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Deities of Philippine mythology

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Deities of Philippine Mythology
The deities of Philippine mythology are the gods, goddesses and diwatas worshipe
d by ancient Filipinos before the Christianization of the natives after the Span
ish conquest of the Philippines. While not as widely known as its European and A
sian counterparts, they have similar elements and characteristics when compared
to other mythologies.
Contents [hide]
1 List of Gods and Goddesses
1.1 Ancient Tagalog Deities
1.1.1 Other Tagalog Deities
1.2 Ancient Bikolano Deities
1.3 Ancient Visayan Deities
1.3.1 Other Visayan deities
1.4 Tboli deities
1.5 Ilokano deities
1.6 Kapampangan deities
1.7 B'laan deities
1.8 Batak deities
1.9 Palawan Deities
1.10 Bukidnon Deities
1.11 Isneg Deities
1.12 Tiruray Deities
1.13 Mangyan Deities
1.14 Tinguian Deities
1.15 Talaandig Deities
1.16 Gaddang Deities
1.17 Ifugao Deities
1.18 Ilongot Deities
1.19 Agta Deities
1.20 Other Igorot Deities
2 List of Famous Diwatas
3 Footnotes
4 References
List of Gods and Goddesses[edit]
Ancient Philippine mythology varies among the many indigenous tribes of the Phil
ippines. During the pre-Spanish era, some tribes believed in a single supreme be
ing who created the world and everything in it, along with lesser deities. Other
s chose to worship a multitude of trees as an act of animism. Today the Philippi
nes have three religions, animism in northern Luzon, Christianity in southern Lu
zon and in visayas, and Islam in mindanao. Below are some of the gods and goddes
ses of the various ancient Philippine tribes:
Ancient Tagalog Deities[edit]
This section includes the deities of the Ancient Tagalogs from a certain pantheo
n story. The first part as shown below were the residents of Kaluwalhatian (the
Ancient Tagalog counterpart of Christian's Heaven).[1]
Name God(dess) of... Generation
Bathala The supreme god of being; creator of man and earth and addressed sometim
es as Bathalang Maykapal. He dwells in Kaluwalhatian together with the lesser go
ds and goddesses. Aside from the lesser gods and goddesses, he sent his anitos i
n order to assist the daily lives of every human. When most of the natives were
converted to Christianity during the Spanish Era, he was referred to the Christi
an God.[2] First[A]
Amanikable The ill-tempered god of the sea because among of the first gener
ation gods (aside from Bathala), he was never married after his love was spurned
by a beautiful mortal maiden, Maganda. In frustration, he swore vengeance again
st the humans by sending turbulent waves and horrible tempests in order to wreck
boats and to drown men.[3] First[B]
Idionale The goddess of labor and good deeds. Natives used to call for he
r guidance in order to make their works successful. She married Dimangan and had
two offspring.[4] First[C][D]
Dimangan The god of good harvest. He was married to Idiyanale and had two
offspring.[3] First
Lakapati The goddess of fertility and the most understanding and kind of
all the deities. Also known as Ikapati, she was the giver of food and prosperity
. Her best gift to mankind was agriculture (cultivated fields). Through this, sh
e was respected and loved by the people. Later, she was married to Mapulon and h
ad a daughter.[4] First[E]
Mapulon The god of seasons and husband of Lakapati of whom they had a daughter.[
3] First
Mayari The goddess of the moon and one of the three daughters of Bathala by a m
ortal woman. She was the most charming of all the goddesses. She had two sisters
, Tala and Hanan.[5] Second[F][G]
Tala The goddess of the stars; sister of Mayari and Hanan and one of the thre
e daughters of Bathala by a mortal woman.[5] Second[H]
Hanan The goddess of morning; sister of Mayari and Tala and one of the three d
aughters of Bathala by a mortal woman.[5] Second
Dumakulem The strong, agile guardian of mountains and the son of Idiyanale
and Dimangan. His sister was Anitun Tabu. He later married Anagolay.[3]
Second
Anion Tabu The fickle-minded goddess of wind and rain. She was the daughter
of Idiyanale and Dimangan and the sister of Dumakulem.[3] Second
Anagolay The goddess of lost things and the only offspring of Lakapati an
d Mapulon. She was married to Dumakulem.[3] Second
Apolaki The god of sun and the chief patron of warriors. He was the son of Anago
lay and Dumakulem.[5] Third (or Second)[I]
Mapolan Masalanta The goddess of love, conception and childbirth and the p
rotector of lovers. She was the daughter of Anagolay and Dumakulem and youngest
of all the deities. After the conversion of the natives to Christianity during t
he Spanish Era, she was then referred as Maria Makiling.[4] Third
Other definitions
A^ In some sources, Bathala is the father of Apolaki, aside from Mayari and Tala
hence excluding Hanan.[6]
B^ In some sources, Amanikable is referred as a sea deity of the Manobo tribe.[7
]
C^ In some sources, Idiyanale is identified as the goddess of agriculture.[8]
D^ In some sources, aside from being a goddess of agriculture, Idiyanale is also
identified as the goddess of animal husbandry.
