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scholarly papers ISSN 1648 - 4460

TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS



Vol. 10, No 2A (23A)
2011




Guest Editor
Dr. Hab. Tomasz Bernat


ISSN 1648 - 4460







TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS


Vol. 10, No 2A (23A)
2011







Partneriai-leidjai






Kauno humanitarinis fakultetas Vilniaus universiteto
fakultetas kurtas (1964 m.) ne sostin#je, 2004 metais kartu
su Vilniaus universiteto 425-uoju k&rimo jubiliejumi,
)ven,ia savo kurtuvi. 40-met. Dauguma fakulteto
student. studijuoja vadyb/ ir verslo administravim/,
ekonomik/, finansus bei informacines technologijas, kiti
gilinasi filologines studijas - lietuvi., vokie,i., angl. ir
rus. kalbas. Vilniaus universiteto Kauno humanitarinis
fakultetas (VU KHF) yra tarptautinio mokslo darb. leidinio
Verslo ir ekonomikos transformacijos k&r#jas-leid#jas. Nuo
2004 m. VU KHF suvienijo leidybos paj#gas su VU
Ekonomikos fakultetu.
Universiteto tinklapis: http://www.vu.lt




Brno technologijos universiteto (1ekijos Respublika)
istorin#s i)takos siekia 1849 metus, o Verslo ir vadybos
fakultetas 2002 )v3sdamas 10-ies met. jubiliej.,
suorganizavo 10-/j/ kasmetin3 tarptautin3 konferencij/
Verslas ir ekonomikos pltra Centrinje ir Ryt# Europoje:
ekonomins integracijos & platesn( Europ) reik+m.
Dvi)al# bendradarbiavimo sutartis su Vilniaus universiteto
Kauno humanitariniu fakultetu pasira)yta 2001 metais.
Universiteto tinklapis: http://www.vutbr.cz




Latvijos universitetas (Latvijos Respublika) kurtas 1862
metais. Latvijos universiteto Ekonomikos ir vadybos
fakultetas, b&damas did4iausiu fakultetu, u4tikrina
ekonomikos ir vadybos krypties studijas bei mokslo
tyrimus, o tai sutampa su )iuolaikin#s Latvijos poreikiais.
Dvi)al# bendradarbiavimo sutartis su Vilniaus universiteto
Kauno humanitariniu fakultetu pasira)yta 1996 metais.
Universiteto tinklapis: http://www.lu.lv









Partners-publishers






Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University
(Republic of Lithuania) was founded in 1964, as the only
faculty outside the capital of Vilnius, and celebrates its 40
th

anniversary in the year 2004, alongside with the 425
th

anniversary of Vilnius University (est. 1579) itself. The
majority of students study business management,
economics, finance and information technologies, while the
rest are involved in philological studies of Lithuania,
German, English and Russian languages. Kaunas Faculty of
Humanities, Vilnius University (VU KHF), is Founding
Publisher of the International Journal of Scholarly Papers
Transformations in Business & Economics. In 2004, VU
KHF united its publishing efforts with the Faculty of
Economics of Vilnius University.
Web site: http://www.vu.lt




The historical roots of Brno University of Technology (the
Czech Republic) go back as far as 1849, while the Faculty
of Business and Management was established quite recently
- in 1992. It celebrated the 10
th
anniversary in 2002 with the
10
th
Annual International Conference Business and
Economic Development in Central and Eastern Europe:
Implications for Economic Integration into Wider Europe.
The bilateral agreement with Kaunas Faculty of
Humanities, Vilnius University (Lithuania) was signed in
2001.
Web site: http://www.vutbr.cz




University of Latvia (Republic of Latvia) was established in
1862. The Faculty of Economics and Management, being
the largest faculty of University of Latvia, ensures studies
and scientific research work in the field of economy and
management, which correspond to the contemporary level
and needs of Latvia. The bilateral agreement with Kaunas
Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University (Lithuania) was
signed in 1996.
Web site: http://www.lu.lv



ISSN 1648 - 4460



















VERSLO ir EKONOMIKOS
TRANSFORMACIJOS


ISSN 1648 - 4460







TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS






Vilniaus universitetas
Brno technologijos universitetas (1ekijos Respublika)
Latvijos universitetas (Latvijos Respublika)








leid4ia mokslo darbus







VERSLO ir EKONOMIKOS
TRANSFORMACIJOS



10 tomas, 2A (23A)
2011












Brno Kaunas Riga Vilnius
2011

Vilnius University, Republic of Lithuania
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
University of Latvia, Republic of Latvia







publish scholarly papers







TRANSFORMATIONS IN
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS




Vol. 10, No 2A (23A)
2011











Brno Kaunas Riga Vilnius
2011

EDITORIAL BOARD - REDAKTORI KOLEGIJA

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Dr. (HP) Dalia TREIMIKIEN Vyriausioji redaktor
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)
e-mail: dalia@mail.lei.lt

Deputy Editor-in-Chief Prof. Habil. Dr. Vaclovas LAKIS Vyr. redaktors pavaduotojas
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Executive secretary
Prof. Dr. (HP) Rasa KANAPICKIEN#
Atsakingoji sekretor
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)
e-mail: kanapickiene@vukhf.lt

Editors: Nariai:
Prof. Dr. Peter OPPENHEIMER
Oxford University, UK
(Economics, 04S)
Oksfordo universitetas, Jungtin# Karalyst#
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Habil. Dr. Edmundas K. ZAVADSKAS
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,
Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas

(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)

Prof. Dr. Andras INOTAI
Institute for World Economics, Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, Hungary
(Economics, 04S)
Vengrijos moksl. akademijos Pasaulio ekonomikos
institutas, Vengrija
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Dr. Bruno S. SERGI
Messina University, Italy
(Economics, 04S)
Mesinos universitetas, Italija
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Dr. (HP) Stasys Albinas GIRDZIJAUSKAS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Dr. Algis PREKER-BRAUN
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Philology, 04H)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Filologija, 04H)

Prof. Dr. Gregory BROCK
Georgia Southern University, the USA
(Economics, 04S)
Piet. D4ord4ijos universitetas, JAV
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Dr. Marie McHUGH
Ulster University, Northern Ireland, UK

(Economics, 04S)
Ulsterio universitetas, 6iaur#s Airija, Jungtin#
Karalyst#
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Habil. Dr. Remigijus #IEGIS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S);
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S);
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Habil. Dr. Borisas MELNIKAS
Vilnius Gediminas Technical
University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas

(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)



---------TRANSFORMATIONS IN --------
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Vilnius University, 2002-2011
Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
University of Latvia, 2002-2011



Prof. Dr. Baiba AVRINA
University of Latvia, Latvia
(Economics, 04S)
Latvijos universitetas, Latvija
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Dr. (HP) Birut& GALINIEN#
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Dr. (HP) Saulius GUDAS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Informatics, 09T)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Informatika, 09T)

Prof. Dr. Heikki JUSLIN
University of Helsinki, Finland
(Economics, 04S)
Helsinkio universitetas, Suomija
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Dr. Vojtech KORAB
Brno University of Technology, the
Czech Republic
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Brno technologijos universitetas,
1ekijos Respublika
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)

