." The young man was able to reasonthis out, and soon he and his father began throwing stones to the ground. Hearing their fall, Balor rushed out and ordered the scaffolding replaced. Knowing they were not out of danger, the Goban Saor noted, "there is a crookedness in your work, and had I three tools left at home, I would straighten this wall, so that their would be no palace in the world comparable with this! My tools are: Crooked against crooked; corner against corner; and engine against deceit, and no man can bring them back but your son!" Hearing this, Balor allowed his son to voyage to Eirinn where he approached the wife of Goban Saor with the keywords. She immediately recognized them as a plea for help and led the Fomorian lad to a deep carpenter's chest. She asked the boy to retrieve the tools, and while he was bent over, pushed him in and locked the chest. She then sent word to Balor that his son was a hostage until young Goban and old Goban arrived safely home. The two sawyers were released with full pay, and Balor's son returned. Surprisingly, the Fomorian asked his departing guests to recommend a blacksmith "for putting irons on his palace, except the Gloss (champion cow)." 2 The two departing "guests" suggested Gavidjeen Go. When they arrived back in Eirinn, the Saors strongly urged Gavidjeen Go to be careful in contracting with Balor Beimann and accept nothing less than the Gloss as compensation for his work. It was generally known that this cow could fill twenty barrels with milk in a single day, so the man who possessed her would be wealthy. Balor consented to this agreement, knowing that the Gloss would only follow where the magical bye-rope was given. Since he did not give the rope to Mr. Go, Balor knew that the champion would eventually return to his own barns.

Colum, Ibid, p. 535.

Gavidjen Go was a practised blacksmith so he was able to promise swords to those who minded his new cow. One of these was Kian, son of Contje, who pledged his head against the loss of the animal. Kian managed this for the full day, but that evening, on returning her, was met by the Laughing Knight, who ran out to Kian and said, "The smith is about to temper your sword, and unless you are there to hold it, there will be no power with it when you weild it." Hearing this, Kian complied, but inside the smithery he was asked, "Where is the Gloss?" Kian thought she stood just outside the door, but rushing there he found the "Knight" and the Gloss gone. "Then you have forfeited your head! anvil that I may cut it off," demanded Go. Lay it upon the

"Give me three days and it will be returned." "I will allow that," said his adversary. Kian afterwrds tracked the Gloss to the northwestern corner of the land. Losing the trail at the edge of the ocean, "he wandered up and down the shore, plucking his hair from his head, in trouble after the Gloss." 3 Entirely at a loss, he noticed a man travelling on the sea in a currach (half spherical hide-covered boat). Kian called to him, and was soon confronted by Manaun MacLir, one of the gods of the sea. Manaun was one of two immortals in the Fomorian host, the other his father Ler, the supreme god of the sea. The former god lived in the deeps off the shores of the Isle of Man, but also had a land residence on the island itself. It was said that he sometimes harassed the Irish countryside, coming ashore on foggy nights in the form of an animated triskelion. The triskelion was three bent legs radiating from a common

Colum, Ibid, p. 536.

centre; it became a three-armed symbol of the Isle of Man.




Fortunately for Kian, Manaun was allied with the Tuathans and had little sympathy for Balor. When the quest was explained, the sea-god offered transportation to Tory Island in return for half of anything taken from the island, excepting the Gavidjeen Gloss. Although he travelled in a simple currach Kian found himself instantly transported to his destination. On the far shore he found the Fomorians eating raw food, and being a culinary expert he welcomed them to his fire and a new taste experience. These individuals went to Balor Beimann, who hired Kian as tender of fire, cook and story-teller to his court. The two sons of Balor, in training as druid on another island, had warned his father that his destiny was to be killed by a son of his own daughter. As a consequence, Balor had isolated her, and personally attended to providing her with food. Since she was always in the presence of a guardian woman, the Fomorian chieftain felt certain she would never become impregnated. In his own interest, Manaun had gifted Kian with an enchantment that allowed him to open locks and shut them behind himself, knowing this would give him access to the hidden treasure of his rival. Noticing Balors unusal food delivery schedule, Kian followed him and unlocked a door in the inner keep where he found the two woman. He introduced them to his cookery and even if the elder woman had not been mute, she afterwards favoured the stranger. This was even more true of Balor's daughter for in nine months "a child happened to her." Discovering this Kian thought it might be wise to resign from service. When asked why he was leaving Kian would only admit: "It is because accidents have happened to me since I came to this island." Not content with this, Balor consulted one of his sons who was home on leave. The lad was not certain what Kian meant but suggested, "your story-teller, cook and fireman will give you sufficiency of trouble."

Overhearing them, Kian decided on an early departure and went to his girl-friend, who agreed that he had little choice. As a parting gift she gave him the byre-rope which magically drew the Gloss after it as well as charge of their infant son. THe Tuathan went immediately to the place where Manaun had deposited him on the shoreline and whistled down the wind, after which the god came "in an instant". Balor was not far behind and Manaun advised, "Make haste for Balor will try to drown us. Nevertheless, have little fear for my magic is greater than his!" Kian jumped into the currach, and the gloss followed the rope. Bal;or used his eye to raise the sea behind them, but Manaun countered by raising a hand which immedistely calmed the sea before them. In his wrath Balor set fire to the sea, but Manuaun threw asingle magical stone into the waters and the fires went out. On the Irish shore the sea god turned to Kian son of Contje for half of the "treasure" of Tory Island. "I have nothing but this boy," admitted the Tuathan, "and him I will not divide but give to you entirely." "For this, thanks," returned Manaun, "this is a prize. Here is the champion who will be known as Dul Dauna (Gaelic, the one who will cause another to fall), and he will defeat Balor of the Evil Eye. Among the Tuathans, this god-giant was later called Lugh. Presumably he was about sixteen feet at maturity for this was a later meaning of the word "lug". This word also described a powerful but clumsy individual but the godson of Manaun MacLir was hardly a clumsy oaf, this connotation having arisen after the worshippers of Lugh were defeated by a race known as the Anglo-Saxons. These events seem to have occurred while Kian was spying in Ireland on behalf of the Tuatha daoine. Lugh was not only the foster-son of a god, but possessed many of the "mortal powers", or magic, of his birth-father's people. Because of this he was also named Sab Ildanach (Gaelic, the stem of all arts). When the Tuatha daoine contemplated an actual invasion they sent Lugh ahead as a scout. He went

