[ i ]



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[ ii ]



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[ v ]



[ 1 ]



,
Most of us reenact first and foremost for ourselves. We
love the history, we love the simplicity, or we merely love
the opportunity to be outside for a couple days.
But this hobby is not only for us. Reenacting is also about
bringing the past to life. It gives flesh and blood and
personality to those patriots who have gone before us. It is
about honoring those people who sacrificed and fought
for our liberty.
Last but not least, reenacting is about educating the
public. Too often history is, at best, glossed over or, at
worst, rewritten. Because it is the past it does not affect
our daily lives and often gets relegated to the ranks of “a
nice story” or “isn’t that quaint.”
[ 2 ]



It is for all these reasons that we have an obligation to
ourselves and to others to make this hobby as vibrant and
as three dimensional as our regular lives will allow. The
only way to do this is though research and interpretation.
In our busy lives it is easy to be satisfied with the status
quo. It is easy to throw the same clothes into the car the
day before an event and do the same old routine. And
since most of us don’t recreate actual people this is a
perfectly acceptable approach. However, the ultimate goal
for each of us is not to become someone else entirely, but
to become an 18th version of ourselves. To become a
person who could be plucked out of this century, set
down in 1775, and not be unrecognizable in thought,
action, or in dress.

The manual you now hold is not meant to be an all-
inclusive compendiom of 18th century culture and roles.
It is meant to familiarize you with ways to further your
persona and become more involved in reenacting and the
unit. It is also meant to excite you and serve as a
launching point for your own research. Enjoy.

[ 3 ]


his manual is organized in the following
sections:






The PDF version of this manual includes working
hyperlinks to external sources as well as other sections of
the manual. Internal hyperlinks throughout the manual
are indicated by underlined words.
This section of the manual is organized in a way that will
allow a user to find information as quickly as possible.
Civilian roles are listed in alphabetical order.
Each role is split into three sections
Discussion – A brief discussion of the role,
presentation of basic facts, and why it is
pertinent to a recreated regiment.
Art – A list of art pieces that show the role in
action. Note: If there is a date range
attributed to a piece than it cannot be
narrowed down to a specific year.
Resources – A list of different primary and
secondary resources to get you started.


[ 4 ]


An extensive list of links for sutlers, fabric, museums,
online libraries, etc., is towards the end of this manual.
These links are meant to assist you in further research as
well as help you acquire the necessary items for your
persona.
A complete bibliography of the resources used to write
this manual is included at the end. Footnotes are listed
throughout.
A few notes regarding the books cited:
The author made every effort to use primary
sources when possible.
Purchasing Information. Most of these sources
can be found online through vendors and free
eBook archives. For a list of good book sources
see


[ 5 ]


esearch is not easy, ask any student trying to
write a thesis or dissertation. Good research
requires time and constant analysis of
information. Research requires skills that
many people have forgotten as they see more time creep
in between their school days and the present. But
research can be incredibly rewarding and is essential to
the future of our hobby.
Fortunately for reenactors, the rise of the internet has
made archived information easier to find and access. It
has also made it easier to share this information with
other reenactors through blogs and unit websites.
However, while the internet has made information more
readily available to everyone, there are some pitfalls to
avoid.
Evaluating Sources
It must be true it’s online, right? Not necessarily. Most
people have realized by now that not all information on
the internet is factual. It is extremely easy for someone to
write something that sounds authoritative (and may even
make perfect sense) that is a complete lie.

Check authority. Is the author of the website a competent
authority on the topic? For example, Wikipedia is a
compilation of what is called “user generated
content”. This means that anyone can add and edit
information. It is not a competent authority. A
historian at Colonial Williamsburg would be.

Check for citations. Is the information presented cited? Is
the original source an authoritative source? In other
words, can you follow the author’s research and
[ 6 ]


check the information against the original and put it
into context? Does the research lead back to primary
documentation?

Citing Sources
On the other hand, if you are the blogger or are updating
a unit website, ensure that information is properly cited.
This includes paraphrased, “based on”, and quoted
information. Citations do not always have to be written in
approved formats such as American Psychological
Association (APA) or Modern Language Association
(MLA), although these are preferred. These citations can
be very simple but should always include enough
information so that a researcher can find the source it was
pulled from.
Examples:
Art piece: Artist. (Date). . Retrieved from
URL
Book: Author. (Date). . Publisher. Page number if
applicable.
Article: Author. (Date). . Publication article was in
including volume # if applicable. Page number if
applicable.
Currently Google and Bing are the most commonly used
search engines. They are extremely user friendly and
almost always provide results that appear to be exactly
what the user is looking for.
Surprisingly, few people understand how these search
engines actually find and filter results. One of the biggest
mistakes that people make is searching a question (for
example
).While this often provides reasonable results,
these search engines do not understand that this is a
question. They will also search each of those words
[ 7 ]


individually and will provide results based on the number
of those words per result. In other words, Google or Bing
is searching for “ ”, “ ”, “ ”, “ ” individually as
well as the more pertinent words. A more effective search
would actually be: .
One easy search trick for online searches is the use of
quotation marks. Words in quotation marks are searched
as an entire phrase, with the words in the order specified
by the user. Using the above example the search can be
refined by the use of quotation marks as follows: “
” “ ”. In this case the search engines
will search for the phrase “ ” in
combination with the phrase “ ”.
Most search engines, especially academic ones, have a
help page somewhere within the website. This page will
help you learn the syntax of that particular search engine
so that you can construct more useful searches.
Here are some research tips to help use Google and Bing
more effectively:
Google Advanced Search. This page offers different
search engines and guides the user how to construct the
search needed. It also allows the user to narrow the
search by Language, Region, Last update, Site or
Domain, where terms appear on the page, SafeSearch,
Reading level, File type, and Usage Rights.
http://www.google.com/advanced_search

Search Operators. This page gives tips for constructing
searches using the basic Google search engine.
https://support.google.com/websearch/answer/136861

[ 8 ]


How Search Works. This page describes how Google
finds information and the algorithms behind the search
engine.
http://www.google.com/insidesearch/howsearchworks/
Focus Your Search. Bing allows a user to narrow their
search to the following options: Web, Images, Videos,
Maps, Travel, Social, Translator, Events, Math, News,
and Weather.
http://www.bing.com/explore?q=&FORM=HDRSC5

How-To Geek. This page provides information on Bing
search operators and tips for constructing searches.
http://www.howtogeek.com/106751/
Some specific things to keep in mind while conducting
research:
Type of source
Primary Sources
These are original documents, written in the
18th century, that have not been filtered due
to interpretation or evaluation. These can be
used as evidence.
Secondary Sources
These are generally documents that were
written after the fact. They are not evidence,
but rather a commentary or discussion on the
evidence.
Tertiary Sources
These documents distill, or synthesize,
primary and secondary sources.
Primary documents are always preferred.

Provenance
[ 9 ]


Provenance is the origin of an object or
document. By looking at provenance a user can
determine whether or not the information truly
applies to them. This is particularly important for
historical purposes because not all cultures dress,
act, and live the same. For example, British
women did not wear pinner aprons, although
their children did. French women, however, did
wear pinner aprons.
British
As British subjects breaking from the
crown, continental soldiers and the
accompanying civilians would at the very
least have worn British style clothing,
eaten British style food, and adhered to
British custom.
American
Although it is often a safe assumption
that if it could be found in Britain it likely
would have been found on the
Continent, it is not an absolute
assumption. Documentation particular to
America is always desired.
Virginia
Again, even though something can be
documented to America, each region
had its own variations on clothing and
culture based on the nationality of the
people who settled there. Although
documentation to the broader
provenances is acceptable, it is always
best to narrow down provenance to
region whenever possible. For example,
a British woman settling in New York
may have Dutch or French influences
that a British woman in Virginia would
not have.
[ 10 ]


Date
A gown that was the height of fashion in 1790
would not have been worn in 1775. A gown that
was the height of fashion in 1775 would not have
been worn by a camp follower in 1775. When
conducting research, ensure that the date of the
object or document is appropriate to the time
frame depicted by Your Regiment and your
particular persona.
[ 11 ]


here there are women and wives there will
also be children. Children were as much a
common sight as women in military
encampments during the Revolutionary War.
Returns for Jackson’s Regiment while the Light Infantry
was attached from June to July 1782 show that five to six
children were accounted for at any given time for
approximately 10 women.
1

By the last year of the war many regiments had more than
ten children. The First (New) York Regiment claimed 58
children and the Second (New) York Regiment claimed
39. At the lower end of the scale the First and Second
New Hampshire and the first Massachusetts claimed only
3.
2

Children were allotted rations at a smaller portion that
their mothers. (See section on ). General
Washington himself stated that women and children must
be allowed provisions otherwise they “risk the loss of a
number of Men”.
3
Children of hospital nurses tended to
be better provided for than children of other women.
4


1
Rees, J. (2002). "The multitude of women …": An Examination of the
Numbers of Female Camp Followers With the Continental
Army. Retrieved from
http://www.revwar75.com/library/rees/wnumb1.htm
2
"Ibid.
3
Washington, G. (1783). 8 March 1783 Letter to Henry Knox.
Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/ampage?collId=mgw4&fileName=gwpage090.db&recNum=8
75
4
(N.d.). Women’s Service with the Revolutionary Army. Retrieved
from
[ 12 ]


Despite the fact that General Washington allowed
children rations, he did not appreciate the fact that they
were in camp. Although he famously did want the women
in camp either, children were of even lesser use and were
more of a hindrance on marches.
“In the present marching state of the army… the
multitude of women in particular, especially those
who are pregnant, or have children, are a clog
upon every movement.”
5

Children occupied their time in a variety of ways. Toys
were certainly common, although be wary of “old-
fashioned looking” toys that are not period appropriate.
Little clay figurines and soap bubbles appear to be
popular and do not require much space on long
marches.
6
Kites also seem to be particularly popular and
appear in many prints and pieces of art. John Newberry
even references kites in his .
7

Carts are also a possibility for children. It would have
been far easier on the mother and the child to pull the
child along in a wheeled cart rather than carrying him or
herding him along the way.
Education was not a main concern for these children
although it is likely that certain regiments had informal
schooling. Some of the soldiers, especially the non-

http://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume7/nov0
8/women_revarmy.cfm
5
Washington, G. (1777). 4 August 1777 General Orders. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mgw/mgw3g/002/189.jpg
6
18th Century Notebook. (N. d.). 18th Century Toys. Retrieved from
http://larsdatter.com/18c/toys.html
7
Newbery, J. (2009). A Little Pretty Pocket-Book. Dodo Press. p 2.
[ 13 ]


commissioned officers,
8
could very well have had some
education themselves, depending on their circumstances
and their desire to promote, and could have taught at least
the basics of reading, writing, and cyphering (basic
mathematics).

In his , Thomas Simes highly
recommended that Chaplains create regimental schools in
order to educate both the children and the soldiers.
“[I]t would also be highly commendable in him if
he would pay some attention to the conduct of a
regimental school, and appoint a non-
commissioned officer to act as master, who is
capable of teaching reading, writing, and
arithmetic, by whom soldiers and their children
should be carefully instructed, and a place should
be fixed upon for that purpose.”
9

Clothing is also important enough to bear mention.
Contrary to what is automatically assumed children did
not merely wear smaller adult clothing. Boys actually wore
the same gowns as young girls until approximately the age
of seven or eight when they were breeched.
10
These
children’s gowns were not like the front closing adult
gowns. They laced closed in the back and often including

8
Cuthberson, B. (1776). Cuthberton’s System for the Complete
Interior Management and Economy of a Battalion of Infantry.
Bristol. p 8.
9
Simes, T. (1777). A Military Course for the Government and
Conduct of a Battalion. London. p 230.
10
V&A Museum of Childhood. (N. d.). Boy’s Dress. Retrieved from
http://www.museumofchildhood.org.uk/collections/clothing/boys-
dress/
[ 14 ]


leading strings to assist a toddler learning how to walk.
11

Girls waited until puberty to begin wearing adult clothing.
Stays were also worn by very young children, both boys
and girls. Because stays were commonly thought of as a
shaping tool and as back support (rather than the modern
desire for a smaller waist), it’s understandable that they
would place “weak backed” children into stays as well.
These stays were most commonly made out of linen or
wool and could be stiffened with chipboard (as in bonnet
brims) or with whalebone.
12

As the boys grew older the hope was that they would
enlist and become musicians in the army, and perhaps
still later to carry a firelock. Fifers and drummers were in
demand as General Washington stated in his 2 January
1776 General Orders that there were to be one fifer and
one drummer per company.
13
To this effect
advertisements were placed in newspapers advertising for
musicians. One such advertisement read:





11
MET Collections. (2014). 1740s Child’s Gown, Accession # 1990.24.
Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-
the-collections/84402?img=1
12
Memorial Hall Museum Online. (N.d.). Child’s Stays, Accession #
1880.015.02. Retrieved from
http://americancenturies.mass.edu/collection/itempage.jsp?itemid
=6265&img=0
13
Washington, G. (1776). 2 January 1776 General Orders. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/ampage?collId=mgw3&fileName=mgw3g/gwpage001.db&rec
Num=153
[ 15 ]


(11 August 1775, )”
14

A return from Henry Knox sent to General Washington
on 25 February 1781 lists the number of fifers fit for duty
at 75 and the number of drummers the same at 107 with
fifteen fife majors and eighteen drum majors.
15

Fifers and drummers were not young children. In fact
they were well into their teens with the average age closer
to twenty. One drum major from New Jersey was as old
as 38.
16

Hogarth, W. (1738). Four Times of the Day: Evening
Retrieved from
http://www.isu.edu/jhnsnbooks/18thCentury.htm

14
Virginia Gazette. (11 August 1775). Retrieved from
http://research.history.org/DigitalLibrary/VirginiaGazette/VGby
Year.cfm
15
Knox, H. (1781). Return of the music of the army and the immediate
Command of his Excellency General Washington. Retrieved
from
http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_vault/2013/12/10/continental_arm
y_music_a_tally_of_instruments_and_musicians_at_george_washi
ngton.html
16
Rees, J. (2002). "The music of the Army..." An Abbreviated Study of
the Ages of Musicians in the Continental Army. (p 2) Retrieved
from http://www.revwar75.com/library/rees/musician2.htm
“ who
can play upon the . Such a
one who can play the field duty
will meet with great
encouragement by applying to
, esq; in ,
to , adjutant, or the
printer.”