Prof. Dr. Rodica Milena ZAHARIA
Bucharest University of Economics,
Romania
(Economics, 04S)
Bukare)to ekonomikos universitetas, Rumunija

(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Dr. Alfredo Martinez BOBILLO
University of Valladolid, Spain
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Valadolido universitetas, Ispanija
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)

Prof. Dr. (HP) Linas (EKANAVI(IUS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Economics, 04S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Habil. Dr. Andrzej GOSPODAROWICZ
Wroclaw University of Economics,
Poland
(Economics, 04S)
Vroclavo ekonomikos universitetas, Lenkija
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Prof. Habil. Dr. Vytautas Pranas PRANULIS
Vilnius University, Lithuania
(Management and Administration, 03S)
Vilniaus universitetas
(Vadyba ir administravimas, 03S)


Prof. Dr. Eugene D. JAFFE

Bar-Ilan University, Israel
(Economics, 04S)
Bar-Ilan universitetas, Izraelis
(Ekonomika, 04S)

Habil. Dr. Tomasz BERNAT
University of Szczecin, Poland
(Economics, 04S)
6,ecino universitetas, Lenkija
(Ekonomika, 04S)







---------TRANSFORMATIONS IN --------
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Vilnius University, 2002-2011
Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
University of Latvia, 2002-2011

Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011


ISSN 1648 - 4460

INTERNATIONAL TRIANNUAL PUBLICATION OF SCHOLARLY PAPERS
founded by Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University, Lithuania,
and issued in co-operation with the partner-universities:
Faculty of Economics, Vilnius University, Lithuania
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic,
University of Latvia, Republic of Latvia.

Editorial correspondence:
Scholarly papers TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Kaunas Faculty of Humanities
VILNIUS UNIVERSITY
Muitin#s str. 8
Kaunas, LT-44280
Lithuania

Tel. (+370 37) 42 23 76
Fax: (+370 37) 42 32 22
E-mail: journal_tibe@yahoo.co.uk; dalia@mail.lei.lt
Home page: http://www.transformations.khf.vu.lt

Abstracted and indexed in international science databases:
IBSS (2004)
EconLit (2005)
ISI Master Journal List (Web of Science) by Thomson
Services (2006, back-cited from 2005):
e-JEL (2005) Social Sciences Citation Index (2006)
JEL on CD (2005) Social Scisearch (2006)
SCOPUS (2007) Journal Citation Reports / Social Sciences Edition (2006)
Cabells Directory (2008) EBSCO (EconLit with Full Text) (2007)

Proof-reader of the English Language Algis Preker Brown
Translators into / from English Algis Preker Brown
Technical Editor Ingrida Dauglait-Griesien

The scholarly papers have been published by Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius
University (VU KHF), Lithuania, since 1999 under the title Vadyba ir ekonomika (Management and
Economics, Engl.), ISSN 1392-8732. There were four volumes published in the years 1999-2002 with
eight issues in total. Since Autumn 2002, the journal has been revised to match the standards of both
the Lithuanian Science Academy and the Institute of Science Information, the USA. New members
were invited to the Editorial Board as well as a team of foreign (English-language speaking) reviewers
has been formed. The new title has been carefully selected and now it is called Transformations in
Business & Economics (Verslo ir ekonomikos transformacijos, Lith.), and takes the niche of Social
Sciences, Development Economics, S 188, broadly representing scientific research carried out at the
Centre of Socio-cultural Research at VU KHF. To strengthen the scientific potential and co-operation
on international and regional level, partner-universities have been invited to participate in the
publication of the revised scientific journal, namely Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic,
and University of Latvia, Republic of Latvia. In 2004, VU KHF united publishing efforts with Faculty
of Economics, Vilnius University, Lithuania. Since Autumn 2002, Transformations in Business &
Economics is published biannually in English with titles, summaries and keywords in Lithuanian on
25
th
November and 25
th
May. As of Spring 2008, TIBE is published three times a year (25
th
March,
25
th
May and 25
th
November) with 1-3 supplements.



VERSLO ir EKONOMIKOS
--------- TRANSFORMACIJOS --------
Vilniaus universitetas, 2002-2011
Brno technologijos universitetas, 2002-2011
Latvijos universitetas, 2002-2011


10 tomas, 2A (23A), 2011


ISSN 1648 - 4460

TARPTAUTINIS T!STINIS MOKSLO DARB LEIDINYS
Steig#jas Vilniaus universiteto Kauno humanitarinis fakultetas (Lietuvos Respublika).
Leidybos universitetai partneriai:
Vilniaus universiteto Ekonomikos fakultetas (Lietuvos Respublika),
Brno technologijos universitetas (1ekijos Respublika),
Latvijos universitetas (Latvijos Respublika).

Redaktori" kolegijos adresas:
Mokslo darbai TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
VILNIAUS UNIVERSITETO
Kauno humanitarinis fakultetas
Muitin#s g. 8
Kaunas, LT-44280

tel. (+370 37) 42 23 76
fax (+370 37) 42 32 22
el. p. journal_tibe@yahoo.co.uk; dalia@mail.lei.lt
leidinio tinklapis: http://www.transformations.khf.vu.lt

Straipsniai anotuojami ir indeksuojami #iose tarptautin&se mokslo duomen"
baz&se:
IBSS (2004)
EconLit (2005)
ISI Master Journal List (Web of Science) Thomson
Services (2006, anotuojama ir indeksuojama nuo 2005):
e-JEL (2005) Social Sciences Citation Index (2006)
JEL on CD (2005) Social Scisearch (2006)
SCOPUS (2007) Journal Citation Reports / Social Sciences Edition (2006)
Cabells Directory (2008) EBSCO (EconLit with Full Text) (2007)

Angl" kalbos korektorius Algis Preker Brown
Vert&jas i# / ) angl" kalb* Algis Preker Brown
Techninis redaktorius Ingrida Dauglait-Griesien

Mokslo darbus Vilniaus universiteto Kauno humanitarinis fakultetas (VU KHF) (Lietuva)
leid4ia nuo 1999 met.. 1999 2002 metais publikuoti keturi mokslo darb. Vadyba ir ekonomika
(Management and Economics, angl.), ISSN 1392-8732, tomai, o tai sudar# a)tuonis leidinio numerius.
2002 met. ruden, siekiant atitikti Lietuvos Moksl. akademijos bei JAV Moksl. informacijos instituto
standartus, mokslo darb. leidinys patobulintas. 8 Redaktori. kolegij/ pakviesti nauji nariai, taip pat
sudaryta u4sienio (i) angli)kai kalban,i. )ali.) recenzent. grup#. Naujas leidinio pavadinimas buvo
atsakingai renkamas, ir nuo 2002 met. rudens leidinys vadinasi Transformations in Business &
Economics (Verslo ir ekonomikos transformacijos, liet.), u4ima socialini# moksl# ni)/ pltros
ekonomikos kryptyje, S188 bei atspindi mokslo pasiekimus, vykdomus VU KHF Sockult.rini# tyrim#
centre. Siekiant sustiprinti mokslin potencial/ ir bendradarbiavim/ tarptautiniame ir regioniniame
lygmenyje, atnaujinto leidinio leidybin darbe pakviesti dalyvauti universitetai partneriai: Brno
technologijos universitetas (1ekijos Respublika), ir Latvijos universitetas (Latvijos Respublika). Nuo
2004 met. VU KHF suvienijo leidybos paj#gas su VU Ekonomikos fakultetu. Nuo 2002 met. rudens
mokslo darbai Transformations in Business & Economics leid4iamas angl. kalba (pavadinimus,
santraukas ir reik)minius 4od4ius teikiant lietuvi. kalba) du kartus per metus gegu4#s 25 d. ir
lapkri,io 25 d. Nuo 2008 m. pavasario TIBE leid4iamas tris kartus per metus (kovo 25 d., gegu4#s 25
d. ir lapkri,io 25 d.) su 1-3 priedais.
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460

TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
221
Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011




CONTENTS


GUEST EDITORIAL
Tomasz Bernat. Introduction to the Issue ...................................................................................

