You are on page 1of 40

AC to DC Power Conversion

Now and in the Future


PCIC-2001-14
Tony Siebert Anders Troedson Stephan Ebner
Member, IEEE Member, IEEE Member, IEEE
ABB Automation, Inc ABB Automation, Inc ABB Industrie AG
P.O. Box 372P.O. Box 372 CH- 5300 Turgi
Milwaukee, WI 53201 Milwaukee, WI 53201 Switzerland
USA USA
- 2 -
Agenda
Introduction
System Design Factors
Technology Assessment

Technology Comparison
Innovative Information Technology (IT) support
Conclusions
- 3 -
Rectifier History
1913 Fist Mercury-Arc rectifier
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
1925 Mercury-Arc rectifier for grid control
1939 First 50 kV HVDC transmission
1950 Development of Contact Rectifier
1947 Invention of Transistor
1902 Invention of Semiconductor Diode (Crystal type)
Mercury Arc Rectifier Contact Rectifier
- 4 -
Rectifier History
1958 First semicond. Diode rectifier
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
1960 First diode plant > 100 kA
1968 First thyristor rectifier
1970 First diode rectifier unit > 100 kA
Introduction of Thyristor Technology
Introduction of Diode Technology
Thyristor Rectifier Diode Rectifier
- 5 -
Rectifier History
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
1990 First thyristor rectifier for DC-Arc Furnace
1985 First thyristor rectifier for Aluminium Smelter
Ongoing Development of Diode Rectifier Technology
Ongoing Development of Thyristor Rectifier Technology
3 Thyristor Rectifier 4 Thyristor Rectifier 2 Thyristor Rectifier
- 6 -
Rectifier History
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Mid-1990s first Chopper rectifier in Eletrolysis
Introduction of GTO Technology
Introduction of IGBT Technology
Introduction of IGCT Technology
IGBT Chopper Module PowerPac3
IGCT Chopper Module
- 7 -
System design and decision factors
AC-Network Design Parameter
Voltage level / voltage variation
Frequency / frequency variation
Available short circuit capability
Allowed power factor
Allowed harmonic distortion
DC-Process Design Parameter
Voltage / current operating range
Voltage / current ripple
Voltage / current regulation accuracy
Voltage / current regulation speed
Overload capabilities
Further Decision Factors
System reliability
System efficiency
Reparability and diagnostics
Footprint and mechanical dimension
Investment- / install- / life-cycle cost
Production load schedule criteria
Energy day-time tariffs criteria
Plant start-up / lay-off criteria
- 8 -
Process Ratings
Rectifier Application Current (Amps) Voltage (DC)
Chemical electrolysis 5,000 - 150,000 40 - 1,000 Volts
Aluminum potline 10,000 - 300,000 < 1,300 Volts
DC Arc Furnace 50,000 - 130,000 600 - 1,150 Volts
Graphitizing Furnaces 20,000 - 120,000 50 - 250 Volts
Zinc/Lead, etc electrolysis 5,000 - 100,000 100 - 1,000 Volts
Copper refining 10,000 - 50,000 40 - 350 Volts
Traction substations 1,000 - 5,000 500 - 1,500 Volts
LV AC Drive (DC bus) 0 - 10,000 250 - 1,000 Volts
MV Drive (DC bus) 0 - 5,000 3,400 - 6,000 Volts
Typical Rectifier Rating
- 9 -
Technology Assessment
Diode
Thyristor
Diode and DC/DC Converter
(Chopper)
Active Rectifier
- 10 -
Diode Rectifier Topology
Double wye connection with interphase transformer
LOAD
6 puls circuit
3 - phase bridge connection
LOAD
6 puls circuit
- 11 -
Diode System Regulation Principle
Step of current setpoint
Step of OLTC
current without saturable reactor ramp control ( load impedance related )
current with saturable reactor ramp control
Range of saturable reactor control
T *) typ. 3 .. 5 s depending on OLTC drive
(saturable reactor control up to 5 ms depending on the load)
t [seconds]
I