the court of KIng Eochais at Tara, supposedly seeking employment. In those days foreigners were not excluded, but no one was admitted membership in the inner circle unless he could add a unique skill to the court. The doorkeeper, who barred Lugh's way asked the ground for his admission. Lugh noted that he was a saer (Gaelic, sawyer or carpenter), but the guardian assured him they had one in residence. Well, suggested Lugh "I am a very good goban (smith)." They also had an able goban. "A champion?" That post was also filled. In turn Lugh offered to serve as a filid (bard), baobh (magician), cupbearer, goldsmith, or cupbearer. Told that the Firbolgs had an expert in all these formsa of magic, Lugh responded finallyu with these words: "Go then, warden to your king. Ask him if any stands within these walls who is master of all these arts, for they are my profession. If there is my equal, I will not insist on admittance to Tara." King Eochaid was overjoyed to add this well-favoured man-god to his court, and afterwards created the post of ard-ollam (chief poet) for him, declaring Lugh the chief professor of all arts and sciences. Unfortunately, Lugh afterwards abandoned this tribe and assisted the Tuatha daoine. In the legends, Lugh has been particularly noted as a builder of chariots, a worker in metals, a medicine-man, a poet and a composer of novel magical spells. He was later declared the god of music since he was able to charm people into sleep when he played on his harp. Among warriors he was termed Lugh of the Long Arm because of his proficiency with the spear and the sling, and it was rumoured that he could defeat an entire army without assistance. He was named the father of the mortal gods, in particular Cuchulainn, who shared this last attribute. It may be recalled that it was Lugh who carried a flesh-seeking magic spear with him to Ireland from the islands of the north. These abilities were useful in the conquest of the

Firbolgs and their confrontation with the Fomorians. The latter situation seemed to have been regarded very seriously, for legend says that the Tuatha daoine "summoned every man, from the chief sorcerer and the cupbearer to the smith and the charioteer, to contribute his special talent to the confounding of the enemy." The druids assured the chieftains that they would cast the twelve mountains of Ireland against the enemy "and roll their summits against the ground." Others of their profession said they would arrange "three showers of sky-fire to rain upon the faces of the Fomorian host," an act guaranteed to rob them of "twothirds of their strength". This battle also marked the first use of the witch-bottle, which is still a tool of that craft. This required obtaining urine, hair and nail-parings from the enemy. These were placed in bottles and heated to cause evaporation of the liquid. All during the process it was considered that this act would "bind urine in their own bodies" and terminate in the death of the giants when the substance was entirely gone. The druids arranged a similar fate for the horses of the enemy. The first meeting of the Tuatha daoine and the Fomorians was in the western sea off Ireland. The Dul Dauna and his mentor, Manaun MacLir were at sea when they saw the fleet of Balor Beimann sailing in their direction. Lugh put a "ring" (the precursor of the telescope) to his eye and saw his grandfather pacing the deck of his ship. According to some accounts, Balor was killed on this occassion when Lugh shot a "dart" into his eye. 4 Others say he survived to participate in the lands battle at Sligo. This is probably the case, as he is known to have felled King Nuada with his venomous eye. This effective weapon of war was in part matched by the magic "cauldron of the deep" which the Tuatha daoine had stolen from Ler himself. It was employed by the "leech", or medicine-man, named Diancecht who was said to have used it to make fighting men of the dead, provided their heads

Padraic Colum, Ibid, p. 538.

were intact and their spinal cords unsevered. Unfortunately this process did not restore the souls of men, and thousands were lost before Balor confronted Lugh. Challenged by "the light and fearless one" Beimann opened his single gigantic eye, "to look upon this babbler who converses with me." In that instant a stone entered his eye with such force it carried the organ through the back of Balor's skull." Lugh seems to have been unaware that this act killed his grandfather and fulfilled a druidic prophecy. After that, the slaying of the giants was likened to the fall of stars "as many as are in the heaven...as flakes of snow, as the blades of grass beneath the herds." 5 THe Fomorians were then beaten back into the sea, "from which they never again emerged." In truth, they never did return in force, and their passing is marked on the plain of Sligo by numerous rock cairns and pillars. The plain itself is even now referred to in Gaelic as "the Plain of the Pillars of the Fomorians."

It will be recalled that Lugh and Nuada were not only the creators of the world of men, but the boys who slew their father and despoiled his undersea kingdom, transferring the spirit of that land to the navel of Ireland. There is no question that these lads and their kin were at the very least close relatives of the Fomorians. They never liked to emphasize this relationship. They claimed that their progenitors were the Dagda and his wife Danu, or Dana sometimes called Anu, Boann or Boyne. These actually seem to have been the thinly-disguised matriarch and patriarch of the Firbolgs, the god Don and the goddess Domnu. Peter Ellis notes that Domnu name suggests a “womb” or an “abyss of the sea,”and that “through the various sagas and tales an eternal struggle is seen between the Children of Domnu, representing darkness and evil, and the Children of Danu, representing light and goodness.” The Katherine Scherman,Ibid, p. 56 quoting The Second Battle of Mag Tured from Ancient Irish Tales.

undersea island of An Domhain was said to contain not only the Cauldron of Regeneration, but also Tech Duinn, “The Arrival Place for (Dead) Men.” Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the sea god Domh is often “equated with the Dagda and Bilé.” The latter land god is of course cognate with the Brythonic Bel or Belinos, and he is frequently referred to as “the Father of the (land) Gods and Men and a husband to Dana.” All of these seems to have been a deliberate snow job and the Tuathans did what they could to further distance themselves from the shape-changing sea-people by stating that the latter were actually of the House of Ler, which was ruled by the only remaining immortal among the sea-gods with the help of his son Manann mac Ler. The latter is often spoken of as the boatman of Tech Duinn, the one responsible for ferrying men in both directions to and from Ireland. In the old days, the death-god was also seen as a life-god, whose charge was to maintain a balance in the weight of souls inhabiting lands in the east and the west. Those who died went west; those slated for reincarnation were carried eastward on Manan’s ship. Interestingly Bile is sometimes given Manan’s duties especially with respect to the continental Gauls. All this leads to the strong suspicion that the Dagda and Domh are nothing more than alter-egos, a good and an evil face for the creator-god. It is also true that Lugh is frequently pictured as the boatman between the lands of men and the Otherworld. Representations of him aboard a sailing ship, with a sun orb leading his self-propelled craft, are among the most frequent in Gaelic art. In the event that he is given this role his antagonist, or altered form, is usually identified as Cromm dubh, “the Bent Black One.” It is said that the new invaders were called the Tuatha daoine, because they were the “people of Danu.” More exactly they were those”of” the goddess Aione or Aine. In the Irish dialect these people were the Tuatha danann, the folk of Ann, both variants of Danu. In the Middle Irish tongue she was entitled Dan, and her name harks back to da, the verb “to give.” Like the Dagda, the “giver of the day,” she had an opponent in Domnu, whose descendant was

