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Document Title: Guideline for the use of Level

Measuring Instruments


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i Document Authorisation
Authorised For Issue September 2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Summary ....................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................6
2 General Design Requirements ...............................................................................................7
2.1 Instrument Selection .........................................................................................................7
2.2 Accuracy ...........................................................................................................................7
2.3 Location and Orientation ...................................................................................................7
2.4 Level Measurement for Safeguarding Application ............................................................7
2.5 Electrical............................................................................................................................8
3 Differential Pressure Level Transmitters ................................................................................9
3.1 General .............................................................................................................................9
3.2 Application ........................................................................................................................9
3.3 Calibration ...................................................................................................................... 10
3.4 Transmitters ................................................................................................................... 10
3.5 Installation ...................................................................................................................... 10
3.6 Process Connection ....................................................................................................... 11
4 Guided wave Radar Level Transmitters .............................................................................. 12
4.1 GWR Applications .......................................................................................................... 12
4.2 Guidelines for GWR Level Instrument Selection ........................................................... 12
4.3 Interface Level Measurement ........................................................................................ 12
4.4 GWR Mounting, Materials and Connections .................................................................. 13
4.5 GWR Transmitter ........................................................................................................... 13
5 Displacement Level Transmitters ........................................................................................ 15
5.1 Application ..................................................................................................................... 15
5.2 External Displacement Level Transmitters .................................................................... 15
5.3 Internal Displacement Level Transmitters ..................................................................... 16
6 Capacitance Level Transmitters .......................................................................................... 17
6.1 Application ..................................................................................................................... 17
6.2 Installation ...................................................................................................................... 17
7 Radioactive Level Transmitters ........................................................................................... 18
7.1 Application ..................................................................................................................... 18
7.2 Installation ...................................................................................................................... 18
7.3 Transmitters ................................................................................................................... 19
8 Ultrasonic Level transmitters ............................................................................................... 20
8.1 Application ..................................................................................................................... 20
8.2 Installation ...................................................................................................................... 20
9 Sight Level Glasses ............................................................................................................. 21
10 Magnetic Level Gauges ................................................................................................. 22
Appendix 1 GWR Probe Selection Chart ................................................................................. 23
Appendix 2 Selection Guidelines for Level Instruments .......................................................... 25
Appendix 3 Template Datasheet for GWR Type Level Instrument.......................................... 26


Introduction
This standard prescribes minimum mandatory requirements governing the design of
process level measurement, in order to support optimal and cost effective use of the
assets in line with PDO's Corporate Objectives and General Operating Philosophy.
General Design Requirements
All level measurement components and systems shall be suitable for continuous
operation in desert environmental conditions.
Level measurement shall be represented in percentage on Human Machine Interface.
To measure the level inside equipment over a particular range, various types of
instruments are available.
Depending on the process conditions, the following techniques may be applied:
- Differential pressure type instruments (with or without remote diaphragm seals);
- Capacitance and admittance type instruments;
- Guided wave radar, microwave and ultrasonic type instruments;
- Radioactive type instruments;
- Magnetostrictive type;
- Displacer type instruments.
Instrument Selection
This Standard is not intended to be an exclusive listing of types of level instruments.
When engineering considerations so dictate and when not prohibited, other types may
be used. Selection of level instrument shall be from vendors listed in PDO PGSC.
Accuracy
Accuracy of level transmitter shall be as per DEP 32.31.00.32 depending on
application.
Location and Orientation
Local instruments shall be accessible at grade level or from a platform. Local level sight
gauges and magnetic level indicators shall be accessible from grade level, platform or
fixed ladder. Individual level instruments shall be connected directly to vessels and not
to inlet or outlet piping. Connections to process piping may be considered in exceptional
cases, such applications require approval by the C&A CFDH. The use of stand pipes in
level applications shall be avoided since it may introduce systematic measurement
errors as a result of density variations; such application requires approval by the C&A
CFDH.
All connections shall be free draining. Connections to the bottom of vessels shall be
avoided whenever possible. Local receiving instruments shall be installed 1.40 m above
grade.
Level Measurement for Safeguarding Application
ESD level inputs shall have separate process taps located at the same elevation as the
process control and monitoring transmitter taps. ESD level transmitters shall be
calibrated for the same range as the process control level transmitter and designed with
its own local level sight gauge and drain/vent valves.
Exceptions:
ESD Level transmitters may use the same process taps as the process control or
monitoring transmitters when the tap nozzle size is at least 2 inches, the process is
non-plugging and the common isolation valves on the tap nozzle are car sealed open.
In addition, ESD and process control level transmitters shall have independent isolation
valves and shall be calibrated for the same range. The ESD and process
control/monitoring level transmitters shall be designed with local level sight gauge and
their own drain/vent valves to allow independent isolation and calibration while the other
remains in service.
Multiple ESD Functions
A single transmitter may be used to provide both Low-Low (LL) and High-High (HH)
ESD input signals if that the transmitter's calibrated range spans both LL and HH trip
settings, and that it is acceptable to bypass both LL and HH inputs at the same time
when performing maintenance on the transmitter
Electrical
Electrical and electronic level instruments installed in hazardous areas shall meet the
hazardous area classification with certification by a body approved by ATEX/CENELEC.
Foundation Fieldbus level instruments shall meet the specific hazardous area
certification requirements of SP-1245
Level instruments which discharge energy directly into the process shall have their
sensor electronics certified for the electrical area classification inside the vessel.
All level transmitters shall be HART or Foundation Fieldbus microprocessor based
smart transmitters with integral indicators.
Differential Pressure Level Transmitters
General
Head measurement theory is based on measuring the downward force of the liquid
head. The downward force is based on the height of the liquid and its density. Typically
head measurement calculations use specific gravity, which is based on the density.
Because the specific gravity of water at standard conditions is 1.0, most head
measurements should be referenced to an equivalent head of water and should be
calibrated in inches or millimetres of water column (WC).
To determine the calibration of a head instrument, the height of the liquid should be
multiplied by the specific gravity. The head associated with the legs of a differential
pressure transmitter should also be accounted for. See Figure 1 for an example of the
calibration calculations of a differential pressure transmitter with filled legs.





