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You are on page 1of 20

Prisms

Cylinders

Scale Factors

Spheres

Pyramids

Cones

Building a 3-D Space Recap: Perimeter and Area

1

RECAP: MEASUREMENT

CONCEPTS

Building a 3-D Space

Recap: Perimeter and Area

2

PRISMS

Total Surface Area

TSA = (L x B) + (L x B) + (L x H) + (L x H) + (B x H) + (B x H)

= 2LB + 2LH + 2BH

Sum the areas of the panels of the rectangle to get the

total surface area

Volume

= (L x B x H)

3

Example

(a) Calculate the surface area and volume of the

rectangular prism if it is closed on all sides. l = 8cm;

b = 3cm ; h = 4cm

Surface Area = 2LB + 2LH + 2BH

Surface Area = 2(8) (3) + 2(8) (4) + 2(3) (4)

Surface Area = 48+64+24

Surface Area = 136 cm

(b) Calculate the surface area if the prism is open on top.

Surface Area = LB + 2LH + 2BH (TOP MISSING)

Surface Area = (8) (3) + 2(8) (4) + 2(3) (4)

Surface Area = 112 cm

Volume &

Surface Area of

a Right Prism

Challenge! Diagonal Length of a Rectangular Prism

4

EXERCISE

Calculate the surface area and volume of a rectangular

prism in each of the following cases.

(a) the prism is closed and the dimensions are:

Length =13 cm. Breadth = 6 cm and Height = 9 cm

(b) the prism is closed and the dimensions are:

Length = 12 m, Breadth = 5 m and Height = 7 m

(c) the prism is open on top and the dimensions are:

Length = 13 cm, Breadth = 6 cm and Height = 9 cm

(d) the prism is open on top and the dimensions are:

Length =12 m, Breadth = 5 m and Height = 1 m

Volume of Triangular Prisms

5

CYLINDERS

Total Surface Area

The Radius of a Circle Circumference of a Circle

rh r TSA 2 2

2

A Cylinder & its Net

Proof: Curved Surface of a Cylinder = Rectangle

6

Volume

h r V

2

Cylinder Example

Calculate the Surface Area & Volume of Cylinders

7

Example

Given a cylinder with r = 4cm and h = 6m:

(a) Calculate the surface area of the cylinder

assuming a closed cylinder

(b) Calculate the surface area of the cylinder

assuming an open-topped cylinder

(c) Calculate the volume of the cylinder

2

2

) 80 (

48 32

2 2

cm TSA

TSA

rh r TSA

3

2

2

) 96 (

) 6 ( ) 4 (

cm V

V

h r V

2

2

2

) 64 (

48 16

) 6 )( 4 ( 2 ) 4 (

2

cm TSA

TSA

TSA

rh r TSA

8

EXERCISE

Calculate the surface area and volume of a cylinder in

each of the following cases:

(a) the cylinder is closed and the dimensions are:

radius = 5 cm and height = 3 cm.

(b) the cylinder is closed and the diameter = 12 cm

and the height = 7 cm.

(c) the cylinder is open and the dimensions are:

radius = 15 cm and height = 8 mm.

(d) the cylinder is open and the diameter = 4 cm

and the height = cm.

9

It sometimes happens that the dimensions of the prism

are changed.

For example, the length, breadth and height might be

doubled.

The surface area and volume will then obviously be

different from the original prism.

The number which is multiplied by each dimension is

called a scale factor.

Enlarge the triangle by a scale factor of 3

SCALE FACTORS

10

Example

If the length is x units and the

breadth is y units, then the

area of the rectangle is:

A = xy

If we now double the length

and the breadth (multiply

length and breadth by a scale

factor of 2), then the area of the

rectangle will change to:

A = (2x)(2y)

A = (2)(2)xy

A = 4xy

Therefore the new area is 4

times the original area.

Finding the New

Enlarged Area

11

Note:

In general if the length and breath of a

rectangle is multiplied by a scale factor

of k units then the area of the rectangle

will have been multiplied by k squared.

The new area is k squared times the

original area.

Scale Factors and Area

Fractional Scale Factor Enlargements

12

Example

Calculate the surface area and

volume of the rectangular prism

if the length, breadth and height

are multiplied by a scale factor

of 5 units.

Surface Area =2(5L)(5B) + 2(5L)(5H) + 2(5B)(5H)

Surface Area = 2(5 x 8)(5 x 3) + 2(5 x 8)(5 x 4) +

2(5 x 3)(5 x 4)

Surface Area = 3400 cm

Volume = (5L)(5B)(5H)

Volume = (5 x 8)(5 x 3)(5 x 4)

Volume = 12000 cm

Therefore the new surface area is 5 x 5 times

greater than the original surface area.

13

Note:

If the length, breadth and height are multiplied by a scale

factor of k units, then:

Surface Area = 2(kL)(kB) + 2(kL)(kH) + 2(kB)(kH)

Surface Area = k [2LB + 2LH + 2BH]

Volume = (k L) (k B) (k H)

Volume = k [LBH]

In general if the length, breadth and height of a

Rectangular prism are multiplied by a scale factor of k

units then the

surface area will be multiplied by k squared

volume will be multiplied by k cubed.

3

Identify the Scale Factor of Enlargement for each Circle

14

Consider the cylinder with the given dimensions:

r = 3cm ; h = 6cm.

(a) Calculate the surface area if the radius is doubled.

(b) Calculate the surface area if the radius is multiplied

by 4cm.

(c) Calculate the surface area if the height is trebled.

(d) Calculate the volume if the radius is doubled.

(e) Calculate the volume if the radius is halved.

EXERCISE

15

Some Fun with Shapes: An Impossible Fork!

Area, Circumference & Volume Problems

Challenge!

16

SPHERES

Surface area = 4 r

2

Volume =

3

4

3

r

r is the radius

Calculate the Surface Area & Volume of Spheres

Volume of a Sphere Example

17

PYRAMIDS

Slant edges

Slant height

Perpendicular height

18

Surface Area =area of base

+ (perimeter of base) x slant height

Volume = 1/3 area of base

x perp height

Calculate the SA & Volume of

a Square Pyramid

19

CONES

TSA = area of base + area of curved surface

= r

2

+ r s

(s is slant height)

Volume =

1

/

3

( area of base ) x ht

=

1

/

3

r

2

h

Calculating the Height of a Cone

Recap: Identify the Shapes

Calculate the Volume of the Cone

20

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