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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
An open circuit is a kind of electric circuit in which the path that the
electron follows cannot be completed because of an open gap that cannot
fow through fow. Hence open circuit in a pipeline can be defned as an
opening or a leak along the pipe or at the pipe joints.
Pipelines are principal devices for natural gas transportation, and
lots of large scale pipeline networks have been constructed in many
countries in the past ! years. However, leaks, which are the main faults
of gas pipelines, can cause serious problems related not only to the
environment but also to economy. "herefore, many methods and
techni#ues for leak detection with various applicability and restrictions
have been proposed to prevent further loss and danger $%uhlbauer,
&!!'. "he primary methods include acoustic monitoring, optical
monitoring, gas sampling, soil monitoring, fow monitoring, magnetic fu(
leakage, and dynamic model)based methods.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
*or oil companies, open circuits in pipeline $leaks' are one of the
major causes of failure because of their signifcant length in remote and
harsh areas causing human monitoring not to be e+ective. "hus, there is
an increasing and urgent need of a method that ensures an e+ective
monitoring of these pipelines. "his still remains a challenging task since
the operational pipelines are subject to comple(, highly nonlinear
temporal and spatial processes making it di,cult to di+erentiate between
faults and stochastic system behaviors.
-(isting open circuit $leak' detection system cannot be really relied
upon. Hence employment of a new profle ."-%P-/A"0/- P/1*23-4 2ts
basic principle is based on the temperature profle of the environment
along the outside of the pipeline. 5hen a leak occurs in a pipeline, it
creates a temperature disturbance in the environment surrounding the
pipe. *or open circuits in pressuri6ed gas pipelines the escaping gas will
generate a cold 6one in the environment surrounding the pipe due to 7oule
"homson e(pansion.
*or pipelines carrying heavy crude oil the oil is often transmitted at
temperatures signifcantly above ambient in order to maintain a
reasonable oil viscosity. A pipeline open circuit would therefore create a
local warning of the environment surrounding the pipeline. 8o at the
detection of any of the above systems, there is a bu66ing alarm with a
visual indication of open circuit alert.
9.: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
"he aim of the project work is to construct and test an open circuit system
which can be applied along the joints of pipelines.
1;7-<"2=-8
"o construct using locally available materials a device that detects
an open circuit in a pipeline system.
"o produce a work that would beneft future students and
researchers to understanding more about the operation of an open
circuit detection.
1.4 SCOPE OF WORK
"his work is limited to the survey of di+erent various open $leak' circuit
detection techni#ues for use and the most construct)able one employing
available materials from our local markets. And considering the following
factors>)
8ensitivity
Accuracy
/eliability
Practicality
2nherent limitations in various duties and environments
CHAPTER TWO
LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
1pen circuits $leaks' waste both a precious natural resource and
money. A large percentage of water, gas or oil usually is lost from the
distribution systems in transit from the treatment?depot plant to the
consumer. 3eakage inevitably also results in secondary economic loss in
the form of damage to the distribution network itself $e.g. erosion of pipe
bedding and major pipe breaks' and to the foundations of roads and other
manmade structures. 3eaky pipes also create a public health risk, as every
leak is a potential entry point for contaminants if pressure should drop in
the system. -conomic cost and scarcity mandate that a systemic leakage
control program be developed. 2n such a program, there are two
components> product $transported li#uid?fuid' audits and leak detection
surveys. Product audits measure li#uid?fuid fow into and out of the
distribution system, or parts of it, and to help identify those parts of the
distribution system that have e(cessive leakage. However, fuid?li#uid
audits do not identify the specifc location of a leak. "o fnd the specifc
location needing repair, a leak detection survey must be performed
$Hunaidi et al., &!!!'.
*igure &.9 Picture of an oil pipeline with pipe joints
@etection of fuid loss due to leakage from underground distribution
pipes represents a major challenge to scientists and engineers. "he key to
the solution is threefold> selection of the right combination of sensing
e#uipment, proper adaptation of procedure for each feld operation, and
data analysis. 8ince each problem is uni#ue considering soil conditions,
type of distribution system, ground li#uid conditions, and intensity of the
leak, it is essential that a pre)tested combination be used to e+ectively
devise the appropriate corrective measures in the shortest possible time.
"esting and guessing in the feld might rush a wrong decision.
2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF DETECTORS
1pen circuit?leak detection methods are broadly classifed in terms of
internal and e(ternal monitoring methods> internal methods involving
intrusive measurement to monitor fuid state, and e(ternal methods
applied to the environmental condition of a pipe. "his project construction
and work is wholly on the e(ternal method $hard ware method'.
;ose and 1lson $9AA:', <arlson $9AA:', and "urner $9AA9' classifed
the leak detection methods in three groups which may be applied to
monitor the integrity of a pipeline $Bhang, 9AAC'. "hese are>
Biological Methods
-(perienced personnel or trained dogs may detect and locate leaks by
visual inspection, odor or sound.
Hardware-Based Methods
@i+erent hardware devices are used to assist in the detection and location
of leaks. "ypical devices used include acoustic sensors, gas detectors,
negative pressure detectors and infrared thermography.