E^ In some sources, Lakapati is identified as a hermaphrodite.
F^ In some creation myth, Mayari is the sister of Apolaki.[9]
G^ In some sources, Mayari is identified as an one-eyed goddess.[6]
H^ In some creation myth, Tala is the sister of Mayari and Apolaki and the daugh
ter of Bathala.[6]
I^ In some creation myth, Apolaki is the brother of Mayari and the son of Bathal
a.[10]
The list includes the god/goddess-like, residents of Kasamaan (Ancient Tagalog c
ounterpart of Hell). They were the evil entities all opposed to Bathala and the
rest of his deities.[1]
Name Definition
Sitan The guardian of Kasamaan and the keeper of all souls therein, the counte
rpart of Satan. He had four agents whose task was to lead man to sin and destruc
tion.[3]
Manggagaway She was the first agent of Sitan and was primarily blamed as the
cause of diseases. Sometimes, she would change herself into a human form, appea
ring as a false healer. If she wished to kill someone, she employed a magic wand
.[11]
Manisilat The second agent of Sitan, she was tasked to destroy and break e
very happy and united family that she could find.[3]
Mangkukulam The only male agent of Sitan, he was to emit fire at night and w
hen there was bad weather. Like his fellow agents, he could change his form to t
hat of a healer and then induce fire at his victim's house. If the fire were ext
inguished immediately, the victim would eventually die. His name remains today a
s witch.[3]
Hukluban The last agent of Sitan could change herself into any form she d
esired. She could kill someone by simply raising her hand and could heal without
any difficulty as she wished. Her name literally means "crone" or "hag."[12]
Other Tagalog Deities[edit]
The list includes the gods and goddesses who don't have a unified pantheon withi
n the Tagalog deities mentioned in Table #1.
Name God(dess) of
Amansinaya god of fishermen.
Galang Kaluluwa (Wandering Spirit) The winged god present in some creation
myths who loves to travel. He is identified as a close friend of Bathala.[13]
Haik god of the sea.
Lakambakod The protector of the growing crops.[3]
Lakambini Spanish called him as "Abogado de la Garganta" (The Throat Advoc
ate). He is referred as the god of gluttony, food and eating.[3]
Lingga a phallic god.
Ulilang Kaluluwa (Orphaned Spirit) It is a serpent god present in some crea
tion myths that was killed by Bathala after an ensuing rival.[14]
Ancient Bikolano Deities[edit]
The list includes the deities of Ancient Bikolanos living in Ibalon (present Bic
ol Region).
Name God(dess) of
Gugurang The supreme god who dwells inside of Mount Mayon where he guards
and protects the sacred fire in which Aswang, his brother was trying to steal.
Whenever people disobey his orders, wishes and commit numerous sins, he would ca
use Mount Mayon to burst lava as a sign of warning for people to mend their croo
ked ways. Ancient Bikolanos had a rite performed for him called Atang.[15]
Aswang The evil god who always try to steal the sacred fire of Mount Mayon from
his brother, Gugurang. Addressed sometimes as Asuang, he dwells mainly inside M
ount Malinao. As an evil god, he would cause the people to suffer misfortunes an
d commit sins.[15]
Haliya The masked goddess of the moon and the arch-enemy of Bakunawa. Her cult
is composed primarily of women. There is also a ritual dance named after her as
it is performed to be a counter-measure against Bakunawa.[16]
Bakunawa A gigantic sea serpent deity who is often considered as the caus
e of eclipses. As the devourer of the sun and the moon, this serpent became an a
dversary of Haliya.[17]
Ancient Visayan Deities[edit]
This section includes the deities of the Visayans from a certain pantheon story.