the Black Dannis, or Annis, a witch-like hag feared in southern England. Her particular land residence was the Paps of Anu, two breast-shaped mountains in County Kerry, which point to her fecundity and position as the mothergoddess and a fertility figure. Any king of the northern Irish had to be ritually married to this sovereign-goddess before he could claim legitimacy. She had a number of local named as Danu brighida, “the firey one,” and thus was sometimes called bridd, “the bride,” or Brigit (in the latter days she was canonized as Saint Brigid). She was also entitled the Basfinne indicating her role as a dark lady,the consort of Don, and a part-time resident of the Otherworld. In this form she was the triune goddess whose parts were Mhorrigan, Badb or Mebd, and Macha. Like the Norse goddess Hel she was often referred to as the “parti-coloured goddess.” In earlier times, before the word tartan was available, this term was the one most often used to describe the colourful wearing apparel of the Celtic upper classes. She is also Skadi, the Old Norse goddess of winter, who just might have given her name to Skadilande, which the English called Scotland. The Scandinavians suggested that Skadi was the form assumed by Hel when she snowshoed the earth accompanied by her vicious winter-wolves. Here it is necessary to recall that the Norse often referred to the Scots as the Hellr, “Hellers,” or “people of the goddess Hel.” There are as many Gaulish as Gaelic references to this lady, but she is most often given as Brigando, from which our word brigand. Among the Britons she was Brigantia and there was a race of Celts named the Brigantines, situated in the north of England and in east central Ireland, who worshipped her as the goddess of love, hearth and home. In this incarnation she was often spoken of as the daughter of Dagda, but the fact of incest was never considered a crime in royal families. It is said that the lady had three sons. They in turn “had but one son among them,” whose name was Ecne, “Poetic Knowledge.” It was the long-lived Tuan who

described the Daoine sidh as “gods,” and they might have seemed so to the unfortunate Firbolgs.. Tuan said that they came to Ireland “out of heaven,” bringing with them the four treasures of their race. They were supposedly wafted out of a cloud onto a stretch of land in western Connaught, and when the vapours cleared, scouts from Tara discovered them comfortably encamped at Moytura. We are fairly confident they did not come down from the North Star, in fact the name Tuatha and the fact that they landed on the western coast of Ireland tells us almost everything about their origin: In the Old Irish tongue tuath meant a populace. This word is also seen in Welsh, tud, a country or nation, in the Cornish tongue, tus, and in the Brythonic dialect, tud. This form was also used by the Gauls and indicated a nation. It is also a word related to the Gaelic tir, land, which is the Latin terra, having the same meaning. There is also the Gaelic adjective tuto , “well omened”, or “good,” or “left-handed,” turning in a counter-clockwise direction. Think of Ireland, consider a counterclockwise sailing from its shores, and you will finish in the Labrador Basin. No other route is really feasible since the Gulf Stream and the prevailing winds of lower latitudes prevent any westward movement without great manipulation of the sails. Finally the modern word tuath is still connected with “people,” but now has special reference to tenant farmers, rustics and “northerners.” Further Tuath is the Anglo-Latin Tyle or Thule, a “hidden place,” a name often visited upon mythic islands in the Atlantic. In the years of post-medieval exploration the Ultima Thule was Iceland, but it was never suggested that this was the only “secret place” in the ocean. In the first days the Tuatha daoine were routinely described as “warrior-magicians,” but they were eventually defeated and reduced to farming the most distant of the rockiest most fen-ridden barrens in Ireland and Scotland. Some researchers have connected the Tuatha daoine, or danann, with the “Beaker People,” who arrived about the

year 2000 B.C., precisely fitting the mythological timeframe. The big drinking pots, which they made, have been found widely spread throughout Europe and these finds led to the conclusion that they came to Britain out of one of the continental Low Countries. Whatever their source the newcomers brought a revolution in field monuments. Like those before them, the Beaker Folk buried their dead, but where the earlier islanders had preferred communal graves, these people laid each individual in a solitary place and raised perfectly circular barrows over the bodies. In really stony country these round soil-covered barrows became cairns. These monuments are still discernible at 20,000 sites throughout Britain, and clustered on the brows of a hill, they are the most commanding feature in many parts of the country. The skeletons of the invaders show that they were taller, more round-headed, and possessed more sharply defined features than the Firbolgs, who were a smaller, more slender, somewhat “Mediterranean”type. As the Beaker Folk were found buried with the equipment of bowmen and with flint, copper or bronze daggers and stone battle-axes, it has to assumed that they were a population of warriors. One archaeologist has said that “until, they became merged with the islanders, had formed an élite and had an influence out of proportion to their numbers.” It was never claimed that the newcomers invented the cromleage or “stone-henges,” but they did have a part in their development. They were engaged in the second phase of the development at Stonehenge, where they set up the famed bluestone circles. They were also present during the main period of construction as Avebury, where Beaker-style burials have been found at the base of individual stones. Most scientific researchers consider generalizations about neolithic religions rash, but there is some suggestion that the Firbolgs were mainly concerned with worshipping earth and fertility deities while the Tuathans became more involved with celestial divinities, “in particular with the

cult of the sun.” Stonehenge and Avebury stand in Wessex but there are equally imposing circles in Brittany and Scotland, although they were never very numerous, or as elaborate, in Ireland. In these places, pottery associated with the Beaker people has also been found, although it is admitted that many of these structures predate the usually datings at about 1800 B.C. Wherever these newcomers set up camp, their descendants were able to develop societies in which bronze had little real utility. The warrior-magicians made little use of copper and bronze, and it was they who took the lead in developing the Cornish and Irish tin mines which were fully operational by 1600 B.C. The main source of their wealth was cattle, but they were also involved in trading the metals they smelted, and Irish gold, on the continent. By the beginning of the last millennium B.C. bronze was freely available, and the whole appearance of the countryside had altered from a wilderness with the spread of villages and regular fields, cultivated with ploughs rather than the wooden hoes and crooked sticks of the past. After their defeat by the Milesians, about the year 1000 B.C., they were renamed the Daoine sidh (which, see), or “Side-hill people.” The Tuatha daoine were afterwards legally restricted to the side-hills, forbidden travel except at the Quarter, or Rent-paying Days, and were not permitted to act as professionals or hold positions of power. MacManus has noted that they were not a single race in historic times, but remnants of the Fomors, the Firbolgs, and the Tuathans, "all ground down by rents and compulsory toil." In the first century after the advent of Christ they overthrew their bondage to the Milesians under the leadership of Cabri Cinn Cait (the Cat-headed), a chief living in Leinster. He managed to promote a secret conspiracy that ended when the Aithech Tuatha, “Giant Tuathans,” invited all of the Milesian royal family to a great feast on a plain in County Galway. There the hosts fell upon their guests and killed everyone present. Since

