U, ur, the yew-tree.

The number five; uiseog, the skylark; usgdha, resin-coloured; the summer solstice.

UACOMAGI, VACOMAGI. One of the early Scottish Gaelic tribes. “Men of the open plains.” They occupied the Grampian Mountains in the vicinity of Speyside and East Perthshire. “Evidently (a) Celtic (word) but of unknown meaning.” Magi is the OIr. mag, great. potent, maglos, a chief. Watson capares Uacos with the Gaullish god Esus who is the Gaelic Aod. UADH-BHEIST, UATH-BHEIST, uadh, a prefix signifying dread; dread, horrible, foul beast, a monster. Particularly, a fabulous species. See uath. UADH-CHRITH, terror, dread shaking, to quiver at the sight of horror. UAGHACH, full of graves, a place of caverns, terror, dread. See next entry. UAIG, UAIGH, UAGH, a grave, MIr. uag, allied with Goth. augo, Eng. eye Cf. uaigneach, secret, lonesome, relating to uath, lonesome, single, by oneself, ON. authr, empty, Goth. auths, a waste, a desert. In an article for “Oceans” magazine Norman D, Rosenberg has identified the earliest settlers on the northern islands of Europe as “neolithic farmers and herdsmen” from the eastern Mediterranean forced from their lands by their own poor husbandry and soil practises. His contention that they were led to their voyage by the voice of a priestess, following the advice of a mother-

goddess, seems speculative, but the idea that they went to the forest and created “water-tight and resilient” woodenhulled ships “with stone axes and awls,” has got to be wrong. The making of seaworthy ships is not a merely a matter of a desire for survival. Truthfully, no one knows who first came to the Hebrides and what matters drove, or pulled them there. The islanders of historic times have characterized themselves as “A race of fishermen who do some farming.” Considering Rosenbergs assessment of the Hebrides as a treeless archipelago amidst flagstones and heather, it is hard to picture it as the paradise of any group of agriculturists even in the warmer climate of the distant past. Further, the long trip along the shores of the Mediterranean, around Spain and through the long reaches of the English Channel and the North Sea would have been more fraught with dangerous possibilities than any ocean-crossing. It seems more likely that the islands were populated from nearby Pentalande, the place of the Picts and later the Scots. It was probably approached by sea-men, and possibly some of them were ultimately from the mysterious west. They did leave impressive passage graves, the best known being Maes Howe (pronounced hoo) on Mainland, the largest of the Orkney Islands. It is supposed to have been erected in 2400 B.C. which makes it a pre-Tuathan structure of Neolithic time. Consisting of stone slabs, weighing as much as three tons, and measuring as much as 18 feet in length it is an undeniable masterwork of dry-masonry, put up by folk who were contemporaries of the Firbolgs and the Fomors. The whole place is currently hidden beneath a 24 foot high grass mound which is about 115 feet at its greatest width. This underground place was not built for giants as the 36-foot entryway is never more than 4 to 5 feet in height. At the end of this cramped passageway there is a 15 foot square room, with wall niches assumed to have once held the bones of the dead. The people who came here may have been devoted to an

earth goddess as Rosenberg has suggested, but the entrance shaft is aligned for penetration by the sun at mid-winter and mid-summer and these were the times when Lugh ferried men to the west, or to the east, in his solar windship. North of this location there are other stones thought aligned to the movements of the sun and the moon. Similar souterrains “are found all over Ireland.” In Scotland where they are termed “earth-houses” or”weems” (from umah, a cave) and as “wags” (from uaigh, a grave or vault). One of these at Jarlshof, Shetland, has been dated to the Early Iron Age, but others in Scotland have incorporated Roman rubble into their walls. In Cornwall they are termed fogous, and here most are of the early Iron Age. They are even found in Iceland, where they exist as rock-cut tunnels. There is an early Iron Age example in Jutland, otherwise they are not known on the continent excepting the somewhat similar souterrain-refuges of France. Obviously, not all of these structures were created by the retreating Daoine sidh, but many are early enough to have seen use by these bronze-age peoples. See next. UAIGEALTA, weird. eerie, lonesome. And see next. UAIMH, UAIGH, a cavern in the earth, a den; MIr. uaim; OIr. huam, similar to the English wame or weem, which are other forms of womb. The lowland form is consistently applied to the caves of Fifeshire, where there are also families bearing the name Wemyss. The name is applied to earth-houses and is the equivalent of the Irish brugh, "the tumuli found on the Boyne and elsewhere." It is also used to identify "the fairy dwellings in the Hebrides." (Celtic Monthly, 1902, p. 89). UAIL, wail, howl, funeral lament. UAINE, (ua-niu), green, pallid, livid, pale, death-like, at the edge of death. The “green sickness’ described as a debilitating menstrual flow in women. Uaineach, tedious. The colour especially reserved to the Daoine sidh and never

named for fear of drawing their unwanted attention. Notice that these folk and the black-elfs of Scandinavian and Germany were reported to have a blue-black skin colour. “Sometimes unusual power can lie hidden in the actual shape, colour or name of a remedy or medication. Studies have shown how tranquilizer tablets coloured green have calmed the nerves of anxious patients, but not when those same tablets were coloured yellow... anthropologist Cecil Helman, 1991. See datha, colour. UAINE BHUIDHE, the “Green-fisted one.” The Otherworld minstrel, whose birds followed wherever she travelled. She was by law caused to visit one sidh each year. “And when she came across to the sidh the bird-flock perched on the cornices and couches everywhere. And thirty birds went inside where they made much singing. When musicians played the birds joined in.” Note above, She is obviously Bua, and through her, the Mhorrigan. UAIR, the allotted hour of death which those with the three sights could identify for themselves and others. Hour, any given interval of time, life, the life-span, weather, season, rotation. UAMAN. The sidhe in Connaught ruled by Ethal Anubhail, the father of Caer. UAMHAS, dread, horror. see uath and bas. See uaimh, thus, a cave-dweller. Usually disassembled as uath + bas, “dreaded death.” Related to uadh and uamhunn, horror, awe in the face of the unknown, OIr. omun, fear, Gaul. obnus, fear. See G. amadan. UATH, obs. dread, solitary, alone, dreadful; the Bry. eus, heuz, horror. Perhaps conferring with Cymric god Hu? the Gaelic Aod. The root is pu, foul, the Latin putris, the English putrid. foul. A former name for the hawthorn plant. A Fomorian hero entitled, in full, Uath mac Imoman (the roaring one; The Ocean). During the tale, “The Feast of Bricriu,” Cúchullain, Laoghaire and Conall went to Uath’s

Lake, so that he might judge which of them was the greatest warrior in Ireland. Uath suggested a test in which the heroes cut off his head in return for a promise that they would submit to similar abuse on the following day. All but Cúchullain refused the offer knowing that the shapechanger could reform himself while they were certain to die. After Cúchullain stroked off the sea-giant’s head, he laid his head before his opponent, but as the axe fell it reversed its position and the hero was spared, whereupon he was hailed the true champion of the country. Laoghaire and Conall refused to recognize this judgement and many quarrels resulted. Also, an ancient common name for the plant called whitethorn. A more “sedate” remedy than foxglove for regulating blood pressure. UAITHNE, UAITNE. The Dagda’s harp. See uath. The “Harp of the North.” Enchanted, it would fly to his hands on command. Also the Dagda’s harpist who had an affair with his mate Boann, giving rise to three famous musicians, whose playing was so sorrowful it led to the death of listeners. Sometimes entitled Dur-da-Bla, the “Oak of the Two Blossoms” or Coir-cethar-chuin, the “Four-Angled Source of Music.” It was carried off by the Fomors as they retreated into the western ocean, but the Dagda and Ogma followed and retrieved it. After ravaging the undersea world the Tuatha daoine carried away many souvenirs, among them the Glas Galveen, a heifer whose call returned all the tribute cattle that the Fomorians had carried away from Ireland. UAMAN. The sidhe of Connacht ruled by Ethl Anubhail, whose daughter was sought as a mate by Aonghas Og. UAMHAS, UAMHAIS, monster, spectre, apparition, dread, horror, fright, dismay, astonishment, horrid deed, atrocity. UAR, the “Cruel One.” He and his Fomorian sons, who lived in Munster, clashed with Fionn mac Cumhail. All were described as “foemen, lame-thighed, left-handed, a race of wondrous evil from the deepest pits...venom in their

weapons, and on their hands and feet, indeed on every part of them.” See famhair, Nathair, Cromm, Cailleach bheurr. UASANTAS, adjudged. an appeal hill; a place where laws were