[18]
Name God(dess) of Generation
Kaptan The supreme god who dwells in the sky. He is the Ancient Visayan counter
part of Bathala. Of all the supreme deities in the Visayas, he is the most worsh
iped by the natives. He had a son named Lihangin.[19] First
Maguayan The god of the sea. He had a daughter named Lidagat.[20]
First
Lihangin The god of the wind and the son of Kaptan. He later married Lida
gat and had four children.[21] Second
Lidagat The goddess of the sea, daughter of Maguayan. She later married Lihangin
and had four children.[22] Second
Likabutan The god of the world and the eldest children of Lihangin and Lid
agat.[23] Third
Liadlaw The god of the sun and the second children of Lihangin ang Lidagat.[24]
Third
Libulan The god of the moon and the third children of Lihangin and Lidagat.[25]
Third
Lisuga The goddess of the stars. She was the youngest children of Lihangin and
Lidagat. The deity in which Silalak and Sibabay came from. [26] Third
Other Visayan deities[edit]
The list includes the gods and goddesses who haven't have a unified pantheon wit
hin the Visayan deities mentioned in Table #5.
Name God(dess) of
Adlaw God of the Sun
Alunsina She was the virgin goddess of the eastern skies.
Bangun Bangun God of time and cosmic movements.
Barangaw He is the god of the rainbow.[27]
Bulalakaw Bird god, causer of illness.
Burigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan Goddess of greediness.
Dalikamata The many-eyed goddess, cures eye illnesses.
Inaginid and Malandok God invoked for success in battle and plunder.
Kan-Laon The supreme god worshiped by the Ancient Visayans who lived in t
he Negros Island that dwells in Mount Kanlaon. As well as Kaptan, he is the Anci
ent Visayans counterpart of Bathala).and he is the god of time [28]
Kasaraysarayan sa Silgan God of rivers.
Lalahon She is the goddess of fire, volcanoes and harvest.[29] In ancient times,
Ancient Visayans blamed her for sending armies of locusts to destroy their harv
ests. In response, natives will offer her gifts in order to please her and preve
nt her from doing that.[30]
Lubay-Lubyok Hanginun si Mahuyokhuyokan Goddess of the night breeze.
Luyong Baybay Goddess of the tides.
Magdang Diriinin God of the lakes.
Maklium sa Tiwan God of the valleys and plains.
Maklium sa Tubig God of the sea.
Magwayen Soul ferry who is believed to take the souls of the dead in Sula
d (Ancient Visayan counterpart of Hell).
Munsad Buralakaw God of politics and affairs of men.
Nagined, Arapayan, and Makbarubak God who could be appealed to when concoc
ting poisonous oil.
Nagmalitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata Goddess of lust and demons. Sister of Bu
rigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan.
Pahulangkug God of seasons.
Paiburong God of the middle world.
Pandaki God who rescues the deserving for a more pleasant fate.
Panlinugun Ruler of the underworld, god of earthquakes.
Ribung Linti God of lightning and thunder.
Santonilyo God of graces.
Saraganka Bagyo God of storms.
Saragnayan God of darkness.
Sidapa The god of death who is said to reside on top of Mount Madia-as in provi
nce of Antique.[31]
Siginarugan He is identified as the god of the underworld.[32]
Suimuran and Suiguinarugan Gods of hell, the final destination for all dece
ased souls.
Suklang Malayon Goddess of homeliness, sister of Alunsina.
Sumalongson God of the rivers and the sea.
Sumpoy God of the afterlife.
Tungkung Langit Upper world and supreme god, counterpart of Bathala.
Ynaguinid and Macanduc Gods of war / battle.
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Tboli deities[edit]
Kadaw La Sambad - The sun god and supreme god. Married to Bulon La Mogoaw, they
reside in the seventh heaven. They begot seven sons and daughters who end up mar
rying each other.
Bulon La Mogoaw The moon goddess and supreme goddess, wife of Kadaw La Sambad.
Cumucul - The eldest son who was given a cohort of fire, a tok (sword), shield,
and the magical horse, Kaunting, who can be as small as a mouse when not ridden
and who can be kept in a box (This reflects the honor given by the Tboli to elde
st sons and the value they accord horses). Cumucul is married to Boi Kabil.
Sfedat - The second son who married his sister, the second daughter, Bong Libun.
This marriage produced no progeny, leading to Sfedat's despondency. One day, he
asked his wife to kill him. His corpse became land from which sprouted all kind
s of plants and trees.
Dwata - The third son who married two of his sisters, Sedek We and Hyu We. His r
equest for one of the powers granted Cumucul is refused. Thus, he left the sky w
ith his wives and seven children from Hyu We (Litik, Blanga, Teme Lus, Tdolok, G
inton, Lmugot Mangay, and Fun Bulol) and six from Sedek We. For a place to stay,
he asked Bong Libun for the land that was once Sfedat's body. Bong Libun agreed
on the condition that she married one of his sons. Dwata spread the land, and p
lanted the trees and other vegetation; the result is earth. The first people wer
e created after Dwata breathed life into the clay figurines made by Hyu We and S
edek We. However Dwata did not fulfill his side of the bargain with Bong Libun,
because his sons will not have her as wife.