SoftwareBased Methods
=arious computer software packages are used to detect leaks in a
pipeline. "he comple(ity and reliability of these packages vary
signifcantly. -(amples of these methods are fow?pressure change
detection, mass?volume balance, the dynamic model)based system, and
pressure point analysis.
/-=2-5 1* 3-AD @-"-<"21E %-"H1@8
"here are a variety of methods that can detect natural gas pipe line
leaks, ranging from manual inspection using trained dogs to advanced
satellite based hyper spectral imaging $<arlson, 9AA:F 8cott and ;arrufet,
&!!:'. "he various methods can be classifed into non)optical and optical
methods. "he primary non)optical methods include acoustic monitoring
$Hough, 9AGGF Dlein, 9AA:'F gas sampling $8perl, 9AA9', soil monitoring
$"racer /esearch <orporation, &!!:', fow monitoring $"urner, 9AA9F ;ose
and 1lson, 9AA:', and software based dynamic modeling $Hriebenow and
%ears, 9AGGF 3iou and "ain, 9AA'.
A<108"2< %1E2"1/2EH %-"H1@
Acoustic monitoring techni#ues typically utili6e acoustic emission
sensors to detect leaks based on changes in the background noise
pattern. "he advantages of the system include detection of the location of
the leaks as well as non)interference with the operation of the pipelines. 2n
addition, they are easily ported to various si6es of pipes. However, a large
number of acoustic sensors are re#uired to monitor an e(tended range of
pipelines. "he technology is also unable to detect small leaks that do not
produce acoustic emissions at levels substantially higher than the
background noise. Attempts to detect small leaks can result in many false
alarms.
HA8 8A%P32EH %-"H1@
Has sampling methods typically use a fame ioni6ation detector
housed in a hand held or vehicle mounted probe to detect methane or
ethane. "he primary advantage of gas sampling methods is that they are
very sensitive to very small concentrations of gases. "herefore, even very
tiny leaks can be detected using gas sampling methods. "he techni#ue is
also immune to false alarms. "he disadvantages of the technology are
that detection is very slow and limited to the local area from which the
gas is drawn into the probe for analysis. "herefore the cost of monitoring
long pipelines using gas sampling methods is very high.
8123 %1E2"1/2EH %-"H1@
2n soil monitoring methods, the pipeline is frst inoculated with a
small amount of tracer chemical. "his tracer chemical will seep out of the
pipe in the event of a leak. "his is detected by dragging an instrument
along the surface above the pipeline. "he advantages of the method
include very low false alarms, and high sensitivity. However, the method is
very e(pensive for monitoring since trace chemicals have to be
continuously added to the natural gas. 2n addition, it cannot be used for
detecting leaks from pipelines that are e(posed.
*low monitoring devices measure the rate of change of pressure or
the mass fow at di+erent sections of the pipeline. 2f the rate of change of
pressure or the mass fow at two locations in the pipe di+ers signifcantly,
it could indicate a potential leak. "he major advantages of the system
include the low cost of the system as well as non)interference with the
operation of the pipeline. "he two disadvantages of the system include
the inability to pinpoint the leak location, and the high rate of false
alarms.
8oftware based dynamic modeling monitors various fow parameters at
di+erent locations along the pipeline. "hese fow parameters are then
included in a model to determine the presence of natural gas leaks in the
pipeline. "he major advantages of the system include its ability to monitor
continuously, and non)interference with pipeline operations. However,
dynamic modeling methods have a high rate of false alarms and are
e(pensive for monitoring large network of pipes.
2.3 SENSOR SELECTIONS
"he sensor selection of this work is selected based on the following
considerationsF
Pipeline fuid characteristics
Pipeline mechanical characteristics
P2P-32E- *302@ <HA/A<"-/28"2<8
"his refers to fuid parameters that a+ect internal methods.
Viscosity
=iscosity is dependent on temperature and determines the relationship
between fow rate and frictional losses.
3i#uids are more viscous than gases and frictional resistance to fow rate
is generally dominated by viscosity and temperature consideration in
li#uid fow application more so in gas applications. Pipeline roughness
would be a more relevant parameter in gas applications because of the
di+erent /eynolds numbers at which gas and li#uids typically operate.
Compressibility
Has compressibility measures the deviation of a real gas from ideal
behavior in regard to inter)molecular forces, elasticity and volume
occupancy. <ompressibility determines the rate at which pressure
disturbances can propagate in gas and li#uids. 5aves speeds in li#uids are
of the order I times those in gas.
P2P-32E- %-<HAE2<A3 <HA/A<"-/28"2<8
"he following mechanical parameters have a frst order impact on the
performance of internal leak detection systems performance>
Pipe internal roughness
Pipe diameter and length
Pipe restriction
Ambient temperature variations
8oil consistency
Pipe bend and curvature
2.4 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (COMPARATORS)
An operational amplifer is a di+erential amplifer with an e(tremely high
open voltage gain. Eegative feedback circuits are employed in op)amps to
control the gain when precise gain values are needed. "he comparator is
an operational amplifer without a feedback. Hence, it is controlled by the
pen loop voltage gain.
"he op)amp was originally developed for use with analog computers but
now they found place in almost all aspect of electronics. "he op)amp has
the following ideal characteristicsF
2nfnite voltage gain
2nfnite input impedance
2nfnite bandwidth.