225

ARTICLES
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES
Ryszard Barczyk. Possibilities of Using Theoretical Hypotheses for the Analysis of
Contemporary Economic Recession .

226
Patrycja Zwiech. Initial Situation of the Member States in the Context of Strategic
Objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy ..

233
Tomasz Bernat. Building Monopolistic Position Contemporary Decisions, Old Solutions .... 248
Danuta Milaszewicz. Probability of Non-Keynesian Effects of Public Finance Consolidation
in Poland ....

258
LABOUR MARKETS AND EMPLOYMENT CHALLENGES FOR THE EU
Waclaw Jarmolowicz, Magdalena Knapinska. Labour Market Theories in Contemporary
Economics .....

268
Danuta Kopycinska. Generation of Young People in the EU Member States The
Generation of Unemployed? .

281
Robert W. Wlodarczyk. Comparative Analysis of Employment Sectoral Structure in
Eurozone Countries ...

292
Magdalena Rekas. Taxation as an Instrument of Family Policy: Effects for Womens
Employment ..

303
Jolita Vveinhardt. The Structurogram of the Mobbing Diagnostic Model 317
INNOVATION POLICIES
Elzbieta Pohulak-Zoledowska. Innovative Activity of Universities Knowledge Creation in
Developed and Fast Developing Countries ...

334
Jaroslaw Poteralski. Support for the Innovativeness of Polish Economy Quoting the
Example of Innovative Economy Operational Programme ..

345
Ewa Okon-Horodynska, Rafal Wisla, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Business Strategy of
Innovative Enterprises: The Case of IBM .........

357


---------TRANSFORMATIONS IN --------
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Vilnius University, 2002-2011
Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
University of Latvia, 2002-2011


Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460

TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
222

GLOBALISATION ISSUES
Katarzyna Wlodarczyk-Spiewak. Globalization Process vs. Consumer Behaviour in the
Market ...

367
Krystyna Przybylska. The Degree of Export Intensity of Polish Companies

379
Ramunas Casas, Monika Kavaliauske, Vilma Dambrauskaite. The Impact of External
Business Environment Factors to Internationalization of Born Global Companies by
Promoting Entrepreneurship ..


389
CAPITAL MARKETS
Michal Sosnowski. Tax Competition and Harmonization of Direct Taxation within the
European Union .....

401
Aleksanda Duliniec. The Cost of Capital from the Polish Companies Perspective ..

412
Urszula Hanusik, Urszula Langowska-Szczesniak. Households Consumption on the
Background of Socio-Economic Transformation in Rural Areas of Poland, 1993-2009 .

421
Teresa Kaminska, Elzbieta Babula, Marcin Brycz. What about Efficiency and Equity
Dilemma in Polands Economy? ...

430
INDUSTRIAL SECTORS IN THE EU
Elzbieta Adamowicz, Konrad Walczyk. Cyclical Fluctuations of Business Activity in the
New EU Countries .

440
Ewa Okon-Horodynska, Rafal Wisla, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Evaluation of the
Development Potential of the Information Society in European Union Countries on the Basis
of Patent Activity in the ICT Sector ..


452
Bozena Borkowska, Mikolaj Klimczak. From A Monopoly towards an Imperfectly
Competitive Electricity Market in Poland .....

463


NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS ............................................................................................................ 475


Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460

TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
223
10 tomas, 2A (23A), 2011


TURINYS

KVIESTINIO REDAKTORIAUS ODIS.
Tomasz Bernat. Leidinio vadas ..................................................................................................

225

STRAIPSNIAI
TRANSFORMACIJ I!!$KIAI EKONOMIKOS VYSTYMUISI
Ryszard Barczyk. Teorini# hipotezi# naudojimo galimyb%s (iuolaikinio ekonominio
nuosmukio analizei ....

226
Patrycja Zwiech. Pradin% valstybi#-nari# situacija Europos 2020 strategijos tiksl#
kontekste ....

233
Tomasz Bernat. Monopolistin%s pad%ties k+rimas (iuolaikiniai sprendiniai, seni metodai ..... 248
Danuta Miaszewicz. Neokeinsizmo tikimyb%s padariniai Lenkijos vie(#j# finans#
konsolidacijoje .......

258
DARBO RINKOS IR U'IMTUMO I!!$KIAI EUROPOS S)JUNGOJE
Wacaw Jarmoowicz, Magdalena Knapi!ska. Darbo rinkos teorijos (iuolaikin%je
ekonomikoje ......

268
Danuta Kopyci!ska. ES valstybi# nari# jaunimo karta - bedarbi# karta? . 281
Robert W. Wodarczyk. Lyginamoji u-imtumo analiz% euro zonos (ali# sektoriuose ... 291
Magdalena R$kas. Apmokestinimas kaip (eimos politikos instrumentas: moter# u-imtumo
padariniai ...

303
Jolita Vveinhardt. Mobingo diagnozavimo modelio strukt+rograma 317
INOVACIJ POLITIKA
El'bieta Pohulak-*o$dowska. Novatori(ka universitet# veikla -ini# k+rimas i(vystytose
ir greitai besivystan/iose (alyse ....

334
Jarosaw Poteralski. Parama Lenkijos ekonomikos inovacijoms, remiantis novatori(kos
ekonomikos operacin%s programos pavyzd-iu ..

345
Ewa Oko!-Horody!ska, Rafa Wisa, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Novatori(k# moni# verslo
strategija - IBM atvejis ..........

357




VERSLO ir EKONOMIKOS
--------- TRANSFORMACIJOS --------
Vilniaus universitetas, 2002-2011
Brno technologijos universitetas, 2002-2011
Latvijos universitetas, 2002-2011


Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011 ISSN 1648 - 4460

TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
224

GLOBALIZACIJOS I!!$KIAI
Katarzyna Wodarczyk-,piewak. Globalizacijos procesas prie( vartotoj# elgsen1 rinkoje

367
Krystyna Przybylska. Lenkijos moni# eksporto intensyvumo laipsnis .

379
Ram.nas 1asas, Monika Kavaliausk4, Vilma Dambrauskait4. I(orini# verslo aplinkos
veiksni# taka Born Global moni# internacionalizacijai, skatinant verslum1 ..