SG=1.0



12 IN

HP LP
Figure 1: Calibration of differential pressure transmitter with filled legs

Low level head calculation:
If the level is at or below the bottom connection, the force on the high pressure leg (the
lower vessel nozzle) will see 12 inches X 1.0 = 12 inches WC. The low pressure leg
(the higher vessel nozzle) will see 112 inches X 1.0 = 112 inches WC.
The differential is 12 inches WC 112 inches WC = -100 inches WC
High level head calculation:
If the vessel is full, the force on the high pressure leg will be 12 inches X 1 + 100 inches
X 0.98 = 12 + 98 = 110 inches WC.
The low pressure side will see 112 inches X 1.0 = 112 inches WC.
The differential is 110 inches WC 112 inches WC = -2 inches WC.
Conclusion:
The transmitter shall be calibrated for -100 to -2 inches WC.
Application
For most applications differential pressure transmitters shall be used. Differential
pressure level transmitters may be used for process and ESD level and for liquid-liquid
interface level measurements. Transmitters with diaphragm seals and capillary are
recommended for closed tank with process fluids that are extremely viscous, containing
entrained solids or in hot service. Diaphragm seals shall be an integral part of the
instrument.
Where it is necessary to avoid plugging of the nozzle, the instrument shall have an
extended diaphragm flush with the inside of the equipment. The extended diaphragm
SG= 0.98