dc
[kA]
T *)
- 12 -
Diode Rectifiers
Simplest Technology
Longest use
Used with On-Load-Tap-Changers
Used with saturable core reactors
(amplistats, voltage controlled reactors)
2 4 - Pul s e Di o de Re c t i f i e r
+7 . 5
- 7. 5
Lo a d
- 13 -
Thyristor Rectifier Topology
Double wye connection with interphase transformer
LOAD
6 puls circuit
3 - phase bridge connection
LOAD
6 puls circuit
- 14 -
Thyristor System Regulation Principle
Step of current setpoint
theor.current without phase angle ramp control () ( load impedance related )
current with phase angle ramp control in operation
Range of phase angle control
T *) typ. 100 ms .. 300 ms
possible up to 5 ms depending on the load
T *)
t [milliseconds]
I
dc
[kA]
Steps only with OLTC
- 15 -
Thyristor Rectifiers
Simple Technology
Widely Used
Can be used with On-Load-Tap-
Changers
Relatively fast control of current
2 4 - Pul s e Thy r i s t o r Re c t i f i e r
+7 . 5
- 7. 5
Lo a d
- 16 -
Diode Rectifier + DC-Chopper Topology
3 - phase bridge connection
LOAD
6 puls circuit
- 17 -
DC-Chopper Regulation Principle
Step of current setpoint
theor.current without PWM ramp control ( load impedance related )
current with PWM ramp control
Range of modulation control
T
1)
typ. 100 ms .. 300 ms with electrolyis process load
possible up to 1 .. 5 ms depending on the load
t [milliseconds]
I
dc
[kA]
T
1)
Tmod
2)
typ. 0.2 ms .. 1 ms
T
mod
2)
T
on
T
off
- 18 -
Diode Rectifier with Chopper Converter
Newer Technology
Relatively entering into Market
Merging of older (diode) and new
technology
Fast control of current
+7.5
-7.5
- 19 -
Active Rectifier Topology (AC-Chopper)
3 - phase bridge connection
LOAD
6 puls circuit
Active Current Source Inverter
- 20 -
AC-Chopper Regulation Principle
T
1)
typ. 100 ms .. 300 ms with electrolyis process load
possible up to 1 .. 5 ms depending on the load
Step of current setpoint
theor.current without ramp control ( load impedance related )
current with ramp control
Range of modulation control
t [milliseconds]
I
dc
[kA]
T
1)
Tmod
2)
typ. 0.2 ms .. 1 ms
T
mod
2)
T
on
T
off
- 21 -
Active Rectifier (AC-Chopper)
Newest Application of Technology
Limited Market entry
Based upon proven technology
Fast control of current
Active Current Source Inverter
Load
- 22 -
Technology use by Process
Application Diode Thyristor Chopper Active Rectifier
Chemical Electrolysis Seldom Standard Seldom Future
Aluminum Potline Standard Seldom Not Acceptable Distant Future
DC Arc Furnace Not Acceptable Standard Seldom Future
Graphitizing Furnace Standard Seldom Future Future
Zinc Electrolysis Standard Seldom Future Future
Copper Refining Seldom Standard Seldom Future
Traction Substation Standard Seldom Future Distant Future
LV AC Drive (DC Link) Standard Seldom Not Applicable Seldom
MV Drive (DC Link) Standard Seldom Not Applicable Seldom
- 23 -
Technology Share of Units > 10 kA
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1
9
7
2
1
9
7
4
1
9
7
6
1
9
7
8
1
9
8
0
1
9
8
2
1
9
8
4
1
9
8
6
1
9
8
8
1
9
9
0
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
4
1
9
9
6
1
9
9
8
2
0
0
0
Chopper
Thyristor
Diode
Technology Share
- 24 -
Technology Comparison
Power Factor
Efficiency
Harmonic Distortion
Reliability / Availability / Service Support
Space Requirements
System Cost
- 25 -
The Process Load Characteristic
U
d o
I
d
Aluminium
Zinc
Chlorine
Copper
I
Range
U
Range
100 %
100 %
50 %
25 %
75 %
- 26 -
Power Factor Comparison
Power Factor vs Transformer Impedance
0.8800
0.8900
0.9000
0.9100
0.9200
0.9300
0.9400
0.9500
0.9600
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Transformer Impedance
P
o
w
e
r