that time this place has born the name Magh Cro, the Bloody Plain. From that time the "side-hill folk" ruled for five years with Cinn Cait as their ard righ. The Milesians later said of this period: "Evil was the state of Ireland; fruitless her corn, fruitless her rivers, milkless her cattle, penniless her fruit, for there grew in those years but one acorn on the stalk." On the death of Cabri, his son Morann the Just refused the crown and suggested it be given to the Milesian heir. Feradach Finnfeactnach, the “Fair-righteous one,” was thus recalled from exile in Pictland, but his reign was as unhappy as that of Caibri. Having tasted revolution and power the Aithech Tuatha were unwilling to settle down and even the restored chieftains were unhappy with their positions. Under the next monarch, Fioacha of the White Cows, some of the Milesian princes and the leaders of the Tuathans banded together and overturned the throne, replacing the monarch with Elim of Ulster, who by supporting the working-class, held power for twenty years. Eventually the Milesians recalled the son of Fiacha from exile in Britain, rallied to him and killed Elim. Ironically, the new king was entitled Tuathal Feachtmar, the “Desired,” for it was he who fought 133 battles against the Tuathans. In the end, he broke these tribes and scattered them so widely they were never again a force in Gaelic history. "These fugitive hill-dwellers, caught in twilight and moonlight, by succeeding generations of Milesians, coupled with the seemingly magical skills they exercised, gave foundation for the later stories of enchanted folk, fairies, living under the Irish hills." T.W. Rolleston thinks that "Christian" historians have been embarassed by the fact that Ireland was traditionally conquered, and held by the overtly pagan Tuatha daoine. Katherine Scherman represents this point of view: "Between the Fir Bolg and Milesian (invasions) some historians have inserted the invasion of the wholly mythical Tuatha De Danann, investing the old Celtic gods with human

form and slotting them neatly into synchronized (and presumably legitimate) history. Besides their conquest of Ireland and the magic-ridden battles this gives rise to, the De Danann participated in a series of romantic and heroic adventures in which there was no dividing line between the supernatural and the erathly, and in which unreality approaches the absurd."2 Rolleston explains that such a race could not be considered as progenitors of Christian Ireland: "They had to be got rid of, and a race of less embarassing antecedents substituted for them. So the Milesians were fetched (again) from "Spain" (our italics) and endowed with the main characteristics, only more humanized, of the people of Dana."3 The sons of Miled were considered as "an entirely human race" yet their origin was as problematical as that of the Tutha daoine. They were led by King Miled, or Milus (confering with the Gaelic "milidh", a champion), who is represented as a god in inscriptions from ancient Hungary. There he is said to be the son of Bile (the Gaelic "bil" or "bile", the lips of the mouth, a good politician) and Bile is identified as the god of Death. His counterpart in Gaul (France) was Dis, corresponding with the Anglo-Saxon Teus, whose name appears in Tuesday. The Romans identified Dis as Dispater (the Father Dis) and Julius Caesar said this was the god from whom all Gauls claimed descent. His name is embodied in a number of compound words which suggest his character, viz. disturbance, disaster, disapproval, dislike. In some respects Nuada may be considered a death god, with Lugh representing the life force, But Balor, the Lord of the "ord", or hammer, is more closely identified with chaos and the Land of the Dead. TUATHAL, TUAITHAEL , from tuath + seal (from deiseil, left-handed), left, northward, indicating misfortune; after the fay-people known as the Tuatha daoine, originally the word meant "good." A root may be su, turning toward the left, following the left-handed path; wrong, awkward. "It is not right to come to a house "tuathal", i.e. northward. Here the word is used as the reverse of "deiseil" or sunward.

Witches come that way. It is a good rule to keep on the west side of the road, and at all times to keep sunward of unlucky people." In taking a drink when the liquid goes tuathal this indicates that it enters the windpipe causing choking, (Celtic Monthly, p. 163). See above entries for associated words.

TUATHAL TEACHTMHAIR. Tuathal the “Legitimate,” High King from 130 to 160 A,D, The father of Fithair and Dairine, married to the bigamous Eochaid of Leinster. Their predicament led finally to the infamous Boru Tribute. Tuathal was a Connaughtman and during a rebellion his mother fled to Britain where he was born. Returning to Ireland he rose through the ranks to high-kingship and created the new province of Meath, which became the personal estate of the high-kings. Present day Meath and Westmeath together make up about half of the former lands of ancient Meath. The name has been suggested as derived from the earlier Teuto-valos, “Ruler of the People.” The conquests of this king have been equated with those of Mug Nuadat who established rule over southern Ireland, and was himself connected with the earlier god Nuada. In each case the king was of divine origin, an eponymous deity of the district he conquered. Rice says that Tuathal is ”one of the legendary Goidelic conquerors of Ireland.” She suggests that he “bears a name which is from the earlier Teuto-valos, the “Ruler of the People.” The god Teus or Teutates was better known in Gaul than in Britain leading to the theory that he may be equated with the Romano-Gaullish Mars Toutates. There is an inscription on Roman artifacts from Old Carlisle equating this god with the semi-Brythonic Cocidius. All this suggests that he is “one of the oldest and most powerful Celtic deities,” who may have arisen on the Continent. He is considered “the god of soldiers,” and was particularly known in the northwest of Britain. “that he may have had other names must not be overlooked... so Vitris and Belatucadros may have been other names for this tribal god, especially as dedications to these three deities largely coincide (geographically).” He more certainly matches the

Gaelic ‘Ues or Hues, who was also entitled Hu.

TUATHANACH, farmer, rustic, peasant, husbandman, agriculturalist, layman; tuathanacas, farming, tuath, the common-folk, tuathlach, unlucky, left-handed. The Firbolg ancestors of the Scots lived at Tara, in ancient Hibernia, a place with associations that gave its kings prestige. MacManus says this is location on the River Boyne is where one finds, "the great mounds that had been the burial chambers and temples for a Bronze Age People." In particular he has noted the Brugh na Angus, or Dwellingplace of the god Angus, patron of youth and free-love. He has said that the early kings of Tara "were representatives of the divinity that brought about agricultural increase (like Odin and Aod), and their proper office was the performance of rites that promoted fertility. The divine folk lived in the Brugh. From it came the brides for the king's ritual marriages..." TUATH GAOTH. The North Wind, often regarded as a deity. TUATHLACH, Tuathach, a handed). ominous, unlucky, northern Highlander awkward, left-handed. (and many were left-