389
KAPITALO RINKOS
Micha Sosnowski. Tiesioginio apmokestinimo mokes/i# konkurencija ir harmonizavimas
Europos s1jungoje .....

401
Aleksanda Duliniec. Kapitalo kaina: Lenkijos moni# perspektyva ..

412
Urszula Hanusik, Urszula 5angowska-Szcz$6niak. Lenkijos nam# +ki# vartojimas kaimo
vietov%se, 1993-2009, socialin%s ekonomin%s transformacijos metu ....

421
Teresa Kami!ska, El'bieta Babula, Marcin Brycz. Kaip d%l efektyvumo ir turto dilemos
Lenkijos ekonomikoje? .....

430
RINKTINIAI ES PRAMON*S SEKTORIAI
El'bieta Adamowicz, Konrad Walczyk. Verslo veiklos cikliniai svyravimai naujose
Europos s1jungos (alyse

440
Ewa Oko!-Horody!ska, Rafa Wisa, Tomasz Sierotowicz. Informacin%s visuomen%s
potencialo i(sivystymo vertinimas Europos s1jungos (alyse patentuotos veiklos IKT sektoriuje
pagrindu .....


452
Bo'ena Borkowska, Mikoaj Klimczak. Nuo monopolijos link Lenkijos netobulos elektros
rinkos konkurencijos .....................................

463


REIKALAVIMAI STRAIPSNIAMS .......................................................................................................... 478


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TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, No 2A (23A), 2011
225

GUEST EDITORIAL

Introduction to the Issue


JEL classification: Y20.

Contemporary economies are recovering after crisis of 2007-2009. Even if formally it
approached the finish, companies and consumers still feel its burden; and even a possible new crisis is
on the horizon. This issue of Transformations in Business & Economics (TIBE) tries to research
basic economic entities in nowadays world. It covers six main sections. They are related to the
following topics: development of the economies in transforming economies, challenges for the EU in
the context of labour markets and employment, innovation policy, problems of globalization, analysis
of capital markets and, ultimately, the industries operating in the European Union.
In Section 1 on economic development, the issues addressing todays recession and the
possible use of theoretical hypotheses for the analysis are offered. Evaluation of the EUs strategic
objectives presented in the 2020 Strategy document, Europe is being analysed in its relation to the
establishment of member countries. Impact of foreign investments in Africa, following the case of
Chinese companies, while building their monopolistic position is also presented. A closing paper
covers issues on public finances in Poland.
The second section on labour markets include topics related to the theories of labour markets
in modern economies, the problems of the younger generation which is defined as a generation that is
threaten by growing unemployment. Taxation as an instrument of family policy is presented. Also
sectoral employment in European countries is under analysis. A paper discussing the difficult issues of
mobbing could also catch your attention.
Innovation policy is the third section in this Issue, which is covering universities in creating
knowledge in an innovative way, supporting innovation of the Polish economy by EU programmes
and finally formulating innovative business strategies in entrepreneurial practices, like IBM.
Section 4 discusses the implications for globalization. It relates to the behavioural analysis of
two different market participants: consumers and companies. Consumers are assessed in terms of their
attitudes towards globalisation effects. Institutional topics are referred to the intensity of companies
exports and the issue of born global as a factor of entrepreneurship.
Capital markets are another important part of the Issue. Section 5 incorporates the issues on
harmonization of direct taxation in the European Union area and the problems of capital costs from the
perspective of firms. Household consumption is next point for analysis. It is assesses in the light of
socio-economic transformation. Finally, the classic economic dilemma: efficiency and equity issues
are defined by using the example of the Polish economy.
The last section of the Issue presents the analysis of industrial sectors in the European Union.
Problems are addressed to cyclical fluctuations of business activity in the new EU countries, potential
development estimation in the information society in relation to patent activity. The electric market is
also analysed in the context of changing its market structure to a more competitive one.
The presented papers are of immense interest and relevance, covering the latest trends and
tendencies across the European Union and the world. I encourage you to read.


Guest Editor
Hab. Dr. Bernat Tomasz,
Head of Microeconomics Department,
University of Szczecin, Poland

Szczecin,
5
th
June, 2011


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Vilnius University, 2002-2011
Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
University of Latvia, 2002-2011


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Vveinhardt, J. (2011), The Structurogram of the Mobbing Diagnostic
Model, Transformations in Business & Economics, Vol. 10, No 2A
(23A), pp.317-333.




THE STRUCTUROGRAM OF THE MOBBING DIAGNOSTIC
MODEL


Jolita Vveinhardt

Faculty of Economics and Management
Vytautas Magnus University
44246 Kaunas
Lithuania
Tel.: +370 37 327850
Fax: +370 37 327857
E-mail: jolitaw@gmail.com

Jolita Vveinhardt, PhD of Social Sciences (Management and
Administration), Associate Professor at the Department of
Management, the Faculty of Economics and Management, Vytautas
Magnus University, Lithuania. J. Vveinhardt has obtained the Bachelor
of Management and Business Administration degree in the Faculty of
Social Sciences, iauliai University, where she has prolonged her
further studies and obtained the Master of Management degree. She
lectures the subjects of Management, Knowledge Management,
Modern Theories of Organizations, Organizational Behaviour,
Mobbing in Personnel Relationships, and The Methodology of Social
Research in Bachelor, Professional Bachelor and Master Studies. She
(after the obtaining the doctors degree) is the author and co-author of
18 articles; the author of one educational book. J. Vveinhardts
scientific research trends are: Mobbing as the discrimination in
employees relations, Organizational climate.

Received: February, 2011
1
st
Revision: May, 2011
2
nd
Revision: August, 2011
Accepted: September, 2011
ABSTRACT. The article discusses the specifics of modelling, presents
the stages the formation of the model designed by the author; the stages are
discussed in detail. The diagnostic model of mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations in order to improve organizations climate is presented
and it could be used for prevention and intervention of the mobbing
phenomenon. The essence of the model three stages of diagnostics
(identification of the state of organizations climate; insights of mobbing
phenomenon; managerial decisions of mobbing intervention), four fields
(the field of managers will, the field of employees will; financial /
economical field; ethical /moral field), monitoring and feedback.

KEYWORDS: employee, interpersonal relations, discrimination, mobbing,
diagnosis of mobbing, harassment, mobbing diagnostics, mobbing diagnostic
model.
JEL classification: M12; M14; M19.