UATH, dread,terror. Cor. uth, Br. eus, heuz, the Gaelic god Heus. This invader conquered the "few savage Gauls" who lived in present-day Britain. See also Ugh and Lugh. The daygod corresponding with Aod. The Earth. Also the antique name for the hawthorn; other obsolete meanings include solitary, alone, single, lonesome, terrible. UATHACH. The daughter of Sgathach. When Cúchullain was admitted to the military academy on the island of Sky he was greeted by this lady who was gate-keeper. As she passed him a bowl of food, he inadvertently crushed her hand causing her to scream. Thinking she was being raped, her boyfriend Cochar Crufe challenged the hero. Cúchullain killed Uthach’s lover and was then forced to take on duties as gate-keeper becoming her mate in the process. UB. Spell, charm, incantation, ceremony, also written ob. UBAG, UBAIDH, a charm, an enchantment, an incantation, spell, supertitious ceremony. OIr. upta, fascinate, from ba, to speak. Confers with Ir. uptha, upadh, a sorcerer, Manx obbee, sorcery. The root may be ben, to hurt by touching. Gaelic ubagach, skilled in these arts. UBAGACH, skilled in making charms, enchantments or incantations, charming, enchanting, superstitious. Acting like a charm. Ubagaich, to subdue by spell-casting; ubagaiche, one who subdues using charms or medicinals. Ubaig, to enchant. UBH, an egg, the Egg personified.Less often, the point of a weapon. Sometimes used as an interjection expressing disgust or amazement, the equivalent of Eng. phew. Note the OIr. form og or ub, thus the god Og, Lugh or Aod. ON. Ygg, one

of the names of Odin. Cy. wy, pl. wyan, Cor. uy, oy, Bry. u, vi, Lat. ovum, Eng. egg. “the phonetics as between Celtic and the other languages is somewhat difficult; but the connection is indisputable.” See Ugh. The egg was often represented as a repository for the second soul. In Scottish folklore the tale is told of a fisherman, who being unmarried, and without heirs, promised that he would surrender his son at the age of twenty to a sea morgan. Eventually he did marry and his wife gave birth to a son, who learning of his father’s bargain tried to escape his fate by journeying in parts away from his homeland. During his trip, the lad was constantly reminded of his destiny by the strange creatures who opposed him: two Fomorian giants, an old crone and the three-headed serpent of Loch Laidly (representing the triune goddess). In each case he was able to put down these monsters, and after saving the life of a local princess, acquired her as a bride. The one thing that the Mhorrigan could never tolerate was a female competitor, so on this young fellow’s twentieth birthday she appeared “without leave or asking” and “swallowed him whole.” This is a polite way of saying that the Mhorrigan was nubile and nearly irresistible as an object of lust. In polite versions of the tale, a sea serpent “ensnared” the youth and carried him down into the depths of the loch. The princess, to retrieve her prince from the Otherworld, took the advice of “an old soothsayer” (druid) who remembered that mermaids were unable to resist beautiful music. The princess therefore took her harp to the shore and played upon it until the sea morgan surfaced. She then stopped her hand, at which the mistress of the seas asked her to “Play on!” She said she would but only after seeing that her husband was unharmed. To oblige the morgan thrust the captive man out of the water until he was visible above the

waist. The musician then continued, and the piece was so sentimental that the mhorrigan lost her grasp and the prince shape-changed himself into a falcon which broke free. , In one of the variants of this tale the “sea-monster” regurgitated the man. Seeing that she had been tricked, the morgan took the princess in place of the man who had escaped her grasp. The prince, in turn, consulted the druid, who assured him that there was only one way to overcome the morgan: “In the island that lies in the midst of the loch is the white footed hind (doe), and if she is caught there will spring out of her a hoodie (crow), and if she is caught, out of her will come a trout, and the trout containeth an egg, and here is encapsulated the soul of the sea-maiden, and it the egg is crushed she will die.” Now there was no known way of crossing to Eilean Mhorrigan for the seamaiden routinely sank each boat and raft that ventured upon the “loch” (a metaphor for the ocean). So it was that the prince decided to jump the gulf using his black stallion (a symbol of storm clouds). On the island this prince called upon his magic black dog to track and bring down the doe. When the morgan shape-changed into a crow his totem falcon brought her down, and the trout was caught up by his magic otter. When the egg spewed from the trouts’s mouth, the prince put his foot upon it, and the witch cried out, “Break not the egg, and all that you ask will be given up to you!” The prince then demanded his wife, and having her in his arms stepped down soundly upon the egg. UBHAL, apple, Ir. ubhall; EIr. uball, Cy. afal, Br. avallen from which the mythic kingdom of Avallon. AS. ofet, fruit. Mythological heroes often sought golden or silver apples, a symbol of the Sun and the Moon in the Otherworld, and were admitted to the west using apples or a bough as a passport. Numerous rites of divination for the Hogmanay therefore hinge on the use of apples which are associated

with Lugh and his Samh: The “ordeal by water” where an individual proved his innocence of crime by surviving drowning continues in the popular Hallowe’en game of ducking apples. A large wooden tub, representing the ocean, is filled with highly polished apples which the master of ceremonies attends with a porridge stick or some other symbol of druidic authority. It is the duty of this person to keep the apples moving while each one of the company attempts to take an apple between his teeth without the aid of his hands. If he fails to reach the “Undersea Kingdom” and come back with a prize in three tries he must wait while others have their turn. The apple may be eaten but in earlier days was frequently used in other rites. Sometimes attempts were made to take apples with a two-tined fork held between the teeth. Occasionally a silver coin was placed in the tub. Whoever could lift it from the bottom in his lips was reckoned to be lucky in money matters. Apples were also involved in an “ordeal by fire,” which is no longer much practised. A small rod of wood was suspended horizontally from the ceiling beams by a cord, and when balanced, a lighted fir candle was fixed on one end and an apple at the other. The rod was set twirling and each member of the company attempted to take a bite from the apple without losing eyebrows or hair. In these degenerate days, the element of fire is usually omitted from this form of dousing. A bannock smeared with honey or molasses was often substituted for the apple. If the apple was not consumed immediately it could be taken, at the hour of midnight, to a room containing a mirror. Standing with a back to the mirror the suppliant was advised to eat eight bits, throwing the ninth over his left shoulder. Glancing backward, he expected to see the image of a future spouse in the glass. Alternately, he or she could retain the ninth piece and walk backwards towards the mirror while eating it. If the hair was combed while doing this it was said that the face of the spouse would gradually materialize in the glass. The rite of paring the apple also had to take place at midnight, and the ribbon had

to come away from the fruit in an unbroken spiral. At twelve the parings had to be swung three times over the head without breaking, and flung finally over the left shoulder. The breaking of the paring signalled the end of hope for matrimony in the coming year. The paring, placed above the house lintel, would give a clue to the identity of the name of the spouse as his or her name would correspond with that of the first person of appropriate sex who chanced to pass through the door. It is said that “kailstocks and sprigs (of greenery) were used in the same way.” In legend, heroes who wished to pass the great Ocean and enter the western lands was advised to pick sixteen apples and throw them one by one into the Atlantic. They could then be used as magical stepping-stones to approach the Otherworld. It was sometimes observed that the lives of western folk were embedded as a second soul in an apple. When one Fomorian princess fled her father she first sliced an apple into an appropriate number of parts, and each bit cried after her as she departed for Ireland. Again another girl blocked pursuit by placing the giant’s soul-apple under the hoof of a filly. When it was crushed the giant died for his soul was in the apple. This cavalier use of apples was referred to as cluich an ubhail, “the apple play,” a very deadly game. When Gaelic heroes tried to pluck apples in the mythic islands they were often frustrated by branches which danced out of reach. While it was fool’s play to trifle with apple-souls, heroes who carried off apples to their homeland often acquired a western woman as a prize. Thus one poverty-striken, but able, man acquired a golden apple from three ravens and with their help “flew over the sea to the ends of the world and came to the place of the tree of life.” When he and a princess of that land tasted the apple they afterwards married and lived “prosperouslly together.” This tree seems to be the Norse world-tree for it was said to grow “on a sort of tree of which there is but one in the wide world.” It is stated that Celtic priests reverenced the apple as sacred, which may help to explain why this is the