Litik - The god of thunder.
Blanga - The god of stones and rocks.
Teme Lus - The god of wild beasts.
Tdolok - The god of death.
Ginton - The god of metallurgy.
Lmugot Mangay - The god of life and of all growing things.
Fun Bulol - The god of the mountains.
Bong Libun Married to her brother Sfedat, however their marriage did not produce
any progeny that lead to Sfedats despondency. Sfedat asked her to kill him, when
she did as she was told, the corpse of Sfedat became land. Her other brother Dw
ata asked her for a piece of land that was once Sfedats body for a place to stay.
She agreed on the condition that she married one of his sons. Dwata spread the
land, and planted trees and other vegetation; the result is earth. The first peo
ple were created after Dwata breathed life into the clay figurines made by Hyu w
e and Sedek We. However, Dwata does not fulfill his side of the bargain with Bon
g Libun, because his sons will not have her as wife. She married her youngest br
other Datu Bnoling. With him she had seven sons, who became scourges of the eart
h: Fun Knkel, Fun Daskulo, Fun Lkef, Fun Kumuga, Fun Blekes, and Fun Lalang.
Fun Knkel - The god of fever.
Fun Daskulo - The god of head diseases.
Fun Lkef - The god of colds.
Fun Kumuga - The god of eye afflictions.
Fun Blekes - The god of skin diseases.
Fun Lalang - The god of baldness.
Loos Klagan and La Fun - The divine couple; to alleviate the damage done by the
scourges (the sons of Bong Libun and Datu Bnoling) they assumed the role of heal
ers.
Muhen A bird who is one of the most influential figures in the Tboli pantheon wh
o is considered the god of fate, whose song when heard is thought to presage mis
fortune. Any undertaking is immediately abandoned or postponed when one hears th
e Muhen sing.
Ilokano deities[edit]
The list of Ilokano deities below is from Llamzon (1978:38).[33]
Buni - God
Parsua - Creator
Apo Langit - Lord Heaven (Apo means "Lord")
Apo Angin - Lord Wind
Apo Init - Lord Sun
Apo Tudo - Lord Rain
The Ilokanos also believed in the following anito (spirits).
Mangmankik - spirits who dwell in woodlands and trees
Kaibaan - dwarfs who dwell in anthills
Bagbagutot - spirits who swell in shrubs
Namagayak - the soul of the rice (pagay)
Other mythological creatures are:
Katataoan - giants
Ansisit - dwarfs the size of a finger
Kaibaan - dwarfs two to three feet tall
Pugot - spirits of ancestral aborigines (Aetas) who guard treasures
Kumao - spirits that sell and kidnap children
Aswang - half-bird half-animal
The Ilokanos believed that man had three souls.
Karma - ego: responsible for the normal feeling in the individual. It is thought
of as vapor and assumes the form of insects after leaving the body.
Alingaas - shadow
Kararwa - soul, which existed even after death
Kapampangan deities[edit]
Mangechay or Mangacha - The great elder, is said the creator of the Heavens, it
is said that she is the 'net weaver' with the sky as her weaved fabric and at ni
ght the stars that shine are the fabric holes.
Aring Sinukûan The Kapampangan sun god of war and death, taught the early inhabita
nts the industry of metallurgy, wood cutting, rice culture and even waging war.
Apûng Malyari The moon god who lives in Mt. Pinatubo and ruler of the eight rivers
.
Tálâ The bright star, the one who introduced wet-rice culture.
Munag Sumalâ One of the children of Aring Sinukuan who represent dawn. Also known
as the golden serpent.
Lakandanup Son of Aring Sinukuan, the god of gluttony and represents the sun at
noon time.
Gatpanapun Son of Aring Sinukuan, the noble who only knew pleasure, his name mea
ns 'afternoon' in Kapampangan language.
Sisilim The child of Apûng Malyari, she represent dusk and greeted by the songs of
the cicada upon her arrival, her name means dusk or early evening in Kapampanga
n language.
Galurâ - The winged assistant of Aring Sinukuan, he is represented by a giant eagl
e and believed to be the bringer of storms.
Nága - Are serpent deities known for their protective nature. Their presence in st
ructures are talismans against fire.
Lakandanum - A variant of the Naga, known to rule the waters
B'laan deities[edit]
Melu The Supreme Being and creator. He has white skin and gold teeth. He is assi
sted by Fiuwe and Tasu Weh.
Sawe - Joined Melu to live in the world
Fiuwe A spirit who lived in the sky.
Diwata - A spirit who joined Fiuwe to live in the sky
Tasu Weh The evil spirit.
Fon Kayoo The spirit of the trees.