[ 16 ]


Sandby, P. (1758-1760). Woman and Child Holding a
Doll. Britain. Retrieved from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paul_Sandby
_-_Woman_and_Child_Holding_a_Doll_-
_Google_Art_Project.jpg
Zoffany, J. (1760-1770). Portrait of the Blunt Children.
German. Retrieved from
http://www.bmagprints.org.uk/image/407324/johann-
zoffany-portrait-of-the-blunt-children
Baumgarten, L. (N.d.). Children’s Clothing. Retrieved
from
http://www.history.org/history/clothing/children/child
01.cfm
Baumgarten, L. (N.d.). Fashions of Motherhood.
Retrieved from
http://www.history.org/history/clothing/women/mothe
rhood.cfm
Chapman, G. (1773). A Treatise on Education. London.
Fisher, G. (1760). The American Instructor; or, Young
Man’s Best Companion. New York, NY.
Hanna, J. (1844). A History of the Life of Captain Samuel
Dewees. Printed by R. Neilson, Baltimore, MD. p
228. Note: This is a compilation of the writings of
Captain Dewees himself.
Newbery, J. (1769). Grammar Made Familiar and Easy to
Young Gentlemen, Ladies, and Foreigners. London.
Newbery, J. (2009). A Little Pretty Pocket-Book. Note:
This book was originally published in 1770 in
London.
[ 17 ]


Newbery, J. (1769). Poetry Made Familiar and Easy to
Young Gentlemen and Ladies. London.
Newbery, J. (1774). A Spelling Dictionary of the English
Language, on a New Plan for the Use of Young
Gentlemen, Ladies and Foreigners. London.
Watts, I. (1769). A Treatise on the Education of Children
and Youths. London.
[ 18 ]


One of the biggest difficulties in recreating the past is
avoiding modern assumptions of “traditional” roles. No
role has fallen prey to this as much as the idea that
women were used as cooks for the regiment.
On the contrary, the soldiers did their own meal
preparation using their rations. They ate in “messes” of
six men, usually the same six men who shared a tent.
Captain Samuel Dewees states that “The Orderly
Sergeant of each company divided the meat into as many
messes as were in each company (six men constituting a
mess)…”
17
Some women were rolled into these soldiers’
messes.
18
Generally, however, the camp followers cooked
for themselves with ingredients they foraged or with their
own rations (if on the army’s pay roll).
Rations consisted of the following allotments according to
19
:
“One pound of beef, or three-quarters of a
pound of pork, or one pound of salt fish, per day.
One pound of bread or flour per day. Three
pints of peas or beans per week, or vegetables
equivalent, at one dollar per bushel for peas or

17
Hanna, J. (1844). A History of the Life and Services of Captain
Samuel Dewees. Printed by R. Neilson, Baltimore, MD. (p 163).
18
Rees, J. (2002). "The multitude of women …": An Examination of the
Numbers of Female Camp Followers With the Continental
Army. Retrieved from
http://www.revwar75.com/library/rees/wnumb1.htm
19
Continental Congress. (1776, August 9). Pay and Rations in the
Continental Service. American Archives Series 5, Volume 1, Page
0865. Retrieved from http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/cgi-
bin/amarch/getdoc.pl?/var/lib/philologic/databases/amarch/.2059
1
[ 19 ]


beans. One pint of milk per man per day, or at
the rate of 1-72 of a dollar. One half-pint of rice,
or one pint of meal per man per week.
One quart of spruce beer, or cider, per man per
day, or nine gallons of molasses per company of
one hundred men per week. Three pounds of
candles to one hundred men per week, for
guards. Twenty-four pounds of soft, or eight
pounds of hard, soap for one hundred men per
week. “
There is still some discussion about the amount of rations
camp followers received. The general understanding is
that women employed by the army would receive half
rations while their children received quarter rations. This
is based on orders given on the second of May 1776 by
British General William Howe. The 1782 Returns from
Colonel Henry Jackson’s Regiment state that women and
children be given full rations without the alcohol. Returns
under “Late Regulations” state that women were given a
full ration (minus any alcohol portion) and children were
given a half ration.
20

Although simple campfires were certainly used for
cooking purposes, regiments would also dig round
earthen kitchens. Baron von Steuben’s

clearly depicts these kitchens between the officers’ tents
and the wagons (plate VII). These kitchens are further
described in Humphrey Bland’s
(1753). He states that to create these kitchens
first draw a circle of any dimension then dig a trench
three to four feet wide and two feet deep. On the inner
side of the trench cut out one square foot niches with four

20
Rees, J. (2002). "The proportion of Women which ought to be
allowed..." An Overview of Continental Army Female Camp
Followers. Retrieved from
http://www.revwar75.com/library/rees/proportion.htm
[ 20 ]


inch in diameter chimney holes from the top. These
“fireplaces” can be placed every three or four feet around
the circle.
21

Hilleström, P. (1733-1816). A Maid Taking Soup from a
Cauldron. Swedish.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pehr_Hillestr%C3%
B6m-
En_piga_h%C3%B6ser_s%C3%A5ppa_utur_en_kiett
el_-_i_en_sk%C3%A5l.jpg
Barker, A. (1770). The Complete Servant Maid: or
Young Woman's Best Companion. London.
Bland, H. (1753). A Treatise of Military Discipline.
London. (Available as a free eBook from Google
Books )
Bullock, H. (2006). The Williamsburg Art of Cookery or,
Accomplished Gentlewoman’s Companion. The
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
Glasse, H. (1772). The Compleat Confectioner. London.
Glasse, H. (1774). The Art of Cookery Made Plain and
Easy: Which Far Exceeds Any Thing of the Kind Yet
Published. London. (Available as a free eBook from
Google Books)
Glasse, H. (1784). The Art of Cookery Made Plain and
Easy, Which Far Exceeds any Thing of the Kind yet

21
Bland, H. (1753). A Treatise of Military Discipline; In Which is Laid
Down and Explained the Duty of the Officer and Soldier, Thro’
the Several Branches of the Service. London. p 244-246.
[ 21 ]


Published. London. (Available as a free eBook from
Google Books).
Hanna, J. (1844). A History of the Life and Services of
Captain Samuel Dewees. Printed by R. Neilson,
Baltimore, MD. Retrieved from
https://archive.org/details/ahistorylifeand00hanngoog.
Rees, J. (2002). "As many fireplaces as you have tents...":
Earthen Camp Kitchens. Retrieved from
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/kitchen.htm
Rees, J. (2002). "The Foundation of an Army is the Belly":
North American Soldiers' Food, 1756-1945.
Retrieved from
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/belly.htm
Rees, J. (2002). "The proportion of Women which ought
to be allowed..." An Overview of Continental Army
Female Camp Followers. Retrieved from
http://www.revwar75.com/library/rees/proportion.htm
Rees, J. (n.d.). “Six of our regt lived together …”: Mess
Groups, Carrying Food … (and a Little Bit of
Tongue) in the Armies of the Revolution. Retrieved
from
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/tongue.pdf
Simes, T. (1767). Military Medley. Dublin.
Townshend, J. (1773). The Universal Cook or Lady's
Complete Assistant. London.
Von Steuben. (1794). For the Order and Discipline of the
Troops of the United States. Hartford, CT.


[ 22 ]


Minsters, or chaplains, are an underrepresented group in
reenacting although they were considerably important
throughout the war in both the civilian and military
realms.
On the civilian side of things the town pastors were
instilling in their parishioners the belief in and the desire
for resistance. Many of these ministers were men who had
been chaplains during the French and Indian War and
were no longer young enough to carry out military based
duties. They instead became pastors of churches and
helped incite the fervor against Britain.
22
In other words
religion “[offered] a moral sanction for opposition to the
British.”
23

It is estimated that approximately 75 to 80 percent of the
population attended church between the years of 1700
and 1740. The Great Awakening marked the beginning of
a evangelicalism which both invigorated and divided
churches. Those who supported the Awakening included
the Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists who became
the largest American Protestant denominations by the
19th century. Those who stood against the Awakening
were Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists.
24


22
Headley, J. (1864). The Chaplains and Clergy of the American
Revolution. p. 16. (Available as a free eBook from Google
Books)
23
Library of Congress. Religion and the Founding of the American
Republic. Retrieved from
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html
24
Library of Congress. Religion and the Founding of the American
Republic. Retrieved from
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel02.html
[ 23 ]


On the military front chaplains were such an integral part
of military life that they are mentioned at length in
military coursework. For example in his 1777
, Simes sandwiched a discussion on chaplains
between his discussion on the adjutant and his discussion
on ensigns. He even goes so far as to suggest that the
chaplain be appointed as pay-master “being less exposed
to danger or liable to be sent on command”
25
and that it
would also be preferred that the chaplain start a school
for soldiers and children.
26

The number of chaplains assigned to Continental units
varied throughout the war; however the common thought
was that the presence of chaplains was of the utmost
importance. As early as July 1775 Congress recognized
chaplains with the rank equal to Captain and a set their
monthly pay. By August General Washington realized
that there were 15 chaplains for 23 regiments and 29
regiments were without chaplains at all. This observation
resulted in Congress passing the “Chaplaincy Act” in early
1776 authorizing one chaplain for every two regiments
and raising their pay.
27
LT William Feltman of the First
Pennsylvania Regiment noted in his journal that a total of
four British chaplains were returned to the British upon
their surrender at Yorktown and Gloucester.
28


25
Simes, T. (1777). A Military Course for the Government and
Conduct of a Battalion. p 230.
26
Ibid.
27
Newell, J. (1996). A Brief Account of Religion and the Revolutionary
War Chaplaincy: Part 2. Continental Soldier Newsletter, IX(1).
Retrieved from
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?date=9601&arti
cle=960102.
28
Feltman, W. (1853). The Journal of LT. William Feltman of the
First Pennsylvania Regiment 1781-82 Including the March into
Virginia and the Siege of Yorktown. p 24.
[ 24 ]


The 20 September 1776 Articles of War, Section I
Article 2, stated that “it is recommended to all officers
and soldiers diligently to attend divine service”
29
and that
any soldier who behaved “indecently, or irreverently, at
any place of divine worship” be court martialed if an
officer and be subjected to forfeiture of pay and
confinement if enlisted.
30

One minister became well known as a General in the
Continental Army and later went on to become a
member of the House and Senate. John Peter Gabriel
Muhlenberg (1746-1807) was a certified Lutheran
minister and was also an ordained Anglican clergyman.
He moved to Virginia from his birthplace in Pennsylvania
and quickly became a follower of Patrick Henry. He
famously tore off his clerical garb to reveal his regimental
uniform and stated “There is a time to pray and a time to
fight, and that time has now come!”
31

Chaplains’ jobs were many. They comforted the sick and
dying, performed weddings and funerals, and conducted
divine services. In his journal Reverend Ammi R.
Robbins wrote: "My heart is grieved as I visit the poor
soldiers — such distress and miserable accommodations.
One very sick youth from Massachusetts asked me to save
him if possible; said he was not fit to die:
“I cannot die; do, sir, pray for me. Will you not
send for my mother? If she were here to nurse
me I could get well. O my mother, how I wish I

29
Articles of War, Section I Article 2. Retrieved from
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/contcong_09-20-76.asp
30
Ibid.
31
Penn Biographies. Retrieved from
http://www.archives.upenn.edu/people/1700s/muhlenberg_johnp
g.html
[ 25 ]


could see her; she was opposed to my enlisting: I
am now very sorry. Do let her know I am sorry!”
32

LT William Feltman wrote on 20 October 1781 in his
journal:
“Divine service is to be performed in the several
Brigades or Divisions. The Commander in Chief
earnestly recommends it that the troops not on
duty should universally attend, with that
seriousness of deportment and gratitude of heart
which the recognition of such reiterated and
astonishing interpositions of Providence demands
of us.”
33

Rev Robbins described what a service sometimes looked
like:
“The music march up and the drummers lay
their drums in a very neat style in two rows, one
above the other; it always takes five, and often the
rows are very long; occasion ally they make a
platform for me to stand upon, and raise their
drums a number of tier.”
34

Ogden, Henry Alexander. (1800s). Portrait of James
Caldwell. Virginia. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Caldwell_(clergym
an)

32
Bolton, C. (1902). The Private Soldier Under George Washington.
p. 179. (Available as a free eBook from Google Books)
33
Feltman, W. (1853). The Journal of LT William Feltman of the First
Pennsylvania Regiment 1781-1782. p. 23.
34
Bolton, C. (1902). The Private Soldier Under George Washington.
p. 159. (Available as a free eBook from Google Books)
[ 26 ]


Avalon Project. (1776). Articles of War, September 20,
1776. Retrieved from
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/contcong_09-
20-76.asp
Church of England. (1710). The Book of Common
Prayer. New York, NY.
Headley, J. (1864). The Chaplains and Clergy of the
American Revolution. (Available as a free eBook
from Google Books).
Library of Congress. (2010). Religion and the Founding
of the American Republic. Retrieved from
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/.
Moore, J. (N.d.). Developing an 18th Century Minister’s
Persona. Retrieved from
http://18thcenturybibles.org/Parsons_Persona.html.
Newell, J. (1995). A Brief Account of Religion and the
Revolutionary War Chaplaincy: Part 1. Continental
Soldier Newsletter, VIII(4). Retrieved from
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?dat
e=9504&article=950404.
Newell, J. (1996). A Brief Account of Religion and the
Revolutionary War Chaplaincy: Part 2. Continental
Soldier Newsletter, IX(1). Retrieved from
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?dat
e=9601&article=960102.