forbidden fruit in much non-Celtic lore. UCHD-MHAC, breast-son, foster-son. OIr. poktu, the English pap, breast. "Fosterage consisted in the mutual exchange of the infant members of the families, or of sending a child to be reared in another family, the sons of the chief being included in the practise. The custom had the advantage of enabling one half of the clan to know how the other half lived. It exacted respect and devotion among families of different grades of clan society that intensified the bonds of clanship. "A Gaelic proverb follows on this: "Affectionate to a man is a friend, but a foster-brother is the life-blood of the man." Again: "One is kindred through parentage to forty degrees, but through fosterage to a hundred." UDAIL. inhospitable, churlish, udlaidh, gloomy, cf. ON. utlagi an outlaw. This was considered the ultimate display of bad breeding and poor manners. Because of this fault Bres lost the high-kingship of Ireland. UGH, UIGH, UBH, egg, uighean maola feannaig, the egg laid once in seven years by a cock. At the Samhuinn the ale-glass was filled with water and the gealagan uighe, the “white of the egg.” was dropped into the liquid. The female whose fortune was read was required to lay a hand on the rim for the space of a minute. In that time the white would assume fantastic shapes whose outlines prognosticated the futre: Seeing fortifications supposed the girl might marry a soldier; a fleet of ships, a pulpit, a furrowed field, a forest supposedly pointed to the occupation of a future mate. Sometimes unwanted visions appeared, a coffin or a tomestone pointing to death for the egg-breaker. UGH. UTH, LUGH, the Eng. Hugh. Sometimes seen as Leug, the sun-god and mate of Samh or Summer. Sometimes entitled Nuall airean. Uisdean, Huisdean, in Argyle Eoghan, from the earlier form Huisduinn, Hu's man. Similar to the Cy. huan, the sun, and derived perhaps from the Welsh god Hu, an agricultural-war deity. Aod is a Gaelic equivalent, and all forms may ultimately derive from Teutonic-Scandinavian

models. The Teutonic root is hug, and Hugin was the name given one of Odin's war-ravens. The name corresponds most closely with that of the Teutonic war-god Tyrr whose name may be an early form of Thor .Confers with the G. ùig, ON. vik, a nook or cove, the English words witch and wizard from the god Woden. Hence G. ùigean, a foreigner, a fugitive, a wanderer. Note also uigheil, pleasant, which relates to aoigh, a guest, one doomed to die, a hostage. Commonly misspelt aoidh and thus the patronymic mac Aoidh, the “son of Kay,” i.e. the son of the day-god Lugh. His connections with the fire-god Lokki are discussed elsewhere. Aoibh, of pleasant aspect, of good manners, relating to éibheall, a live coal, the “shining one,” pleasant. UGH-CHAISG, "Easter-egg," more literally, ugh-chaoidh, “Egg of Forever,” “Egg of Eternity,” the “Immortal Egg.” See above entry. Referred to in Anglo-Saxon parts as the "Pasch" (Passion) egg, or "Pace" egg. Notice that Ygg (egg) was one of the three hundred, or so, names favoured by Odin. M.M. Boulton of Rochdale, writing for the Scots Magazine said: "We have the Pace Egg (a Miracle Play) in England The characters and the doggerel are almost identical, although we have no Galoshans. There are supposed to be about fifty versions of the play which is still performed in the North of England each year. "Pace" is derived from "Pasch", the Jewish "Passover.” The egg is a pre-Christian symbol of spring and in 1554 there is a reference to the hallowing of the Pascal Lamb eggs and herbs on Easter days, and a book in 1579 refers to Easter eggs as Holy pace eggs. The Rochdale version (of the mummer's play appropriate to this time) was published in 1930 and printed by Munro & Scot, Perth. It was a mummer's play associated with gifts of eggs." ((Scots Magazine, p. 458). UIBE, from ud-bio, an out-being, a foreigner, a mass, a lump (of dough etc.) Cf. Lat. offa, a ball. Anglo-Saxon, wic, a dwelling or encampment on a bay; a male or female living in a costal location. Confers with wicing (the Norse word viking), a costal pirate. The same word as wicca (m.) and wicce (f.), a witch, and the English words white, weather

and witch. + woman, the female of our species. In the mythology of the sea the white women may be identified with the Old Norse waeg, or “wave-women,” sometimes referred to as the “billow-maidens.” Nine in number, they were the children of Hler and Rann, the chief deities of the ocean. They also confer with the Celtic mhorga (which, see). In Gaelic mythology they are said to be the befind, or runners, of women killed on or near the sea. As we have noted the Cailleach was the huntress of Ireland and Scotland, her season, from November first to May first, being termed the geamhradh, or “winter”. Remarkably, she was transformed into a virginal woman entitled the Samh at the time of the fires of Beltane (April 30), and event which marked the beginning of the samhradh or “summer.” In this new form, the goddess wore the white linen unisexual, long-sleeved, high-necked Celtic garment which the ancient Romans called the albus. Alba is the Gaelic name for Scotland, while alb or alp still describes anything that is white in colour. Frau Gode, or Wode, was known as Brechta, Bertha, or the “White Woman” of Germany. She too was rumoured to be a great huntress and lead the Wild Hunt from the back of a white stallion, her usual attendants being changed into beasts for this Yuletide happening. Unlike the arrival of the Cailleach, the coming of this goddess was taken as a harbinger of prosperity. In parts of Cape Breton, the gathering of human cailleachs (old women) is still considered to predict storm, and this is particularly true if they gather on a beach. Seeing a mermaid on a beach also indicates an imminent storm as does the materialization of a woman in white. One of these spirits of the river haunted the Reed's Point ferry on the Saint John River in southern New Brunswick. The cable-ferry operators, Frank and Dyna Pitt

periodically halted the ferry on the water to let passengers have a better view of the resident fay, "a woman all in white, carrying a light, crossing an open space at dusk." The Reverend Noel Wilcox was out shooting at Evangeline Beach when he encountered a woman in a white dress walking ahead of him on the sand. Afraid she might be accidentally shot by his hunting companion, Wilcox hurried to warn her but she disassembled into a fog and vanished. In the waters near Shippigan, New Brunswick, a father-son fishing team were lost in the darkness and storm off Tracadie LIght. "We looked and there was a woman in white, torch in hand, her two feet dragging canted against the wind. My father took the wheel and followed her for twenty minutes and as she went out of sight the Light came into view...I don't know who she was but I guess she saved our lives." The white woman have been described as shapechanging crones who frequent ravines near the seaside, blocking the path of travellers and entreating young men to dance with them. Those who tried to by-pass these "favours" were sometimes transformed into animals. Like the sea, she was quixotic but could appear in an attractive form when offering sexual favours. She sometimes guided lost travellers, changed flowers into powerful amulets, aided women in childbirth, showed men where to find gold and silver and abated the fury of storms. On the other hand. the woman in white who haunts Partridge Island at the mouth of the Saint John River in New Brunswick has no particular occupation except that of carrying a head under her arm. She was spotted by a guard posted to that island during World War I. In an agitated state he fired three times at her but when he was revived from his faint, there was no sign of additional blood-shed. According to legend, this sea-witch was generated at the death of an elderly lady who fell off the cliff while resident at the old marine hospital which used to be located

on the island. A noteworthy phantom was supposed to have been the wife of Dr. Copeland, the surgeon to the Seventh Regiment, which was stationed at Halifax. She and her husband were lost at sea when the ship "Francis" went aground on Sable Island in 1799. Nothing more might have been told of her except that the brig "Hariot" came to the same end in 1801. Captain Torrens of the Twenty-Ninth Regiment staggered ashore with the remnants of his troops and made bivouac on the beach. On a preliminary tour of the island Torrens came upon a shore building which had once been the haunt of moon-cussers and wrackers (see entries above). Entering he noticed that his dog was seized with an uncontrollable shaking motion stood barking at a darkened corner. In the gloom from his firebrand the captain spotted "a lady sitting by a fire, with long dripping hair hanging over her shoulders, her face pale as death, and having no clothes on but a loose soiled white dress, weta as if it had come out of the sea with sand sticking to it..." This is the classic white woman, befind or mermaid cast ashore, but Torrens recognized her as the counterpart of Mrs. Dr. Copeland. He could get no conversation from her but she did hold up a ring finger, cut away at the root. "Murdered for the sake of a ring?" enquired Torrens. The wraith nodded and the man promised, "Then, I'll find your murderer to the death." At that, the ghost smiled, its fire faded and it slipped out the doorway past him, vanishing at last into the sea. Torrens did as he had promised, and restored a 136.9 carat ring to the Copeland family. Afterwards it was sold in France and mounted in Napoleon's sceptre and is now located in the Louvre, Paris, France. Another case involved the appearance of women in white who represented a much larger loss of life at sea. Early on the morning of October 7, 1859, a man living closest the church of St. James, at Charlottetown on Prince Edward Island heard the bells tolling. A curious person, he went to investigate, and as he walked from home was joined