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Vilnius University, 2002-2011
Brno University of Technology, 2002-2011
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Introduction

Internal changes unfavourable for organizations, structures of an organization and
workplace, cultural peculiarities cause tension fields, which influence conflict environment
and make a possibility for the mobbing phenomenon to emerge. Mobbing differs from
conflicts emerging in work environment in the intensity of psychological pressure on a victim.
Frequency (not less than once a week) and sufficiently long duration (e.g., not shorter than
half a year) together with other factors (social, communication, organizational, etc.) cause
long-term stress, which crushes a victim (Einarsen, Raknes et al., 1994; Einarsen, Raknes,
1997; Rayner, Hoel, 1997; Einarsen, 2000a; 2000b; Einarsen, Hoel, 2001; Einarsen, Hoel et
al., 2003; Tracy, LutgenSandvik et al., 2006; Litzcke, Schuh, 2005; Zapf, 2002; Esser,
Wollmerath, 2005; Hauge, Skogstad et al., 2009; Zukauskas, Vveinhardt, 2009a, b;
Zukauskas, Vveinhardt, 2010; etc.).
The state of organizations climate not only influences employees satisfaction with
the work as well as their activity results but also it can be evaluated as certain indicator.
Organizations climate, antagonism, the attitudes determining discriminating relations,
mobbing are closely related (Taylor, Cox et al.,1991; VartiaVaananen, 1996; Zapf, Knorz
et al., 1996; Resch, 1997; Meschkutat, Stackelbeck et al., 2002; Premper, 2002; Vartia
Vaananen, 2003; Heames, Harvey, 2006; Litzcke, Schuh, 2005; Ashforth, 1997; Einarsen,
Raknes, 1997; Mikkelsen, Einarsen, 2002; Salin, 2005; Tepper, 2007; oljan, Josipovi# et al.,
2009; Vveinhardt, 2009a; 2009b, etc.).
Inter antagonism negatively influences victims satisfaction with their work and their
personal wellbeing. It is established that mobbing being one of the organizations climate
factors correlates with other organizations climate factors and changes the directions of their
vectors. Thus the state of organizations climate can be considered as the indicator warning
about the existence of mobbing as discrimination in employees relations or the absence of
this phenomenon (Vveinhardt, 2009b). Ill psychological climate at workplace could be related
to discriminating actions of mobbing such as harassment, emotional pressure, which are
performed by co-workers or a manager.
Mobbing manifests in such planes as interrelationship of employees and managers,
communication, conflicts, humour, management policy, group relations. Mobbing minimizes
motivation of organizations members, their loyalty to the organization, their concentration,
orientation to goals, the sense of belonging and assistance. Negative influence upon is made
by the fact that the risk to become a victim of the attack exists. These and other reasons oblige
the organization to observe the work environment, to watch the state of the climate and to
attentively analyse emerging conflicts.
The observance of the state of organizations climate has preventive importance. It
should be mentioned that declining organizations climate not necessarily determines
mobbing conflicts; however it is the signal that within the organization the environment
favourable for such conflicts is being formed or mobbing has already manifested, only the
management has not known about it yet. As well as the favourable climate does not yet ensure
that mobbing conflicts have in principle been eliminated. Thus in stressing the systemic
relation between the organizations climate and mobbing it was sought to create the universal
complex diagnostic model, which would serve both for prevention and intervention of the
phenomenon.
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The research problem raises the following questions: what should be the mobbing
diagnostic model and how could it function in order to ensure prevention and intervention of
the mobbing phenomenon?
The research object: the mobbing diagnostic model.
The research aim is to design the mobbing diagnostic model.
The research aim is to be attained by means of the following objectives:
1. to review stages of the mobbing diagnostic model;
2. to define the diagnostic actions of the state of organizations climate at the first
stage;
3. to distinguish the diagnostic actions of the mobbing phenomenon at the second
stage;
4. to discuss the stage of mobbing intervention choice.
The research is based on the analysis an synthesis of scientific literature, deduction,
modelling, generalisation as well as comparison.
The research limitations. Mobbing diagnostics implies special instruments; however
the article seeks only to demonstrate the diagnostic mechanism in detailed three stages.

1. Mobbing Diagnostic Model: Macro View

The concept of diagnostics most frequently is used when derangements of the
functioning of complex phenomena, processes, states, which can be determined by different
reasons (a diagnostician does not know them, he / she only finds out about them from certain
evidences and their complexes). Mobbing victims can hide a conflict due to different reasons,
and the mobbing process distorts the information about a mobbing victim; thus due to these
and other (e.g., internal communication) problems the possibilities of the management to get
information about mobbing conflicts can be limited. In order to identify mobbing, the state of
organizations climate can become an important complex feature at the first stage. The
function of reversible information when direct interaction is impossible is attributed to the
applied works of management field. Reversible information about states of the process is the
basis of managerial decisions; thus feedback is emphasised in the model presented in the
article. Reversible information serves for ensuring transparent and efficient managerial
decisions. Modelling is the system of certain objects. The disclosure of relations of objects
systems or processes and behaviour in designing and analysing models also is considered as
modelling, and a model is a theoretical key of practical decisions. Due to various social,
cultural differences it should not be referred only to diagnostic models of foreign authors. On
the other hand, as R. Adomaitiene (2002) states, there is no sense to create new models, which
would essentially differ from the models already tested at organizations, either. However
practically implementing the theoretical systems it is not possible not to also evaluate specific
peculiarities of the environment facilitating, impeding or even making the functioning of the
instrument impossible. In this article national socio-cultural peculiarities are not detailed, the
diagnostic model of mobbing as discrimination in employees relations in order to improve
organizations climate, which is aimed both to Lithuanian and foreign organizations, is
presented (Figure 1).





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Source: made by the author.

Figure 1. The Diagnostic Model of Mobbing as Discrimination in Employees Relations in Order to
Improve the Organizational Climate in Lithuania