2n practice however there are deviations from ideal conditions due to
manufacturing processes and other physical conditions the various
components might be subjected to which make up the op)amps. ;elow
show the actual characteristics of JAK9 op)amp.
=oltage gain L 9!Cd; $numerical gain M &!!!!!!.!'
2nput impedance L 9%N
1utput impedance L KI!!N
;andwidth L up to 9%H6
"he voltage gain and bandwidth are two parameters that must be
critically looked, for successfully application of this device. %ore
information about the parameters could be gotten from 2< date sheets
V
o!
" A
#
V
$%
..........................................................................................&.9
5here A
!
M open loop voltage gain.
And V
$%
" V
&
'V
'
....................................................................................&.&
@ue to the very high A
!
, =
out
will tend to saturate upon any di+erence in
input. 1ther op)amp circuits include, inverting and non L inverters
amplifers, summing amplifers, unity gain bu+ers etc.
2.( GATES
*igure &.& Pin confguration of a !99 EAE@ gate
"he !99 has four separate &)input EAE@ gates which you can use
independently.
EAE@ gate is a combination of AE@ gate and E1" gate. 2n other words,
output of AE@ gate is connected to the input of a E1" gate as shown
below.
2EP0" A 10"P0" <
2EP0" ;
*igure &.: 8chematic symbol of a EAE@ gate
"he output of a EAE@ gate is developed by inverting the output of
the AE@ gate. "he ;oolean e(pression for EAE@ function is
O MA;
"his ;oolean e(pression can be read as O M not A.;.
2.) TRANSISTORS
"ransistors are active components used basically as amplifers and
switches. "he two main types of transistors are>
"he bipolar transistors whose operation depends on the fow of both
minority and majority carriers, and the unipolar or feld e+ect transistors
$called *-"s' in which current is due to majority carriers only $either
electrons or holes'. "he transistor as a switch operates in class A mode.
2n this mode of bias the circuit is designed such that current fows without
any signal present.
"he value of bias current is either increased or decreased about its mean
value by the input signal $if operated as an amplifer' or 1E and 1** by
the input signal if operated as a switch.

Ib
Vin
Rb
V+
IcRc
*igure &.9 <ircut diagram of a transistor switching stage
*or the transistor confguration, since the transistor is biased to
saturation.
= =
<- <- M !, when the transistor is 1E. M !, when the transistor is 1E.
5hich implies thatP
=
Q
M 2
c
/
c
Q =
<-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &.:
=
in
M 2
;
/
;
Q =
;-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &.
2
c
M h
fe
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &.
2
;
/
b
M =
in
L =
;-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RR ... &.I
2
;
5here,
2
<
M collector current
2
;
M base current
=in M input voltage
=
Q
M supply voltage
=
<-
M collector)emitter voltage
H
*-
M current gain.
@21@-8
According to Hewes $&!!K' diodes allow electrical to fow in only one
direction. "he arrow of the circuit shows the direction in which the current
can fow. @iodes are electrical version of a value and early diodes were
actually called valves.
1rdinary diode can split into two typesF signal diodes which pass
small current of 9!!mA or less and rectifer diodes which can pass large
currents.
/-<"2*2-/ @21@-8
According to *loyd $9AA9' rectifer diodes are used in power supplies
to convert alternating current to direct current, a process called
rectifcation.
*igure &.K <ircuit diagram of a diode rectifer
;/2@H- /-<"2*2-/
"here are several ways of connecting diode to make a rectifer to
convert to @<. "he bridge rectifer is one of them and it is available in
special packages containing the four diodes re#uired. "hey are rated by
their ma(imum current and ma(imum reverse voltage.
B-E-/ @21@-
"his is a special kind of diode which permits current to fow in the
forward direction as normal, but will also allow it to fow in the reverse
direction when the voltage is above a certain value)the breakdown
voltage known as the 6ener voltage. "he 6ener voltage of a standard
diode is high, but if a reverse current above that value is allowed to pass
through it, the diode is permanently damaged. Bener diodes are designed
so that their 6ener voltage of that diode no matter how high the reverse
bias voltage is above the 6ener voltage.
2.( COUNTERS
Hrouping of fip)fops together so that they act as a data store
produces a register. <ertain types of register can be used to count pulses
and are known as counters. *lip)fops generally may be used to form
counters but the 7D fip)fop is the most popular and most fe(ible to use.
<ounters generally are categori6ed to Asynchronous $ripple' and
synchronous. "hey are made up of fip)fop, which are triggered
se#uentially $as in the case of Asynchronous counters' and simultaneously
as in the case of synchronous counters. "he simultaneous triggering of the
ripple counter is useful in cases, which the propagation delay associated
with ripple L through counter may be a problem.
A8OE<H/1E108 <10E"-/8
<onsider the simplest counter circuit is a @)type fip fop, with its @
$data' input fed from its own inverted output. "his circuit can store one
bit, and hence can count from 6ero to one before it overfows $start over
from !'. "his counter will increment once for every clock cycle and takes
two clocks to overfow, so every cycle it will alternate between a transition
from ! to 9 and a transition from 9 to !.