[ 27 ]


Poor and beggars were commonplace in the 18th century.
They can be found walking the streets of London in many
prints by Paul Sandy (especially his series),
William Hogarth, and Francis Wheatley (especially his
series). They often look tired, worn,
dirty and toothless. Their behavior is portrayed as
questionable at best.
By the 18th century it had become fashionable to appear
benevolent to the less fortunate.
35
In
it explicitly states that
no poor person should be turned down or asked for
recompense and if a staff member should demand
payment they would be fired.
36

shows the tally of money collected and spent in
support of the poor in England in the year ending on
Easter in 1776
37
. The numbers are quite staggering, even
by modern standards, and shows the dedication of the
people to, at the very least, appear to have great concern
for the poor.


35
The Foundling Hospital. (2011). Thomas Coram and the Foundling
Hospital. Retrieved from
http://www.foundlingmuseum.org.uk/collections/the-foundling-
hospital-collection/thomas-coram-and-the-foundling-hospital/
36
St. Thomas’s Hospital. (1707). An Abstract of the Orders of St.
Thomas’s Hospital Relating to the Sisters, Nurses and Poor
Patients, therein. London.
37
(1777). Abstracts of the Returns Made by the Overseers of the Poor.
London.
[ 28 ]


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1


38
Note: Conversions are estimations based on mathematical formulas.
It is impossible to know with certainty the comparative values of
money from the 18
th
century to day.
39
(1777). Abstracts of the Returns Made by the Overseers of the Poor.
London.
40
Measuring Worth. (2014). Retrieved from
http://www.measuringworth.com/index.php
41
Coin Mill (2013) Retrieved from
http://coinmill.com/GBP_USD.html#GBP=8910000
[ 29 ]



In 1739 King George II himself showed great support to
the poor when Captain Thomas Coram came to him with
a petition to build a foundling hospital in London. Coram
had come back to England after a life as a shipwright and
sailor and had been disturbed by the number of children
in the streets. King George II signed the royal charter
bringing the hospital into existence on 17 October 1739
and in 1741 its first foundlings were accepted. Wealthly
hospital patrons included William Hogarth (who donated
art) and George Frideric Handel (who donated
concerts).
42

The debauchery of the poor is distinctly lacking in
American works of the time. One can only surmise that
this was because the narrowing of the economic gap
between the rich and the poor from that in England made
it less hilarious to the viewer. However, there is little
doubt that a plethora of poor and beggars did exist in the
Colonies. In 1755 the Reverend Thomas Dawson of
Bruton Parish in Williamsburg was permitted to convert
Parish owned land into a workhouse and many counties
built almshouses to house the poor and keep them out of
mischief.
43
In the mid-1770s, the Manufacturing Society of
Williamsburg, also called the Williamsburg Manufactory
among other things, was established and proposed to

42
The Foundling Hospital. (2011). Thomas Coram and the Foundling
Hospital. Retrieved from
http://www.foundlingmuseum.org.uk/collections/the-foundling-
hospital-collection/thomas-coram-and-the-foundling-hospital/
43
McCartney, M. (2000) Richman, Poorman, Beggarman, Thief:
Down but Not Out in Colonial Virginia. Colonial Williamsburg
Journal. Retrieved from
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/autumn00/poorhouse.c
fm
[ 30 ]


purchase raw materials and sell finished cloth.
44
The
Society further resolved to:
“[T]rain up useful Manufacturers, and in Hope
of making some Provision for the better
Maintenance of poor Children, a convenient
Number of Apprentices will be received in the
different branches…”
45

With this being the case, it makes sense for poor to be
found in a military encampment trying to beg money or
offer services. Such a persona would only require ragged
clothing and perhaps a tin cup or other article in which to
collect coins.
Hogarth, W. (1751). Beer Street and Gin Lan: Two
Prints. London. Retrieved from
https://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/hig
hlight_objects/pd/w/william_hogarth,_beer_street.asp
x

Hogarth, W. (1733). Humours of the Fair. London.
Retrieved from http://www.william-
hogarth.de/Southwark.html

Sandby, P. (1746) A Beggar with a Staff and Wallet.
London. Retrieved from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_beggar_wi
th_a_staff_and_wallet_by_Paul_Sandby_1746.jpg

44
Hamrick, M. (2006). Williamsburg Manufactory, Revised and
Expanded from the 1957 Report Of Mills Brown. Colonial
Williamsburg Foundation. Retrieved from
http://research.history.org/DigitalLibrary/View/index.cfm?doc=Re
searchReports%5CRR0406.xml
45
Dixon & Hunter. (13 December 1776). The Virginia Gazette.
Virginia. Retrieved from
http://research.history.org/DigitalLibrary/BrowseVG.cfm
[ 31 ]



Sandby, P. (1759). Last Dying Speech and Confession.
London. Retrieved from
http://www.artchive.com/web_gallery/P/Paul-
Sandby/Last-Dying-Speech-and-Confession,-
c.1759.html
Sandby, P. (N.d.).London Cries: "Any Kitchen Stuff".
London. Retrieved from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paul_Sandby_-
_London_Cries-_%22Any_Kitchen_Stuff%22_-
_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Sandy, P. (1731-1809) London Cries: A Man Swaggering.
London. Retrieved from
http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/16
65794

Sandby, P. (1731-1809) An Old Market Woman
Grinning and Gesturing with her Left Hand. London.
Retrieved from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paul_Sandby
_-
_An_Old_Market_Woman_Grinning_and_Gesturin
g_with_her_Left_Hand_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
(1777). Abstracts of the Returns Made by the Overseers
of the Poor. London.
The British Library Board. (N.d.). British Library:
Learning Georgians. Poverty. Retrieved from
http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/georgians/povert
y/georgianpoverty.html
The Foundling Hospital. (2011). Retrieved from
http://www.foundlingmuseum.org.uk/
[ 32 ]


Hamrick, M. (2006). Williamsburg Manufactory, Revised
and Expanded from the 1957 ReportOf Mills Brown.
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Retrieved from
http://research.history.org/DigitalLibrary/View/index.
cfm?doc=ResearchReports%5CRR0406.xml
McCartney, M. (2000) Richman, Poorman, Beggarman,
Thief: Down but Not Out in Colonial Virginia.
Colonial Williamsburg Journal. Retrieved from
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/autumn00/
poorhouse.cfm
St. Thomas’s Hospital. (1707). An Abstract of the Orders
of St. Thomas’s Hospital Relating to the Sisters,
Nurses and Poor Patients, therein. London.


[ 33 ]


As runways are mentioned several times throughout the
course of this document, mostly in terms of clothing, not
a lot of time will be spent dwelling on them here.
However, since it can be an enjoyable persona, and
happens to be a personal favorite of the author, it bears a
quick discussion.
They could either be slaves or servants who had decided,
for whatever reason, that they no longer wished to remain
“employed” as they were. So to gain their freedom they
grabbed the few things they owned and shoved them into
a basket or wallet, perhaps stealing a few things on their
way out.
Searches of runaway advertisement databases show that
many of these runaways were skilled laborers. Broad
analysis of 950 runaway advertisements from Virginia
newspapers
46
between the years 1775 and 1783 show that
approximately four percent of these runaways could read
and/or write. Over 400 of these records list people who
performed some form of skilled labor such as
shoemakers, joiners, ship-wrights, cooks, seamstresses,
and valets.
47

With a plight similar to the poor and beggars but with a
price on their head, runaways may have been seen
offering their services to the army for some money and to
try and distance themselves from their place of
employment.

46
Costa, T. (2005). The Geography of Slavery in Virginia. Retrieved
from http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/gos/. 1736 – 1790.
47
Note: This information was analyzed based on database metadata. It
is not precise, merely included to give an overview of runaway
demographics.
[ 34 ]


There are no known pieces of art that focus on runaways,
however the advertisements are precise enough that an
image of the person and their clothing can be gained.
Colonial Williamsburg Digital Library. Virginia Gazettes.
Retrieved from
http://research.history.org/DigitalLibrary.cfm
Costa, T. (2005). The Geography of Slavery in Virginia
Retrieved from http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/gos/.
1736 – 1790.
Costa, T. (2002). Virginia Runaways Project. Retrieved
from http://people.uvawise.edu/runaways/about.html
Huesken, S & Mullian, K. (1995). Had On And Took
With Her Clothing in Female Runaway Servant
Advertisements From the Pennsylvania Evening Post
Later the Pennsylvania Evening Post and Daily
Advertiser as Published By Benjamin Towne of
Philadelphia Between 1775 and 1784.
Howard, B. (1996). Had on and Took with Him:
Runaway Indentured Servant Clothing in Virginia,
1774-1778. Dissertation. Retrieved from
anthropology.tamu.edu/papers/Howard-
PhD1996.pdf


[ 35 ]


There is really little in the way of discussion for the sick
and wounded that is not included in the section on
, however it is a persona that should
be specifically brought to people’s attention. There is a
group of men participating throughout this hobby who
desire to portray soldiers but unfortunately through age or
injury are unable to field. These men should not merely
be relegated to the position of “kitchen monitor” or
“babysitter”. Instead they can play the entirely authentic
role, and natural to their current condition, of a sick or
injured soldier. Crutches can be made, bandages can be
wrapped, and medicinal concoctions can applied in an
effort to make the soldiers’ situation as realistic as
possible. These men should be dressed in a regimental
uniform and mustered on the Morning Report and
marked “Sick in Camp”.
See
See


[ 36 ]


Spies are an important part of any war and the
Revolutionary War was no different. Although
indisputable identifying information about these spies is
sparse for obvious reasons and legends abound, research
has proven that both the British and Continental armies
relied extensively on espionage and that the demographics
of these spies varied.
Thomas Simes stated that “Intelligence is of the greatest
advantage to the commander”
48
and urged that
commanders spare no expense in embedding spies in the
enemy camps and councils.
General George Washington was a huge proponent of
espionage and mentioned the use of spies in his letters,
although he was careful not to disclose their identities. In
a letter he wrote on 26 July 1777 regarding Lord Stirling’s
route to “the Great Falls” he stated that: “The necessity of
procuring good Intelligence is apparent & need not be
further urged.”
49

In 1778 he ordered Benjamin Tallmadge to organize a
spy network in New York City that has become famously
known as the Culper Ring. The known members of the
Culper Ring were Robert Townsend, Abraham
Woodhull, Austin Roe, Anna Strong, and Caleb Brewster

48
Simes, T. (1777). A Military Course for the Government and
Conduct of a Battalion. London. p. 198.
49
CIA. (2013). Letter from G. Washington. Retrieved from
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-
publications/books-and-monographs/intelligence/letter.html
[ 37 ]


although their real names were avoided in
correspondence.
50

Real Name Code Name
51

Robert Townsend Culper Jr.
Benjamin Tallmadge John Bolton
Abraham Woodhull Culper Sr.

There is also thought to be an “Agent 355” although the
identity of this person is in question. All that is known
about Agent 355 is that this person is most likely a
woman, as 355 was the code for “lady” according to the
Culper Code Book.
52
It may have been Anna Strong
although this is unlikely. She is only mentioned once that
we know of, in a letter from code 722 (Samuel Culper Sr.
aka Woodhull) to John Bolton (Tallmadge). The letter
states:
“I intend to visit 727 before long and think, by
the assistance of a 355 of my acquaintance shall
be able to outwit them all.”
53

Anna Strong was said to strategically place a black
petticoat and handkerchiefs on her clothes lines as a
code. The petticoat signified that Caleb Brewster (their

50
Spies of the American Revolution. (1999). The Culper Gang.
Retrieved from
http://www.clements.umich.edu/exhibits/online/spies/index-
methods.html
51
Spies of the American Revolution.
52
Tallmadge, B. (1778). Culper Code book pages. The Culper Spy
Ring and Benedict Arnold, Item #36, Retrieved from
http://aphdigital.org/projects/culperspyring/items/show/36.
53
Culper, S. (1779) Samuel Culper to John Bolton, August 15, 1779, in
Code with Translation. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/ampage?collId=mgw4&fileName=gwpage060.db&recNum=1
017&tempFile=./temp/~ammem_OXqJ&filecode=mgw&next_fil
ecode=mgw&prev_filecode=mgw&itemnum=51&ndocs=100.
[ 38 ]


letter carrier) had arrived and the number of
handkerchiefs stated where Brewster was hiding.
54

There were two other known female spies besides Anna
Strong, both of whom spied for the British. Ann Bates
was a Philadelphia schoolteacher who joined General Sir
Henry Clinton’s spy network in 1778. Her husband
repaired cannons in General Clinton’s army, giving her
the edge when it came to reporting weaponry and military
matters. She worked disguised as a peddler in American
camps, allowing her to observe and listen unobtrusively.
55

Another woman known only as “Miss Jenny” was thought
to be French and moved seamlessly through Continental
and French camps all the while reporting to the British.
The unfortunate event of a cavalry officer attempting to
force himself on her is documented in an15 August 1781
letter from Baron Ottendorf to Sir Henry Clinton.
56

Due to the nature of spying, there is little in the way of art
that describes what a spy looks like while spying!
Allen, T. (2007). George Washington, Spymaster: How
the Americans Outspied the British and Won the
Revolutionary War. National Geographic Children's
Books.