The performed researches prove the correlation of work environment climate and
mobbing (Meschkutat, Stackelbec, 2002; Litzcke, Schuh, 2005, etc.). Mobbing manifests as
the symptom of ill climate and vice versa the climate unfavourable for employees signals
about destructive interpersonal conflicts or unfavourable environment for them to manifest.
The climate influences mobbing emergence; in addition, according to the data of the
researches, most respondents indicate that mobbing negatively influences the climate. Thus
mobbing diagnostics is closely related to the decisions of phenomenon prevention and
interpretation. The relation among climate characteristics, mobbing and the results of the
organizations activity is noticeable. Inter-antagonism can negatively influence victims
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satisfaction with their work and wellbeing (Ashforth, 1997; Einarsen, Raknes, 1997;
Mikkelsen, Einarsen, 2002; Salin, 2005; Tepper, 2007, etc.) and this can be costly for the
organization because it induces employees idle time, health bulletins, personnel rotation, as
well as the loyalty, commitment for the work and productivity decrease; negative opinions
about the organization occur (Ashforth, 1997; Hoel, Einarsen ir kt., 2003; Salin, 2005;
Tepper, 2007, etc.). Thus the creation of good psychological social work conditions as well as
mobbing prevention and intervention becomes more important.
The axiom is that the system of motives or absence of these motives determines the
organizations decisions considering the structure of the members of the organization
interrelations. Cohesions of interpersonal relations and conflicts are not necessarily relevant
for the people who are making decisions within the organization. Thus the models
functionality mostly depends on power fields, which symbolically and in general can be
divided into four closely inter-correlating groups: the field of managers will, the field of
employees will, the field of financial / economical will, and the field of ethical / moral will.
The field of managers will
The will conditioned by managers internal disposition to solve mobbing conflicts by
relating them to personal as well as organizations maximum effective activity expectations is
important. E. Zuperkien% and V. J. Zilinskas (2008) point out that the success of the activity
of organizations employees depends on managers initiative, activity and positive disposition
by paying attention to the cohesion of managers attitudes and influence upon other
organizations members. In this case the managers motives, which in the perspective of the
functionality of organizations members evaluate mobbing as problem or disturbance for the
achievement of personal and organizations goals, are defined.
The sum of interest units of employees as individuals is safe and comfortable work
and social environment. Employees hope for guarantees that, when implementing the
organizations aims, they will receive adequate reaction to their individual goals and motives
from their organization, or to be more precise organizations initiative. In this case legal
expectations, which are supposed by the organization when recruiting workforce, are
considered. When implementing their goals, employees join trade union organizations; in
addition, their influence upon the organization can manifest in forming public opinion inside
and outside. The pressure can manifest as rotation in negative aspect or lawsuits for the
organization such practice gets popular in Lithuania as well.
Ethical /moral system supposes requirement for organizations activity humanism,
social and moral responsibility, the understanding of the importance of which (together with
economical factors) influences the actions of both an organizations manager and
organizations members. R. Alas, J. Gao, J. Carneiro (2010) determined the dependence
between national culture and ethics. According to the authors, the understanding of ethics
gives a possibility to solve emerging conflicts. Collectivism of a group, future orientation and
gender equality, activity orientation, human orientation, institutional collectivism are
important dimensions of culture.
Financial /economical field of will forces to solve the problems, which prevent from
achieving the optimal result of organizations activity. The economical interest stimulates the
actions of organizations members oriented to the greatest possible profit. Having eliminated
ethical-moral factors, this characteristic can become a strong stimulus for mobbing. Thus it
should be noted that the system can harmoniously function only by coordinating the interests
of different zones of will. This means that the corporate agreement of organizations
management and members is necessary, as well as the congruence of organizations and social
values. Of course, the socio-cultural attitudes of the organizational activity as well as the
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ingrained models of management, employees inter-behaviour and the behaviour of
employees and managers should be considered appropriately. In practice the cases when
mobbing is inspired by the organizations management that strives to avoid the expenses
foreseen in the Work Code and related to employees firing by means of the least input. Such
viewpoint is oriented to increasing conflicts within an organization and forecasts more
intensive rotation of employees. In other words, the objective to optimise the activity of all
systems of organizations by orienting to the aims raised for the organization inspires the
application of diagnostics and intervention of dysfunctional processes.
The model for diagnosing the mobbing as discrimination in employees relations in
order to improve organizations climate functions in three stages: diagnostics of
organizations climate, diagnostics and intervention of mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations. This model can be applied as universal means for constant monitoring
of organizations climate. The first diagnostics means the analysis of the state of climate at
the first stage of the diagnostics. If the state of the climate is good, the search for mobbing as
discrimination in employees relations ends; and the favourable state of the climate is
maintained and developed. Having identified the symptoms of ill organizations climate, the
reasons are looked for and climate criteria, through which dysfunctional behaviour of
organizations members manifests, are identified. In case mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations is not identified, mechanisms of phenomenon prevention and climate
improvement are being activated. Having diagnosed the existence of the phenomenon and its
extent within the organization, the particular reasons that determined this and the criteria,
through which the dysfunctional behaviour manifests, are being identified, as well as
correlation links to the criteria of organizations climate are being identified. In other words,
the resolved view of the mechanism of manifestation of mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations, into which the activity of intervention is being projected at the third
stage, is obtained. Having made the decision to apply intervention, the question whether the
organization has created or can create conditions for identifying a victim / victims of mobbing
as discrimination in employees relations becomes one of the most important moments. The
success of entire process and the possibility to form intervention strategy as well as to choose
tactics at individual and organizations levels depend on this circumstance. In projecting
particular actions, the cohesion of cause action outcome to the characteristics of
organizations climate and mobbing as discrimination in employees relations are evaluated.
Having applied the intervention, the secondary diagnostics (the aim is to determine whether
the actions conditioned positive climate changes and eliminated mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations) is being performed. Thus it is determined whether the model has been
successfully applied, which chosen methods of intervention have been successful. Diagnostics
can be performed in several cycles (if one is not enough) till the organizations climate
becomes favourable recovers. When carrying out diagnostics (both stages) and
intervention, constant monitoring or organisations introspection, which would determine
operative changes of actions that can be influenced by changing processes or the
circumstances that newly emerged is necessary.

2. The Stage of Diagnosing of the State of Organizations Climate

At the first stage the object of the diagnostics is the state of organizations climate.
The possible problem is formulated in the question whether the state of organizations climate
is good. In other words, it is sought to evaluate the functionality of relations of organizations
members, to determine tension fields among organizations members in order that at another
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stage to find the points of the possible expression of mobbing as discrimination in employees
relations or / and to organize prevention. Organizations climate is diagnosed by applying
deduction method when the criteria forming organizations climate are analysed and the
conclusion is formulated (Figure 2).


Source: made by the author.

Figure 2. Diagnostics of the State of Organizations Climate: the Fragment of the First Diagnostic Stage

At the first stage of diagnostics the following objectives are formulated: to identify the
state of climate and to detailed which criteria out of 12 distinguished negatively influence the
climate (Figure 3).


Source: made by the author.

Figure 3. Questions of the Organizations Climate Diagnostics Stage
The first
diagnostic
stage
Searching for reasons

Maintenance
Primary climate diagnostics
Bad state of climate Good state of climate
Factors, expression
Yes
Is organizations
climate bad?
Maintenance
,
development
Does it function
through distinguished
criteria of climate?
Yes
No
OK=f(1-12)
K11
K10
K12
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
K8
K9
K7
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
K4
K2
K6
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
K1
K2
K3
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
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In solving the first objective the state of the climate is determined by the first step. If
the answer is negative the state of the climate is good the diagnostic activity ends in the
maintenance and development of the climates state. If the answer is positive the state of the
climate is bad the second step details whether the all twelve criteria of the organizations
climate negatively influence the climate (the criteria of the organizations climate are
described in detail in paragraph below and Figure 3 names them as K1, K2... K12.). In this
sub-level of the organizations climate it is answered to 12 questions whether dysfunctional
actions of organizations members act through these criteria: K1 safety / explicitness sense;
K2 creativity / initiative; K3 values / traditions; K4 incoming an organization / outgoing;
K5 communication; K6 information dispersion; K7 relations with managers; K7
control; K9 employees interrelationship; K10 openness / tolerance; K11 non-formal
groups; K12 conflicts at an organization. Thus separate negative criteria of the
organizations climate and their sum are determined. The result is expressed by the functional
formula OK = f (112) when the state of organizations climate is determined by means of the
twelve distinguished criteria.

3. The Stage of Mobbing Diagnostics

In analysing the state of organizations climate and having identified that the state of
the climate is insufficient, it is necessary to find out whether mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations influences the ill state of the climate, i.e. at this stage the reasons of the
ill climate are being identified. The second stage of the diagnostic model of mobbing as
discrimination in employees relations in order to improve the climate of Lithuanian
organizations is divided into two parts (Figure 4) the existence or absence of the analysed
phenomenon is being identified.


Source: made by the author.