TUATHROINN, Norway. TUGHA, thatch, covering, Ir. tuighe, EIr. tuga, to cover. See tigh, tuatha. Although there are now few remains of shrines to tribal gods there are a few remains which suggest that they were built to house idols and were placed amidst groves of trees, near wells, sacred springs or the death mounds of god-heroes. Traces of wickerwork were found at Ballachulish, Argyllshire, Scotland. Popular tradition suggests that these framing members were thatched. The biennial thatching and un-thatching of shrines continued until the present century. If a woman dropped her load of roofing material this was considered unlucky and all that had been done was torn down so that the shrine could be

rebuilt from scratch. In an early Irish tale feathers served for thatch and the shrine was described as an entrance to the Otherworld. TUIGIN, TUGEN, tuig, to understand, the English gusto. The poetic laurels, the poet's many-coloured mantle made of the skins and wings of birds. This material was used as birds were observed to be masters of cadence; thus it was supposed that men gained the power to sing like birds. “Mog ruith’s skin of the bull was brought to him and also his enchennach (bird-dress) with it’s flying-wings. Then he rose up, in company with the fire of the earth and flew into the air and the heavens.” TUIL, a flood, OIr. tuile, from the root tu, to swell, Eng. thumb, tumid etc. OIr. ool, to abound, to flood, all, ale, EIr. oll, great, thus tuille, more, t + oln, “much more.” TUIL, AN, no longer tells us intending the World-Flood. The Cin na Drom-Snechta which exists, but is quoted in the Book of Balleymote, that Hibernia, or Ireland, was approached by colonists just prior to the great World Flood.

The leader of the expedition was a remarkable woman whose maiden name is given as h’Erni , and this is perhaps the source of Eriu, the early Irish name for Ireland. Her married name seems to have been Banbha Cass-ir , or Cesair often translated as the “Lady Caesar.” She was the daughter of Bith, who is sometimes described as “a son of Nodha.” It is said that Bith, Finntan and Ladra built an idol in the form of a standing stone. This structure spoke to them warning them that the land of their birth would be submerged by a deluge and strongly suggested that they construct a ship and sail away if they hoped to escape their fate. The cromlech was unable to say exactly when catastrophe might fall upon them so they sailed into the ocean as soon as they could gather an expedition. The planning may have been a little too hurried for it is noted that “Bith’s venturesome daughter” left land with

“fifty fair damsels to solace her warriors three.” Ladhra served as pilot to the ship which spent seven years on the open sea before arriving in Ireland. Cassir’s chief advisor was another lady named Barran, whose name is sometimes given as Barrfhind, the “leader of the white-ones (women).” Once landed, the expedition broke into three camps each “serviced” by one of the three younger men. Ladra was at first hurt by an unequal division which left him with only seventeen “soul-mates,” but these proved more than equal to his sexuality and he was soon reported “dead from a surfeit of women,” the first man so recorded in Irish history. The amazonian leader attached herself to Finntann but a ballad-sheet (1913) tells us that these people were ill-fated: Bith died at the foot of his mountain, And Ladra on the top of his height; And Cassir by Boyle’s limpid fountain, Ere rushed down the Flood in its might. The spirit of the drowned men passed into the mountains that now bear their name, but that of Cassir, being most potent, became the astral-genius for the entire island. In later mythology Banbha, literally, the “fat pig,” is a name given to the land to suggest its productivity. The uncapitalized Gaelic word also cites “land left fallow for a year.” Note also that this “goddess” was, from time-totime, reincarnate as one or more of a triune, the other two being Folta and Éiru. With her sisters this queen of sovereignty met the Milesian invaders of Ireland and each asked that her name be attached to the country, Each name has been used in Irish literature but it is Éiru that was finally adopted as the political name. Finntann was not caught by the flood waters. A cautious man, he secretly constructed and provisioned a tul-tunna or “flood-barrel” which he anchored at the crest of the Irish mountain which still bears that name. When he saw the waters closing about him this “gentleman” quietly stole away from his “wife” and...

For a year, while the waters encumber The Earth, at Tul-tunna of strength, I slept, none enjoyed such sweet slumber As that which I woke from at length. In an alternate myth, Finntann shape-changed himself into s salmon and so remained until the skies cleared. However he managed survival, duplicity had its rewards, and Finntann, the grandson of Nodha, having escaped his fate, lived afterward, as a virtual immortal, at Dun Tulcha , in southwestern Kerry. He lived for a very long time, once commenting that he had passed one day through the woods of west Munster and brought home the red berry from a yew tree. He planted it and saw it grow to a size which allowed “a hundred champions to recline beneath its foliage.” When it died he had seven huge vats made from its wood. When the hoops of the vats decayed from old age he made other objects from the wood, until all was finally reduced to a single wooden cup. At that, he outlived the cup which fell into dust while he continued in ruddy good health. Thousands of years later, Fintann was called to court by Diarmuid mac Carroll to solve a question of the limits of the Royal properties. When he travelled he brought with him nine companies of direct descendants, and nine additional companies of his close kin. Incidentally the name Finn-tann translates as “the slender white one,” and this may be descriptive of his condition on emerging from his long sleep at sea. Because these people were spoken of as the descendants of Nodha, the writers of the Christian era assumed that they were the “sons of the Biblical “Noah.” These seemed to be reinforced by the myth that they came to Ireland from a land named Tir-nan-Bas, which they took to mean “the Land of Basques,” more-or-less equated with modern Spain. It was, therefore, supposed that the folk of the patriarch named Bith or Ith must have sailed out of the Eastern Ocean, now known as the Mediterranean Sea. Nodha is, of course, a form of Nuada (pronounced nood-a), the

twin-brother of the creator god Lugh (pronounced look-a) and has no connections with Christian mythology. Bas is the Gaelic word for “death,” so their origin was in “The Land of the Dead, ” which traditionally lay on an “island” somewhere in the Atlantic. This interpretation makes their seven year journey to Ireland more plausible than a cruise along the length of Mediterranean. The Bas-breton, or Basques, probably received their names from their war-like habits, as well as from the fact that they claimed decent from the “Lords of Death.” The place where Fintann’s folk settled was ultimately named Munster and, as we have said, it was a province in the south. The name is an englished form of the Gaelic Muhan with the Old Norse ster ending. Earlier forms were Mumu and Muma. The Munster kings only grudgingly admitted to kinship with other people and only recognized the high-kingship at Tara in the ninth century A.D. Munster was itself divided into five principalities, reflecting the ancient political divisions of the entire countryside. Later it had two major divisions. There are several things that separate Munster from all other places in Britain. First, it had a proud association with the Bas-finn, or Bafinn, the triune goddess of fate, who the Norse called the Val-kyra, or the Nornr. Second , they had off their shores an island named Tech Duinn, the staging ground of the dead, where all the shades of the dead supposedly gathered before being shipped out to the Otherword in the west. Finally, the ruling house of Munster was Taigh Domh. “The House of Don,” or “Doom.” In the ancient tales it is always Munster that is represented as the primal world or place of origins. Because it had this reputation every invader tried to legitimize his landing by sending some part of his fleet to these shores. Although the northerners said otherwise, the kings of Munster always traced their descent from Lugaid son of Ith a mariner who is said to have sailed to Ireland eastward out of the Atlantic Ocean. TUINE, terror, dread, alarm, confusion. Obs. tuinneamh,

Death, tuinnse, a fatal blow caused by Fate. TUINNEAMH, obs. Death. See next. TUINNEASACH, deathful, based on tuinneamh, tuinnidh, firm, hard, immovable, fixed in place. death, cf.