8OE<H/1E108 <10E"-/8
5here a stable count value is important across several bits, which is
the case in most counter systems, synchronous counters are used. "hese
also use fip fops, either the @)type or the more comple( 7)D type, but
here, each stage is clocked simultaneously by a common clock signal.
3ogic gates between each stage of the circuit control data fow from stage
to stage so that the desired count behavior is reali6ed.
@-<A@- <10E"-/
"he <@ !9K is called a counter or driver or decade counter. 2t is a
very handy chip for producing /unning 3-@ e+ect etc. 2t has 9! outputs.
1utput ST1TT goes high on the rise of the frst clock cycle. 1n the second
clock cycle output SToTT goes low and output ST2TT goes high. "his process
continues across the ten outputs and cycles to output SToTT on the eleventh
cycle SToTT goes high.
5hen /-8-" $pin 9I' is taken high, the chip will make output SToTT go high
and remain high. 5hen clock 2EH2;2" $pin 9:' is taken high, the counter
<@!9K
9C
9
9:
99
9!
9I
A
I
C

:
G
&
9
9&
K
will free6e on the output that is currently high. 2ts minimum supply voltage
is Cv to 9Iv.
1utputs ,, I Q=<<
,, 9
/-8-"
,, !
<31<D
,, &
<31<D 2EH2;2"
,, C
<A//O 10"
,, K A
10"P0"
,, :
,,
,, C G
,,
*igure &. Pin confgurations of a <@ !9K integrated circuits
3% :I
"he 3%:I series are precision integrated)circuit temperature
sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the <elsius
$<entigrade' temperature. "he 3%:I thus has an advantage over linear
temperature sensors calibrated in
!
Delvin, as the user is not re#uired to
subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient
<entigrade scaling. "he 3%:I does not re#uire any e(ternal calibration or
trimming to provide typical accuracies of g$?
!
< at room temperature and
gU?
!
< over a full )II to a 9I!
!
< temperature range. 3ow cost is assured
by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. "he 3%:IVs low output
impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make
interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. 2t can be used
with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws
only C! mA from its supply, it has very low self)heating, less than !.9
!
< in
still air.
"he 3%:I is rated to operate over a )II
!
to a 9I!
!
< temperature
range, while the 3%:I< is rated for a b!W to a99!
!
< range $)9!
!
with
improved accuracy'. "he 3%:I series is available packaged in hermetic
"1)C transistor packages, while the 3%:I<, 3%:I<A, and 3%:I@ are also
available in the plastic "1)A& transistor package. "he 3%:I@ is also
available in an G)lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic
"1)&!& package.
*-A"0/-8
<alibrated directly in
!
<elsius $<entigrade'
3inear a 9!.! m=?W< scale factor
!.I
!
< accuracy guaranteeable $at a &I
!
<'
/ated for full bIIW to a9I!W< range
8uitable for remote applications
3ow cost due to wafer)level trimming
1perates from to :! volts
3ess than C! mA current drain
3ow self)heating, !.!G
!
< in still air
Eonlinearity only g$?
!
< typical
3ow impedance output, !.9 X for 9 mA load
2.) PASSIVE COMPONENTS
2n this section the description and function of the electronic
component used in the construction of this work are discussed. Passive
devices are components that cannot gain but used to establish levels or
limits to current or power. "ypical elements that fall into the passive
category are resistors, capacitors and inductors
/-828"1/
A resistor is a two)terminal passive electronic component which
implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. 5hen a voltage = is
applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current 2 will fow through the
resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. "his constant of
proportionality is called conductance, H. "he reciprocal of the
conductance is known as the resistance /, since, with a given voltage =, a
larger value of / further YresistsY the fow of current 2 as given by 1hmVs
law>
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
&.C
/esistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic
circuits and are ubi#uitous in most electronic e#uipment. Practical
resistors can be made of various compounds and flms, as well as
resistance wire $wire made of a high)resistivity alloy, such as nickel)
chrome'. /esistors are also implemented within integrated circuits,
particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and
printed circuits.
"he electrical functionality of a resistor is specifed by its resistance>
common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more
than A orders of magnitude. 5hen specifying that resistance in an
electronic design, the re#uired precision of the resistance may re#uire
attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according
to its specifc application. "he temperature coe,cient of the resistance
may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors
are also specifed as having a ma(imum power rating which must e(ceed
the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit> this
is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. /esistors with
higher power ratings are physically larger and may re#uire heat sinking. 2n
a high voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated
ma(imum working voltage of the resistor
*igure &.: 8chematic symbol of a resistor.
<1310/ <1@2EH
*our)band identifcation is the most commonly used color)coding
scheme on resistors. 2t consists of four colored bands that are painted
around the body of the resistor. "he frst two bands encode the frst two
signifcant digits of the resistance value, the third is a power)of)ten
multiplier or number)of)6eroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy,
or acceptable error, of the value. "he frst three bands are e#ually spaced
along the resistorF the spacing to the fourth band is wider. 8ometimes a
ffth band identifes the thermal coe,cient, but this must be distinguished
from the true I)color system, with : signifcant digits.
*or e(ample, green)blue)yellow)red is ICZ9!