Fon Eel The spirit of water.
Fon Batoo The spirit of rocks and stones.
Tau Dalom Tala - The spirit who lives in the underworld
Loos Klagan The most feared deity, uttering his name is considered a curse.
Batak deities[edit]
Maguimba - Who in remotest times lived among the people, having been summoned by
a powerful babaylan, and he supplied all the necessities of Batak life, as well
as all the cures for illness. He even had the power to bring the dead back to l
ife.
Diwata - Provided for the needs of men and women, and gives out rewards for good
deeds. Sanbay is a ritual in honor of Diwata, who is asked by the people to ble
ss them with generous harvests of palay (unhusked rice) and honey. This ritual t
akes place inside a forest, about 23 km from the beach. Two huts are constructed
for the ritual. Palay is placed in one of the huts. A replica of a beehive, mean
while, is situated in another small hut. Prayers are recited to Diwata by the ba
baylan, after which the people in attendance gather together in festive eating,
drinking, and dancing.
Angoro - Lives in Basad, a place beyond this world where the souls of the dead g
o, and it is there where they come to know if they are to proceed to Lampanag (h
eaven)or be cast into depths of the Basad, where fire and boiling water await th
ese hapless ones.
There are also lesser gods in the Batak pantheon, some of whom are Siabuanan, Ba
nkakah, Paraen, Buengelen, and Baybayen. They are deities of great strength.
Batungbayanin - Spirit of the mountains.
Paglimusan - Spirit of the small stones.
Balungbunganin - Spirit of the almaciga trees.
Sulingbunganin - Spirit of the big rocks.
Palawan Deities[edit]
Ampu - The god who wove the world and created several kinds of humanity, hence h
e is also called "Nagsalad", the Weaver. He is the supreme deity in a system of
religious thought that can be qualified as "theist" and animist." He is a protect
ive watching presence, always invisible to tawbanar or the real people. In the v
erticality of the universe, andunawan represents his abode. While people live on
dunya or earth.
Diwata - A benevolent and protective deity stays in lalangaw, the median space,
he is the mediator between humans and Ampu.
Ampu at Paray - The god of Rice.
Linamin at Barat - The goddess of the Monsoon Winds.
Linamin at Bulag - The goddess of the Dry Season.
Upa Kuyaw - God of Thunder.
Bukidnon Deities[edit]
Magbabaya (The Ruler of All) - The supreme god who has minor gods and goddesses
beneath him to do specific jobs and take care of certain things, he is also the
god of the west.
Domalondong The god of the north.
Ongli The god of the south.
Tagolambong The god of the east.
Ibabasok - He watches over the crops and their growth in a simple ceremony at th
e center of the rice field.
Dagingon They worship this deity in an elaborated celebration complete with song
s and dances which will last for nine nights during planting and after harvest s
easons.
Bulalakaw - The spirit who watches the rivers and takes care of the fishermen's
catch.
Tumpaa Nanapiyaw or Intumbangol - Watches the base of the earth night and day le
st it crumbles.
Isneg Deities[edit]
The spiritual world of the Isneg is populated by more than 300 anito (spirits) w
ho assume various forms. There are actually no gods or hierarchical deities in t
he otherworld of the Isneg, only good or bad spirits.
Anlabban - The spirit who looks after the general welfare of the people and is r
ecognized as the special protector of hunters.
Bago - The spirit of the forest.
Sirinan - The river spirit.
Landusan - Held responsible for some cases of extreme poverty. Those believed to
be suffering from the machinations of this spirit are said to be malandusan (im
poverished).
There are spirits who come to help the reapers in gathering the harvest. They ar
e known as Abad, Aglalannawan, Anat, Binusilan, Dawiliyan, Dekat, Dumingiw, Imba
non, Gimbanona, Ginalinan, Sibo, and a group of sky dwellers collectively known
as the Ilanit.
Alupundan - Causes the reapers' toes to get sore all over and swell.
Arurin - She sees to it that the harvest is bad, if the Isneg farmers fail to gi
ve her share.
Dagdagamiyan - A female spirit who causes sickness in children for playing in pl
aces where the harvest is being done.
Darupaypay - Devours the palay stored in the hut before it is transferred to the
granary.
Ginuudan - Come to measure the containers of palay, and causes it to dwindle.
Sildado - Resembles a horse, and kills children who play noisily outside the hou
se.
Inargay - Kills people during harvest time. When inapugan, a ritual plant is off
ered to Inargay, the following prayer is recited by the Isneg farmer: "Iapugko i
yaw Inargay ta dinaami patpatay" (I offer this betel to you, Inargay, so that yo
u may not kill us).