54
CIA. (2013). Revolutionary War, Kids Zone. Retrieved from
https://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th-grade/operation-
history/revolutionary-war.html
55
Spy Letters of the American Revolution. (1999). Ann Bates.
Retrieved from
http://www.clements.umich.edu/exhibits/online/spies/stories-
women-2.html
56
Spy Letters of the American Revolution. (1999). Miss Jenny.
Retrieved from
http://www.clements.umich.edu/exhibits/online/spies/stories-
women-1.html
[ 39 ]


Central Intelligence Agency. (2007). Intelligence in the
War for Independence. Retrieved from
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-
intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-
monographs/intelligence/main.html
The Culper Spy Ring and Benedict Arnold. (n.d.).
Retrieved from
http://aphdigital.org/projects/culperspyring
Library of Congress. (1999). George Washington’s
Papers. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/
Spy Letters of the American Revolution. (1999).
Retrieved from
http://www.clements.umich.edu/exhibits/online/spies/
index.html



[ 40 ]


Any army will have sick and wounded soldiers and the
Continental army had its fair share. The 1 April 1778
report on the sick and wounded in American hospitals
submitted by William Shippen, Jr. (the current Director
General of Hospitals
57
) accounted for 1638 sick and
wounded, with 433 admitted since the first of the year. An
additional 1090 had actually been discharged. Admittedly
this was the winter of the Valley Forge encampment,
however only approximately 218 of these account for
soldiers in Pennsylvania.
58

Surgeons were so indispensable that their pay increased
dramatically during the war. On 16 July 1776 the
Continental Congress set Surgeons’ pay to 33 and 1/3
dollars a month.
59
The
in 1778 sets a surgeon’s wage
at 60 dollars a month and the Surgeon’s Mate wage at 40
dollars a month.
60
These wages compared to those of
Lieutenant Colonels and Captains as shown in .

57
Penn Biographies. (2013). William Shippen, Jr. (1736-1808).
University of Pennsylvania Archives. Retrieved from
http://www.archives.upenn.edu/people/1700s/shippen_wm_jr.ht
ml
58
Shippen, W. (1778). Report on the Sick and Wounded in Hospitals.
George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-
1799: Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799. 1 April
1778. Retrieved from
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwser4.html.
59
Washington, G. (1776). General Orders for 17 July 1776. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw050257))
60
Continental Congress. (1778). Resolutions respecting the
Establishment of the Army. Retrieved from:
Washington, G. (1778). General Orders for 7 June 1778. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw120044))
[ 41 ]


In 1782, Congress cut surgeon pay to 59 dollars a month,
yet stated that they were entitled to three rations a day.
They further stated that a surgeon’s mate should receive
42 dollars a month and receive two rations a day.
61

Officer Pay per Month (Dollars)
1 Colonel and Captain 75
1 Lieutenant Colonel and
Captain
60
1 Major 50
6 Captains 40 each
1 Captain Lieutenant 26 2/3
8 Lieutenants 26 2/3 each
9 Ensigns 20 each
Adjutant 13
Quarter master 13
1 Surgeon 60
1 Surgeon’s Mate 40

One surgeon, however, could not take care of all the sick
and wounded. In his 17 June 1777 General Orders,
General Washington ordered that an orderly sergeant be
appointed in each company.
“An orderly Serjeant to be appointed in each
company, to take a list every morning of the sick

61
Continental Congress. (1782). Surgeon’s Pay. George Washington
Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General
Correspondence. 1697-1799. March 19, 1782. Retrieved from
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwser4.html.
62
Continental Congress. (1778). Resolutions respecting the
Establishment of the Army. Retrieved from:
Washington, G. (1778). General Orders for 7 June 1778. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw120044))
[ 42 ]


belonging to it, and report them to the regimental
officer of the day, who is to make a general report
to the Surgeon of the regiment. The orderly
Serjeant to attend the Surgeon, distribute
medicines, and do every thing necessary
according to his orders.”
63

He also ordered that women be sent as nurses to assist in
caring for the sick and wounded. Also in his 17 June 1777
General Orders he wrote:
“A proportionate number of women to the sick
of each regiment to be sent to the hospitals at
Mendham and Black River, to attend the sick as
nurses.”
64

On 31 May 1778 he wrote again requesting that
Commanding Officers provide Orderlies and women:
“Commanding Officers of Regiments will assist
the Regimental Surgeons in procuring as many
Women of the Army as can be prevailed on to
serve as Nurses to them who will be paid the
usual Price. Orderlies are also to be left, one to
every twenty sick men. These should be men out
of such as are (for want of Cloathing, from
lameness and the like) least fit to march with the
Army, but at the same time capable of this
duty.”
65


63
Washington, G. (1777). General Orders for 17 June 1777. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw080229))
64
Ibid.
65
Washington, G. (1778). Orderly Book of General George
Washington Commander in Chief of the American Armies Kept
[ 43 ]


18th century medicine ranged from homeopathic, to
gruesome, to downright bizarre. One particularly
interesting medicinal recipe comes from the
, A Scottish remedy book which
is currently in the archives of the Royal College of
Physicians and Surgeons in Glasgow.
“[F]or a pine in the back take fresh cow dung:
and fry it in vinegar and Aply it plaster wise to the
back: yow will litle think how soon it will give yow
ease.”
66

Smallpox variolation was also common during the War.
Variolation is a form of inoculation by exposing the
person to a mild form of the disease. Vaccination was
achieved by purposefully inserting a small dose of
smallpox into an incision. The person would then be
closely monitored by hospital staff as signs of the disease
exhibit themselves. Wounds would be cleaned and eyes
would be flushed regularly as the patient went through the
life cycle of the disease.
67

General Washington knew the disastrous effects smallpox
could have on an army and ordered the inoculation of his
men.
68
In his 31 May 1778 General Orders he mentions
those soldiers who were under observation post

at Valley Forge, 18 May — 11 June, 1778. Lamson, Wolffe and
Company. Boston, New York. (Published in 1898). p 24.
66
(17??). 18th Century Book of Herbal Remedies. Complete
transcription retrieved from
http://www.rcpsg.ac.uk/library/digitalvolumes/herbal.aspx. p 89.
67
Discussion with surgeon of the Detached Hospital during Under the
Redcoat 2013.
68
Riedel, S. (2005). Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and
vaccination. Bayer University Medical Center Proceedings. 18 (1),
p 21-25. Retrieved from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1200696/
[ 44 ]


inoculation and states that they should be included in the
number of the sick.
“Men in the Small Pox or under Innoculation are
to be comprehended in the number of the sick.”
69

Despite the somewhat disturbing imagery discussion
about smallpox causes, it is an extremely correct activity
for a regimental surgeon to be conducting.
Penny, E. (after 1765). The Marquis of Granby (Relieving
A Sick Soldier). British. Royal Academy of Arts,
Accession # 03/1170. Retrieved from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/paintings/the-
marquis-of-granby-relieving-a-sick-soldier
(17??). 18th Century Book of Herbal Remedies.
Complete transcription retrieved from
http://www.rcpsg.ac.uk/library/digitalvolumes/herbal.a
spx
Cheyne, G. (1701). A New Theory of Acute and Slow
Continu’d Fevers. London.
Detached Hospital. The Brigade of the American
Revolution Southern Department and The British
Brigade. (http://detachedhospital.com/index.html)
Note: Website includes a list of both primary and
secondary sources.

69
Washington, G. (1778). Orderly Book of General George
Washington Commander in Chief of the American Armies Kept
at Valley Forge, 18 May — 11 June, 1778. Lamson, Wolffe and
Company. Boston, New York. (Published in 1898). p 24.
[ 45 ]


Duncan, D. (1706). Advice Against the Abuse of Hot
Liquors. London.
Hamilton, R. (1787). The Duties of a Regimental
Surgeon Considered. London.
Paxton, P. (1707). The Art of Physick. London.
Philosophical Society of Edinburgh. (1747). Medical
Essays and Observations. Edinburgh. 6 Volumes.
Salmon, W. (1707). Medicina Practica. London.
Unk. (1717). The Housewife's Hospital. London.


[ 46 ]


An encamped army is a wonderful place to sell trinkets,
food items, and other odds and ends. Sutlers and
peddlers wanted to make money and an army is both a
new and trapped audience. Soldiers would have needed
to replace worn clothing items or may have desired to buy
a small trinket for a sweetheart with their hard earned
money. To this day, a similar symbiotic relationship exists
between the civilian seller and the military buyer.
As early as 1775 the regiments were clamoring to have
sutlers attached for sundry items. In his General Orders
for 7 August 1775 General Washington agreed that
regiments could have an appointed sutler with some
stipulations.
“The Commander in Chief has no Objection to
each Colonel appointing one for his particular
regiment, provided the public is not to be tax'd
with any Expence by the Appointment, and
provided also; that each Colonel doth become
answerable for the Conduct of the Sutler so
appointed, and taking care, that he conform
strictly to all Orders given for the regulation of
the Army, and that he does not in any Instance
attempt to impose upon the Soldiers in the price
of their goods. No Officer directly, or indirectly,
is to become a Sutler.”
70

He further recommends that said sutler carry shoes,
shirts, and “Indian Boots” or “Leggins”.
71


70
Washington, G. (1775). General Orders for 7 August 1775.
Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw030285))
71
Washington, G. (1775). General Orders for 7 August 1775.
[ 47 ]


By 1778 General Washington agreed to order the
appointment of a sutler to each brigade to carry liquor.
“The Commander in Chief is pleased to approve
of the above recommendation and to order that
such Brigade Sutler be appointed, and liquors
sold at the following prices and under the
following regulations: Peach brandy by the quart
at 7/6 by the Pint 4/, by the Gill 1/3. Whiskey
and Apple brandy at 6/ pr. quart, 3/6 pr. pint and
1/ by the gill. Cyder at 1/3 by the quart; Strong
beer 2/6 by the quart. Common beer 1/ by the
quart. Vinegar 2/6 by the quart… The brigade
sutler is also at liberty to sell leaf tobacco at 4/ pr
pound; Pigtail at one dollar pr. pound and hard
soap at 2/ pr pound; but no other articles rated
for the public market shall be sold by him or any
person acting under him on any pretence
whatever.”
72

The liquor was to be inspected by two officers appointed
by the Brigadier and the sutlers were also strictly
forbidden to sell items for more than the prescribed price
under threat of court martial.
73

Reports were made (at least occasionally) by the
regimental Commanding Officers of those sutlers licensed
by them to the quartermaster general.
74

Because he had long considered unlicensed sutlers as
sources of “disorder and Riot”
75
he announced in his

72
Washington, G. (1778). General Orders from 16 April 1778.
Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw110264))
73
Ibid.
74
Washington, G. (1776). General Orders for 21 February 1776.
Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw040289))
[ 48 ]


September 1782 General Orders that Timothy Pickering,
the quartermaster general at the time, would establish
regulations for the control of sutlers and that no
unlicensed sutlers would be allowed to sell to the
regiments.
76
Pickering established the Regulations for the
Government of Sutlers to ensure that the liquor was good
quality, the prices reasonable, the only payment accepted
was money, no drinking was done at the sutler, nothing
was sold from tattoo to reveille, the quartermaster general
knew where the sutler was quartered, and that the
regulations would be posted conspicuously by each
sutler.
77

But not all merchants were established sutlers. Peddlers
also came to sell their wares to the army. One such
peddler, Ann Bates, was actually a spy in General Sir
Henry Clinton’s spy network. Ann worked as a peddler in
Continental camps while gathering information for the
British.
78
(For more information on spies see the
section.)
Artists Francis Wheatley and Paul Sandby show peddlers
on the streets of London selling everything from spoons
to twigs, from fish to pots. They carry these items in