TUIREADH, a dirge, a lamentation in song and verse, Ir. tuireamh, dirge, a druid, the clergy. The root is tuirse, sadness. ON. god Thor. TUIREANN, “Tower of Angles.” This god, usually identified as the son of Ogma and Etain, had children by the goddess Bridd: viz. Brian, Iuchar and Iucharbha. His Clann Tuireann is clearly identified as some foreign brood, for their very name says, “people of Thor.” These are the out-dwellers who occupied Eilean Tuir, or Thor’s Island, which is Torry Island, northwest of Ireland. As this was the main Irish redoubt of the bloodthirsty Fomorians they may equate with early Norse pirates. Note also Turdulian or Turdentalian, a resident of the old region of Tartessos in southern Spain. This Celt-iberian area was said to be located about the Baetis River immediately northwest of the Straits of Gibraltar. These people were reputed to live beyond the century mark and to be so wealthy they “used silver feeding troughs and wine jars.” They may have been done in by the Carthaginians or by some natural disaster. In any event, the trading city of Tartessos disappeared under circumstances reminiscent of Atlantis. His Irish offspring, represented in the Clan Tuireann, was at odds with Clan Cian. In the tale of which we speak, Lugh, the god of the sun, is represented as the son of Cian Contje (the Handy One). At that time in Irish history, Lugh had just finished off his training under his foster-father Manan mac Ler, and had returned from the western Land of the Living with the Boat of Manan, which could travel anywhere on land or sea, following the helmsman’s thoughts, and the magical sword Fragarach, which could cut through any mail. Feeling well-equipped to face the Fomorians he appeared before the

Tuatha daoine as “the rising of a sun on a summer’s day.” At the next tribute-paying time, under Lugh’s leadership, the Tuatahans attacked the tax-gatherers and sent their heads back to the sea kingdom. Balor of the Evil Eye then made ready his fleets, instructing his captains to make fast to the island with cables, so that it could be towed into the far north as soon as the Irish were defeated. Lugh was by no means certain that he could prevail and lusted after “certain magical instruments,” which he knew could help his cause. Nevertheless, the story says that Lugh sent his father Cian into the northern lands to summon what allied might be found. On his way into Ulster, near Dundalk, he met the three brothers Brian, Iuchar and Iucharba, the children of Tuireann. Knowing there was some antagonism with this clan, Cian sensibly converted himself into a pig and joined a wild herd rooting on the plain. The brothers, however, recognized the father of Luigh, and Brian wounded him with a cast of his spear. At that Cian changed back into human form. Brian was pleased, saying, “I would liefer kill a man than a pig,” But the mortally wounded god smiled in return noting: “Better for you if you had slain a pig, for that requires no payment of blood-money, and now you must pay the eric demanded for the death of a man. Never shall greater eric be demanded than that you will be asked to pay by the avenger of my blood.” Thus the start of the life and death cycle among men. Hoping to avoid the charge that they had killed the god-giant with weapons, Brian and his kin stoned Cian to death. Shortly after Lugh passed across the plain where his father lay dead, and the death-head cried out demanding revenge. Lugh raised a cairn above the body and then went to the High King demanding justice. The king agreed that Lugh could have the three executed or demand an eric as he pleased, and Lugh chose the latter, asking the sons of Thor to bring back from distant lands seemingly common objects: three apples from the Orient; the healing pig-skin of King Tuis (the god Tyr); the spear of King Piscar; the

horses of King Dobhar; the magic pigs ofKing Easal of the Golden Pillars (Gibraltar); the whelp of the king of Ioruaidh (the Red Island); and the cooking spit of three women from Fianchuibhe. Finally the three were to give three victory shouts from the Hill of Miodchaoin in their own country. The brothers bound themselves by oath to make this restitution in order to clear themselves of guilt and avoid the penalty promised by Cian. With infinite daring the three adventurers went to the Mediterranean and eventually sailed back to their homeland with everything needed except the cooking-spit. It gradually became apprent that Fianchuibhe was no normal island, but one beneath the western sea. To get there Brian had to “borrow” one of the sea-helmets of the Daoine mara. Once equipped he was able to descend to the land of “thrice fifty sea-women,” and there seized the golden spit that rotated over the fires of the sea. The ordeal of the hill came last. Here the travellers encountered the property owner, the giant Miodchaoin, who they had to kill. Mortally wounded by him, they gave their cries of victory, but with these sounds surrendered their lifespirits to Bile, the death-god, the alter-ego of Lugh. Although dead, they returned to their father’s house where the aged man-god pleaded for the loan of the rejuvenating pig-skin (which represents the “pig-god” Cian) to restore them. The implacable Lugh refused and all four of these ancient “gods” perished. TUIRGEIS, “Thor’s magic.” In latter day viking attacks, the Norse had a great pirate-chief in Tuirgeis, who thought of himself as the restorer of paganism, and potential lord of the Irish. He came to the region with 120 warships, and ten to twelve thousand warriors. To help deface Christianity he took possession of Armagh, which had become Saint Patrick’s See, and converted his church into a pagan temple, making himself the high priest of the reinstated worship of Odin and the Aesir. He further enraged the locals by making his wife Otta, the enthroned “goddess” of the church at