Figure 4. Diagnostics of the Mobbing Phenomenon: the Fragment of the Second Diagnostic Stage

At the second stage the diagnostics object mobbing as discrimination in employees
relations is distinguished. The suppositional problem is formulated in the question whether
mobbing influences the state of organizations climate. The purpose of this stage is to
diagnose the phenomenon and its correlation links with the climate. In case mobbing as
discrimination in employees relations is not diagnosed (e.g., it becomes clear that
discriminating relations that have not become the mobbing exist), prevention mechanisms, by
which it is sought to improve the state of the climate, are set into action. As mobbing as
The second
diagnostic
stage
The insight of mobbing phenomenon
Mobbing exists Mobbing does not exist
Searching for reasons Prevention
Factors, expression

M
O
N
I
T
O
R
I
N
G

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discrimination in employees relations manifests in different criteria, the deduction method
when from separate details general view of the phenomenon is being formed is applied; and
the conclusion, which will determine the set of intervention means at the third stage, is
formulated.
This at this stage it is sought to identify: whether mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations exists / does not exist; in what social relations it manifests / does not
manifest within the organization. The objective is being solved in two steps: during the first
the existence / absence of the phenomenon is identified; during the second by getting more
detailed in fifteen additional steps it is diagnosed through which criteria dysfunctional
relations of the organizations members manifest.


Source: made by the author.

Figure 5. Questions of Mobbing Diagnostic Stage

M=f(1-15)

No
Does it function
through all
distinguished criteria?

Yes
M2
M3
M4
M5
M1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
M7
M8
M9
M10
M6
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
M11
M12
M13
M14
M15
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Is mobbing is identified as
discrimination in employees
relations?

Yes

No
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If at the first step it is identified that mobbing as discrimination in employees
relations does not exist, preventions means are being developed. If the answer to the raised
question is positive, the second step takes place. The answer to the question Does it manifest
through all distinguished criteria supposes the ambivalent action. The negative answer
determines two additional directions of actions: 1) to identify the criteria, by which mobbing
as discrimination in employees relations manifests; 2) having identified the criteria, which
are not influenced by dysfunctional relations of employees, to further maintain and develop
them that positively influence working criteria of the organizations climate. The positive
answer to the raised question formulates the objective: to identify by which criteria mobbing
as discrimination in employees relations manifests as well as to determine their correlation
links to mobbing as discrimination in employees relations. The latter objective is being
solved by answering the questions whether mobbing as discrimination in employees relations
manifests through the following criteria: M1 physical features; M2 culturalsocial
features; M3 work features; M4 psychological features; M5 attitudes; M6
demographical features; M7 actions according to attack possibilities; M8 actions in acting
through social relations; M9 attack on employees social attitudes; M10 actions in
attacking in everyday professional activity; M11 actions in attacking in health field; M12
managers influence upon employees relations; M13 unidentified discrimination in
employees relations; M14 employees observing discrimination but not experienced it; M15
intolerance for different people. Thus the particular criteria, by which mobbing as
discrimination in employees relations manifests, are identified. In addition, having summed
up positive and negative answers, it is possible define the level of the expression of mobbing
as discrimination in employees relations (M), where the largest value (d) expressed by the
sum (s) of the criteria (k) is equal to 15. In other words, M=s(dk).
The map of mobbing attack is made (Figure 5); the zones of attack / non-attack are
distinguished. The obtained information is generalised, systemised, conclusions are drawn
the result is expressed by the functional formula M=f(115). The results of the first and
second diagnostics stages condition the actions of the third intervention stage.

5. The Stage of the Choice of Mobbing Intervention Actions

At the third stage it is sought to find out the perspectives of mobbing process
management by rehabilitating organizations climate and designing the intervention
instrumentation (Figure 6).
The object of the intervention stage is the instrument of mobbing as discrimination
in employees relations. The problem of the instruments design is formulated by the question
how during the intervention the chosen means will influence mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations.
Considering the results obtained at the previous two diagnostics stages, the following
objectives are formulated:
to determine organizations readiness to begin intervention; to analyse the
possibility to apply particular intervention methods;
to formulate intervention strategy and tactics; to identify an intervention level; to
prepare for the cycle of secondary diagnostics.
In addition, if the organization is not ready to apply intervention at present, the
objective to identify what obstacles have to be eliminated and what resources are missing that
the intervention could be applied in the future is raised.
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The third stage of the diagnostic model of mobbing as discrimination in employees
relations in order to improve the climate of Lithuanian organizations involves two essential
questions: (1) whether the organization obligates to act and (2) at what levels it will act.


Source: made by the author.

Figure 6. Managerial Decisions: the Fragment of Mobbing Intervention Stage

The positive answer to the question Does the organization obligate to act? inspires
the second step, in which the answers to the questions: (1) Does the organization obligate to
act at the organizational level?; (2) Does the organization obligate to act at the individual
level?, (3) Does the organization obligate to act at organizational and individual levels?
are given. The positive answer to the first question means that organizational ways of the
intervention (OI) will be chosen. The negative answer conditions the second and third
questions. The positive answer to the second question directs the vector of actions towards the
choice of individual intervention ways (II). The negative answer conditions the first and third
questions. The positive answer to the third question means that organizational and individual
intervention ways will be chosen. By the third step the question whether the organization will
create conditions for a victim to identify is raised. The positive or negative answer determines
the set of intervention instruments as well as the effectiveness of the activity. If the positive
answer occurs, the possibility to identify the identities of an attacker and victim is created, as
well as to detail mobbing activities and by taking the fourth step to evaluate the possibilities
of application of OI and II means. The negative answer shows organizations ill-preparation to
effectively apply the intervention as well as it does not ensure the optimal result of the
activity. In addition, the possibility to apply the individual intervention falls away (Figure 7).
In Figure 7 the letters OI mark the intervention ways at the organizational level, II
the intervention ways at the individual level.
There are eight ways of the intervention at the organizational level: OI1 educative
management, personal self-education; OI2 the method of work group support; OI3
supervision and observance of professional activity; OI4 the method of intermediation; OI5
consulting and developing of the organization as a learning organization; OI6 the
procedure of conciliation as the method to resolve a conflict; OI7 employment of the stood
off as well as; OI8 development of value system (Kolodej, 2005; Pruskus, 2005;
Gimzauskiene, 2007; Vveinhardt, 2007; Vveinhardt, Nikaite, 2008; Starr, 2009; Sedziuviene,
Vveinhardt, 2009, 2010, etc.)

The stage of
mobbing
intervention
Managerial decisions to apply
intervention
Intervention strategy, tactics, methods
Organizations level Individual level
Secondary diagnostics of climate
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Source: made by the author.

Figure 7. Questions of Mobbing Intervention Stage

If an organization creates the conditions for a mobbing victim to get identified, there
are ten intervention (assistance) ways possible at an individual level: II1 assistance of
No actions
Taip
II4

II5
II3
Taip
Taip
Taip
Ne
Ne
Ne
II2

Ne
II1
Taip
Ne
Taip
II9

II10
II8
Taip
Taip
Taip
Ne
Ne
Ne
II7

Ne
II6
Taip
Ne
II=f(1-10)


Yes
Does the organization obligate
to act at organizational level?
Yes
Does the organization obligate
to act?
No
Yes
Yes
Does the organization obligate
to act at both levels?