by a neighbour. Standing in the churchyard, the two heard the bell toll eight more times. After that the doors were thrown open by a uncommon burst of wind, and within, the men saw three women all dressed in white. As the curiosity-seekers stood dumbfounded, the bell sounded one more time and then the doors closed on the ladies. The duo rushed to the door but found it locked. Peering in a window they could see one of the women ascending the stairs to the belfry. Now, the minister and the sexton arrived, and being told that there were strangers in the church, they moved to unlock the doors. When the four entered there was absolutely nothing to be seen, so they approached the belfry on a narrow set of stairs. At the bell room, the leader had to lift a trap door, and as he paused to do this, the bell rang again. Expecting to see three women pulling the bell rope, the men went up through the hatch and found the bell-pull tied firmly to a beam. Nothing more was seen of the women in white although the four men searched all of the church from the bell-tower to the basement. This strange affair was quickly the subject of general conversation but no one could offer an explanation for this supernatural sighting until the steamer "Fairie Queen failed to make port on her journey from Pictou, Nova Scotia. This ship was new to the Northumberland Strait and was berthed that morning at Pictou taking on mail, cargo and passengers. When she had sailed out of her mainland port the weather had been clear of storm clouds. The next day searchvessels went out looking for the "Fairie Queen" but nothing was sighted of her and no wreckage ever drifted ashore. Recalling the women in white, Charlottetown residents began to guess that these were the fetches, or forerunners, of some of those lost at sea, who had come to shore to announce a disaster at sea. Others recalled that the pagan sea-spirits were said to be offended by misrepresentations of their names, and suspected that the "Fairie Queen" had been a jonah.

Remember that the faeries were named after the fee, the Celtic witch-women who originally lived on an island off the coast of Brest, France. They can be shown as the adherents of Mhorrigan, the sea-goddess who was the daughter of Dagda. Like the Norse goddess Rann, she was a vain-glorious individual, who would not easily accept the presence of a competitive fairy-queen on her waters. Recalling this, it was noted that the "Fairie Queen" had succeeded another vessel bearing the same name, and she had also gone down six years earlier. Not all white women represented unemployed runners of the dead. Some were simply sea-spirits given the chore of informing men of serious storms expected on their coast. One of these was seen by the Reverend Noel Wilcox when he was out shooting birds on Evangeline Beach, on the Fundy shore of Nova Scotia. The minister had a companion with him, but the two had separated and Wilcox was playing the role of "beater", hoping to flush game birds from hiding. Seeing a woman dressed in white walking through the beach grasses, Wilcox set out after her, afraid that his friend might shoot her by accident. As he hurried toward her she kept her distance, and when it seemed he was outpacing her she simply vanished like fog in sunlight. The minister thought this was quite uncanny, but when he bent to the wet sand where he had last seen her he was even more puzzled as there were no footprints. He hailed his companion and told him what had happened, but his hunting-mate was not especially surprised. "That was the lady who walks the storm, "he was advised, "Come on were getting out of here. There'll be wind coming up from behind." UI CORRA. Lochlan, Emne and Silvester were heroes of Clann Ui Corra who voyaged in the Atlantic. Their story, replete with Christian morality, dates from the sixth century. UIDH, desire, a wish, way, journey. Too much attention to matters at a distance was believed to result in psychic displacement of the soul leaving the body behin, possibly at

hazard.

ÙIG, a nook, a retired or solitary location, cave, den. A steep cone-shaped rock. Gaelic uigean, a wanderer, lonely, a fugitive. a cove, same as the Anglo-Saxon wic, an embayment on salt water, from which the word wicce, witch. The AS wic. Also means a dwelling, camp, a place for dropping anchor; AS wicing, a pirate. from the Norse vik, an embayment, a creek. The English-wick, their ending -wich (As in Norwich). The word also confers with wood, weather, and Woden. Thus, also, the Gaelic place-name Uig (in Skye and Lewis). Hence, uisgean or Huisdean the Eng. Hugh, “a wanderer from afar,” a fugitive. See above entry. Confers with Bui, a nick-name for the proto=witch known as The Morgan. This word is also embedded in buitseach, a witch or wizard. Go there for a longer exposition.

ÙIGAN, ÙIGEAN, ÙIGDAN, A.S. Wöden, akin to OS. Wödan, OHG. Wuotan, ON Othinn, the Scand. Odin, the Eng. equivalent of ui is vi or wi, low + ME. dan, master. See above entry for additional forms and attachments. Related words in Gaelic include: uibe, a mass or lump, cf. iob or faob from ui-bio an “out-being,” i.e. a stranger or “wanderer.” ubagean, a charmer, a sorcerer, ubath, a magical token, uigneach, secret, lonesome, matching the obs. uath, horror, dread and uaigh, a grave, also ubh, egg, the ON. Ygg, Eng. egg, a sidename for the god. Thus the Gaelic island of Eigg. Resembling uidh, a journey, the Eng. foot. Also uigheil, pleasant, careful, related to aoigh and the god Aod in the first meaning and to ùidh in the second. Also note uspan, a shapeless mass, a form of uibe. The Gaelic gean, good humoured, affectionate,

the Eng. kin, kind. Dan, bold, fate, destiny. Notice that Odin was often referred to in his home countries as the “Wayfarer.” “On occasion Odin wandered to earth, and was absent so long that the gods began to think they would not see him in Asgard again. This encouraged his brothers Vili and Ve (in some versions Hler and Lokki or the winter god Uller), who some mythologists consider as other personifications of himself, to usurp his power and his throne and even, we are told, to espouse his wife Frigga. The old May-Day festivities were entirely centred on the return of Odin as “the lover and spouse of the earth.” In addition to Frigga Odin carried on affairs with Saga or Laga, the goddess of history, with Grid, the mother of Vidar, Gunlod, the mother of Bragi, and Skadi, not to mention the nine goddess who simultaneously bore Heimdall. Skadi eventually moved westward to become the patroness of Skadiland or “Scotland.” The roots of Thor and Tyrr are historically uncertain but there was a king named Odin, who supposedly invaded Europe from Asia Minor in 70 B.C. Odin’s numerous sons were the patriarchs of the Saxon kings named Hengist and Horsa who invaded England in 449. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles says that “they were the sons of Whitgils and that he was the son of Witta, Witta being of Wecta and Wecta of Odin. From this Woden sprang all our royal families.” Hengsit and Horsa who were three generations removed from this mortal-god came to Britain as mercenaries hired by Wyrtgeone, the Celtic king of the Britons. served He gave them land in the southeast of the country on condition that they drive back the Picts. After their military successes they told their kinfolk, the Angles, descendants of Ingvi-Frey of the excellence of the land and the relative powerlessness of the natives. There eventually followed the overthrown of most of present day England, and the containment of the Celtic populations in the north and west. The character of Odin is very well represented in the

Heimskringla from which we quote: “The land in Asia to the east of Tankavisl was called Asaland (see Asduin) and the chief town there was Asagarth and the chief there was Odin... Odin had two brothers, one Vili, the other Ve who ruled the kingdom in his absence. Once the brothers preempted his succession while he travelled, and took to wife his spouse Frigga. But he came home and regained his place. Odin went against the Vans (sea-giants) but not successfully. Each in turn was winner and they did one another great scathe. They therefore exchanged hostages...thus the Vans people got Mimir, the wisest of men, along with another named Hoenir. Hoenir gave little advice to his new friends but Mimir gave too much, and the suspicious Vans beheaded him and sent the head back to Odin. The king smeared the head with magical oils and herbs so that it not rot, and he worked charms with it so that it talked with him and told him many hidden secrets (of the sea-folk). Odin got in exchange Niord and his son Frey and he sent them to the temple to become priests. Niord’s daughter Freya became the consummate priestess and taught the Asaland people wizardry as it was used by the Vans. While Niord was with the Vans he espoused his own sister (which was lawful with them) and by them had these two children. In Asaland, such cohabitation was forbidden...Odin had great possessions in the lands of the Turks but the Roman emperors were going far and wide over the land, and his people were being beaten in battle. When Odin looked into the future he saw that his offspring would find their destiny in the northwest...He therefore set his brothers over his kingdom and taking the priests and of his folk went to Gardarik (Russia) and from there to Saxland (Germany). From there he fared north to the sea and found the island-city of Odenso in Fyn, Then he sent Gefion north to spy out new land, and she came upon King Gylfi (of Sweden) who granted them plough lands. At a giant’s home she begot four sons and shaped them in the likenesses of oxen and with them she tilled all the lands westward from Odenso and called this place Selun (Zealand in Denmark)...