75
Washington, G. (1778). General Orders of 11 October 1778.
Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw130069))
76
Washington, G. (1782). General Orders of 5 September 1782.
Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw250146))
77
Rees, J. (1997). "... sufficient ... to strip a soldier to the skin." Sutlers
in the Continental Army, 1777-1782. Retrieved from
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?date=9702&arti
cle=970203
78
Spy Letters of the American Revolution. (1999). Ann Bates.
Retrieved from
http://www.clements.umich.edu/exhibits/online/spies/stories-
women-2.html
[ 49 ]


baskets, in carts, or tied to strings and flung over a large
stick.
Prices varied from region to region, town to town. British
money was in itself complex due to the many different
coins. Although there was the most common pound,
shilling, and pence, there were also coins for
combinations of these such as Guineas, Crowns, and
Marks. (See ). Not only were there many
different coins, but the value of these coins varied from
place to place as well. While a sixpence in Britain would
indeed be equal to 6 pence, in Philadelphia it was equal
to 9 pence and in New York it was equal to 8 pence.
79


79
Tully, M. (2006). The Packet IV, Being One More Collection of
Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining to the American
Revolution. Ballindallock Press, Baraboo, WI. P 28.
[ 50 ]


Currency Conversion
Pound (£) (aka quid or
sovereign)
20 shilling
240 pence
Shilling (s) (aka bob) 12 pence
Pence (d) (aka penny)
Farthing ¼ pence
Half Penny ½ pence
Tuppence (not actually a
coin)
2 pence
Threpenny bit 3 pence
Sixpence (aka tanner) 6 pence
Crown 5 shillings
Half Crown 2 shillings and 6 pence
Half Sovereign 10 shillings
Guinea 21 shillings (1 pound and 1
shilling)
There was also an issue of monetary standardization
caused by the Currency Act of 1764. This Act passed by
the King stated that
“That from and after the first day of September,
one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no
act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, in any
of his Majesty's colonies or plantations in
America, shall be made, for creating or issuing
any paper bills, or bills of credit of any kind or
denomination whatsoever, declaring such paper
bills, or bills of credit, to be legal tender in
payment of any bargains, contracts, debts, dues,
or demands whatsoever; and every clause or
provision which shall hereafter be inserted in any

80
Walbert, D. (N.d.). The Value of Money in Colonial America.
Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-
colonial/1646
[ 51 ]


act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly,
contrary to this act, shall be null and void.”
81

This act created a shortage of currency in the colonies
which were then forced to resort to accepting foreign
currency such as Spanish dollars.
82

Year
83
Eggs
Per Dozen
Oats
Per Bushel
Wheat
Per Bushel
1775 0.030£
(7d)
0.815£
(16s 3d)
0.194£
(3s 10d)
1776 0.150£
(3s)
1777 0.281£
(5s 7d)
1778 0.213£
(4s 3d)
0.559£
(11s 2d)
1779 6.150£
(6£ 12s)
1780
1781 0.278£
(5s 6d)
1782 0.295£
(5s 10d)
1783 0.383£
(7s 7d)
Note: Conversions to £/s/d are approximate based on
12d=1s and 20s=1£
84


81
British Parliament. (1764). The Currency Act. Retrieved from
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/curency_act_1764.asp
82
Walbert, D. (N.d.). The Value of Money in Colonial America.
Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-
colonial/1646
83
Global Price and Income History Group (2006). Prices and wages in
Chesapeak, 1733-1827. Retrieved from
http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/data.php#unitedstates
[ 52 ]


Sandby, P. (c. 1759). London Cries: "Do You Want any
Spoons...". Center for British Art, Accession Number
B1975.3.208. Retrieved from
http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/16
65778
Sandby, P. (N.d.). London Cries: A Girl with a Basket of
Oranges. Center for British Art, Accession Number
B1975.3.223. Retrieved from
http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/16
65795
Sandby, P. (N.d.). London Cries: A Man with a Basket
(Man Selling Pots and Pans). Center for British Art,
Accession Number B1975.3.211. Retrieved from
http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/16
65782
Sandby, P. (c. 1759). London Cries: A Muffin Man.
Center for British Art, Accession Number
B1975.3.205. Retrieved from
http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/16
65775
Sandby, P. (c. 1759). London Cries: Shoe Cleaner.
Center for British Art, Accession Number
B1975.3.207. Retrieved from
http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/16
65777
Sandby, P. (c. 1759). London Cries: Small Coal or
Brushes. Center for British Art, Accession Number
B1975.3.214. Retrieved from

84
Tully, M. (2006). The Packet IV, Being One More Collection of
Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining to the American
Revolution. Ballindallock Press, Baraboo, WI. P 28.

[ 53 ]


http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/16
65785
Wheatley, F. (1796). Cries of London: Do You Want any
Matches? The British Museum, Accession Number
2010,7081.542. Retrieved from
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_on
line/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=3338736
&partId=1&searchText=cries+of+london&images=tru
e&fromDate=1700&from=ad&toDate=1799&to=ad&
page=2
Böhne, M & Simons, O. (2004). Pierre Marteau’s
Publishing House, Cologne English Money.
Retrieved from http://www.pierre-
marteau.com/currency/coins/engl-01.html
International Institute of Social History. (2013). List of
Datafiles. Retrieved from
http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/data.php
Library of Congress. (1999). George Washington Papers
at the Library of Congress: 1741-1799. Retrieved
from
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwhome.html
Mayer, H. (1996). Belonging to the Army: Camp
followers and Community during the American
Revolution. University of South Carolina Press.
Rees, J. (1997). "... sufficient ... to strip a soldier to the
skin." Sutlers in the Continental Army, 1777-1782.
Retrieved from
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?dat
e=9702&article=970203
[ 54 ]


Tully, M. (2003). The Packet III, Being Yet Another
Collection of Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining
to the American Revolution. Ballindallock Press,
Baraboo, WI.
Tully, M. (2006). The Packet IV, Being One More
Collection of Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining
to the American Revolution. Ballindallock Press,
Baraboo, WI.
Walbert, D. (N.d.). The Value of Money in Colonial
America. Retrieved from
http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-
colonial/1646
[ 55 ]


Despite the somewhat automatic assumption that the
soldiers would have been dirty and disheveled, the
regulars were expected to keep themselves and their
uniforms as neat and clean as possible. In his 14 May
1778 General Orders General Washington wrote:
“The Troops are in future to be exempt from
exercise every Friday afternoon, which time is
allowed them for washing Linnen and
cloathing.”
85

And again on 20 July 1778 wrote:
“The Officers will see that their men wash their
Cloathes, cleanse and put their Arms in good
Order as soon as possible and carefully examine
their Ammunition.”
86

Washington’s General Orders maintain the washing
theme throughout the war for bathing, laundry, and
cleaning tents.
Whether it was the busyness of the soldiers, the fact that
they likely were not good at laundering clothes
themselves, the lack of enforcement, or that the women
desired to earn army rations, the role of the
washerwoman became somewhat coveted among the
camp followers.

85
Washington G. (1778). General Orders for 14 May 1778. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw110379))
86
Washington G. (1778). General Orders for 20 July 1778. Retrieved
from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw120232))
[ 56 ]


However, the role was not only filled by the poorest of
the camp followers. Women of all social classes were
seen washing the clothing of their husbands and other
soldiers. Captain Samuel Dewees, more commonly
known as “Sammy the Fifer” specifically mentions
washerwomen twice in his papers, one a Sergeant’s wife
and the other a genteel young woman who later married a
Colonel.
A Sergeant who was known by the appellation of
Macarone Jack, a very intelligent, active, neat and
clever fellow had committed some trivial offence.
He had his wife with him in camp who always
kept him very clean and neat in his appearance,
she was washerwoman to a number of soldiers,
myself among the number. She was a very well
behaved and good conditioned woman.
87

He also mentions a Miss Elizabeth (later married to
Colonel Richard Humpton) who did both the Colonel’s
and Dewees’ laundry, although she was not technically an
army washerwoman.
88

Not only did washerwomen receive rations, they were also
allowed to charge for their services. They could either
charge for a specific piece or enter into the hire of a
particular soldier (usually a non-commissioned officer or
officer). The latter posed a bit of a problem because the
question of what other services the woman may have been
providing as well tended to arise. Unfortunately for the

87
Hanna, J. (1844). A History of the Life of Captain Samuel Dewees.
Printed by R. Neilson, Baltimore, MD. p 228. Note: This is a
compilation of the writings of Captain Dewees himself.
88
Hanna. p 146-147.
[ 57 ]


men, this option also happened to be more cost
effective.
89

Because of the demand for their services, these women
often charged exorbitant prices for their services,
prompting several regiments to regulate prices that could
be charged including the 2nd Pennsylvania, 4th New
York, and the 7th Pennsylvania Regiments. The 1
February 1779 entry of the 7th Pennsylvania’s Orderly
Book states that due to the abuse of overcharging:
“Wash women when sope is found them, for
officers washing, ½ Dol. pr. Day. Any
washwoman who will presume to charge more
then [the] price aforementioned, will immediately
be ordered out of Camp, & not be suffered to
return.”
90

In 1780 officers at West Point fixed the laundry prices as
follows:
"[T]he following Prices be paid for Washing; to
the Women, who draw provisions, with their
respective Companies; For a Shirt two Shillings;
Woolen Breeches, Vest and Overalls, two
Shillings, each; Linen Vest, and Breeches, one
Shilling, each; Linen Overalls, one Shilling and
Six Pence each; Stock, Stockings and

89
Mayer, H. (1996). Belonging to the Army: Camp followers and
Community during the American Revolution. University of South
Carolina Press. p 142.
90
(1779) The Orderly Book of the Seventh Penn’a Regiment: February
2, 1779, to April 15, 1779. (John O’Neill Sergeant His Orderly
Book). p 405. Retrieved as part of:
Linn, J & Egle, W. (1880) Pennsylvania in the War of the Revolution,
Battalions and Line, 1775-1783. Vol II. Lane S. Haht, State
Printer, Harrisburg PA. p 378 (Available as a free eBook from
Google Books)
[ 58 ]


Handkerchief, Six Pence each; the Women who
wash for the Companies, will observes these
regulations."
91

For comparison, in London the average wage for a
laundress was a mere 6-8 pence per day in 1739.
92
Even
allowing for inflation of sorts, it wouldn’t have been that
much more during the period of the war.
Washerwomen would use large wooden tubs filled with
water boiled with wood ashes and unslaked lime (calcium
oxide) to do their washing.
93
The laundry would be
scrubbed, rinsed, and hung to dry on a laundry line
comprised of two crossed poles on both ends and a
staked line running over them.
94

The 13 July 1779 entry in the 7th Pennsylvania Orderly
Book forbade women from tossing dirty laundry water in
front of the tents or on the parade ground.
“[E]xcepting in the Kitchens only; the women is
strictly forbidden to wash in frount of the tents or
to through soap suds or any other Kind of filth
on the Regimental Parade.”
95


91
Colonial Williamsburg. (N.d.).Women’s Service with the
Revolutionary Army. Retrieved from
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume7/nov0
8/women_revarmy.cfm
92
Collier, M. (1739). The Woman’s Labour: An Epistle to Mr.
Stephen Duck; in Answer to His Late Poem, Called the
Thresher’s Labour. London. p 15.
93
Glasse, H. (N.d.). The Servant’s Directory, or House-keeper’s
Companion. Eighteenth Century Collections Online Print
Edition. P 46.
94
Note: These laundry lines can be seen in many different pieces of
art.
95
John O’Neill Sergeant His Orderly Book, p 465 (p 438 of eBook).
[ 59 ]


For particularly tough stains, the fabric would have been
rubbed with a lemon or with hot vinegar and water over a
lamp.
96

Soap was made using unslaked lime, ash, and strained lye.
The mixture was then processed, oil added, and boiled.
Salt would be added if the desired result was “white
soap”.
97
White soap could be further processed using
different perfumery recipes for different scents and
colors.
Bilcoq, Marie Marc Antoine. (Unk). The Laundresses.
Unk. Retrieved from
http://www.worcesterart.org/Collection/provenance/1
937.94.jpg
Ceruti, Giacomo. (1736). The Laundress. Italy. Retrieved
from
http://www.artrenewal.org/pages/artwork.php?artwork
id=22324
Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Siméon. (1733). The Laundress.
France. Retrieved from http://www.jean-baptiste-
simeon-chardin.org/The-Laundress.html
Greuze, Jean-Baptiste. (1761). La Blanchisseuse. France.
Retrieved from
http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?a
rtobj=843
Malton, James. (1785). A Military Encampment in Hyde
Park. Britain. Retrieved from