Alipugpug - A good harvest is portended by the rising of a little whirlwind from
the burned field. This, it is said, is the spirit of Alipugpug.
Pilay - Rice pudding is offered to Pilay, the spirit of the rice, who resides on
the paga, a shelf above the Isneg hearth. This is the pisi, the ritual offering
of food to the spirits. The old woman who performs this utters the following pr
ayer: "Ne uwamo ilay ta ubatbattugammo ya an-ana-a, umaammo ka mabtugda peyan" (
Here, this is yours, Pilay, so that you feed my children fully, and make sure th
at they are always satisfied). Another ritual is performed right in the fields w
here the harvest is going on. The amulets inapugan, takkag (a kind of fern), and
herbs are tied to a stalk of palay, which later will be place in the granary be
fore the other palay. Again, these are reserved for Pilay. In case a new granary
is built, and the contents of the old granary transferred, the spirit's special
share is also transferred to the new place. It is never consumed.
Tiruray Deities[edit]
Minaden The goddess who creates of the world, had a brother named Tulus, also ca
lled Meketefu and Sualla.
Tulus - Is the chief of all good spirits who bestow gifts and favors upon human
beings. He goes around with a retinue of messengers called telaki. Tulus is said
to have rectified some errors in the first creation of the world and of human b
eings.
Mangyan Deities[edit]
Mahal na Makaako The Supreme Being who gave life to all human beings merely by g
azing at them.
Binayi Owner of a garden where all spirits rest.
Binayo - Is a sacred female spirit, caretaker of the rice spirits or the kalag p
aray. She is married to the spirit Bulungabon. The kalag paray must be appeased,
to ensure a bountiful harvest. It is for this reason that specific rituals are
conducted in every phase of rice cultivation. Some of these rituals include the
panudlak, the rite of the first planting; the rite of rice planting itself; and
the rites of harvesting which consist of the magbugkos or binding rice stalks, a
nd the pamag-uhan, which follows the harvest.
Bulungabon The spirit aided by 12 fierce dogs. Erring souls are chased by these
dogs and eventually drowned in a cauldron of boiling water. He is Binayos husband
.
Tinguian Deities[edit]
Bagatulayan The Supreme Being and Creator of the world. He lives and rules the c
elestial realm, directing its activities.
Kadaklan - Is a deity subordinate to Bagatulayan. He is a friendly spirit who te
aches the Tinguian how to pray, harvest their crops, ward off evil spirits, and
overcome bad omens and cure sicknesses.
Apadel or Kalagang - A deity who is known to be the guardian and dweller of the
spirit-stones called pinaing which play an important role in the spiritual world
of the Tinguian. Of various sizes and shapes, the pinaing are usually found in
sports marked out as hallowed ground, often under old trees, and are deemed to b
e the protectors of such places and of the creatures who live in the forests.
Makaboteng (one who frightens) A benevolent spirit who dwells in the natural sur
roundings, believed to be the guardian of the deer and the wild pigs.
Talaandig Deities[edit]
Magbabaya The Supreme God.
Dadagunan hu Suguy A house spirit who guard of the lawn of the house.
Anilaw ha Sumagda A house spirit, the guard of the door.
Sinyuda Kahibunan A house spirit, the keeper of the hall.
Diwata ha Manilib A house spirit who records the activity of people inside the h
ouse
Diwata Pinatanlay A house spirit who guard the house at the ridge of the roof.
Gaddang Deities[edit]
Nanolay - Is both creator of all things and a culture hero. In the latter role,
he is a beneficent deity. Nanolay is described in myth as a fully benevolent dei
ty, never inflicting pain or punishment on the people. He is responsible for the
origin and development of the world.
Ofag - Nanolay's cousin.
Dasal - To whom the epic warriors Biwag and Malana prayed for strength and coura
ge before going off to their final battle.
Bunag - The god of the earth.
Limat - The god of the sea.
Ifugao Deities[edit]
Mah-nongan - The chief god generally refer to as the honorary dead and creator o
f all things, even though Ifugaos do not consider any of their deities as suprem
e.
Liddum - Is regarded as the chief mediator between the people and the other gods
.
Monlolot - The winder of thread on the spindle, one of the twenty-three differen
t deities preside over the art of weaving.
Mamiyo - Stretcher of skeins, one of the twenty-three different deities preside
over the art of weaving.
Bumigi - In charge of worms, one of the eleven beings importuned to stamp out ri
ce pests.
Lumadab - Has the power to dry up the rice leaves, one of the eleven beings impo
rtuned to stamp out rice pests.
Ampual - Of the Fourth Skyworld, is the god who bestowed animals and plants on t
he people and who controls the transplanting of rice. He is one of those gods wh
o expects gifts in return for his blessings.