Hearing of Gylfi’s country Odin went there and the king had to come to terms with him although those folk were nearly as versed in magic as the Asalanders. But Odin won out and made his dwelling at Logrinn (Lake Malar, Sweden) and called the place Gamla-Sigtun. There he installed his temple-priests... and to all gave good lands. It is said that Odin and his diar (druids) brought to the northern lands all the sports and crafts, and the cleverest of all at these things was Odin himself. When he sat among friends he was joyful to look at, but with his army he was the terror of his foes. He understood all tricks of cunning and could change himself into what form he would...all he said was in the rhyme in the manner now called scaldcraft (after Scaldi or Skadi) In battle, Odin could make his enemies deaf or blind or so terrified that their weapons were of no more use to them than sticks; but his own warriors needed no armour and fought as mad wolves, and bit their shields and were as strong as bulls or bears. They slew men, but neither fire nor steel would bring them down and this was because they were in the berserker rage (see the Gaelic cromagan). When Odin shape-changed his body lay seemingly asleep and he prowled the far-off lands on what errands he wished. With words alone he slaked fire, stilled the sea or raised wind. He had the ship called Skedbladnir which traversed the ocean but could be rolled up like a table-cloth...All the crafts he taught and the songs he sung were called galdrar (enchantments) and the Asa folk were thus known as the galdra-smiths. Odin practised the greatest magic of all which was termed seid (The Gaelic sed or weathercraft, (“a blast of energy”). He knew much of men’s fate and the future, of how to kill through illness, or to take the wits from people and give them to others. But he knew that such trickery was not manful and therefore taught the priestesses the most virulent magic. By all this Odin was renowned and feared...(so that) men sacrificed to Odin and his twelve

chiefs and called them their gods and afterwards believed them to be so. From Odin’s name Adun is formed (the Gaelic Asduin) and by this men call their sons as others have taken Thor and got Tor-e and Tor-aren or joined it to other names as in Steintor or Havtor. Odin set the laws that the dead should be burned and that rich men should come to Valhalla (the poor went to Thor’s retreat) ...for these the standing stones were raised as remembrance. Near winter’s day (mid October), they were told to sacrifice for a good crop, and at summer’s day (mid April) they were advised to sacrifice for victory in battle. In Sweden Odin received scot (taxes) for every nose (hence poll-tax) and in return he agreed to protect their land. Niord took himself for wife the one called Skadi but she would not live with him and afterward mated with Odin. They had many sons and one of these was Sæming, from whom the Godheims. Odin died in bed in Sweden, but when near death marked himself with his own spear saying that he now went to the Godheims to prepare a way for the virtuous dead. The Swedes were sure he had gone back to old Asagarth and would live there eternally. Then began god belief in Odin and fresh prayers arose to him. Odin’s fire was most glorious and it was afterwards said that the greater the reek of the fire the higher the place that hero would find in heaven, and the more goods that were burned with a man the richer he would be in the after-life. There are many parallels between Odin and the Celtic deities: Note that Aod, the Celtic day-god, also called Lugh, has almost all of the above characteristics and history. Lugh, the “Bright-one,” is often confounded with the southern hero called Fionn, whose name indicates “White.” The Fionn of Gaelic legend appears as Gywn ap Nudd in Welsh myth (Gwyn confers exactly). A mighty warrior and huntsman he gloried in warfare and like Odin, was responsible for the assembly of the souls of the dead, leading them at last to his shadowy kingdom.

In Christian mythology, it was insisted that this host rode instead in endless, self-defeating left-handed circles awaiting the end of time. Although Gwyn was the kindred of the gods of light, Hades was his special resting place and he had relatives amidst the house of Dôn. Each year there was combat between Lugh and Cromm, and Gwyn and Gwythur ap Greidawl, and Odin and Uller. In each case, it was for the virgin-favour of a maiden variously known as Mhorrigan, Frigga, or Creudylad. It was said that this combat had to be renewed each May-day “till time shall end,” and it was understood to represent the thrust-and-parry of male gods of winter and summer for the possession of the fertile earth-goddess. The Welsh Gwyn was eventually demoted to kingship of the Tylwyth Teg, the Welsh fay-folk, and his name is not yet dead in his last known haunt, the vale of Neath. He was the Wild Huntsman of Wales and western England just as Cromm was that of Ireland and Scotland, and as Odin filled the post in Scandinavia and Germany. See Aod, Lugh, Uig. Cromm, Cailleach bheurr. UIGE, a precious gem, a web, carded wool, the “spinning” of a tale, less often knowledge, skill, ingenuity, understanding, a poem. UIGHEAN SITHEIN, uighean, the plural of ugh, above; “fairyeggs.” Seeds and nuts transported to the old world from the new by the Gulf Stream within loose ocean-wrack. These were considered to be gifts from the gods and to have prophylactic use against evil. Uigheagan, the ovary, uighealachd, the capacity for giving pleasure or benefit. UILBH, ULOH, a wolf (Sutherland). spelling. See entry under second

UILE BHEIST, uile, entirely, “wholly a beast.” a sea-serpent, a land monster, a wild beast, the lamprey eel, a mad monster. UIL’IOC, the mistletoe, said held scared by the druids. Still used as a potion against bareness in animals and systemic

poisonings. heal.”

The druids referred to this plant as the “all-

UI NÉILL, O’Neill, after Niall ard-righ who came to the throne and ruled Ireland between the years 379 and 405 A.D. He raided Britain and Gaul during the time of Theodosius the Great being forced to retreat by the Roman general Stilicho. He was assassinated in Gaul by some of his own people which he was “distracted” by some of the local women. This king was the progenitor of the very successful Ui Néill, or O”Neill dynasty. He was Eochaid’s youngest son, and probably would not have come to power except by way of a powerful omen: Once the five sons of Eochaid hunted and while they did developed a thirst. In a clearing they came upon an old hag “with grey hair, black skin and green teeth (a reflection of the sea-habitat).” She offered them water in exchange for a kiss. The three elder boys refused, but Fiachtra pecked her modestly on the cheek. At this she predicted that he would reign briefly at Tara. Hearing this Niall must have suspected her identity and gave her a full fledged buss on the lips. She demanded intercourse and they retired into the woods where she shape-changed into a beautiful ravenhaired beauty who identified herself as Flaithius, the “Chieftainess.” After a successful romp in the moss, this mhorrigan told Niall that his line of kings would be the most successful in the history of Eiru. UIDH, a ford in a stream, an isthmus, said from Norse eith, an eye, a neck of land. From it we have Eye or Ui near Stornoway, Scotland. The older form of this was Ey, Huy or Eie showing a connection with the Gaelic god Aod, also known as Ubh or Lugh. Note that the word also means a journey, a distance, suggesting a travelling god (hence the sun). EIr. ude, rooted in ped, to go by foot. Eng. foot, Skr. padya. Uidheam, accoutrements of travel or war, apparatus. UILE, whole, pol, many, full, similar to prefix iol, many, Eng. all, Germ.. all, Goth. alls, Cy. oll, Corn. hol, Bry. holl, Eng.