96
Glasse, H. The Servant’s Directory. p 50.
97
Smith, G. (1799). The Laboratory; or, School of Arts: Containing a
Large Collection of Valuable Secrets, Experiments, and Manual
Operations in Arts and Manufacturing. London.
[ 60 ]


http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/36
32012
Moreland, H. (1765-1782). A Lady’s Maid Soaping
Linen. Britain. Retrieved from
http://www.holburne.org/muse/search/item.cfm?Mus
eumNumber=1978.1
(1782). The Camp Laundry. Britain. Retrieved from
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_on
line/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=3342610
&partId=1
Sandby, P. (1730-1809). Two Washerwomen. Britain.
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_on
line/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=749486&
partId=1
Chodowiecki, D. (1770). Illustration for ‘Basedow’s
Elementary Work’. Germany. LACMA,
AcqRetrieved from
http://collections.lacma.org/node/232007
Peachey, J. (1784). Encampment of the Loyalists at
Johnstown, a New Settlement, on the Banks of the
River St. Lawrenec in Canada, taken June 6th 1784.
British. Retrieved from
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/008/001/008001-
119.01-
e.php?&document_id_nbr=65&&PHPSESSID=fgu9
qkmnpfr9r0nv6280bi4471 (Note: Zoom in to see
some great details.)
(1782). The Camp Laundry. British. The British
Museum, Accession Number 2010,7081.868.
Retrieved from
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_on
[ 61 ]


line/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=3342610
&partId=1
Barker, A. (1770). The Complete Servant Maid: or
Young Woman's Best Companion. London.
Cooke, J. (1764). The Complete Man and Maid Servant:
Containing Plain and Easy Instructions for Servants
of Both Sexes. London.
Dictionary Rusticum, Urbanicum & Botanicum: Or a
Dictionary of Husbandry, Gardening, Trade,
Commerce, And all Sorts of Country Affairs. Volume
II. Third Edition. London. (Dictionary is in
alphabetical order.) (Available as a free eBook from
Google Books).
Glasse, H. (1784). The Art of Cookery Made Plain and
Easy, Which Far Exceeds any Thing of the Kind yet
Published. London. (Note: This particular edition
adds fifty recipes for perfumery, including wash balls.)
Tully, M. (2006). The Packet IV, Being One More
Collection of Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining
to the American Revolution. Ballindallock Press;
Baraboo, WI.
Smith, G. (1799). The Laboratory; or, School of Arts:
Containing a Large Collection of Valuable Secrets,
Experiments, and Manual Operations in Arts and
Manufacturing. London. (Available as a free eBook
from Google Books).
Whatman, S. (2000). The Housekeeping Book of
Susanna Whatman. National Trust Enterprises
Limited. Note: This was first published in 1776.
[ 62 ]


[ 63 ]


The soldiers have an enviably simple dressing
regime. For each event they merely grab the
same clothing items and accoutrements that
they brought to the last event. Occasionally
they’ll wear a hunting shirt instead of a regimental or vice
versa. Overall, however, little thought needs to go into the
items they pack for each individual event.
Civilians are not so lucky, especially if you change
portrayals from event to event. Women especially should
be particularly cognizant of their clothing to ensure that
what they are wearing is appropriate for a particular event.
However, because of all the options available for civilian
clothing this “problem” can also become incredibly
enjoyable.
Date
Clothing details changed dramatically over the
course of the 18th century. Although the overall
shape and silhouette of men’s and women’s
clothing remained relatively stable, details such as
cuffs, waistcoat length, and width of pleating on a
gown can date a garment to an approximately five
to ten year time span.
Station
A civilian’s station in society would dictate the
fabrics and styles worn. A wealthy landowner and
his wife would have been more likely to be seen
wearing up-to-date fashions such as those found
in Galerie des Modes. Their clothes would have
been made of silk, wool, cotton, or linen and the
fabric would have been of a finer weave. Details
such as death head buttons and ruffles on shirt
openings would have set them apart. Although
[ 64 ]


they would have owned and worn “worker
clothes” such as bedgowns and aprons for the
women these items would also have been made
of finer material and would not have been worn
in public. A camp follower, on the other hand,
would have not have regularly worn silk or
cotton, and would have worn styles that were a
few years or even a decade behind. Although
gowns were by far the most common women’s
garment for the upper and lower classes, poorer
women would have also worn more informal
clothing in public.
Fabric was expensive and labor cheap. Wool and linen
were the cheapest and most common fibers. Although
silk was most common among the wealthy, examination
of runaway advertisements has shown a surprising
number of silk articles among the servant and slave
classes. Some advertisements list petticoats, jackets,
gowns, waistcoats, breeches, etc. Whether these men and
women stole the items when they ran away or owned
them outright is in question. However, other
advertisements list silk stockings, handkerchiefs, bonnets,
and stocks which were more likely to have been owned
outright. Cotton was by far the least common and most
expensive. Cotton was even outlawed in England for a
period of time, further increasing the price of the
material. Cotton was, however, worn by the wealthy and
increased in popularity until the end of the 18th century
when it became common among all classes.
Most modern fabric is nothing like the 18th version of the
same fabric, although with a bit of care we can come
pretty close to the original. Some things to be aware of
[ 65 ]


when purchasing fabric include the weight (in ounces), the
fiber content (100% natural fibers), and the weave
(whether it is tightly or loosely woven). Fiber terminology
was also not particularly standardized. In the same way
that “taffeta” today can mean silk, polyester, or a blend of
fibers the same can be said of the words “linsey” and
“fustian” in the 18th century. Bryan Paul Howard, of
Texas A&M University, wrote a very well documented
dissertation on Runaway Servant Advertisements.
Appendix F of this dissertation contains a wealth of
information about textiles and terminology. (Retrieved
from anthropology.tamu.edu/papers/Howard-
PhD1996.pdf)
Some notes to keep in mind when buying fabric:
Linen: There are three different weight classes
for linen. Light weight is approximately 2.8 to 3.5
ounces. This light weight linen is best used for
shifts, handkerchiefs, caps, stocks. Modern
manufacturers often achieve this weight by
spreading the fibers farther apart rather than just
using finer fibers resulting in a “waffle” or “gauze”
fabric. This fabric is incorrect, difficult to work
with, and wears poorly. Be careful to buy
properly woven fabric for these lightweight items.
Medium weight linens (approximately 3.5-6
ounces) is best for gowns, jackets, shirts, breeches
etc. Heaver weight linen can also be used for
clothing, especially for lower classes
Wool: Wool is perhaps the most underestimated
fiber. Modern thought is that it is hot and prickly
and best avoided. This is far from true and wool
has many recommendations that lend itself to the
hobby. First of all, wool wicks water better than
anything else. If it is raining you’ll be happy you
wore wool or at the very least brought a wool
[ 66 ]


cloak or coat. Lightweight wool can also be worn
in the summer without overheating. The best
wools for reenactment use are broadcloth,
worsted, and flannel. Broadcloth is best for coats
and cloaks. Worsteds lend themselves well to
gowns, jackets, petticoats, breeches, and
waistcoats. Flannel also is good for gowns, jackets,
petticoats, and men’s shirts. Note: In runaway
advertisements the word “cloth” generally means
woolen cloth.
Silk: Silk is beautiful to behold, impractical, and
best used in small doses if you are a reenactor. If
you intend to use silk for clothing construction
the recommended silk is taffeta (both solid color
and changeable). 18th century silk did not have
the slubs (the little raised imperfections) that most
modern silk has (eg, dupioni silks). Fine silk
Persian could be used for handkerchiefs and
stocks. Note that silk gowns and suits were usually
made entirely from the same fabric. That is, a
woman would wear a gown/jacket and petticoat
made of the same identical fabric. Men would
wear breeches, waistcoat, and frock coat also
made of the same fabric.
Cotton: Cotton is by far the trickiest fabric to get
right and is generally best avoided. Cotton is
often referred to in runaway advertisements as
“calico” or “chintz”. These terms describe the
place of origin as well as whether the pattern is
woven or printed. As with silk, cotton gowns and
jackets were worn with petticoats of the same
material.
Fabric patterns were mostly woven in the 18th century
with the exception of some cottons. Common patterns
[ 67 ]


include balanced stripes, checks, and simple plaids (called
crossbarred fabric).
Cotton patterns could be woven or printed as is the case
with Indian Chintz. Patterned cotton is best avoided until
extensive personal research and documentation has been
completed. Authentic prints are extremely hard to find
and all but a select few modern prints are appropriate for
reenactments.
98

Most reenactors do not have an extensive 18th century
wardrobe, nor do they have an excess of time and money
to create a completely new outfit for each event. Also, if
we are trying to recreate the past as closely as possible we
know that the men and women who followed the army
did not have extensive wardrobe’s either. Yet we get tired
of wearing the same things over and over.
One way to relieve wardrobe boredom is through the use
of lower cost items that personalize a persona or outfit.
For women these things can include handkerchiefs,
stockings, aprons, or hats/bonnets. For men these things
can include handkerchiefs/stocks, stockings, buttons, or
hats. A different petticoat or stomacher can change the
entire look of a gown. A new waistcoat can change the
entire look of a suit. If you are a woman who usually
wears a straw hat put a new ribbon on it or try a bonnet.
Small details can give new life to the same tired outfit.

98
Note: For some fabric suggestions see: Textile Sample Book (1771).
British. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Accession Number 156.4
T31. Retrieved from
http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/view?exhibitionId=%7b0
63A1AA2-5A4E-439A-A332-
046E00E8BD73%7d&oid=212227&pg=6&rpp=20&pos=116&ft=
*&img=0
[ 68 ]


Runaway slaves and servants are usually thought of with
regards to the Civil War but there were, of course, slaves
and servants in America much earlier than that. These
advertisements are incredibly descriptive and one can
glean information about the servant or slave’s wardrobe,
family, and the master’s finances.
Runaway advertisements can usually be broken down into
four parts:
Month/day and location of runaway’s
disappearance
Physical description
“Had on” and “took with”
Price of return and subscriber
Again, whether or not some of these items were stolen or
were owned outright by the runaway is in question.
However, these are usually the best descriptions available
for common clothing and can be easily narrowed down to
a specific region.
Good sources of runaway ads include:
Costa, T. (2005). The Geography of Slavery in
Virginia. Retrieved from
http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/gos/. 1736 – 1790.
Costa, T. (2002). Virginia Runaways Project.
Retrieved from
http://people.uvawise.edu/runaways/about.html
Huesken, S & Mullian, K. (1995). Had On And
Took With Her Clothing in Female Runaway
Servant Advertisements From the Pennsylvania
Evening Post Later the Pennsylvania Evening
Post and Daily Advertiser as Published By
[ 69 ]


Benjamin Towne of Philadelphia Between 1775
and 1784.
Howard, B. (1996). Had on and Took with Him:
Runaway Indentured Servant Clothing in
Virginia, 1774-1778. Dissertation. Retrieved from
anthropology.tamu.edu/papers/Howard-
PhD1996.pdf
Colonial Williamsburg Digital Library. Virginia
Gazettes. Retrieved from
http://research.history.org/DigitalLibrary.cfm
Art is an extremely valuable tool as it gives the researcher
a visual image of how people dressed, the colors they
preferred, and how they accessorized. There are three
types of art that are particularly useful to reenactors:
paintings, fashion plates, and satires. Each has its own
merits and disadvantages. When using art always keep in
mind that these are not photographs and do not give an
indisputable snapshot of a moment in time.
Commissioned portraits generally depict people as they
want to be portrayed. For example, Charles Jervas’
Catherine Douglass Duchess of Queensbury as a
Milkmaid (1725-30)
(http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw051
82/Catherine-Douglas-ne-Hyde-Duchess-of-Queensberry)
depicts the Duchess as a simple (yet incredibly well
dressed) milkmaid as was the fashion of the time.
Madame du Pompadour, on the other hand, was most
often depicted in situations of wealth, leisure, and power.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fran%C3%A7ois_Bouc
her_019_(Madame_de_Pompadour).jpg) Because these
stylized portraits are not depictions of real life, some care
must be exercised in using them for living history
purposes.
[ 70 ]


Other paintings, such as Henry Walton’s Plucking the
Turkey (1770s)
(http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/walton-plucking-the-
turkey-n02870), depict people just as they were. In this
painting, a young woman is portrayed in a simple
environment, wearing working clothes that are
presumably linen, and accomplishing a menial task. The
young woman is also wearing a polka dotted bedgown
which makes this painting all the more fun! These
“common” paintings are much more useful to our
purposes.
18th century artists include:
Thomas Gainsborough (British 1727-1788)
John Singleton Copley (American 1738-1815)
George Romney (British 1734-1802)
William Hogarth (British 1697 - 1764)
George Stubbs (British 1724-1806)
John Collet (British 1725-1780)
Paul Sandby (British 1731-1809)
Francis Wheatley (British 1747-1801)
Benjamin West (American 1738-1820)
John Trumbull (American 1756-1843)
Charles Willson Peale (American 1741-1827)
James Peale (American 1749-1831)
Ralph Earl (American 1751-1801)
Fashion plates are similar to portraits in the fact that they
depict an ideal. Fashion plates are simply the historical
version of Vogue
99
. A fashion plate’s sole mission is to
depict the latest in high fashion and the life a woman
wants to lead. If a reenactor is portraying a camp follower
she should not look like a fashion plate. However there

99
Haidt, R. (2003) A Well Dressed Woman Who Will Not Work:
Petimetras, Economics, and Eighteenth-Century Fashion Plates.
Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos, 28(1), 137-157.
[ 71 ]


might be a couple components of her kit that would be
fashionable such as a special handkerchief.
is the major fashion plate publication of the 18th
century. Many of these plates can be found on the Most
Beguiling Accomplishment Blog at http://mimic-of-
modes.blogspot.com/ .
Satires, or caricatures, can also be a source of clothing
information. Satires tend to exaggerate those things which
are important to the masses. In the words of Mary Darly,
affectionately called the Mother of Pictorial Satire,
“Caricature is the burlesque of Character, or an
exaggeration of nature, when not very pleasing…”
100
These
prints can give some indication about what people wore
and how it was perceived. Obviously, clothing in satires
should not be taken literally, but should be tempered with
sense. The Lewis Walpole Library, a Yale collection, is a
wonderful place to find satires
(http://images.library.yale.edu/walpoleweb/default.asp)
In 1737 the Foundling Hospital in London was petitioned
to the king by Thomas Coram. In 2010, nearly 300 years
later, the Foundling Hospital Museum opened an exhibit
of the billet books curated by John Styles, the author of
.
When a child was brought to the foundling hospital they
were given a new name and new clothes. A piece of their
old garment, called a token, was cut and placed in the
billet along with a description of the fabric and of the
child. The remainder of the garment would be sent home
with the family. If the family’s fortune improved they
could bring the garment to the hospital which, along with
the billet number, could be traced to the correct child.