Clommacnois, the second most holy site in Christian Ireland. The foreigners who resided in Ireland regarded Tuirgeis as their sovereign although he was hardly a king of the Irish. His ablest Irish opponent was Niall the provincial king of Ulster. About the year 845, he was taken prisoner by the king of Meath, and afterward accidently (or otherwise) drowned in Lake Owel. After his death the Norsemen fought their way out of Ireland eventually exiting in their longships from the old Fomorian campgrounds at Sligo. After this the Danes became a force in the North Sea, and in the words of the annalist (847 A.D.), these people and the Old Norse “disturbed Ireland between them.” TULACH, a hillock, from tu, to swell, Lat. tumor, tuber, a swelling, Eng. thumb, a “swollen” finger. TULACH BEALLTUINN, the Beltane Hill. The seats of festival and fire in Scotland are well known, the best publicized being Arthur’s Seat near Edinburgh, Kinnoul Hill, Perth; Tulleybelton, the Tulach Beltane proper also in Perth. There is Tinto near Lanark. Iona and Balquidder have such hills as does Killin. There is Belling in Jed Water and Bellscairn between Gala and Leader. Needslaw is on tableland between Teviotdale and Liddesdale, while Tarbolton is situated in Ayrshire. TUR, a tower, anciently The Earth, sense, understanding, intelligence, sagacity, genius, Ir. tur, a turret, MEng. tour, the Lat. turris. the symbol of many of the northern clans in Scotland. The god the Scandinavians called Tyr who likely corresponds with the Gaelic Torr or Thor. As we have noted the Island of Samme lies east of Jutland, and may have been named for its location. On the other hand it may have housed shamans, for the infamous Teutonic Sword of Tyr has a connection with the place. Tyr, or Tue, has his name preserved in the English day known as Tuesday, and was the northern god of war, one whose personality is embedded in our word tyranny. Tyr is thought to have been omnipotent in the remote past, his throne

taken first by Thor, then by Odin, Niord and Frey. He was the god of all left-handed men, having lost his right arm while helping to chain the Fenris wolf within Hel's kingdom of Nifhelheim. Tyr's sword, entitled Tyrfing, or Tyr's finger, supposedly fell into his hand from the sky. This is probably a loose interpretation of actual events, since men are known to have fashioned weapons from meteoric iron. Some claim a dwarf was strong-armed into forging this weapon which never rusted, cut through iron and stone, fought of its own accord, and could not be sheathed until it tasted blood. The maker was the first victim of this sword, but before his death he declared that it would become "the bane of men". Tyr bore the weapon until his death, and knowing its dangers, had it buried with him on the island of Samme. Unfortunately it was recovered from his sepulchre by Lady Hervor a descendent of the "god" Odin. After several "unfortunate" incidents, Tirfing came into the possession of Herdreker, who unsheathed it without cause on three occasions, and watched in horror as the weapon guided his hand in cutting down his brother, King Harold of the Danes and his own foster son. The interesting point here is that the sword-bearer was "murdered by Scottish slaves who carried off Tirfing (presumably to their own country)." It was later returned to continental Europe where it was incorporated into an altar dedicated to Tyr. Here it was guarded by the female prophetesses known as the Norn, and was hung so that the blade reflected the first rays of the morning sun. During the Roman conquest of Germany and Denmark, the sword was taken by Roman soldiers who made a gift of it to the prefect Vitellus, who was elected Emperor of Rome on the weight of myth that surrounded the weapon. The weapon was stolen from him by a German mercenary who used it to kill Vitellus and win distinction for his legion. Afterwards it was possessed by Attila the Hun, who wielded it with terrible effectiveness. The Burgundian princess Ildico slew Attila using Tirfing while he lay

intoxicated in his bed. After that the magical sword disappeared for a long time, but was recovered by the Duke of Alva, who used it to advance the military interests of Charles V at Muuhlberg in 1547. The Franks afterwards celebrated annual martial games with the sword as a symbol of their paganism. but when they accepted Christianity it was given for safe-keeping to the archangel known as Saint Michael, who supposedly carries it to this day. Tyr was not the only "sword-god", Frey, the god of the sun, had a similar weapon which fought of its own accord, as did Irmin, the god of winter, and the Teutonic god known variously as Er, Heru or Cheru. Frey was sometimes referred to as Ingvi-Frey, or English Frey. This ancestor of the Anglo-Saxon tribesman, who took a large part of Britannia from the Celts, was said to be closely related to their god Saxnot (from "sax", a sword) and identical with Tyr. As Frey possessed a sister-consort called Freya, Saxnot had a sister-goddess entitled Irena Saxa, literally the Iron Sword. The Celtic sword-god was Nuada, the king of the Hibernian (Irish) race of warrior-magicians known as the Tuatha daoine (pronounced tootha dannan). It is conceivable that he may have carried Tyrfing home to the British Isles, for it is said that, "the Tuatha De Danaan lived in the northern isles of the world learning lore and magic and druidism and wizardry and cunning until they surpassed the sages of the arts of heathendom. There were four cities in which they learned lore and science and diabolic arts, to wit, Falias and Gorias, Murias and Findias. Out of Findias was brought the Stone of fal, which was in Tara...Out of Gorias the Spear that Lugh had...Out of Findias came the Sword of Nuada. When it was drawn from its deadly sheath no one ever escaped from it, and it was irresistible. Out of Murias was brought Dagda's Cauldron. No company ever went away from it unthankful (it supplied endless quantities of porridge and ale).

Nuada was very like Tyr having lost the use of his sword hand when it was struck off in battle by the giantwarrior Sreng. This left-handed god was deposed from the kingship because "blemished" individuals were excluded by law. He was restored to power when the white-smith named Creidne fashioned an artificial hand for him. This articulated device was constructed of silver and led to Nuada's nickname, Nuada Airgead Lam, Nuada of the Silver Hand. Tyr was known as Ziu among the Saubians of Germany, and their capital was at Ziusburg, the current city of Augsburg. This people venerating a sword-god held great sword-dances in his honour: "Sometimes the participants, forming two long lines, crossed their swords, points upward, and challenged the boldest among their number to take a flying leap over them..." The sword-dances of the Scots had similar intent. Tyr or Irmin is, of course, the evil twin of the god Odin, a deity sometimes identified as Uller, or with Odin's twin-brother's Vili and Ve. While the kings of the gods was on a long visit to earth, the winter-king, or kings, usurped his throne in Asgard and even took liberties with his wife Frigga. When Odin returned, order was re-established in the chaotic kingdom, and the northern pagans equated this victory with the annual conquest of summer over winter. Until the last century, Sweden held grand processions, known as the May Ride, in which a flower-decked May King (Odin) pelted a fur-enveloped Winter King (Uller) until the latter was put to flight. The first day of May is, of course, the Celtic Beltane, a time still marked in a few places by Maypole dances and the appearance of Odinesque figures such as Green George, Jack-In-The-Green, the May King, as well as Friggan "disguisers", for example the May Queen and Maid Marion. The return of the parsimonious winter-god is as certain as his annual defeat, and Uller invariably regains full control of both heaven and earth at the time the Celts called Samhuin.