hole, hell, Hel. UILE-LOC, uile, the equivalent of ool, ale, all or whole + loc, “all made whole,” after the god Lugh, a healer. Also a name given his totem-tree: the rowan. See Oolathir, the Allfather. Note also the ON. god Lokki. UILLIN. UILLENN FACHARDEARG, “of the Red Edge.” A grandson of Nuada he killed Manann mac Ler by drowning him in an Irish lake. His name is preserved in Moycullin, County Galway. After the battle, which was fought near Magh Cuilenn (Moy Cullin, Ireland), Manann was buried in a standing position. He was no sooner buried than a great lake welled up from under his feet, and the place has been a great red bog ever since. “And the lake got the name Orbson, or Orbison, one of the names of Manann. UILM. coffer, a sacred bag used to collect alms at QuarterDay celebrations. It was made of two strips of Caseinuchd, a strip taken from the breast of a sheep killed at the last sacred festival. The strips were oval and no knife was used in taking it from the flesh. A ritual scrotum, the grabbag of fertility. UINDE, ÙINE, time, opportunity, leisure, the act of beholding. Also the name given the Dagda’s Cauldron in which all honest men found food and fortune in proportion to their merit as individuals. UINNEAG, a window, from the Norse windaége, Sc. winnock, AS. windaége. Literally an “eye for wind.” Also a kitchenwall recess for a collection of miscellaneous utilities. Notice that the Cauldron of Regeneration was so named, from the root uine, time, suggesting that all openings had the potential for bridging time and space. The earliest windows were not glazed. Thus this word indicates any holed stone or opening, natural or otherwise, a “window between the worlds.” UIPEAR, an unhandy person, an inept workman, a bungler. A

victim at the Quarter Days. UIPINN, a treasure, a valuable horde, cf. uibe, a mass, a collection of things. “Lugh’s things.” UIR, mould, dust, earth, uircean, a young pig, MIr. orc, Eng. pork, porker. UIREAGAL, dread, terror, spirit of the dust. UIRIDH, a monster, same as next. UIRISG, sometimes URUSIG, (pronounced ooru-shay), offspring of a sithe (shay) and a human. A changeling. An earth spirit, see previous entry. uruisg, from air + uisge, literally a supernatural of the water. Macbain defines this creature as "a Brownie" but this is, rather, one of the bocs, or he-goats, having a female counterpart in the glaistig, who is also human from the waist up and a goat from there down. A creature reminiscent of pan and the satyrs. The word confers with the English word water, the lowland whisky and the Latin unda, a wave. All allied with the English word wash. The water bucks were field and wood spirits, representative of the old earth gods such as Dagda, Lugh, and kernow. Their spirits were overwintered in the last sheaf of the season which was kept in the croft kitchen to be returned to the soil at the first planting. This infusion was thought necessary for the growth of the corn, or grain, whose height always paralleled that of the animal thought present in the crop. In watching the wind bend the grain crofters would say, the goats run through the field. Children were warned against wandering there on penalty of being kidnapped, molested or killed. When a harvester fell ill or lagged behind the others it would be guessed that he was under psychic attack from the bucks. The last sheaf cut in the harvest was frequently called "the horned goat", and the person who cut it was sometimes similarly named. The position of harvest goat was not sought-after since it

was an duty of winter. creature fields.

omen of failure, burdening the recipient with the "boarding the old man" (i.e the Devil) through the The urisk was a solitary member of this clan, a who preferred a small but deep pool to the summer

UIRSGEUL, a fable, an untruthful story, a romance. Blarney, spreading dung to dry. Uirsgeuladh, a “spreader of manure,” bull-shitter, a fabulist. As opposed to folk-lore and folkhistory, these latter being the senachies of the Gaelic race. UIRT, ob., uird, “chants.” UISDEAN. HÙISDEAN, in Argyle; EòGHAN, elsewhere. Both from MG. Huisduinn, literally Hugh’s man, the Norse Eysteinn or Old Hugh, a god hero corresponding with the continental Celtic Hesus or Esus. See Ugh, above. See Aod for a full account. A day-god, the first “wood-cutter” and land developer, who led his people westward from “Summer Country.” Esus was said to signify “Master” in France, Spain and Italy. This is also the god Tartaresus, “Thundering Hugh,” thus attachments with Norse god Thor, the Gaelic Tor or Tar. He may have come to Britain by way of southwestern Spain for this was the ancient site of Tartessos, an island city and adjacent kingdom (near modern Cadiz) which mysteriously disappeared sometime between 533 and 500 B.C. This city is sometimes taken as the model for Atlantis since it was notoriously busy, wealthy and corrupt and met the physical description given by Plato. In addition, the remains of this place are currently too far below sea-level to be retrieved. This being the case, this god may confer with Herakles, who set his pillars at Tartessos after returning from the western ocean after he pirated the kine of Gereyon. Hercules is associated with the Greeks but they admitted borrowing his cycle of tales from the Phoenicians at Tyre. In an earlier incarnation this god-hero was Melqart, who on his return home had a temple erected to him which featured two columns before the portal, one of gold and the other of

emerald. When the Tyrian architects and builders went down the coast to work for King Solomon, the Hebrew temple was also constructed with entrance pillars which remembered a pagan god better than Jehovah. In classical times it was claimed that the “Pillars of Hercules” still stood on either side of the Straits of Gibraltar, both escribed ne plus ultra, “nothing lies beyond.” Something did lie out there in the Ocean, and the mythology of the Canary Islands insists that thirteen similar bronze pillars used to stand within the islands,one of which may have been ancient Gereyon. Interestingly, these Celto-iberian symbols are still seen preserved in the “$” sign. UISG, UISGE, water, shower, rain, billowing wave, river, stream. Latin unda, a wave, English wash. "It is not right that a person should sleep in a house without water (in the sleeping room), especially a young child. In a house left without water, ""the young slender one of the green coat (the Daoine sidh) was seen washing the infant in a basin of milk." (Celtic Monthly, p. 163). This process dedicated the child to the Daoine sidh or "cow-people." "In preparing water for boiling clothes, after it has once been boiled, it should not be boiled again...because this would bring evil to the house." (Celtic Monthly, p. 163) Of the things which the public magician hoped to do the control of rain was formost. Water hasd always been essential to life hence in all simpler communities the rainmaker was a very important person. Most of the performances of witchcraft could be classed as imitative magic. The sprinkling of water on a small scale was thoughht to be useful in stimulating the clouds to follow the example. If one wished to limit the rain heat would be applied to water causing it to dry up. This act against nature in miniature was expected to influence nature on the larger scale. The simplest approach to making rain was to cut a willow wand, dip it in a vessel of water, and cast it on the

ground, uttering any oaths, curses or incantations which seemed appropriate. A first-rate demonstration of sympathetic magic might also demand that the witch strike fire from a flint to emulate lightning and hammer on a tin pot to imitate thunder. Frogs and toads, which seemed to appear with rain, were sometimes placed beneath a pot which was hammered with "thunder" hoping to encourage a downpour. Our witches believed that stones were as useful as sticks in stimulating rain, and these were sometimes dipped in water, or sprinkled with it, or treated in some other appropriate manner. Sir James Fraser cautions that one should never assume that ritual "of this sort was confined to the wilds of Africa and Asia". In Europe he mentions the "wild woods of Broceliande, where if legend be true, the wizard Merlin still sleeps in the hawthorne shade. Thither the Breton peasants used to resort when they needed rain. They caught some water ina tankard and threw it on a slab near the spring." On Snowdon in Wales lies a similar Red Altar, out in a lake, approached by a series of stepping stones. If one approached this far stone and spattered it with water then it became "a remote chance that you do not get rain before dusk, even when it is hot weather." Rain magic was never the sole business of pagan water-witches. "At various places in France it is, or was, the practice to dip the image of a saint in water as a means of procuring rain." One sacred well in that country was located at Barenton, and here a cross was dipped in water for the same purpose. In Atlantic Canada there is a saying that people do a lot of talking about weather but rarely do anything about it, and this may be because there is usually ample rainfall. Local lore seems, certainly, to concentrate on weather prediction as opposed to altering the weather. Sages have said: "If you don't like the weather, wait a spell!" No other region of North America is likely to see a seventy degree drop in temperature, sunshine, rain, hail and snow within

one ten hour period, as we observed at one outdoor auction. If you do insist on having rain this can be obtained by crushing a spider. The cry of the loon, which we used to suspect indicated his arthritis was kicking up, was known to suggest that the charm of wetting or crushing had been effective. It is also a local superstition that when potatoes boil dry, rain is in the works. Of course, this is now generally accepted as a true case of cause-and-effect, since water boils away more readily at low atmospheric pressure, and low pressure indicates that a storm may be expected. If a span of dry weather was expected my grandmother Mackay noted that the soot remained on the inside of her woodstove covers. Before a storm she would call attention to the "British soldiers", troops of red sparks which seemed to move upward away from the draft. I have already mentioned how my Grand Manan relatives looked to Mother Carey's chickens to forecast weather. My great-grandfather, who sailed the windjammers, used to recite this little poem as a teaching aid: If the wind comes aft the rain, Set the topsails back again; But if the rain comes fore the wind, Then you topsail halliards mind. The first situation, of course, suggests that clearing and good sailing weather will follow, the latter that that the sails should be gathered pending a bad storm at sea. There is much more of this individual witchcraft in sea-side communities. My island relatives also suggested that winds from the east carry rain, but that if they backed off, clockwise, through north, to south to west, it would clear. If the storm winds moved counter-clockwise it was held that one stood "in line" for the other half of the rain. At Victoria Beach, N.S., Helen Creighton found a belief that "if it rained on the fifteenth of July it would rain for