100 IN
LT
shall not be specified for instruments on equipment requiring mechanical cleaning. For
instruments with an extended diaphragm, the diameter of the extension shall allow free
passage in the nozzle. The use of extended diaphragm type instruments requires the
approval of the C&A CFDH.
Note: Where specific gravity varies, height measurement (e.g., radar, displacement,
float, or other technology) is preferred over differential pressure.
Calibration
The instruments shall be calibrated for the anticipated operating density of the liquid in
the vessel. The possible variations in liquid densities during normal or abnormal
operating conditions shall be investigated and recorded when level measurement
configurations using differential pressure type transmitters are designed.
Transmitters
The instrument shall have inch NPT process connections, a universal pipe mounting
bracket, a minimum body rating of 10,500 kPa (1,500 psig), and over range protection
that is equal to or better than the body pressure rating. Meter body and sensing element
isolation diaphragm material shall be minimum type 316 stainless steel. Hasteloy C and
Monel shall be used whenever process fluid compatibility demands such materials.
Diaphragm Seal Transmitters
Transmitter and Chemical Seal shall be assembled and calibrated at transmitter
manufacturing facility.
Chemical seal transmitters shall either be flush mounted or extended type as
indicated in data sheet.
The diaphragm seal size shall be selected to obtain the required instrument
accuracy. Typically, DN 80 or DN 100 diaphragm seals flanged to the required
ASME class should be used for level measurement.
Wherever specified the chemical seal shall be provided with the capillary. The
capillary material shall be of SS 316 with SS armouring, the capillary tubing
shall be welded directly onto both ends of the sensor. The length of the
capillary tubing shall suit the application but shall be at least 1 metre. For
differential pressure applications with two remote seals, the two parts of the
capillary tubing shall be of the same length. For DP Level applications direct
mount flange level transmitter on HP side and capillary on LP side is preferred.
The process connections shall be on the same side of the equipment.
Vendor shall analyse the temperature effects and response time in case of
diaphragm seal Transmitters and select seals, capillary and fill fluid carefully
and indicate response time in their offer.
The flushing ring shall be provided wherever indicated in the data sheet. The
material of construction shall be same as that of transmitter body, unless
specified.
Installation
For open tanks, only the connection of the high pressure process connection is
required. The low pressure connection of the instrument shall be protected from
the entry of the dust and other airborne contaminants. In all other cases, the
low-pressure connection shall be connected to the vapour space by means of a
reference leg. Depending on the arrangement, this reference leg is dry (filled
with gas) or wet (filled with a liquid).
Instruments in wet and dry leg service shall be mounted at or below the lower
vessel connection, preferably 1.4 m above grade level or operating platform.
A dry reference leg can be used where:
- self-purging occurs in equipment which is always at temperatures
below ambient temperature and contains liquids which will still fully
evaporate under all normal and abnormal operating pressures at the
lowest ambient temperature.
- external gas purging is allowed and a reliable source of suitable
non-condensing purge gas of sufficient pressure is available
(purging through the dry leg). This arrangement is vulnerable and
maintenance intensive and should only be used if alternatives are
less attractive.
A wet reference leg shall be used where the reference leg will fill
with process liquid when it condenses at the lowest ambient
temperature.
Two options are available for filling the wet reference leg:
- the process liquid: This method should be applied if the
process liquid is non-viscous, non-
corrosive and not very toxic and is self-
condensing under any normal and
abnormal operating pressure at the
highest ambient temperature.
- a sealing liquid: This method shall be applied in all other
cases.
On vessels subject to rapid changes in level, such as gas-oil separating
vessels, adjustable pulsation dampening in the transmitter or transmitter output
may be required to improve stability.
Differential pressure level transmitters in refrigerated LPG service shall be
installed above the process connections with dry pressure sensing legs. The