[ M IC! k[ \ &]. An easier


description can be as followed> the frst band, green, has a value of I and
the second band, blue, has a value of C, and is counted as IC. "he third
band, yellow, has a value of 9!

, which adds four !Vs to the end, creating


IC!,!!! [ at \&] tolerance accuracy. IC!,!!! [ changes to IC! k[ \&]
$as a kilo) is 9!
:
'.
-ach color corresponds to a certain digit, progressing from darker to
lighter colors, as shown in the chart below.
"able &.9 8howing the colour code of a resistor
Co*o+
1
,!
-.%/
2
%/
-.%/
3
+/
-.%/
(0*!$1*$2+)
4
!3
-.%/
(!o*2+.%42)
T201.
Co254$2%!
;lack ! ! Z9!
!
;rown 9 9 Z9!
9
\9] $*' 9!! ppm
/ed & & Z9!
&
\&] $H' I! ppm
1rang
e
: : Z9!
:
9I ppm
Oellow Z9!

&I ppm
Hreen I I Z9!
I
\!.I] $@'
;lue C C Z9!
C
\!.&I] $<'
=iolet K K Z9!
K
\!.9] $;'
Hray G G Z9!
G
\!.!I] $A'
5hite A A Z9!
A
Hold Z9!
^9
\I] $7'
8ilver Z9!
^&
\9!] $D'
Eone \&!] $%'
<APA<2"1/ 1/ <1E@-E8-/8
;y %. 3. AEAE@, capacitors are the components which have a
capacity to store $condense' charge. "he capacity is measured in
*arads. 9 *arad M 9!
:
%ill farads $mf'
M9!
C
%icro *arads $Jf'
M 9!
9&
Pico *arads $pf'
A capacitor is basically made up of two metallic plates separated by
some insulting material called dielectric. "he metallic plates may be of
aluminium and dielectric may be paper, mica, ceramic, etc. A capacitor is
known by its dielectric. 8o we have paper capacitors, mica capacitors, and
ceramic capacitors and so on.
<3A882*2<A"21E 1* <APA<2"1/
<apacitors are of two kinds>
*i(ed capacitors
=ariable capacitors
*2X-@ <APA<2"1/8
*i(ed capacitors are capacitors whose values are f(ed. Henerally, the
capacity and voltage are marked on them. However, colour coding is also
used to fnd their capacity. 1n the basis of dielectric, these capacitors may
be the following types>
i' Paper capacitors
ii' <eramic capacitors
iii' %ica capacitors
iv' -lectrolytic capacitors
v' Aluminium electrolytic capacitors.
"able &.9 A table of capacitors and their dielectric constant and strength.
%A"-/2A3 @2-3-<"/2< <1E8"AE" @2-3-<"/2<
8"/-EH"H 2E
=13"8?%23
Air?vacuum 9 &!
Plastic &_:.I 9!!!_I!!!
1il &_I I!!_9!!!
Paper &.I_C I!!_9!!!
%ica :_G C!!_9I!!
Hlass _K I!!
-lectrolytic K_99 &!!!
<eramics G!_9&!!! 9!!_:!!
E1E)P13A/2B-@
"hese are made by joining two polar capacitors in back position
or both the electrode is using o(ide flm. "hese have no polarity and
therefore can be connected without considering positive or negative
terminals. "hese can be used for A< appliances. -(amples include
- "antalum electrolytic capacitors
- Plastic capacitors
=A/2A;3- <APA<2"1/8
=ariable capacitors are those whose capacitance can be
changed. "hey are used in tuning circuits to change the operating
fre#uency of the circuits.
<apacitance depends upon dielectric constant $`', area of plate $A' and
the distance between the plates $d' i.e.
< M ` ZA? d
=ariable capacitor can beF
i /otary type
ii <oncentric type.
"OP-8 1* =A/2A;3- <APA<2"1/
i Air capacitors
ii "rimmer
iii Padder
iv =aractor capacitors
"able &.& colour coding chart for f(ed capacitors
<1310/ <APA<2"AE<- 2E P*
9
8"
@2H2" &
E@
@2H2" %03"2P32-/ "13-/AE<-
\ $]'
;lack ! ! 9 &!
;rown 9 9 9! 9
/ed & & 9!! &
1range : : 9!!! :!
Oellow 9!!!! _
Hreen I I _ I
;lue C C _ _
=iolet K K _ _
Hrey G G !.!9 _
5hite A A !.9 9!
Hold _ _ !.9 9
8ilver _ _ !.!99 9!
CHAPTER 3
DESIGN AND ANAL6SIS
3.# PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
"he operational principle of this work is based on two circuit
operations.
*irst, on the frst circuit this comprises of the transmitter and receiver, the
pipe joint under detection linking the two. "he transmitter is nothing more
than a Y3-@ chaserY the !99 2< is wired as astable and clocks a !9K
decade counter divider. "he !9K is arranged so that on the Ath pulse, the
count is reset. -ach 3-@ will light se#uentially from 3-@ 9 to 3-@ G then
back to 3-@ 9 etc. ;etween the transmitter and the receiver are the lined
conductors on a band round the pipe joint. 5hen there is an open circuit,
one of the conductorsT breaks indicating an open circuit hence the 3-@
connected to the conductor remains 1**. As the !9K has limited driving
capabilities, then each output is bu+ered by a !I!. "his provides
su,cient current boost for long cables and the transmitter and receiver
3-@Vs. "he receiver is simply G 3-@Vs with a common wire.