Taip
OI3

OI4
OI2
Taip
Taip
Taip
Ne
Ne
Ne
OI1

Ne
Taip
OI7

OI8
OI6
Taip
Taip
Taip
Ne
Ne
Ne
OI5

Ne
OI=f(1-8)


Does the organization obligate
to act at individual level?

Yes
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partners and family members; II2 assistance of friends and acquaintances; II3 assistance of
a family doctor; II4 consultation of a psychologist / psychotherapist; II5 trade union; II6
lawyers; II7 consultants in mobbing; II8 mutual assistance group; II9 crises centres; II9
other institutions or persons.
In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the resources of the victim and organization as
well as its institutional possibilities, e.g., whether the victim has a person, to whom he / she
can apply; whether it is possible to direct the victim to the Crises Centre and whether such
organization in general exists, etc.

Conclusions

1. Organizations climate is the result of the interrelationship of organizations
members as well as the sum of reactions to these relations. Mobbing not only marks the ill
state of organizations climate but also worsens it even in case the mobbing victim is fired.
The state of the climate should be evaluated symptomatically as the signal inspiring to search
for mobbing among the factors of the ill climate. The factors of organizations climate and
mobbing inter-correlate; thus, having eliminated the mobbing factors determining the dis-
functionality of employees relations, the climate improves. However the improving climate
does not ensure that under favourable circumstances the trouble-spots of the mobbing conflict
will not form. It should be mentioned that the managers viewpoint to mobbing as the way out
permitting to avoid severance pays would induce the growth of the number of conflict and
mobbing relations. The model can be applied universally both at Lithuanian and foreign
organizations; however, when implementing it, it is necessary to evaluate the national cultural
context. The model involves three stages: the first and second diagnostic stages and the third
intervention stage. At the first stage according to separate characteristics the state of
organizations climate is analysed and evaluated. The viewpoint that ill climate can signal
about already existing mobbing conflicts or the favourable environment for the conflicts to
emerge is considered; however the favourable climate does not eliminate the possibility for
mobbing. At the second stage according to the distinguished mobbing characteristics
correlating to the climate characteristics it is searched for destructive aspects of the
discriminating behaviour in employees relations. The reversible cohesion of mobbing and
climate characteristics should be pointed out because the second stage allows specifying the
zones of danger in organizations climate. The results obtained during the diagnostics become
the basis for applying intervention by choosing its directions, as well as tactical decisions. The
secondary diagnostics of the climate allows evaluating the intervention strategy and correcting
if necessary. The important factor is the participation of the entire organization and the
compatibility of the fields of the will of the employees and the manager interested in good
organizations climate as well as financial / economical and ethical / moral fields. This can
also be defined as harmonisation of organizations and personal goals, the striving of the
congruency of employees and organizations values. The latter statement is polemic because
due to cultural, social, value differences the ethical / moral field remains a complicated
definable link.
2. The structurogram of mobbing diagnostics is divided into three closely interrelated
stages, which are itemized in diagnostics steps. At the first diagnostics stage the climate state
is determined according to twelve distinguished criteria: sense of security / explicitness;
creativity /initiative; values / traditions; coming to the organization / leaving; communication;
information dissemination; relations with managers; control; employees interrelations;
openness / tolerance; non-formal groups; conflicts within the organization. The search for
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functional troubles of the system plays several roles climate maintenance or rehabilitation
and mobbing prevention or reconnaissance of risk zones. The role of mobbing is ambivalent
it can be both of the reason of ill organizations climate and its outcome. In addition, the risk
factors determined at the first diagnostics stage should be eliminated even if mobbing has not
been identified. If the state of the climate exists, it is sought to maintain status quo. The first
and second stages are related by the actions of maintenance and prevention.
3. At the first stage, when diagnosing the climate through twelve distinguished
criteria, the condition for the second stage the diagnostics of mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations is created. At this stage it is not confined in the identification of
mobbing victims. The problem should be analysed in micro and macro levels, i.e.
interpersonal conflicts and organizational factors determining them. In order to help a victim
and to prevent further dysfunctional relations within the organization in the future it is
necessary to make the mobbing map according to the distinguished criteria as well as to
identify the correlation to the climate criteria. Fifteen criteria of mobbing have been
distinguished: physical features, cultural social features, work features, psychological
features, attitudes, demographic features, actions according to attack possibilities, actions
through social relations, attack of employees social attitudes, actions by attacking in
everyday professional activity, actions by attacking in health field, managers influence upon
employees relations, unidentified discrimination in employees relations, employees seeing
discriminating relations but not experienced them, intolerance to different people.
4. Having eliminated the possibility of existence of mobbing as discrimination in
employees relations, it is confined to climates rehabilitation and development. In the
existence of the phenomenon has been identified, the intervention model consisting out of
organizational and individual means of intervention is started to apply. The factors as
organizations readiness to begin intervention and organizations possibilities to apply
particular intervention methods determine intervention ways and decisions to apply it or
refuse. Later the following objectives are being solved: to create the strategy and tactics of
intervention, to determine the level of intervention, to prepare for the cycle of secondary
diagnostics. The direction of the actions being chosen are determined by the factors of ill
climate and mobbing identified in the first two stages as well as organizations resources to
implement solutions by own means or to apply to external consultants. Despite the
possibilities of choosing assistance, the particularity determines concrete actions, for example,
in the case of sex abuse or if psychosomatic disorders of organisms functions develop, will
not be sufficient, for example, a mutual assistance group, - the help of a therapist is necessary.
It should be noted that constant monitoring and introspection determine the quality of
diagnostics and intervention activity as well as the final result. Unfavourable ill organizations
climate signalizes that mobbing actions of discrimination can be the denominator of
dysfunctional relations of employees. These actions influence organizations climate by
feedback. The first cycle of diagnostics and intervention is finished by secondary diagnostics,
or by the second diagnostics cycle, in which the state of climate is evaluated, existence /
absence of mobbing as discrimination in employees relations as well as repeated intervention
and necessity for additional cycles. The constructed model can be also used separately only
for diagnosing organizations climate, this shows its universality and broad application
possibilities.

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MOBINGO DIAGNOZAVIMO MODELIO STRUKTROGRAMA

Jolita Vveinhardt

SANTRAUKA

Straipsnyje aptariama modeliavimo specifika, pristatomi autor%s sudaryto modelio formavimo etapai
aptariant kiekvien; detaliai. Pateikiamas mobingo kaip diskriminacijos darbuotoj: santykiuose gerinant
organizacij: klimat; diagnozavimo modelis, kuris naudotinas mobingo rei8kinio prevencijai ir intervencijai.
Modelio esm% trys diagnozavimo etapai (organizacijos klimato b1kl%s nustatymas; mobingo rei8kinio .4valgos;
vadybiniai mobingo intervencijos sprendimai), keturi laukai (vadovo valios lauka; darbuotoj: valios laukas;
finansinis/ekonominis laukas; etinis/moralinis laukas), monitoringas ir gr.4tamasis ry8ys.

REIKMINIAI #OD#IAI: darbuotojai, tarpusavio santykiai, diskriminacija, mobingas, mobingo diagnozavimas,
priekabiavimas, mobingo diagnozavimo modelis.