pressure sensing legs shall be sufficiently heated so that any fluid in the
sensing lines remains in a gaseous state at all times.
Process Connection
The process connection size for flange-mounted differential-pressure level instruments
shall have a size of DN 80, DN 100 or DN 150, dependent on the type of instrument
and flanged to the required ASME class. The connection shall be internally free from
burrs.
Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitters
GWR Applications
GWR level transmitter may be used for liquid level and liquid-liquid interface
level measurement technology for both process and ESD applications.
Large diameter coaxial type/single rod probes will be used for all suitable GWR
hydrocarbon applications.
Any dead zones on the wave guide probe shall be outside the operating range
of the application.
Flushing ports shall be provided for all wave guide probes based on process
application.
Non-contact radar should be considered for tanks in excess of 6 meter height.
Guidelines for GWR Level Instrument Selection
It is important to note that the key to successful application of this technology is the
choice of correct probe and engineering to meet the dynamics of the process. Following
important data shall be specified in datasheet to enable proper selection of GWR
probes:
a) Dielectric constant of the process liquid (generally all hydrocarbons are non-
conductive)
b) Process pressure and temperature
c) Viscosity and suspended solids, possibility of crystallisation, maximum particle
size etc.,
d) Possibility of coating & build-up
e) Possibility of foam formation
f) Agitation / turbulent conditions causing breaking forces
g) Advance overfills protection (required on external chamber mounted units,
underground sumps, etc.)
h) Installation of the instruments (top, side mounted, bypass stilling wells etc.,)
i) Disturbing EMC environment in tank
j) Cleaning of probe
Refer to Appendix-I for probe selection chart.
The following information shall also be indicated in the datasheet to enable proper
selection of GWR instruments:
a) Process connection & size
b) Nozzle height,
c) Orientation,
d) Tank internals
e) Cathodic protection etc.,
Interface Level Measurement
The following additional points should be considered for the use of GWR technology in
interface level measurements.
a) Lower dielectric fluid must be on top
b) Dielectric difference of two liquids must be at least 6
c) Upper dielectric must be known.
d) Maximum thickness of upper layer is dependent upon its dielectric
e) Target applications, low upper layer dielectric (<3) & high lower layer dielectric
(>20)
If above information is not provided/available with process, GWR should not be
specified for interface level measurement.
Note: If Emulsion layer is >= 150mm then consider DP cell type transmitter with
diaphragm and flushing ring connection for interface level measurement.
GWR may be recommended on a case by case basis for the following applications:
a) IPF applications up to SIL2 function for light crude, clean crude and condensate
applications. For IPF function of SIL>2 GWR instruments may be combined
with other proven technology.
b) Control & Monitoring of light crude, clean crude applications.
Use of GWR is not recommended for the following applications until further experience
and confidence is gained:
a) Equipments/vessels where sludge, sand, heavy crude deposits are expected.
b) Noisy environments typically flare gas knock out vessels due to higher gas
velocities.
c) IPF function of SIL>2
Note: CFDH C&A shall be consulted during the design for advice in the selection and
application of GWR technology for liquid interface level measurements.
GWR Mounting, Materials and Connections
GWR shall be designed so that transmitter electronics can be replaced or
removed for service while the process remains in service.
GWR wave guide probes shall be mounted such that they may be removed
while the process remains in-service. For pressurized process vessels, probes
shall be flange mounted in external bypass chambers.
GWR Bypass chamber material shall meet the requirements of the application,
and be steel construction minimum. Chamber connections shall be minimum 2
inch flanged on the top, bottom, or sides. Standpipes may be used for GWR
bypass chambers.
An associated local sight level gauge or magnetic indicator is required for all
GWR level transmitters installations to allow for process level verification and
calibration. Appropriate GWR process valving and connections shall be
provided for process isolation and for GWR calibration, venting, and filling.