8econdly, the sensor detector, its basic principle is based on the
temperature profle of the environment along the outside of the pipeline.
5hen a leak occurs in a pipeline, it creates a temperature disturbance in
the environment surrounding the pipe. *or open circuits in pressuri6ed gas
pipelines the escaping gas will generate a cold 6one in the environment
surrounding the pipe due to 7oule "homson e(pansion.
*or pipelines carrying heavy crude oil the oil is often transmitted at
temperatures signifcantly above ambient in order to maintain a
reasonable oil viscosity. A pipeline open circuit would therefore create a
local warning of the environment surrounding the pipeline. 8o at the
detection of any of the above systems, there is a bu66ing alarm with a
visual indication of open circuit alert.
3.1 DESIGN ANAL6SIS
*or every design and construction, one of the most objectives is to
achieve a 9!!] working piece at reduced cost using available local
materials. 2n line with standard specifcation and re#uirements, this work
is in agreement. 2t is useable, easy to maintain and eco)friendly.
3.2 POWER SUPPL6 STAGE
P15-/ 80PP3O 8"AH-
"he power supply is obtained from the rectifcation output of a &!?9&=
A< output of a step)down transformer. <9 acts as a flter capacitor. "he @<
voltage is given by
/
1
is a limiting resistor, it limits the amount of current going the 3-@
indicatorsF hence preserving the life of the 3-@
/
1
M
..........................................................................................................:.9
=
/8
M =s L
=
3-@
..............................................................................:.&
HenceF
=
/8
M voltage across resistor
=
@<
L =
8
M voltage source
=
3-@
M =oltage drop by the 3-@
2
3-@
M <urrent across
AssumptionsF
3et =
3-@
M &.!v
2
3-@
M &!%A
=
/8
M 9C.ACG) &.! v
M 9.ACG v
/
1
M

9.ACG
&!mA
M9.ACG?&! ( 9!
):
/
1
MKG.a
/
1
M power rating M $2
3-@
' Z
/
1
..............................................................:.:
M $&!%A'
&
M !.!!&&ZKG.a
M !.: watts
/
1
M KG. a \ !.: 5. 8ince the obtained calculated value is low, the
chosen value of 9k a, 9 watt resistor is used.
A 9& v transformer would be used as stated above, to allow for drops,
which might occur due to low ac input voltage from utility supply.
"he rectifer is designed with four diodes which form a pull wave bridge
network, <
9
is the flter capacitor and <
9
is inversely proportional to the
ripple gradient of the power supply. *igure :.9 shows the ripple gradient
*igure :.9 @iagram of the ripple gradient of the power supply.
5here dvM ripple voltage for time dt.
dt is dependent on power supply fre#uency $I!h6 in this case' for an rms
voltage of 9& v $from transformer'
=
P-AD
M 9& Z b& $rms 9.9' ...................................................................:.
M9C.ACGv
Hence letting a ripple voltage of 9&] makes
@v M 9& ( 9C.ACG
9!!
M &.!:C c &.!
;ut M
....................................................................................................... :.I
< M
.......................................................................................................... :.C
M $where dt M C.Kms for I!h6'
M
M :.&G:9:K&I ( 9!
):
M :&G.:Jf
A preferred valued of ::!!Jf was employed for the power stage.
A voltage regulator of A= $3%KG!A' was also employed to stabili6e and
regulate the power supply voltage to A=.
3.3 OSCILLATOR STAGE
"he oscillator stage comprises of the popular <%18 <@!99. "he !99
integrated circuit $2<' is wired as astable and clocks a !9K decade
counter divider.
3.4 SENSOR STAGE
"he circuit employs the use of 3%:I. 3%:I is a precision integrated
circuit temperature sensor whose output voltage is linearly proportional to
the <elsius $centigrade' temperature. 2ts linear scale factor is Q9!.!m=?
!
<.
At 9
!
< its e#uivalent voltage output is 9!m= $i.e. !.!9='
At 9!
!
< its e#uivalent voltage output is !.9=
At &A
!
< its e#uivalent voltage output is !.&A=
3.( COMPARATOR STAGE
"he function of the comparator is to compare two voltages and give
an output, which tells if they are e#ual or une#ual. "he comparator stage
in this circuit is used to sense when the temperature input voltage is high,
to give the re#uired output or low. A variable reference voltage of is
applied to the non) inverting input of the high voltage sensing comparator
and to the inverting input of low voltage sensing comparator. "he high
output of the comparator is used to bias the transistor which triggers the
timer unit.
/
99
d
"1 8-E81/ Q
/
9I
/
9&

*igure :.& 8chematic diagram of the comparator stage
/
99
and /
9&
form a potential divider. "o drop the regulated
voltage to a low voltage.