forty days. We dry fish at that time, and that's the way it always happens." Other weather poems I've heard: Southern glin, Wet skin. (A glin is a glint, a momentary appearance of the sun.) Rain on the flood Creates only scud; But rain on the ebb, Means better in bed. (Scud is low fast-moving clouds, which quickly "blow themselves out.") Weather superstitions, presumably at the base of weathercraft, were never restricted to mariners; hence, on the mainland I was told that piles of leaves blown "wrongside" up denoted rain. Everyone knows that night-crawling worms come to the surface just before rain, and that "the rooster crows for rain". Cats bend down their ears from sleeping on them just before a storm, and the clear sound of a train-whistle looks to bad weather. Certain traditions were time linked, thus: "Rain before seven, clear by eleven." It was also suggested that if the weather cleared on an even hour (e.g. two, four or six o'clock) fine weather would continue for a few days; but if on a uneven hour (one, three or seven) then more rain could be expected in a few hours. Less precise was the old idea that a sky that cleared "in the late afternoon" presaged a run of dry weather. We have already mentioned St. Swithin's Day (July 15) when dry weather was hoped for to avoid forty days and nights of rain. Less specifically it was agreed that if the sun set in a clear sky on Friday night rain was probable by Sunday night. It was also said that if rain was seen during the first week in June then the month

would be wet. The herdsman had many of his own superstitions, for example the idea that drinking pools showed especially clear reflections just before a storm, and that grains of sand would float on water if a wet spell lay ahead. In Charlotte County they used to say that darkening skies followed after cattle licked one another about the neck and that animals who huddled together in the fields were another indicator. There is too much of this sort to be comprehensive, so I'll conclude with a collection of couplets, which my mother liked to recite: Fog on the hill Water at the mill; But fog in the hollow A fine day will follow. Sunshine with shower Won't last half an hour. Red sun at night, sailor's delight; Red sun in the morning, sailors take warning. Wet and cold May, Means a barn full of hay. A leaky June, Makes farmers sing a merry tune. Mare's tail and mackerel sky, Means the sun will surely die. These are traditional memory joggers, many centuries old, particularly favoured by witches and others whose illiteracy forced them to carry large chunks of information in their heads.

UISG AN EASAIN AIR A DHOS. A spoken charm used to assure protection at sea.

UISGE-BAOGHAL, alcohol. UISGE-COISREACHD, a holy water drunk by the Gael at the Yule, a protective against evil for the coming year. UISGE DE, water-goddess. De is the feminine genitive of dia, a god; Oir. Dea or dia, God or a god; dee, a pagan divinity. Thus the River Deva in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Dee, in Galloway and Dee in North Wales. In Ireland the Avondale used to be called Inber Dee. Again, in Scotland, note the reference by Adamnan to “the stream which in Latin is called Nigra Dia.” (Black Goddess). See Cailleach bheurr. UISGEBEATHA, (oorusku-bey-a) the “water of life,” whisky. Ale and beer were continental inventions but this drink originate in Ireland and Scotland. Eng. water, Lat. unda, a wave, thus suggesting that the recipe was “borrowed” from the Famhairean or undersea folk as mythology suggests. Its origins are decidedly unknown, although Saint Patrick has been credited with its invention. Mircea Eliade guesses that the magic power of the Cauldron of the Deep lay in its contents: "...cauldrons, kettles, chalices, are all receptacles of this magic force which is often symolized by some divine liquor such as ambrosia or "living water"... (Water has the capacity) to confer immortality or eternal youth, or they change whoever owns them into a hero, god, etc."1 It is tempting to suppose that "usquebaugh", or whisky, literally the "water of life" might have been the alcoholic beverage which "stirred itself" within The Cauldron. Certainly it is true that "The origin of Whisky is wrapped in mystery... Usquebaugh was reserved for festive occasions, and even then was used sparingly, for unlike the

Saxons, the Celt was temperate in both eating and drinking." 2 Irish or Scots whisky still contains sufficient "spirit" of the Oolaithir, or “Brew-master,” to revive severly wounded men if not place the dead upon their feet. The manufacture of whisky, the preferred ritual drink of pagan times, was well established in the Highlands by the fifteenth century when it was noted that James IV had his aquae vitae distilled for him by a Scottish friar. During the greater part of the eighteenth century this was an unfashionable drink in the lowlands where claret and brandy was preferred and less expensive. Later the continental drinks were subjected to import duties and this homebrewed product came into its own. See ol and biere. UISGEUL, a fable, a fantasy, blarney; as opposed to myths, legends and history. UISLIG, sn object of terror. UISLINN, wantoness, sport, diversion UISNEACH, Hugh’s Nest. See entry under Huisdean. the “navel” of Ireland, where the great Stone of Divisions (aill na Mirenn) stands, marking the bounds of the five provinces. the site is near Rathconrath, County Westmeath. The high festivals were all held here, the Beltane being the most significant. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, the druid named Merlin took some of the stones from this place to build Stonehenge in England. Patrick cursed those that remained so that they could no longer be heated by fire or cooled with water. Claimed as “the first place where ever a fire was kindled in Ireland.” Also known as the place where “Lugh went out of Ireland, and some say he died there.” It is a matter of record that the “confiscated” Cauldron of the Deep was buried here at the time of the Tuathan-Fomorian wars. It represented the spirit of Don, the creator-god whose first people were those of the undersea kingdom known as An Domhain. When the cauldron

was first borrowed it was used by the Tuatha daoine to revive their dead killed in battle. A Fomorian warrior sought out this artifact and “filled it with stone.” The shamanistic theme of the Great Centre also appears in the case of the Welsh king Lludd, who is the Irish Lugh. His country was plagued by “oppressions,” and seeking the advice of his druid, he was told to seek the geographic (and psychic) centre of his country. There he found “a dragon’s lair,” and by overcoming it, was able to make this shrine his own. This corresponds with the killing of Don by the Dagda.. Note that the Irish ring of “Killaraus” is identified as having stood on the Hill of Uisneach. When he came to Ireland, Saint Patrick is said to have cursed the remaining stones and when men tried to use them as building material, the structures in which they were placed always proved unstable. The central standing stone in this structure was said to be confiscated from the Otherworld and was, for a time, the symbolic “navel” of Ireland. ULAID, dative ULAIDH, Ulster, the northern most province of ancient Ireland. Anciently, the men of this place. Ulaidh, a treasure; Irish Gaelic uladh, a charnel or burial house; EIr. ulad, stone; root ul, cover. The province was so called from the number of burial chambers erected there; treasure being associated with dead nobility. The ancient centree of Ulster was Emain Macha named after the twin sons of the goddess Macha. Ruadraidhe, son of Partholôn, supposedly founded the royal house at Ulster, thus Ulstermen were known as Clan Rudhraidhe. Ulster lost the support of Macha but had the support of the sun-god Lugh and thus mounted notable heroes all through the Red Branch cycle. Their power ended with the conquests of the southern king Niall of the Nine Hostages (379 AD). Note rath Ulad, the “rath of the Ulstermen,” in Fife, Scotland. This name became Rathulit and then Rathhillet. A late name for the Ulstermen was Ultach from which Dun nan Ultach,

Downanultich (1539), The Ulstermen’s fort in Kintyre. ULAIDH, (ooly), treasure, Ir. uladh, a charnel-house, suggesting the presence of spirit-guardians. EIr. ulad, a stone tomb, root, ul, cover. Allied to Latin alvus, a belly, a container. ON. ulfr, a wolf. The province of Ulster has its name from this word which honours the goddess Ula. The name is quite appropriate considering that the province has more souterrains and natural underground than any other place in Britain. It was here that the Tuatha daoine fled when they were forced to “go to earth.” Present day “Northern Ireland” is not old Ulster, which also included Counties Cavan, Monaghan and Donegal in addition to the six which were partitioned away in 1921. Ruadraidhe, son of Partholón is sometimes credited with founding the royal house of Ulster, and therefore the people were termed Clan Rudhraidhe or Rudricans. Its capital was Emain Macha (Navan) two miles west of Armagh. Its patron was originally the goddess Macha, who offended by the Ulstermen took herself to Connacht. This kingdom declined in historic times after the inhabitants lost battles against the southern king, Niall of the Nine Hostages (ca. 379 AD). The burial mound was yet another focal point for cult rites. Any tree observed growing in the vicinity of a grave mound was held sacred and shrines of wood or wicker were sometimes built near or upon them. Interaction between the living and the dead is observed in the tale of Len, the smithy to the gods. He lived in Sidh Buidb where he made “bright vessels” for Fland , a dughter of Flidais, the goddess of wild things. After a days work it was his custom to have his anvil as far east as the grave mounds. On striking it threw up a shower of water, another of fire, and created a rain of purple gems. Nemannach went through these same motions when he was preparing Conchobhar Mac Nessa’s cup. ULLABHEIST, “entirely beastial. Same as the uile-bheist. ULLAGONE, UILEACAN, the "death wail". The call of the

banshee and other weregilds, wailers in funeral processions.