GWR Transmitter
GWR shall be HART or Foundation Fieldbus based smart transmitters.
The transmitter shall include an integral indicator.
All software required to setup, calibrate or diagnose Foundation Fieldbus based
GWR transmitters must be accessible from the Host DCS maintenance works-
station. No direct 'guest' connections shall be made on the Fieldbus segment to
maintain GWR transmitters.
GWR transmitters installed in hazardous areas shall meet the hazardous area
classification with certification by a body approved by ATEX/CENELEC.
Foundation Fieldbus GWR transmitter shall meet the specific hazardous area
certification requirements of SP-1245
GWR transmitters discharge energy directly into the process and shall have
their sensor electronics certified for the electrical area classification inside the
vessel.
The Guided Wave Radar transmitter shall have advanced diagnostics capability
to monitor coating / build up over the probe. The instrument shall allow the user
to input customized coating / build up limits, and if this limit exceeded, then an
alert shall be given.
GWR electronics heads/housings shall have the capability to be removed from
their associated wave guide probe assembly.
Displacement Level Transmitters
Application
Use of displacement level transmitters shall be limited to non-viscous process
fluids with low concentration of solids. Distinction must be made between
displacement and float devices. Displacer elements are heavier than the liquid
being measured, and remain stationary. The measurement signal is derived
from the buoyancy effect due to immersion in a liquid. A float device on the
other hand, moves with the liquid level and the measurement signal is derived
from the float motion or position.
Displacement level transmitters shall normally be installed in external
chambers, external to the process vessel, to allow for maintenance without
process interruption or hazard.
Internal displacement type instruments shall be used only where the process
requires the primary element to be at the same temperature as the vessel
liquid, where high sensitivity is required, where the density difference between
liquid interface is small, and where the vessel can be opened for maintenance
requirements without process interruption or hazard.
For external chamber the housing shall be arranged for right or left hand
mounting as specified in data sheet (the instrument case of a right hand unit is
to the right of the displacement cylinder, when viewed from the front of the
case). The housings shall be capable of being reversed in the field without
additional parts.
The external chamber orientation shall be side-side. The bottom of the external
chamber shall be drilled and tapped 1/2 NPT for drain purpose. Similarly the
top of the chamber shall be drilled and tapped 1/2 NPT for vent purpose. The
same shall be provided with NPT plug unless until specified.
Displacement type instruments shall not be used in highly corrosive services or
services where salts or other deposits may precipitate onto the displacer or on
the walls of the chamber.
The displacer shall be installed vertically. The center of the displacer shall be at
the elevation at which the level in the vessel is to be maintained.
An air-fin extension shall be provided between the level sensing element and
the transmitter, for applications where fluid temperatures will exceed 200C.
Ranges for displacer instruments shall be 356, 813, 1219, 1524, 1829, 2134,
2438, 2743, 3048, 3200, 3300, 3400 mm etc.
Notes:
1. Displacer chambers for external displacer instruments shall be in accordance with
Standard Drawing S 38.056. The hanger extension length of the displacer
instrument shall be:
- 185 mm for rating ASME class 150/300;
- 215 mm for rating ASME class 600;
- 230 mm for rating ASME class 900;
- 255 mm for rating ASME class 1500.
2. For liquid/liquid interface service with small differences in densities, a large
displacer or float may be required to achieve a satisfactory sensitivity. A displacer
chamber with a size DN 150 body and top flange may be required.
External Displacement Level Transmitters
Materials
Displacer chambers and torque tube housing materials shall meet requirements of the
application. Cast iron shall not be used. As a minimum, displacers shall be minimum
316 stainless steel with 316 stainless steel or Inconel torque tubes. For low temperature
and other severe service applications materials compatible with the process shall be
specified on the instrument data sheet.
Connections
Displacer chambers shall have 1 inch NPT or 2 inch flanged connections. All
displacer chambers shall have a rotatable head flange. All chambers shall be provided
with a top flange to facilitate cleaning and removal of the displacer.
Internal Displacement Level Transmitters
Materials
Mounting flanges and torque tube housings shall be steel. Cast iron shall not be used.
Displacers shall be minimum 316 stainless steel with 316 stainless steel or Inconel
torque tubes. For low temperature and other severe service applications materials
compatible with the process shall be specified on the ISS.
Mounting
Side mounting instruments are preferred for tall vessels. A mounting flange shall be
provided on the vessel for top-mounted instrument installation.
Installation
Internal displacement type instruments shall have ample clearance for removal of the
displacer and rod. Provisions should be made on the vessel for access to the internal
parts, e.g., a manhole.
Stilling Wells
A process vessel internal displacer shall be mounted inside an internal mounted guide
pipe, termed a still well, to protect and guide the displacer. The still well shall be open at
the bottom, shall include adequate equalization and vent holes along its length, and be
of sufficient diameter to prevent hang-up of the displacer. Internal displacement type
instruments shall not be used in vessels where high turbulence is expected.
Use of internal displacement level transmitters requires written approval from C&A
CFDH.
Capacitance Level Transmitters
Application
Capacitance-type level probes are particularly suitable for the following
applications:
a) liquids with varying density;
b) liquid/liquid interface;
c) level switches;
d) corrosive services.