Assumption,
let =/& M !.9I=

;ut =/
&
M /
9&
? $/
99
Q /
9&
' ( =
Q
RRRRRRRRRR.:.K
5here =/
&
is the drop across /
9&
and =
Q
is the regulated voltage at Av.
letting /
99
M 9!!k
!.9I=M /
9&
? $9!!DQ /
9&
' ( A
9ID Q!.9I /
9&
M A/
9&
9ID M G.GI/
9&
/
&
M 9Ik? G.GI
M 9.Kk
M &k preferred value
/
99
M 9!!k, /
9&
M &k
3.) SWITCHING TRANSISTOR STAGE
"he switching transistor switches the bu66er and the light emitting
diode 1E. "he transistor as a switch operates in class A mode. A base
resistor is re#uired to ensure perfect switching of the transistor in
saturation. @iode @I protects the transistor from back emf that might be
generated since the relay coil presents an inductive load.
2n this case /
<
, which is the collector resistance, is the resistance of the
relay coil, which is !!N for the relay type used in this project.
Hence, given that /
<
M !!a $/elay coil resistance'
=
Q
M A= $regulated voltage from the power supply stage'
=
;-
M !.C= $silicon'
=
<-
M != $when transistor is switched'
=
2E
M 9.I= $from the comparator stage'
H
*-
M :!! $from data sheet for ;<::K'
8ince,
=
Q
M 2
<
/
<
Q =
<-
RRRRRRRRR..................................................... :.G
=
2E
M 2
;
/
;
Q =
;-
RR.RRRRRR..................................................... :.A
2 2
< < M H M H
*- *- RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR :. RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR :.9! 9!
2 2
; ;
/ /
; ; M = M =
2E 2E L = L =
;- ;- RRR..RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR. :. RRR..RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR. :.99 99
2 2
; ;
5here, 5here,
2
<
M collector current
2
;
M base current
=
2E
M input voltage
=
Q
M supply voltage
=
<-
M collector)emitter voltage
H
*-
M current gain.
*rom :.GF A M 2
<
/
<
Q =
<-
A M 2
<
$!!' Q !
And, 2
<
M :!mA
*rom :.9!F 2
;
M :!mA?:!!
M 9!!uA
*rom :.AF 9.I=M 9!!uA/
;
Q !.C
/
;
M !.A?9!!uA
M AD[
M 9!D[ $preferred value'
3.7 BLOCK DIAGRAM
POWER SUPPL6 UNIT
BU88E
R UNIT
SWITCHIN
G UNIT
COMPARAT
OR UNIT
SENS
OR
UNIT
COUNTE
R UNIT
LED
RECIEVE
R
OSCILLAT
OR UNIT
LED
TRANSMITT
ER
VISUA
L UNIT
<onductor band strip
*igure :.: ;lock diagram of an open circuit detector
P15-/ 80PP3O 0E2"
"he power supply comprises of a transformer, diodes, capacitor,
resistor and light emitting diode. 2t powers the di+erent unit that makes
up the device. 2t is obtain from the rectifcation of a stepped down
&!=?9&=.
18<233A"1/ 0E2"
"he oscillator unit is the !99 integrated circuit which is wired as
astable mode multivibration. 2t generates the signal that is necessary to
clock the counter section.
<10E"-/ ? ;0**-/ 0E2"
"he counter and the bu+er unit is the !9K which has limited driving
capabilities, then each output is bu+ered by a !I!. "his provides
su,cient current boost for long cables and the transmitter and receiver
3-@Vs.
3-@ "/AE8%2""-/ AE@ /-<2-=-/
"he circuit comprises transmitter and receiver, with a band
conductor test linking the two. "he transmitter is nothing more than a
Y3-@ chaserY. "he receiver is simply G 3-@Vs with a common wire.
8-E81/ 0E2"
"he sensor is the 3%:I. 3%:I is a precision integrated circuit
temperature sensor whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the
<elsius $centigrade' temperature. 2ts linear scale factor is Q9!.!m=?
!
<.
<1%PA/A"1/ 0E2"
"he comparator unit compares the two input signal, inverting and
non) inverting whose output is either low or high depending on the
outputs is either low or high depending on the inputs.
852"<H2EH 0E2"
"he switching unit comprises of a transistors and a relay. "he
biasing of the transistor energi6es the relay $switch', which is based on
the output of the comparator. *or low $no signal or !' output the switching
is 6ero $no switching', and for a high $8ignal or 9' output there is
switching.
A3-/" 0E2"
"his unit is of two sectionsF the visual alert system and the audio
alert system. "he audio employs the bu66er system and the visual is a red
colored 3-@.
3.7 COMPREHENSIVE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
CHAPTER FOUR
CONSTRUCTION9 TESTING AND RESULTS
4.1 CONSTRUCTION
"he circuit was frst assembled on a project board unit by unit starting
with the power supply, sensor, and comparator and switching, and each
unit of the design was tested separately. 3ater on the whole unit were
tested and coupled together still on the project board. Afterwards, the
entire system was transferred to the =ero)board or strips board where
there were properly soldiered together. Above is the circuit diagram of an
open circuit detector.