F
a
c
t
o
r
Diode / DB
Thyristor / DB
Note: Low Transformer Impedance = High Voltage
Harmonics
- 27 -
Power Factor Comparison
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00 450.00
Ud [V]
P
F

[
-
]
Diode OLTC Thyristor OLTC Thyristor Uncompensated Thyristor Compensated
Diode vs Thyristor with Electrolysis Process Load
Ud
Id
- 28 -
Power Factor Comparison
Diode Good
Thyristor Low
Diode and Chopper Good
Active Rectifier Best
- 29 -
Efficiency vs. Voltage
0.9
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Voltage
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Typ Dio/Thy Bridge Typ Dio/Thy Single Way
Typ Chopper Dio/Thy Projects
- 30 -
Comparison at Nominal load Operation
Nominal Load Operation DC-Voltage: 500 V
DC-Current: 70 kA
DC-Power: 35 MW
Diode
System
Thyristor
System
Chopper
System
AC-Power (12p-Transformer) 39 MVA 41 MVA 38 MVA
Power Factor without correction 0.91 0.86 0.93
Compensation up to PF=0.93 3 MVAR 8 MVAR -
Compensation up to PF=0.98 10 MVAR 15 MVAR 7 MVAR
Losses
Transformer (including harmonics) 430 kW 450 kW 400 kW
Rectifier 183 kW 192 kW 170 kW
Chopper 250 kW
Line Filter (for PF=0.93) 56 kW 84 kW
Total 669 kW 726 kW 820 kW
Relative Difference -151 kW -94 kW 0 kW
Efficiency (for Components considered) 0.981 0.980 0.977
- 31 -
Comparison at Reduced load Operation
Reduced Load Operation DC-Voltage: 440 V
DC-Current: 50 kA
DC-Power: 22 MW
Diode
System
Thyristor
System
Chopper
System
AC-Power (12p-Transformer) 25 MVA 34 MVA 24 MVA
Power Factor without correction 0.90 0.65 0.93
Compensation up to PF=0.93 3 MVAR 8 MVAR -
Compensation up to PF=0.98 10 MVAR 15 MVAR 7 MVAR
Losses
Transformer (including harmonics) 240 kW 260 kW 170 kW
Rectifier 105 kW 120 kW 100 kW
Chopper 250 kW
Line Filter (for PF=0.93) 56 kW 84 kW
Total 401 kW 464 kW 520 kW
Relative Difference -119 kW -56 kW
Efficiency (for Components considered) 0.982 0.979 0.977
- 32 -
Efficiency Comparison
Diode High
Thyristor Medium - High
Diode and Chopper Low
Active Rectifier Medium - Low
- 33 -
Harmonic Comparison
1
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
0o
20o
40o
6 0 o
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
AC Current i n [ kA]
Har moni c Number
20 kA, 200 V DC, 6 Pul se Recti fi er
Di ode and Chopper ( 0 degrees) and Thyri stor
(variable
dependi ng on output DC vol tage)
0o
10o
20o
30o
40o
50o
60o
- 34 -
Harmonic Comparison
Diode Good
Thyristor Lower
Diode and Chopper Good
Active Rectifier Best
- 35 -
Reliability Comparison
Based Upon Component Count of
Rectifier Devices
Diode High
Thyristor High
Diode and Chopper Low
Active Rectifier Medium
- 36 -
Service Skill Comparison
Diode Low
Thyristor Medium
Diode and Chopper High
Active Rectifier High
- 37 -
System Cost Comparison
Diode Rectifier 105%
Thyristor Rectifier 100%
Diode & Chopper 124%
Active Rectifier 115%
Based upon past projects, component count and further
developments.
- 38 -
Space Comparison
Diode Average
Thyristor Larger
(with power factor included)
Diode and Chopper Larger
Active Rectifier Average
- 39 -
Conclusions
Considerations
Total System Requirements
Future Provision of System
Requirements
Customers Experience / Background
Technology comparison for exact
project
All Technologies Will continue for near
future
- Thank You -