For liquid services which tend to foul an admittance probe should be
considered.
Automatic temperature compensation shall be provided in probe circuitry for
liquids in which the dielectric constant changes as a function of temperature.
Capacitance level transmitters shall not be used if the liquid conductivity can
change from nonconductive to conductive.
The level detection system shall consist of an insulated probe, responsive to
changes in level with head mounted or remote mounted electronic unit as
indicated in the data sheet. In case of remote electronics unit, vendor shall
advise the type of interconnecting cable to be used in between probe and
electronic unit, and also distance limitations, if any.
The probe shall be immersion type & shall work on RF admittance principal.
The length shall be as indicated in instrument data sheet.
Operation of the instrument shall not be affected by specific gravity,
conductivity of the fluid. Wherever asked for in the data sheets, vendor shall
provide the active build up compensation circuitry.
The probe material and other wetted parts material shall be minimum SS316 or
equivalent or as indicated in data sheet. The insulation material e.g. PTFE or
PE shall be selected according to the application.
Installation
Capacitance level measurement probes must be top mounted. Probe length
and mounting requirements shall be in accordance with manufacturer's
instructions.
The preferred vessel installation is with a sealed isolating valve to allow the
probe to be removed without releasing the process pressure.
The probe shall be installed so that it is not affected by the filling stream. If this
is not feasible, the probe shall be protected with a shield or baffle.
Unless otherwise indicated in the data sheet, the process connection shall be
2 NB, 150# RF flanged. Flanged end connection shall conform to ANSI B 16.5
standard (Latest Edition).
Radioactive Level Transmitters
Application
Nuclear instruments provide a noncontact means for measuring level.
Nuclear instruments can be used for the following difficult applications and can
provide high accuracy if properly calibrated:
a) Viscous or dirty materials that cannot be measured by other methods
b) Liquids subject to polymer build up
c) Cryogenic service
d) Foaming service
e) Highly corrosive service
f) Toxic service
g) Solids/liquid systems
h) Molten liquids
The use of level instruments which contain radioactive sources type shall
require approval from C&A CFDH.
Verification of the selection of type of radioactive source, isotope strength,
pressure and temperature rating based on the information furnished on the
instrument data sheet and the geometry of equipment and the obstructions if
any, inside the equipment shall be of the vendor.
Vendor shall assist Company in obtaining necessary clearance for shipment to
and use of this equipment, to the location indicated elsewhere.
Vendor shall advise the radiation level around source and on the vessel / piping
surface and suggest the protective measures if required. In case required, a
portable instrument for measuring radiation intensity will be offered alongwith
the instrument. Vendor shall make specific recommendation on design of
source viz. Point source / Rod source and the type of counter. Wherever
required based on the process data and site conditions, vendor to advise the
requirement of cooling water and furnish the required flow, pressure and
temperature of the cooling water.
Installation
Nuclear instruments include a radiation source and detector. The source
radiates the signal into the vessel. The mass in the vessel absorbs or reflects
the radiation and blocks a percentage of it from reaching the detector.
A standpipe can be used if the vessel is large and requires a large source size.
The source shall be CJ 137 or cobalt as indicated in data sheet. A protective
source housing with an enclosed radiation source for flange mounting
externally to one side of the vessel.
The shielding of the source shall be designed to meet the international
standards on radiation protection (ISO 2919 or equivalent). Unit shall have a
key operated switch for opening/closing the source beam.
The detectors shall be compatible to the source used. A high sensitive detector
tube (e.g. Scintillation counter) suitable for externally mounting on the opposite
side of the Vessel / Pipe relative to source. Detector shall have automatic
source decay compensation.
Cooling water jackets, if required, shall be supplied by vendor and wherever
asked for vendor shall provide mounting brackets for installation of the source
and detectors.
Nuclear devices can be difficult to calibrate accurately. It may be required to
empty and fill the vessel to zero and span the device to obtain the desired
calibration accuracy.
Lock out procedures and equipment are required so that maintenance can be
performed safely on the system.
Some processes require extensive engineering to determine the correct nuclear
source size and source isotope to be used. Some applications require
extremely large sources, which can increase delivery time, increase total cost,
increase licensing requirements, and require special mounting considerations.
Transmitters
The detector shall be connected to the remote mounted HART or Foundation Fieldbus
based smart transmitter. The transmitter unit shall convert the pulses received from
counting tube, in to an isolated signal.
Ultrasonic Level Transmitters
Application
Ultrasonic instruments determine level by reflecting a sound signal from the
liquid surface and measuring the time it takes to receive an echo.
Ultrasonic level measurement shall be used only on non-critical utility service
including sewage and water only sumps. Ultrasonic level measurement shall
not be used in oily water sump pits or dedicated hydrocarbon applications.
Ultrasonic transmitters can be used to measure liquid/liquid interfaces in
applications where the transmitter sensor is mounted in one of the liquid
phases directing energy to the liquid/liquid interface.
Ultrasonic transmitters are useful if liquid coating or build up caused by
instrument contact with process liquid could impair other measurement devices
(e.g., floats).
Ultrasonic transmitters are useful if variations in composition, density, thermal