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ULLDAICH, ULTACH, solitary, the Night-Stalker of Northern Scotland, uile, all; daich, well-appointed in outward appearance (but a dangerous fabrication). This word is also used to indicate a burden carried in the arms over a long distance, a burden on the back. Pronounced as ool-dach. ULMHACH. wolf.

ULOH, a brute, a wolf; from Sc. ulfr, a wolf, Cy. Blaidd, ME. wulf which has Anglo-Saxon roots. This is the Dan. ulv and the Sw. ulf, the Icelandic ulfr., Lat. lupis, from a verb meaning to “pluck out” or “tear.” The chief-travelling form of the goddess Mhorrigan and her kin. Cernu, in his role as “Lord of the Animals” appears in stone and bronze as a horned god, flanked on one side by an otter on the other by a wolf. An interesting horned figure depicted on the northern face of the market cross at Kells, is that of a mustached man grasping the tails of two wolves which stand on either side of him. This reminds one of the death-god Cromm who was always accompanied by two “dogs.” At least one clan in Ireland claimed descent from these animals and Cormac was suckled by a female wolf as an infant. When this fellow became high-king of ireland we note that “his wolves continued at his side.” In the lives of the early Christian saints wolves frequently appear as helpful animals. It is possible that the Celts once venerated a god in wolf form, and Lugh’s mother frequently assumed the aspect of a dog/wolf and died in this form.

UMAH. umah, a cave. The souterrains are even more numerous than the megalithis tombs and “are found all over Ireland.” They occur in Scotland where they are termed “earth-houses” or ”weems” (from umah) and as “wags” (from uaigh, a grave or vault). One of these at Jarlshof, Shetland, has been dated to the Early Iron Age, but others in Scotland have incorporated Roman rubble into their walls. In Cornwall they are termed fogous, and here most are of the early Iron Age. They are even found in Iceland, where they exist as rock-cut tunnels. There is an early Iron Age example in Jutland, otherwise they are not known on the continent excepting the somewhat similar souterrainrefuges of France. Obviously, not all of these structures were created by the retreating Daoine sidh, but many are early enough to have seen use by these bronze-age peoples. UMAN-SRUTH, the copper stream, a metaphor for the spear of Cletine, possessed by Cúchullain, but coveted by Queen Mebd. She sent a poet to ask for it knowing that even heroes could not refuse a bard. When the poet asked for the weapon, Cúchullain threw it into his eye. In doing so he broke the metal and in fell into the stream which bears that name. UPADH, UPTHA, a sorcerer, OIr. upta, a charmer; Manx, obbee, sorcery (od-bat-t), from ba, to speak, similar to G. ob, to refuse, refers to the antique ud-bad, “out-speak,” to drown out other speakers. UR, Gaelic name for the letter U. UR-BHEIST, a monster, a humanoid; ur, having a tail, novel, newly created, obs. Fire, mould, beginning. A newly-formed beast. See next. Ur confers with bhur, as seen in Cailleach bheurr. URC, whale, sow, enclosure, fold. The Latin orca. URCHASG, physic, medicine, preservative, antidote for

poison. From cosg, to stop. URCHOID, hurt, mischief, OIr. erchoit, Eng. scathe. UR-DHUBHADH, “unusual-darkenening;” an eclipse of the sun. UR-GHLAINE, maidenhead. URNUIGH, a prayer, OIr. irnigle, I strive for help. The rootword is igh, desire, strive after (help from God or the gods). UR-SGEOIL, SGEUL, an account of recent times, a modern tale. Ur-sgeulaiche, composer of romatic, entirely unreliable stories. URSACH, full of the spirit of ursa, a bear. URSTAN, feast at the birth of a child. URUISG, URUSIG, URISK, (ooru shay), a water-creature, kelpy, tangy, nuckalavee, a diviner of fortunes, a bear, an ugly looking human, a slut, a sloven, etc. from air + uisg, super + water, a supernatural water creature. Completely human in appearance or humanoid from the waist up, goatlike or horse-like from there down; a shape-changing nature spirit similar to the Grecian pan. Also, a human monster, a changeling, a bodach. The banshee to certain Gaelic clans. See uirisg. The bucks were originally field spirits, representative of the old earth gods such as Dagda, Lugh, and Cernow. Their spirits were overwintered in the last sheaf of the season which was kept in the croft kitchen to be returned to the soil at the first planting. This infusion was thought necessary for the growth of the corn, or grain, whose height always paralleled that of the animal thought present in the crop. In watching the wind bend the grain crofters would say, the goats run through the field. Children were warned against wandering there on penalty of being kidnapped, molested or killed. When a harvester fell ill or lagged behind the others it would be guessed that he was under

psychic attack from the bucks. The last sheaf cut in the harvest was frequently called "the horned goat", and the person who cut it was sometimes similarly named. The position of harvest goat was not sought-after since it was an omen of failure, burdening the recipient with the duty of "boarding the old man" (i.e the Devil) through the winter. The urisk was a solitary member of this clan, a creature who preferred a small but deep pool to the summer fields. Identified by having long yellow hair, a blue bonnet, a walking staff and a jolly disposition (except when annoyed). US. a presumption, obs. news, a story. USAIN, wisdom, philosophy, usaid, quarrelsome. USGA, USGAR, holy, sacred, a jewel. USPAIR, an ugly or lumpish fellow, from Ir. uspan, any shapeless mass, chaos, a clumsy individual, one thought out of favour with the gods. G. uspairn, strife. USPAN, a shapeless mass, also seen as usp, cf. uibe. USNA, UISLIU, UISNEACH, USNAGH. The husband of Ebhla, who was the daughter of the druid named Cathbad. Her mother was Maga, a daughter of the love-god Aonghas Og. Usna and Maga had three sons, the Red Branch heroes Naoise, Ainlie and Ardan. See Deirdru. UTH, an udder, EIr. uth, the root (p)utu, swollen, Lat. uber and uter, a skin-bag. Udder has been said to compare but Macbain says the consanant in the Gaelic is against this. UTHACHD, murder, suicide. UTHAR, a six week period embracing time between the second week of July and the end of the third week in August. This interval commenced on a Friday and ended on a Tuesdasy. This time corresponded with that of the lugnasad. Not surprisingly, the word is related to uthard,

above, up, yonder, on high, and uthachd, murder. Check the earlier entries under lunastain, etc. UTHARD, above, on high, Ir. os, ard, high, Rooted in for + ard, “on high,” the ON. Utgardr, the dwelling place of the frostgiant known as Utgard-loki, Ut is the Eng. out, thus “Outgarden-Loki,” suggesting this god’s fall from grace. This resident of Jotunnheim, a place located in the northern reaches of the north, was credited with generating the freezing blasts of air which hindered the growth of crops. To chastise this being some of the gods went there but were unable to overcome him in contests which he set for them. In the end, Thor angrily brandished his hammer, and would have destroyed Utgardr itself but a magical mist enveloped this land “and the thunder god was obliged to return to Thrud-vang without having administered his proposed salutary lesson to the race of giants.” 1.Eliade, Mircea, Patterns In Comparative Religion (New York) 1958, p. 207. 2.McNeill, F. Marion, The Scots Kitchen (London) 1920, p. 234.