4.2 COMPONENTS USED
/-828"1/8
/9 M 9Da
/& M 9!%a
/: L /9! M 9Da
/99 M 9!!Da
/9& M &Da
/9:, /9 M 9!Da
<APA<2"1/8
<9 M ::!!Jf
"/AE828"1/8
;< 9!G
2E"-H/A"-@ <2/<02"
2<9 M <@!99
2<& M <@!9K
2<: M KG!A
2< M <@!I!
2<I M 3%K9
2<C M 3%:I
8-%2<1E@0<"1/
@9M 9E!!K
"/AE8*1/%-/ L &!v?9&= 8"-P @15E
=-/1 ;1A/@
70%P-/ 52/- $<1EE-<"2EH 52/-'
P/17-<" ;1A/@
813@-/2EH 3-A@
3-@9 L 3-@ 9K M /-@
4.3 TESTING
*or the sensor stage, it was tested and the results tabulated as follows.
"able .98howing the output result of the sensor at di+erent intelligent
touch
8-E82"2=- "1
"-%P-/A"0/-
10"P0" 1;8-/=A"21E
At any temperature
change
A change in voltage e#uivalent of the
temperature.
*or the band conductor test> At any slight open circuit of the pipe, a
conductor strip is broken on the band, hence causing the 3-@ not to light
up.
-E"2/- 8O8"-% "-8"
After packaging was done, the entire system was tested and the result
obtained were as desired.
"able .&8howing the entire system test and result obtained.
H-E-/A3 "-8" 10"P0" 1;8-/=A"21E
7oints tight $no leakage' All 3-@s 1E, bu66er 1**.
7oints loosed $open circuit' 1pen circuited 3-@ 1**, bu66er
1E.
4.4 RESULTS OBTAINED
"able .9 shows the test results obtained after carrying out the test
UNITS:
SECTIONS
TESTED
INSTRUMENTS
USED FOR
TESTING
RESULTS
OBTAINED
RESULTS
E;PECTED
Power supply @igital
multimeter
9&v at the
transformer
output of I!H6
"he same result
as obtained and
e(pected.
8ensor unit @igital
multimeter
A directly
varying voltage
output with
temperature
8ame result as
obtained
<omparator unit A simple 3-@
indicator circuit
<ompares
according to
incoming signal,
giving a high or
low output.
8ame
Astable
%ultivibrator unit
A simple 3-@
indicator circuit
1scillates 8ame
1utput on open
circuited
;u66er and 3-@ 3-@ opens
circuited 1**,
bu66er sound.
As e(pected and
obtained
4.( PACKAGING
"o protect the circuit against damage from rough handling, unnecessary
fall and carelessness, the circuit re#uires good packaging. Packaging
ensures durability of the work, easy movement and makes it presentable.
"he above mentioned were carried out using a plastic casing providing a
sit so the circuit will be f(ed and secured.
4.) PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
2n actuali6ing this project so many challenges were encountered as listed
below
9. 0nsteady power supply $a national issue',
&. 0navailability of some great sensitive detectors
:. <ost of material
. *inancial constrains
I. *ailure of some components as a result of temperature di+erence
according to their data sheet.
C. @iscouragement from the circuit entirely during construction, this
was as a result of inade#uate or insu,cient knowledge re#uired to
produce such device.
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMAR6 AND CONCLUSION
(.# SUMMAR6
"he open circuit detector automatically detects any open circuit
$leakage' on the pipeline joints and gives a visual and an audio alerts.
2t is user friendly and suitable for all roads where decongestion is
necessary. 2ts construction is well design, making room for easy
maintenance. "he components used are readily available, as they are
locally obtained from the local market.
(.1 CONCLUSION
Having considered some of its e,cient notifcation abilit ,resultant e+ect
of prompt attention to mails, its easy to maintain nature and implicitly its
promise of even better and improved versions in the future makes it a
worthwhile venture.
"he project was #uite a challenging one to accomplish. "here is high initial
capital cost but low running or maintenance cost as compared to
conventional method of open circuit detector. "he project has e(posed us
to marry the analog and digital electronics that are being taught in the
classroom and at the workshop.
"he construction was done so as to give easy access for maintenance.
(.2 RECOMMENDATIONS.
8ubse#uent work on this project should consider adding a satellite
transmitter and receiver so that it can be monitored from any part of
the world. 5ith solar panel system for is power supply to make it
independent from the national grid supply.
A routine maintenance should always be done on the device to keep
it at optimal performance. And the sensor should be protected from
direct contact with the soil.
Projects of this nature which possess good market prospect should
be given good fnancial sponsorship, so that it could be produced in
large #uantity, in order to monitor our oil pipelines accurately.
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9. e&f. Bhang B. 5., Oe H.P 5ang H. B.P et al, 3eak detection in
transport pipelines using enhanced independent component
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8cience, =ol. :C99, Aug. &!!I, pp. AI)9!!.
&. e:f. 7. Oang, O. 5en, and P. 3i, 3eak Acoustic @etection in 5ater
@istribution Pipelines, in Proc. of the Kth 5orld <ongress on
2ntelligent <ontrol and Automation $5<2<A', &!!G, pp. :!IK):!C9.
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-valuation of 8ecurity %echanisms in 5ireless 8ensor Eetworks,
&!!I, pp. &G)::.
9K. eKf. 0/3> http>??www. certifgroup. com?ipcodetesting. html