or electrical conductivity, capacitance, or other characteristics in fluid are
common or expected.
Ultrasonic instruments shall not be used in high-density vapor spaces that have
dusty fines or droplets forming a heavy fog.
(The sound signal may be dispersed, high-density vapor spaces, with droplets
forming a heavy fog, or dusty fines may prevent the measurement from working
properly).
Applications with foam or froth shall be reviewed with the manufacturer for
applicability of ultrasonic measurement (Some designs may disregard the foam
and measure the liquid. Others may measure the top of the foam only).
Ultrasonic transmitters shall not be used in vacuum service.
As the sound velocity is subjected to the temperature and pressure influence,
ultrasonic measurements shall be temperature and pressure compensated, the
control unit shall continuously detect the ambient temperature so that the level
measured is independent of the temperature.
Installation
Ultrasonic installations require consideration of vessel geometry and nozzle
location and size. Internal obstructions such as baffles, standpipes, etc., need
to be considered.
For applications where the liquid is turbulent, a slotted stilling well can dampen
turbulence of the liquid. Stilling wells may also be used to avoid the effects of
internal vessel obstructions.
Installation and design of a stilling well shall meet manufacturers criteria for the
probe and system used to avoid errors that are due to pipe diameter,
connection sizes, branch connections, internal vessel obstructions, etc.
Ultrasonic Transducer shall operate with frequencies of 16 kHz to 70 kHz with
beam angle of minimum 10 deg . Range of the transducer shall be as indicated
in data sheet. Unless otherwise indicated on the data sheets, process
connection shall be 3 #150 RF flanged. Wetted part material shall be minimum
SS316 or PTFE or suitable for the specified application.
Sight Level Glasses
Sight Level gauge glasses in hydrocarbon service shall be transparent or reflex type
heat-resistant glass with chambers machined from solid bar alloy steel and with drop-
forged alloy steel covers. Area lighting shall be provided for all gauges installed in
poorly lighted areas. Gauge illumination shall also be provided to all transparent
gauges. where readings are taken at night or are vital for safe operation of the process.
The pressure and temperature ratings of the gauge glasses shall be equal to or higher
than the vessel design pressure and temperature.
Gauge glass gaskets shall be graphoil or graphite-impregnated type material. The
gasket material must be asbestos-free and capable of sealing under the continuous
pressure and temperature conditions.
For pressurized storage vessels, gauge glasses shall be installed only if required for
calibration of other instruments. The gauge glass shall be with ball check gauge cocks.
The gauge glass shall be installed at the elevation required to calibrate the other
instrument. The other instrument may be local or remote indicating.
Ball check type gauge cocks shall not be used in dirty services where waxy or gummy
components exist and deposition can lead to potential blockage of the ball check flow
passages. For corrosive service, the gage cock body and trim shall be made from
corrosion resistant alloys which are compatible with the process fluids. The minimum
requirement for corrosive service is stainless steel stem, seat and ball check.
Reflex Gauges:
Reflex gauges shall be used on all clean services, except for liquid interface
level.
Reflex gauges use a prism to reflect the light from the liquid or from the
backplane of the gauge.
Reflex gauges cannot detect a liquid interface.
Reflex gauges require proper gasket selection and special torquing procedures.
Weld pad type reflex gauges shall be used only in ambient temperature and
atmospheric pressure applications.
Transparent Gauges
Transparent gauges shall be used for acid, caustic, dirty or dark-colored liquids,
liquid interface, high viscosity fluids, high-pressure steam applications.
Suitable shields (e.g., mica) on the inside of the gauge shall be considered for
steam, caustic and other fluids that may adversely affect glass.
Transparent gauges consist of two blocks of glass on opposite sides of a
standpipe. The glass allows light to pass through the contained fluid.
Transparent gauges require proper gasket selection and special torquing
procedures.
Magnetic Level Gauges
A Magnetic Level Gauge may be used for services in which:
Sight level gauge glass assemblies are not recommended for the
measurement of dangerous or toxic fluids;
Glass breakage would be likely;
Sight level gauge glass can be obscured or coated due to the
nature of the process fluid.
High pressure vessel applications.
Magnetic Level Gauge assemblies shall be installed only in areas that are free of
physical forces or materials that would adversely affect the magnetic operation of the
system.
Magnetic Level Gauges shall not be installed in dirty or plugging service where debris
or buildup can cause float sticking.
The floats in magnetic level gauges can be thin-walled and may collapse from
excessive pressure (e.g., hydro-testing). If floats are not rated to withstand hydrostatic
testing, they should be removed during such testing.
Magnetic gauges can become uncoupled between the float and the local indicator.
Continuous bar-style indicators are not susceptible to uncoupling and are preferred to
point-style indicators.
The float in a magnetic gauge is engineered for a certain range of liquid densities. If the
fluid density varies beyond that range, the level indicator may stop working (i.e., the
float may sink). This is particularly critical in interface applications.
Magnetic gauges should generally be limited to a maximum measuring length of 10 feet
(3 meters). Gauges over 10 feet length may require additional support. Utilize multiple
overlapping gauges for longer spans.
Magnetic Level Gauge assemblies shall be installed with top, bottom, or side
connections. The chambers and float materials shall be suitable for the application, with
316 stainless steel minimum. For low temperature and other severe service applications
materials compatible with the process shall be specified on the Instrument data sheets.