Wigan - Is the god of good harvest.
Puwok - Controls the dread typhoons.
Yogyog and Alyog - Cause the earth to quake. They dwell in the underworld.
Ilongot Deities[edit]
Abal He and his brother Cain are the creators and guardian lords of all things.
They are benevolent and their particular care is that of the people who live on
earth. They are invincible and live in the sky Taon, sometimes on the sun Elag,
or the moon Dalan, or perchance some star Pandac. Their messengers are called Bi
nangunan or Cabuligian. Cain and Abal travel from place to place. Their road is
called Keat (lightning). Kidu (thunder) follows the road. In the beginning, Cain
and Abal lived together in the sky; but they had a quarrel and separated, as Ab
al wanted to live on earth where he could herd his animals. He was the one who c
reated the lowlanders, who have the use of his carabaos and other animals.
Cain - Created all the mountain people, including the Ilongots. He gave them the
ir customs, which they have followed throughout the centuries. He was a killer a
nd a head-hunter; so they are also. Abal is stronger and more powerful than Cain
and so there are more lowlanders than mountain people.
Oden The rain, they worship him (it) for its life-giving water.
Elag - The sun, they worship him (it) so as the moon and stars because they give
life and growth. He has a great, magnificent house in Gacay. When he gets tired
giving light and goes into his house, it is night.
Delan - The moon, usually he and Elag are congenial and take turns giving light;
but sometimes they quarrel and Elag covers Delan more or less with a great, hug
e winnowing biga-o (basket). Thus we have the different phases of the moon.
Gemang - The guardian of wild beasts. When a party of men is starting on a hunt,
they build a fire, take hold of the dogs and the weapons and pass them one by o
ne through the smoke. The last dog to be passed through the smoke is the leader
of the pack. After taking it out of the smoke, the owner spits on its face, and
rubs the saliva down its back and sides. Meanwhile, he has been talking and shou
ting to Gemang, saying: Do not let our dogs get sick. You must give us one of you
r animals. Do not take the form of a wild beast so that the dogs chase you by mi
stake. If you will let the dogs catch one beast, then we will give you to eat an
d drink and likewise your wife. Following this ceremony, the part starts out in a
successful hunt.
Lampong - The dwarf shepherd of the wild animals.
Agta Deities[edit]
There are four manifestations of the "great creator" who rules the world: Tigbal
og is the source of life and action; Lueve takes care of production and growth;
Amas moves people to pity, love, unity, and peace of heart; while Binangewan is
responsible for change, sickness, and death.
Gutugutumakkan The Supreme Being.
Kedes - The god of the hunt.
Pawi - The god of the forest.
Sedsed - The god of the sea.
Other Igorot Deities[edit]
Kabunian
Lumawig
List of Famous Diwatas[edit]
Main article: Diwata
Aside from the gods and goddesses, ancient Filipinos also worshiped numerous for
est deities known as diwatas (Filipinos counterpart of nymphs/enchanter or encha
ntress). There are lot of diwatas in the Philippine mythology and folklore but t
his section includes only the list of well-known.
Name Definition
Maria Makiling The most famous of all the enchantress in the Philippine mytholo
gy and folklore. She was the protector and guardian of Mount Makiling located in
Los Baños, Laguna. Thus, modern sightings of her were even reported. Maria Makili
ng is a common theme among Filipino artists, ranging from painters and sculptors
to graphic novelists. Before, the Spanish arrived in the Philippines, she was k
nown as Diyan Masalanta.[34]
Maria Sinukuan She was the resident and protector of Mount Arayat located in Ar
ayat, Pampanga.[35]
Maria Cacao She dwells in Mount Lantoy, Argao, Cebu where she had cacao tree
s, hence a plantation outside her own cave. After harvest, rain comes that wash
down the mountain, enabling her to float down to the towns below in her golden s
hip to sell her products.[36]
Diwata ng Kagubatan (Enchantress of the Forest) Also known as Virgen Del Monte,
she was worshiped by the ancient Cuyunon of Cuyo Island, Palawan. She is honored
in a celebrated feast, periodically held atop of Mount Caimana in the mentioned
island. When most of the natives were converted to Christianity during the Span
ish Era, about 2/3 of the converted Cuyunon are still celebrating her feast that
upset the Spanish authorities. The situation led the Spanish authorities to int
ensify their evangelization and governance efforts.[37]
Footnotes[edit]
^ a b Sonia M. Zaide, Gregorio F. Zaide, pp. 69
^ Leticia Ramos Shahani, Fe B. Mangahas, Jenny R. Llaguno, pp. 27, 28, 30
^ a b c d e f g h i j k F. Landa Jocano
^ a b c Leticia Ramos Shahani, Fe B. Mangahas, Jenny R. Llaguno, pp. 30
^ a b c d Sofronio G. Calderon
^ a b c Mabel Cook Cole, pp. 99101, 124
^ Rebecca Ramilio Ongsotto, Reynaldo Castillo Ramilo
^ Rebecca Ramilio Ongsotto, Reynaldo Castillo Ramilo
^ Erlinda D. Lalic, Avelina J. Matic, pp. 33
^ Erlinda D. Lalic, Avelina J. Matic, pp. 33
^ Thelma B. Kintanar, Jose V. Abueva, pp. 75
^ Thelma B. Kintanar, Jose V. Abueva, pp. 79
^ Leticia Ramos Shahani, Fe B. Mangahas, Jenny R. Llaguno, pp. 27, 28
^ Leticia Ramos Shahani, Fe B. Mangahas, Jenny R. Llaguno, pp. 27, 28
^ a b "Asuang Steals Fire from Gugurang by Damiana L. Eugenio". Retrieved 2010-0
4-03.