100
Bryant, M. (2007). The Mother of Pictorial Satire. History Today.
57(4), 58-59.
[ 72 ]


Families could also leave other tokens such as jewelry or
small tools.
These billet books are one of the few sources that are still
available today that show a broad range of original fabrics
and their descriptions. Unfortunately these items aren’t
easily accessible unless you were fortunate enough to see
the exhibit in Colonial Williamsburg. There is a website,
however, that allows you to view many of these fabrics
online. (http://www.threadsoffeeling.com/)
Unfortunately, artifacts do not have the online presence
that written sources and art have. Four of the best online
collections of artifacts are;
Metropolitan Museum of Art
(http://www.metmuseum.org/)
Victoria and Albert Museum
(http://www.vam.ac.uk/)
Colonial Williamsburg eMuseum
(http://emuseum.history.org/ )
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
(http://collections.lacma.org).
[ 73 ]


inute attention to detail may seem nit-picky.
A person obsessed with the wrong trim, a
cuff that’s too big, or someone wearing a
closed front gown when she should be
wearing a stomacher front is often labeled a “thread
counter”. Many people say it doesn’t matter, no one will
notice anyways. And indeed, it is not life or death and
most people will not, in fact, notice. The catch is that it’s
just incorrect. It’s akin to seeing an iPhone 5 (which was
originally released in 2012) in a 2011 movie. It’s like
wearing 1980s clothing in a movie about the 1970s. It’s
wrong.
In fact, some events (especially in New England) are
juried and have very specific guidelines for participants.
This is not meant to be exclusive, make life harder on
people, or be arrogant and snooty. It is meant to push the
participants closer to 18th century reality and to get them
to work together and share information in an effort to
achieve that goal. (See at the end of
this section for more information about these events, their
standards, and how they suggest achieving the standards.)
Every single reenactor out there has things that must be
improved upon, from not-quite-right fabric to the hidden
but machine sewn seam. Concessions must constantly be
made because there are questions not answered and
things that simply do not exist anymore. There is also the
fact that this is a hobby and real life often gets in the way
of good intentions. However, armed with documentation
and a plan each reenactor can take baby steps to slowly
achieve that ever elusive perfection. You will look more
genuine and it may even be fun!
Some ideas:
[ 74 ]


Dress children (under ~8 years old for boys and
under ~12 years old for girls) as children, not
mini adults.
Carry a one page list of links and art that
document your clothing
Hand sew all your clothing
Wear more gowns (for women) and frock coats
(for men)
http://www.thehiveonline.org/challenge.htm
The Challenge began in 2012 and was not a reenactment
as much as it was a juried event. Each person was to
choose a persona and dress, accessorize, and act as
appropriate. Documentation on clothing and persona
were to be carried on ones person during the event. The
main standards, as well as specific standards for men and
women can be found at the above link. An after action
report of sorts can be found on The Buzz at the Hive
blog (http://thebuzzatthehive.blogspot.com/2012/08/the-
challenges-of-challenge.html)
http://www.18cnewenglandlife.org/
Battle Road is an event that commemorates the battles of
Lexington and Concord. This is a militia event with high
clothing standards, causing issues for participating units
who only have regimental uniforms. The above link gives
civilian clothing standards for this event, as well as some
good tips for clothing when you’re a little short or long on
time, money, and skill.
[ 75 ]


Alt, B & Stone, B. (1991). Campfollowing: A History of
the Military Wife. Praeger Publishers.
Blumenthal, W. (1988). Women Camp Followers of
American Revolution. Ayer Company, Publishers,
Inc.
Mayer, H. (1996). Belonging to the Army: Camp
Followers and Community during the American
Revolution. University of South Carolina Press.
Ward, H. (1999). The War for Independence and the
Transformation of American Society: War and
Society in the United States, 1775-83. University
College London Press.
Arnold, J. (1977). Patterns of Fashion 1 (1660-1869).
Macmillan Publishers, Ltd. London.
Baumgarten, L. (2002). What Clothes Reveal: The
Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal
America. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
Baumgarten, L. (1986). Eighteenth-Century Clothing at
Williamsburg. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
Baumgarten, L & Watson, J. (1999). Costume Close-Up:
Clothing Construction and Pattern, 1750-1790.
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
[ 76 ]


Burnston, S. & Scurlock, L. (2000). Fitting & Proper.
Scurlock Pub Co. (Currently out of print)
Costa, T. (2005). The Geography of Slavery in Virginia.
This is a Runaway Advertisement Database.
http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/gos/index.html.
Crill, R. (2008). Chintz: Indian Textiles for the West.
V&A Publishing. London.
Fuss, N. (2005). Death Head Buttons: Their Use and
Construction. Burnley & Trowbridge Co.
Williamsburg,VA.
Hart, A. & North, S. (1998). Seventeenth and Eighteenth-
Century Fashion in Detail: The 17th and 18th
Centuries. V & A Publishing. London.
Huesken, S & Mullian, K. (1995). Had On And Took
With Her Clothing in Female Runaway Servant
Advertisements From the Pennsylvania Evening Post
Later the Pennsylvania Evening Post and Daily
Advertiser as Published By Benjamin Towne of
Philadelphia Between 1775 and 1784. SK Research,
Palmyra, New Jersey. (Out of Print)
Riley, M. (2002). Whatever Shall I Wear? A Guide to
Assembling a Woman’s Basic 18th Century
Wardrobe. Graphics/Fine Arts Press.
Styles, J. (2007). The Dress of the People: Everyday
Fashion in Eighteenth-Century England. Yale
University Press.
Textile Sample Book (1771). British. Metropolitan
Museum of Art, Accession Number 156.4 T31.
[ 77 ]


Retrieved from
http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/view?exhibiti
onId=%7b063A1AA2-5A4E-439A-A332-
046E00E8BD73%7d&oid=212227&pg=6&rpp=20&p
os=116&ft=*&img=0
Waugh, N. (1968). The Cut of Women’s Clothes: 1600-
1930. Routledge. New York, NY.
Waugh, N. (1987). The Cut of Men’s Clothes: 1600-
1900. Routledge. New York, NY.
An American Woman (Esther Reed). (1780). Sentiments
of An American Woman.
Johnson, C. (1995). Who Was I? Creating a Living
History Persona. Graphics/Fine Arts Press.
Bishop, C. (2008). Schwalm Embroidery: Techniques
and Designs. Sally Milner Publishing Pty, Ltd. Binda,
NSW..
Kannick, K. (2010). The Ladies Guide to Plain Sewing,
Book I. Kannik’s Korner. Springfield, OH.
Kannick, K. (1997). The Ladies Guide to Plain Sewing,
Book II. Kannik’s Korner. Springfield, OH.
Kannick, K. (2003). The Workman’s Guide to Tailoring
Stitches and Techniques. Kannik’s Korner.
Springfield, OH.
[ 78 ]


Marsh, G. (2006). 18th Century Embroidery Techniques.
Guild of Master Craftsmen Publications, Ltd. East
Sussex.
Lynn, E. (2010). Underwear: Fashion in Detail. V & A
Publishing. London.
Salen, J. (2008). Corsets: Historical Patterns &
Techniques. Costume & Fashion Press. Hollywood.
Waugh, N. (1990). Corsets and Crinolines. Routledge.
New York, NY.
Tully, M. (1999). The Packet, Being a Collection of
Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining to the
American Revolution, I. Ballindallock Press,
Baraboo, WI..
Tully, M. (2000). The Packet II, Being Another
Collection of Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining
to the American Revolution. Ballindallock Press,
Baraboo, WI.
Tully, M. (2003). The Packet III, Being Yet Another
Collection of Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining
to the American Revolution. Ballindallock Press,
Baraboo, WI.
Tully, M. (2006). The Packet IV, Being One More
Collection of Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining
to the American Revolution. Ballindallock Press,
Baraboo, WI.
[ 79 ]


Tully, M. (2010). The Packet V, Being One More
Collection of Patterns, Articles and Essays Pertaining
to the American Revolution. Ballindallock Press,
Baraboo, WI.
Note: Buyer beware! Most of these websites were
specifically chosen due to their authenticity and because
they are reenactors serving reenactors. However, not
every item on every site is appropriate for a camp follower
impression or even for the Revolutionary War period. It
is always advisable to avoid buying blindly from sutlers
even if they are established reenactors. Do your research
beforehand and make sure you are spending money on
something authentic. For fabric always ensure that you are
buying 100% natural fibers and that the fabric is a weave
and color appropriate to the 18th century. Please read
notes associated with each website and ask the Distaff
Coordinator if you have any questions.
96 District Fabrics
(http://www.96storehouse.com/Home/tabid/36/List/1/Def
ault.aspx) 96 District Fabrics has a decent selection of
historically accurate fabrics for the 18th and 19th century.
If you buy from them make sure you are buying 100%
natural fibers, as well as avoiding the 19th century fabrics.
Burnley and Trowbridge
(http://www.burnleyandtrowbridge.com/) Burnley and
Trowbridge is a Williamsburg based sutler that caters to
the 18th and early 19th centuries. They carry fabrics,
notions, accessories, and shoes. They are both incredibly
knowledgeable and helpful for those with questions.
Decorative Silk
(http://www.decorativesilk.com//Scripts/default.asp)
[ 80 ]


Decorative Silk is a good source for 100% silk taffeta
ONLY. Check that fabric is 100% silk before buying.
Embroidered silk is NOT appropriate.
Denver Fabrics (http://www.denverfabrics.com/) Denver
Fabrics has wonderful deals on wools and linens. Read
fabric description to ensure that you are buying 100%
natural fibers and a color and weave appropriate to the
18th century.
Fabric_ Store (http://www.fabrics-store.com/)
Fabric_Store carries reasonably priced linens of various
weights. Stick to the solid colors and stripes. Some of
their checks may also be appropriate if the pattern can be
found in extant clothing. Note: Do NOT use IL030 for
shifts and caps. This is not an appropriate fabric for the
18th century as the weight is achieved by weaving the
fibers very loosely. Use IL020 instead.
Gray Line Linen (http://www.graylinelinen.com/) Their
Barry Linen, Warsa linen, and Handkerchief linen are
appropriate.
Liberty Linens (http://www.libertylinens.com/) Liberty
Linens sells appropriate linens and wools.
Renaissance Fabrics (http://www.renaissancefabrics.net/)
Renaissance Fabrics has a moderate selection of wools,
linens, and silks for various time periods. Ensure that you
are buying 18th century appropriate fabrics.
Silly Sisters (http://www.sillysisters.com/offerings.htm)
Silly Sisters is a Virginia based sutler that carries excellent
stays kits as well as premade clothing. The majority of
their clothing is authentic; however there are some
exceptions so buy intelligently.
[ 81 ]


Wm. Booth Draper
(http://www.wmboothdraper.com/store/) Wm. Booth
Draper is a Wisconsin based sutler who sells quality
fabric and notions for the 1700s and early 1800s.
Burnley and Trowbridge
(http://www.burnleyandtrowbridge.com/) Burnley and
Trowbridge is a Williamsburg based sutler that caters to
the 18th and early 19th centuries. They carry fabrics,
notions, accessories, and shoes.
Cathy Johnson Miniatures and Scrimshaw
(http://www.cathyjohnson.info/special.html) Cathy
Johnson is a wonderful artist who recreates both painted
and scrimshaw miniatures.
Cocked Hats (http://cockedhats.com/Products.php). This
is a resource for 18th century hats and cockades.
Fugawee Shoes (http://www.fugawee.com/) Fugawee sells
historical reproduction shoes for men and women.
Products include reproduction 18th and 18th century
shoes (made in a traditional way) and buckles.
G. Gedney Godwin (http://www.gggodwin.com). Godwin
carries sundry items including weapons supplies, medical
supplies and musical instruments. Note: Some of these
supplies are for the Civil War so proceed with caution.
The authenticity of their clothing is uncertain.
Najecki (http://www.najecki.com/repro/reproindex.html)
Although Najecki Reproductions caters more toward the
soldiers, there are some items for civilians including wool,
buttons, clasps, etc. Note: Najecki does not accept orders
online. Order forms must be printed and mailed.
[ 82 ]


Old Dominion Forge
(http://www.olddominionforge.com/) Old Dominion
Forge sells sundry items including cutlery, powder horns,
and coins. It is recommended that you do research on
your particular persona before blindly purchasing articles
from them.
Robert Land Footwear Ltd.
(http://www.robertlandhistoricshoes.com/servlet/StoreFro
nt) Robert Land sells 18th century men’s shoes and boots
and buckles. Note: These shoes are made personally by
Robert Land and as such may be backordered.
Sarah Juniper (http://www.sarahjuniper.co.uk/) Sarah
Juniper is a Gloucestershire based shoemaker whose
offerings are incredible enough to reduce both men and
women to tears. Her prices, however, are a bit of a
stretch.
Wm. Booth Draper
(http://www.wmboothdraper.com/store/) Wm. Booth
Draper is a Wisconsin based sutler who sells quality
fabric and notions for the 1700s and early 1800s.
Note: Use patterns with caution. These patterns were
chosen because they are the closest to authentic clothing.
These are not 100% correct, however, and may not be
appropriate to your specific persona. If possible, take the
classes offered by Burnley and Trowbridge
(http://www.burnleyandtrowbridge.com/thehistoricfashion
workshopseries.aspx). These classes are presented by the
tailors and mantua makers of Colonial Williamsburg, will
un-train you from modern sewing techniques, and will
demystify 18th clothing construction.
[ 83 ]