In passing, note that the Anglo-Saxon god Uller was also known as Vulder, which corresponds with the German Holler, a god who was the husband of the goddess Holda, who owned the fields of earth, and covered them with thick snows so that they would yield better crops with the coming of spring. She corresponds with the Scandinavian giantess Skadi, the former wife of Niord (north), and the perfect mate for Uller, since she personified the cold of winter. The winter-death-war-sword gods were all alter egos of Odin, Woden or Wuotan. Further, Odin was a mortal-god, supposedly reincarnated in several semi-historical kings of the north. According to one legend he led his people out of Asia Minor in 70 B.C. when his country was severely pressed by the Romans. As he migrated westward across Europe he inadvertently conquered Russia, Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden leaving a trail of progeny, and a son on the throne of each new-found country. Arriving in Denmark he established his capital city of Odensoe (Odin's Island), which persists. He was more or less "welcomed" to Sweden by King Gylfi, who allowed him to found the city called Sigtuna. He established his major temple there, and was worshipped as a god well into his old age. In his infirmity, he assembled his followers and cutting his chest in nine places, committed ritual suicide, which allowed him to depart the earth and return to his native land, Asgard, where he promised to await the coming of true believers in his god-hood. This tale is very close to that of the Celtic god-hero Hu Gardarn (Hugh the Mighty). This Cymric deity came from a place the Welsh referred to as Gwlad yr Haf, or summer country, "a certain region of the east, perhaps Crimea." According to George Borrow, Hu had to leave the Near East because of overpopulation and the possibility of widespread famine. After leading his race across many lands, this Celtic god brought them at last to the islands of Britain, "a country of forests in which bears, wolves and bisons wandered, and of morasses and pools full of dreadful efync

or crocodiles (not an impossibility since the climate was much warmer at the Thermal Maximum, 6,000 years in the past)..." Hu found that the land was inhabited by "a few savage Gauls" (the Brythonic branch of the Celtic language group, also known as Britons). He subdued them and quickly began real-estate development: "...shortly after the arrival of Hu and his people the land became a smiling region, forests being thinned, bears and wolves hunted down, efync annihilated, bulls and bisons tamed, corn planted and pleasant cottages erected. After his death he was worshipped as the God of agriculture and war by the Cumry and the Gauls. The Germans paid him divine honours under the name of Heus, from which name the province of Hesse, in which there was a mighty temple devoted to him... The Scandinavians worshipped him under the name of Odin and Gautr, the latter word a modification of Gardarn, or mighty. The wild Finns feared him as a wizard and honoured him as a musician under the name Wainoemoinen...Till a late period the word Hu amongst the Cumry (Welsh) was used to express God- Gwr Hu, God knows being a common saying. Many Welsh poets have called the creator by the name of this creature, amongst others Iolo Goch: The mighty Hu who lives for ever, Of mead and wine to men the giver, The emperor of land and sea, And of all things that living be, Did hold a plough with his good hand, Soon as the Deluge left the land, To show to men both strong and weak, The haughty-hearted and the meek, Of all the arts, the heaven below The noblest is to guide the plough. Our writer has said that Hu Gardarn reminded him of the Arabian creator-god Al Kader Hu, but George Borrow was of Anglo-Saxon heritage, and Gaels are more likely to think of their ancient "fire-god" Aod, Cei or Kay. Linguistically, Aod and Hu are exact counterparts, variants within the Celtic tongue. The ancient word "aod" is identified with

fire, perhaps because the chief magic of the northern gods was their ability to produce swords such as the Tirfing. Hu Gardarn is credited with teaching the native Celts the various "arts of civilized life" including house construction, the sowing and reaping of grains, the taming of animals, the construction of wicker and hide boats, bee-keeping, winemaking, swamp-drainage, the making of lutes and pipes, and with introducing them to rhyme and verse, but he was elevated to godhood for possessing the knowledge needed to fuse metals. This allowed him to create tools for agriculture and weapons of war, which combined with his abilities at "moving armies in masses", made him an unbeatable opponent. Hu was a proper name taken up by many Welshmen as a testimonial to the old pagan god. As a surname it was written as Huon, a word used elsewhere when the Cymricspeakers referred to the sun. Aod has similar variations, thus men were once given names such as Aod Mac Aoid, the equivalent of Hu ap Huon, either of which can be translated into English as Hugh Machugh or Hugh Hughsson. The Welsh Hu has a close counterpart in the Anglo-Norman (Old French) Hue, which is the nominative case of Huon. The modern French equivalent is Hugues and the German, Hugo. The modern Italian form is Ugo, derived from the Latin Odo. The name Aod has been described by R.R. MacIan as one "so peculiarly Celtic as to have greatly puzzled orthographers, who anciently were accustomed to use the letter Y as best indicating the sound." The issue of pronunciation has never been resolved, which explains the great variety of "englished" spellings for Mhac Aoid or MacAoidh: Maccaa, Maccaw, Maccay, Macgaaa, Macgaw, Macgee, Macghee, Mackee, Mackie, Macque, Macquey, Macquoid, and of course, the most usual form Mackay. There is no question that the original Aod was a "druidh", or magician, one of the ancient "samans". When the world was new, men supposed that the creator-god was a disinterested party, who had set the spheres in motion, and

then gone on his way. They occasionally attempted to get the attention of this Oolaithir, or Allfather, through acts of simple magic, for example, shooting flaming arrows into the sky to gain an extra ration of heat and light from the sun. Again, they might flap a wet rag in the air hoping to generate a larger storm, or perform some other sympathetic act, but usually with indifferent results. It was observed that the king of the universe was fickle, rationing the sun according to his own timetable, and delivering up storms of water and wind according to unpredictable whims. TURADH, dry weather, food without condiment, related to tir, dry land. See various entries under Tir. TURLACH, an extensive fire, a round lump, a squat person, see torr. Turlock, a lake that dries in the summer season. TURRABAN, TURRAMAN, the rocking of the body following some metaphysical internal rhythm, nodding, grief. Thus turra-chadal, a “nodding sleep,” drowsiness at the point of slumber. TURRAG, an unawares, accident, turradh, surprise, being taken

TURRAM, a soft sound, a murmur, cf. toirm, torrunn. TURUS-CUAIN, ocean voyage. One of the chief forms of old Gaelic literature. TUS. the beginning of space and time. Tus-gag, the Beginning Gap. TUSGAIRE. fiction, tusgarnach, libeller, story-teller. TUT, a quiet breaking of wind, a fart, stink, a stench. Allied to toit, fumes, smoke. Not tuithan, a slut. And see next. TUTACH, see dudach, the Devil, tutag, expressive of cold, tutair, stinker, dunghill.

1.Bulfinch, Thomas, Bulfinch's Mythology (New York) 1913, p. 356. 2.Scherman, Katherine, The Flowering Of Ireland (Boston) 1981, p. 235.

3.Rolleston, T.W., Celtic Myths and Legends (New York) 1990, p. 138.