^ "Inquirer NewsInfo: Bicol Artist protest Natl. Artist awardees". Retrieved 201
0-04-03.
^ "GMANews: Eclipse; Bakunawa eats the sun behind a curtain of clouds". Retrieve
d 2010-04-03.
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz, pp. 1718
^ Rebecca R. Ongsotto, Reena R. Ongsotto, Rowena Maria Ongsotto, pp. 58
^ William Henry Scott, pp. 80
^ Rebecca R. Ongsotto, Reena R. Ongsotto, Rowena Maria Ongsotto, pp. 58
^ Lalahon - goddess of fire, volcanoes and harvest
^ Rebecca R. Ongsotto, Reena R. Ongsotto, Rowena Maria Ongsotto, pp. 58
^ Rebecca R. Ongsotto, Reena R. Ongsotto, Rowena Maria Ongsotto, pp. 58
^ Llamzon, Teodoro A. 1978. Handbook of Philippine language groups. Quezon City,
Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
^ "The Legend of Maria Makiling retold by Gat Jose Rizal". Retrieved 2010-04-03.
^ "The Legend of Maria Sinukuan". Retrieved 2010-07-16.
^ Rene O. Villanueva
^ "Cuyunon Island by Lydia Mary De Leon". Retrieved 2010-04-03.
References[edit]
Erlinda D. Lalic, Avelina J. Matic (2004), Ang Ating Pantikang Filipino, p. 33,
ISBN 971-42-0584-0
Rene O. Villanueva (2002), Maria Cacao: Ang Diwata ng Cebu, ISBN 971-518-029-9
Rebecca Ramilio Ongsotto, Reynaldo Castillo Ramilo (1998), Analytical Skill Exer
cises in Philippine History, p. 35, ISBN 971-23-2196-7
Efren R. Abueg, Simplicio P. Bisa, Emerlinda G. Cruz (1981), Talindaw: Kasaysaya
n ng Pantikan sa Pilipino paa sa Kolehiyo at Unibersidad, Merriam & Webster, Inc
., pp. 1718
William Henry Scott (1994), Barangay: sixteenth-century Philippine culture and s
ociety, Ateneo de Manila University Press, p. 79, ISBN 971-550-135-4
Rebecca R. Ongsotto, Reena R. Ongsotto, Rowena Maria Ongsotto, The Study of Phil
ippine History, REX Book Store, p. 58, ISBN 971-23-4290-5
F. Landa Jocano (1969), Outline of Philippine Mythology, Centro Escolar Universi
ty Research and Development Center
Mabel Cook Cole (1916), Philippine Folk Tales, A. C. McClurg and Comopany, pp. 9
9101, 124
Sofronio G. Calderon (1947), Mga alamat ng Pilipinas : (Philippine mythology tra
ditions and legends), M. Colcol & Corporation
Leticia Ramos Shahani, Fe B. Mangahas, Jenny R. Llaguno, Centennial Crossings: R
eading on Babaylan Feminism in the Philippines, C & E Publishing, Inc., pp. 27,
28, 30, ISBN 971-584-519-3
Sonia M. Zaide, Gregorio F. Zaide (1990), The Philippines: A Unique Nation (2nd
ed.), All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc., p. 69, ISBN 971-642-071-4
Thelma B. Kintanar, Jose V. Abueva (2009), Cultural Dictionary For Filipinos (2n
d ed.), University of the Philippines Press, pp. 75, 79, ISBN 978-971-27-2303-2
[show] v t e
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Categories: Philippine mythology
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