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# MEASUREMENT

## Recap: Measurement Concepts

Prisms
Cylinders
Scale Factors
Spheres
Pyramids
Cones
Building a 3-D Space Recap: Perimeter and Area
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RECAP: MEASUREMENT
CONCEPTS
Building a 3-D Space
Recap: Perimeter and Area
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PRISMS
Total Surface Area
TSA = (L x B) + (L x B) + (L x H) + (L x H) + (B x H) + (B x H)
= 2LB + 2LH + 2BH

Sum the areas of the panels of the rectangle to get the
total surface area

Volume
= (L x B x H)

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Example
(a) Calculate the surface area and volume of the
rectangular prism if it is closed on all sides. l = 8cm;
b = 3cm ; h = 4cm
Surface Area = 2LB + 2LH + 2BH
Surface Area = 2(8) (3) + 2(8) (4) + 2(3) (4)
Surface Area = 48+64+24
Surface Area = 136 cm

(b) Calculate the surface area if the prism is open on top.

Surface Area = LB + 2LH + 2BH (TOP MISSING)
Surface Area = (8) (3) + 2(8) (4) + 2(3) (4)
Surface Area = 112 cm
Volume &
Surface Area of
a Right Prism
Challenge! Diagonal Length of a Rectangular Prism
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EXERCISE
Calculate the surface area and volume of a rectangular
prism in each of the following cases.

(a) the prism is closed and the dimensions are:
Length =13 cm. Breadth = 6 cm and Height = 9 cm
(b) the prism is closed and the dimensions are:
Length = 12 m, Breadth = 5 m and Height = 7 m
(c) the prism is open on top and the dimensions are:
Length = 13 cm, Breadth = 6 cm and Height = 9 cm
(d) the prism is open on top and the dimensions are:
Length =12 m, Breadth = 5 m and Height = 1 m
Volume of Triangular Prisms
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CYLINDERS
Total Surface Area

The Radius of a Circle Circumference of a Circle
rh r TSA 2 2
2

A Cylinder & its Net
Proof: Curved Surface of a Cylinder = Rectangle
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Volume

h r V
2

## Volume & Surface Area of a

Cylinder Example
Calculate the Surface Area & Volume of Cylinders
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Example
Given a cylinder with r = 4cm and h = 6m:

(a) Calculate the surface area of the cylinder
assuming a closed cylinder

(b) Calculate the surface area of the cylinder
assuming an open-topped cylinder

(c) Calculate the volume of the cylinder

2
2
) 80 (
48 32
2 2
cm TSA
TSA
rh r TSA

3
2
2
) 96 (
) 6 ( ) 4 (
cm V
V
h r V

2
2
2
) 64 (
48 16
) 6 )( 4 ( 2 ) 4 (
2
cm TSA
TSA
TSA
rh r TSA

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EXERCISE
Calculate the surface area and volume of a cylinder in
each of the following cases:
(a) the cylinder is closed and the dimensions are:
radius = 5 cm and height = 3 cm.
(b) the cylinder is closed and the diameter = 12 cm
and the height = 7 cm.
(c) the cylinder is open and the dimensions are:
radius = 15 cm and height = 8 mm.
(d) the cylinder is open and the diameter = 4 cm
and the height = cm.
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It sometimes happens that the dimensions of the prism
are changed.

For example, the length, breadth and height might be
doubled.

The surface area and volume will then obviously be
different from the original prism.

The number which is multiplied by each dimension is
called a scale factor.

Enlarge the triangle by a scale factor of 3
SCALE FACTORS
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Example
If the length is x units and the
breadth is y units, then the
area of the rectangle is:
A = xy
If we now double the length
and the breadth (multiply
length and breadth by a scale
factor of 2), then the area of the
rectangle will change to:
A = (2x)(2y)
A = (2)(2)xy
A = 4xy
Therefore the new area is 4
times the original area.

Finding the New
Enlarged Area
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Note:
In general if the length and breath of a
rectangle is multiplied by a scale factor
of k units then the area of the rectangle
will have been multiplied by k squared.
The new area is k squared times the
original area.
Scale Factors and Area
Fractional Scale Factor Enlargements
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Example
Calculate the surface area and
volume of the rectangular prism
if the length, breadth and height
are multiplied by a scale factor
of 5 units.

Surface Area =2(5L)(5B) + 2(5L)(5H) + 2(5B)(5H)
Surface Area = 2(5 x 8)(5 x 3) + 2(5 x 8)(5 x 4) +
2(5 x 3)(5 x 4)
Surface Area = 3400 cm

Volume = (5L)(5B)(5H)
Volume = (5 x 8)(5 x 3)(5 x 4)
Volume = 12000 cm
Therefore the new surface area is 5 x 5 times
greater than the original surface area.
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Note:
If the length, breadth and height are multiplied by a scale
factor of k units, then:

Surface Area = 2(kL)(kB) + 2(kL)(kH) + 2(kB)(kH)
Surface Area = k [2LB + 2LH + 2BH]

Volume = (k L) (k B) (k H)
Volume = k [LBH]

In general if the length, breadth and height of a
Rectangular prism are multiplied by a scale factor of k
units then the

surface area will be multiplied by k squared
volume will be multiplied by k cubed.
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Identify the Scale Factor of Enlargement for each Circle
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Consider the cylinder with the given dimensions:
r = 3cm ; h = 6cm.

(a) Calculate the surface area if the radius is doubled.

(b) Calculate the surface area if the radius is multiplied
by 4cm.

(c) Calculate the surface area if the height is trebled.

(d) Calculate the volume if the radius is doubled.

(e) Calculate the volume if the radius is halved.

EXERCISE
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Some Fun with Shapes: An Impossible Fork!
Area, Circumference & Volume Problems
Challenge!
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SPHERES
Surface area = 4 r
2

Volume =
3
4
3
r
r is the radius
Calculate the Surface Area & Volume of Spheres
Volume of a Sphere Example
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PYRAMIDS

Slant edges

Slant height

Perpendicular height
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Surface Area =area of base
+ (perimeter of base) x slant height
Volume = 1/3 area of base
x perp height
Calculate the SA & Volume of
a Square Pyramid
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CONES
TSA = area of base + area of curved surface
= r
2
+ r s

(s is slant height)

Volume =
1
/
3
( area of base ) x ht
=
1
/
3
r
2
h
Calculating the Height of a Cone
Recap: Identify the Shapes
Calculate the Volume of the Cone
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