At the Sign of the Golden Scissors
(http://atthesignofthegoldenscissors.com/) This is a newer
website established by Hallie Larkin, a long time New
England reenactor. She now sells some self-made patterns
based of extant clothing, clothing kits, and a few pre made
clothing items. She takes a unique approach to historical
patterns by not giving instructions for modern clothing
construction and extensively explaining how to do it the
historical way. If you cannot take the Burnley and
Trowbridge classes, these patterns are the next best thing.
Most of her patterns are staple items (eg, shirt and shift)
or harder to find patterns such as bonnets and mitts.
JP Ryan, (http://www.jpryan.com/) JP Ryan sells good
beginner patterns that produce relatively authentic
garments using modern methods. Includes patterns for
both men and women.
Kannik’s Korner
(http://www.kannikskorner.com/patcat.htm) Kannick’s
Korner sells patterns for approximately 1730 through
1830. This website includes patterns for men and women
as well as children and infants. Note: Some patterns
(especially the caps and bonnet patterns) span several
years within a single pattern. Ensure that the specifics are
appropriate to the Revolutionary War time period.
Mara Riley (http://marariley.net/patterns.htm) Mara Riley
sells knitted hand wear and headwear digital patterns at a
reasonable price. If you buy through her you must use
PayPal and pay close attention to each page. It’s easy to
miss the link to download the digital pattern. Wm. Booth
Draper also sells these patterns if you’d prefer to go
through them.
[ 84 ]


Reconstructing History
(http://www.reconstructinghistory.com/) Reconstructing
History has well researched, moderately accurate clothing
patterns for both men and women across the centuries.
These patterns are relatively simple for the beginner using
modern sewing methods. Now has downloadable patterns
for the 18th century!
Dobyns and Martin, Grocers at the Sign of the Sugar Loaf
(http://www.dobynsandmartin.com/index.html) This
sutler carries foodway items.
18th Century Notebook (http://larsdatter.com/18c/) This
is a collection of links to art based and extant garments
and accessories. Note: Some of the links on this website
are no longer active.
The Hive Online
(http://www.thehiveonline.org/index.htm ) The Hive is a
Massachusetts based group of reenactors which provides
research and workshops for 18th century reenactors.
Mara Riley (http://marariley.net/) Mara Riley specializes
mostly in 18th century Scottish clothing, however she also
has articles of interest on other topics such as knitting,
shortgowns, textiles, etc.)
Sharon Burnston (http://www.sharonburnston.com/) Ms.
Burnston is a New England based matriarch of
reenacting. Her website is home to a plethora of
interesting and well documented information on clothing
for women and children.
[ 85 ]


Colonial Williamsburg. (2013). Virginia Gazette.
Retrieved from
(http://research.history.org/DigitalLibrary/VirginiaGazette
/VGbyYear.cfm). This is a website with full copies of the
Virginia Gazette from 1736 to 1780.
Founders Online. Retrieved from
(http://founders.archives.gov/). A National Archives site
providing documents from early America, including
diaries and letters.
Library of Congress. American Memory.
(http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html). Contains
historical documents of varying kinds. The George
Washington Papers at the Library of Congress: 1741-
1799
(http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwhome.html)
are particularly worth looking through.
Threads of Feeling (www.threadsoffeeling.com/ ) This
website is an online exhibition of the Threads of Feeling
exhibit curated by John Styles. Here you will find just over
fifty pictures of cloth from London’s Foundling Hospital
billet books.
Amazon. (http://www.amazon.com/). Often carries
reprints of 18th century books. Also is a good source for
out of print books that are being resold by owners.
eBay. (http://www.ebay.com/). A good source for hard to
find, out of print, or used books. Requires a PayPal
account.
Google Books. (http://books.google.com/). A good place
to find a selection of free and low cost eBooks.
[ 86 ]


Internet Archive. (https://archive.org/). A free internet
library of eBooks, audio recordings, and other media
types. While not all inclusive, there is a decent selection
of 18th century related materials including primary
documents.
Kings Arms Press (http://www.kingspress.com/)
Specializes in fine reprints of 18th century books and
pamphlets. They carry mostly military books but they do
carry some civilian books and pamphlets as well.
MET Publications.
(http://www.metmuseum.org/metpublications) MET
Publications is a database of art based books provided by
the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Many of these books
are available as free downloads.
Revolutionary Imprints.
(http://revolutionaryimprints.com/). This is a good source
of Revolutionary War primary sources of various kinds.
These sources are on purchasable CDs.
University of Wisconsin Digital Collection. Digital
Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture.
Retrieved from
(http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/DLDecArts/Browse.html).
Includes various books about decorative and material
culture from the 17th century through the 19th century.
Note: Online museum collections can be difficult and
frustrating to navigate. Often articles must be searched for
using specific keywords preventing a user from finding a
record. Other times a broad search term can produce
thousands of results. However, the records are there it
just requires time and patience to find them, even for
experienced researchers.
[ 87 ]


Los Angeles County Museum of Art
(http://collections.lacma.org). A very colorful collection of
objects and clothing from the past.
Lewis Walpole Library Digital Collection.
(http://images.library.yale.edu/walpoleweb/default.asp)
This is a digital collection created by Yale University.
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
(http://www.metmuseum.org/). Users can search by
keyword, as well as narrow online collections down by
date and provenance.
National Gallery of Art.
(http://www.nga.gov/collection/index.shtm). A Collection
of thousands of works of art through history. Includes
paintings, drawings, and artifacts.
National Gallery of the United Kingdom.
(http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/explore-the-
paintings/browse-by-
century/*/Module%5B495%5D%5BchooseSecond%5D/
1700/) Allows users to browse by century/decade and
artist.
National Portrait Gallery.
(http://www.npg.org.uk/collections.php) Allows users to
browse by artist as well as other categories such as period,
family tree, etc.
Sphinx Fine Art. (http://www.sphinxfineart.com/) This is a
London based fine art exhibition space. User can browse
by artist, provenance, and specific exhibitions.
Victoria and Albert Museum. (http://www.vam.ac.uk/).
V&A Museum allows you to search and browse
collections.
[ 88 ]


Web Gallery of Art. (http://www.wga.hu/index.html)
Users can search or browse by artist.
Williamsburg eMuseum. (http://emuseum.history.org/).
This website gives visual access to a cross section of
articles that can be found in person at Colonial
Williamsburg.
Yale Center for British Art. (http://britishart.yale.edu/)
Users must search for online content. Go to “Collections”
then click on “Search” on the right side of the page.
Note: Although blogs generally should not be used as
authoritative research sources, the following blogs have
well researched information and often post pictures of
extant garments. These ladies are for the most part
museum professionals and reenactors.
Before the Automobile.
(http://augustintytar.blogspot.com/). Included here less for
research purposes and more for inspiration. A Finnish
woman with sewing skills that will make many a
seamstress feel inadequate. She mostly makes simple yet
elegant clothing.
Bullat, S. The Couture Courtesan.
(http://couturecourtesan.blogspot.com) Samantha is an
18th and 19th century reenactor. She recently interned at
the milliner shop at Colonial Williamsburg.
Colonial Williamsburg. Historic Foodways.
(http://whatsnew.history.org/topics/historic-foodways/).
18th century foodways written by Williamsburg staff using
original recipes, modified for modern kitchens.
[ 89 ]


Drunktailor. (http://drunktailor.blogspot.com/). For the
men: DC based self-taught tailor who specializes in 18th
and 19th century lower class and military clothing.
Fifield. B. The Still Room: Tales and Snippets for
Preservation, Pickling, and Distillation.
(http://thestillroomblog.com/) Becky Fifield is a museum
collections manager in New York City. Although this blog
is not 18th century centric, a search for “18th century” in
the search box will result in some very interesting
information.
Hyaline Prosaic: Living and Stitching History.
(http://hyalineprosaic.blogspot.com/) Non-professional
reenactor with a baby. Often has good information on
combining small children with reenacting.
Kitty Calash. Kitty Calash: Confessions of a Known
Bonnet-Wearer. (http://kittycalash.com/). Note:
Reenactor and museum professional who not only makes
her own clothes, but also military clothing for her
husband and son. Dabbles in late 18th

century and early
19th century as well as Revolutionary War. Very versed in
documenting clothing.
Ladies of Refined Taste. The Buzz at the Hive.
(http://thebuzzatthehive.blogspot.com/) The Hive is a
New England based series of programs, lectures, and
workshops for reenactors. This group strives to be
authentic down to the very last detail.
Larkin, H. At the Sign of the Golden Scissors.
(http://thegoldenscissors.blogspot.com/). New England
reenacting matriarch and founding member of the Ladies
of Refined Taste, the group that sponsors “The Hive”.
Pictures of extant garments as well as discussion and
examination of them.
[ 90 ]


Larkin, H. 18th Century Stays.
(http://18thcstays.blogspot.com/) Another Hallie Larkin
blog, this time revolving around stays and foundation
garments.
Smith-Kizer, C. 18th Century Cuisine.
(http://18thccuisine.blogspot.com/) This is a blog of 18th
century French cooking. Included here because there is
some very interesting information on 18th century
foodways on the blog. Keep in mind, however, that it is
French and should not be used for a British/American
impression without proper documentation.
Sew 18th Century. (http://www.sew18thcentury.com/).
New England reenactor. Also has a child who she makes
clothes for. Just starting to branch out in the early 19th
century.
Stay-ing Alive (http://stay-ingalive.blogspot.com/) Abby is
now a Millinery/Mantua-Maker apprentice at Margaret
Hunter Millinery Shop in Colonial Williamsburg. Her
blog is on hold while she works.
[ 91 ]


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Retrieved from http://larsdatter.com/18c/toys.html.
(1777). Abstracts of the Returns Made by the Overseers
of the Poor. London.
Bolton, C. (1902). The Private Soldier Under George
Washington.
British Parliament. (1764). The Currency Act. Retrieved
from
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/curency_act_
1764.asp.
Bryant, M. (2007). The Mother of Pictorial Satire.
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Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). Letter from G.
Washington. Retrieved from
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-
intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-
monographs/intelligence/letter.html.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). Revolutionary War,
Kids Zone. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/kids-
page/6-12th-grade/operation-history/revolutionary-
war.html.
Coin Mill (2013) Retrieved from
http://coinmill.com/GBP_USD.html#GBP=8910000.
Collier, M. (1739). The Woman’s Labour: An Epistle to
Mr. Stephen Duck; in Answer to His Late Poem,
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Costa, T. (2005). The Geography of Slavery in Virginia.
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Culper, S. (1779) Samuel Culper to John Bolton, August
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Cuthberson, B. (1776). Cuthberton’s System for the
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Dixon & Hunter. (13 December 1776). The Virginia
Gazette. Virginia. Retrieved from
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Feltman, W. (1853). The Journal of LT. William
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Yorktown. Philadelphia.
The Foundling Hospital. (2011). Thomas Coram and the
Foundling Hospital. Retrieved from
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foundling-hospital-collection/thomas-coram-and-the-
foundling-hospital/.
Glasse, H. (N.d.). The Servant’s Directory, or House-
keeper’s Companion. Eighteenth Century Collections
Online Print Edition. London.
Global Price and Income History Group (2006). Prices
and wages in Chesapeak, 1733-1827. Retrieved from
http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/data.php#unitedstates.
Haidt, R. (2003) A Well Dressed Woman Who Will Not
Work: Petimetras, Economics, and Eighteenth-
Century Fashion Plates. Revista Canadiense de
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Hamrick, M. (2006). Williamsburg Manufactory, Revised
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Hanna, J. (1844). A History of the Life of Captain Samuel
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Headley, J. (1864). The Chaplains and Clergy of the
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Knox, H. (1781). Return of the music of the army and the
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sicians_at_george_washington.html.
Library of Congress. Religion and the Founding of the
American Republic. Retrieved from
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/religion.html.
Linn, J & Egle, W. (1880) Pennsylvania in the War of the
Revolution, Battalions and Line, 1775-1783. Vol II.
Lane S. Haht, State Printer, Harrisburg PA.
Manthey, D. (2001-2002). 18th Century Ligatures and
Fonts. Retrieved from
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Mayer, H. (1996). Belonging to the Army: Camp
followers and Community during the American
Revolution. University of South Carolina Press.
McCartney, M. (2000) Richman, Poorman, Beggarman,
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Colonial Williamsburg Journal. Retrieved from
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Measuring Worth. (2014). Retrieved from
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Memorial Hall Museum Online. (N.d.). Child’s Stays,
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collections/84402?img=1
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Microsoft. (2014). Print a Folded Booklet. Retrieved
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Newell, J. (1996). A Brief Account of Religion and the
Revolutionary War Chaplaincy: Part 2. Continental
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(1779) The Orderly Book of the Seventh Penn’a
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