Appendix 1 GWR Probe Selection Chart
Service
Typical Process
Liquids
Probe Type
Remarks
Co-Axial
Large
Diameter
Co-Axial
Standard
Diameter
Twin Rod Single Rod
Hydrocarbons - White
products
Dielectric < 2
Diesel, Kerosene, LPG,
Propane, Butane, HC
Condensate etc.,
Yes Yes No
Yes
(See Note 1)

Hydrocarbons Black
Products
Dielectric > 2
Viscosity <500 cP
Light Crude, Light Fuel
Oil
Yes No Yes
Yes
(See Note 1)

Hydrocarbons Black
Products
Dielectric > 2
Viscosity >500 cP, <1500
cP
Crude oil, Asphalt,
Bitumen, Heavy
residues
Yes No Yes
Yes
(See Note 1)

Hydrocarbons Black
Products
Dielectric < 2
Viscosity <1500 cP
Crude oil, Asphalt,
Bitumen, Heavy
residues at higher
temperature
Yes No No
Yes for heavy
crude (See
Note 1)

Hydrocarbon / Water
Interface
Separators, Desalters Yes No No
Yes
(See Note 1)
Verify max. Emulsion
<150mm
Overfill Applications e.g.
External chamber,
columns etc.,
Separators, Glycol
Units, Process Vessels
Yes No No Yes
Advanced overfill protection
required
Service
Typical Process
Liquids
Probe Type
Remarks
Co-Axial
Large
Diameter
Co-Axial
Standard
Diameter
Twin Rod Single Rod
Viscosity < 500 cP,
Overfill Applications e.g.
External chamber,
columns etc.,
Viscosity > 500 cP,
<1500 cP
Crude / Vacuum /
Bitumen column ,
reactors etc.,
Yes No No No
Advanced overfill protection
required
Conductive clean liquids
Dielectric > 10
Water, Glycol, Caustic,
Acids
Yes No Yes Yes
Conductive Dirty liquids
Dielectric > 10
Water based sludge,
human waste etc.,
Yes (see
remarks)
No
Yes (see
remarks)
Yes
with particles less than
15mm for large dia co-axial
and 10mm for twin probe.
High Pressure / High
Temperature
Yes Yes No Yes
Note 1: Single rod unit in chamber/ still well can be used with the improved version of transmitters with higher Signal to Noise ratio.



Appendix 2 Selection Guidelines for Level Instruments
Appendix-2 Advantages Limitations
Instrument Type Inexpensive
Difficult
applications
No contact
with
process
Good
for
liquids
Good
for
Solids
High
Accuracy
Interface
measurement
High
initial
cost
Requires
precaution
for
installation
Requires
more
detailed
engineering
of
application
Sensitive
to dirty
process
Needs
special
licence
Contains
moving
parts
Not suitable
for high
temp
applications

Differential Pressure (DP) X X X X
DP with remote seals X X X X
Displacer X X X X X
Capacitance X X X X X
Guided Wave Radar X X X

X X X X
Non contact free space
Radar X X X

X X X X
Ultrasonic X X X X X X X X
Radioactive X X X X X X X X X
Magnetostrictive X X

X X X X X X
Mechanical Float X X X X X
Tank Gauging X X X X
Magnetic Level Gauge X X X X X X
Level Guage Glasses X X X




Appendix 3 Template Datasheet for GWR Type Level
Instrument


Appendix 3 -
Datasheet template.xls