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35 Marks (28 Periods)
15 Marks (12 Periods) Plant Physiology
50 Marks (40 Periods)
35 Marks (28 Periods)
1. Biochemical Foundations : 1.1. Covalent and non-covalent bonds ; hydrogen
bond ; Van der Waal’s forces ; 1.2. Structure and properties of water ; 1.3. pH and
buffer ( inorganic and organic ); 1.4. Handerson-Hasselbalch equation; 1.5. Isoelectric
2. Molecules of life : 2.1. Nucleic Acids – structure of nucleosides and
nucleotides ; oligo- and poly nucleotides , B & Z form of DNA, RNA- different
forms; nucleotide derivatives (ATP, NADP), 2.2. Proteins – structure and
classification of amino acids; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of
proteins; 2.3. Carbohydrates - structure of mono-, di- and polysaccharide;
stereoisomers, enantiomers and epimers; 2.4. Lipids - structure of simple lipid and
compound lipid (phospholipids and glycolipids), fatty acids- saturated and
3. Energy flow and enzymology : 3.1. Bioenergetics-Thermodynamic principles;
free energy; energy rich bonds- phosphoryl group transfer and ATP; redox potentials
and Biological redox reactions, 3.2. Enzymes – classification and nomenclature
(IUBMB); Co-factors and co-enzymes; isozymes, 3.3. Mechanism of enzyme
action; enzyme inhibition; 3.4. Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis- Menten equation) and
simple problems.
4. Cell membrane and Biosignalling : 4.1. Membrane chemistry, 4.2. Membrane
transport (uniport, symport, antiport), mechanism of ion uptake 4.3. Signal
transduction pathway and second messenger concept - G-protein and Ca2+ as
messenger. 5. Phosphorylation : ATP Synthesis- Chemiosmotic model, Oxidative and
Photophosphorylation- Mechanism and differences.

15 Marks (12 Periods)

1. General account : 1.1 Pharmacognosy and its importance in modern medicine ,
1.2 Crude drugs, 1.3 Classification of drugs- chemical and pharmacological , 1.4
Drug evaluation – organoleptic , microscopic, chemical, physical and biological.
2. Secondary metabolites : 2.1 Definition of secondary metabolites and difference
with primary metabolites , 2.2 Interrelationship of basic metabolic pathways with
secondary metabolite biosynthesis (outlines only), 2.3 Major types–terpenoids,
phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids and their protective action against pathogenic
microbes and herbivores.

4 HSK Pathway– three variants of the pathway. 8. abscisic acid and blue light in stomatal movement. Photosynthetic efficiency of C3 and C4 plants and crop productivity.3 Perception of photoperiodic stimulus. 4. Plant Growth Regulators : 6. 4.4 Mode of action of IAA.2 Chemical nature –IAA. concept of light monitoring.8 Concept of biological clock and biorhythm . biological significance of carotenoid pigments.6 Role of GA in flowering. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 50 Marks (40 Periods) 1. Photorespiration – mechanism and significance. 8.4.1 Chemical structure of chlorophyll a and b .7 Vernalisation – role of low temperature in flowering. GA3.4 Critical day length. 6.7 Crassulacean acid metabolism – mechanism and ecological significance. 9. 6.5 Phytochrome – chemical nature. 7. 3.4 Alkaloids (Quinine. Causes and Methods of breaking seed dormancy. 5. 1. components of water potential in plant system . 2.8 Stoichiometry of glucose oxidation (aerobic). Vinblastine).3 Stomatal physiology-mechanism of opening and closing. 2. Seed dormancy : 8.3. Antitranspirants. 5.2 Soil-plant-Atmosphere continuum concept. 6. 7. 1.1 Steroids (Diosgenin. Gibberellin.1 Phloem sap.6. General principle of amino acid biosynthesis (including GS and GOGAT enzyme system). 5. Cytokinin. Cyclic and noncyclic electron transport. 3. 3. Water splitting mechanism. 7. Photomorphogenesis : 7. Components of photosystems (light harvesting complex).1 Concept of water potential . 4.3 TCA-cycle and its amphibolic role .2 Biochemistry of dinitrogen fixation in Rhizobium. Cavitation in xylem and embolism. function in flowering. 3.2 Biochemistry of seed germination.1 Concept of photomorphogenesis. 4. 4.2 Tannin (Catechin). Nitrogen Metabolism : 5. interconversion. 3. Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and its significance. 7.2 Photoperiodism and plant types. 4. potassium ion.1 Assimilation of nitrate by plants.2 Conversion of Pyruvic acid to Acetyl CoA.7 Oxidation of cytosolic NADH+H+ 4.2 Phloem loading and unloading. 7. absorption and action spectra.5 Brassinosteroids and Polyamines as PGRs (brief idea). Biosynthesis and bioassay of IAA. Abscisic acid. 7.3 Mass-flow (pressure flow) hypothesis and its critical evaluation.6 Mitochondrial electron transport system. 6. 3. 6. Curcuminoids). Pharmacologically active constituents : Source plants (one example) parts used and uses of : 3.3 Resins ( Gingerol. Physiological roles of Auxin. . 3. 7. Strychnine.5.5 ß-oxidation of fatty acids and significance.3. Photochemical reaction centres. Photosynthesis : 3.1 EMP pathway. Respiration : 4. Kinetin. Reserpine.1 Types. Role of carbon di-oxide. 3. regulation and its anabolic role . uncouplers. 2. Organic Translocation : 2.4.1. Physiology of Senescence and Ageing. Ethylene. Digitoxin).3. 3. 3. 7.2 Red drop and Emerson effect. P-protein. Plant-water relations: 1.3 Calvin cycle – Biochemical reactions & stoichiometry.

1. 2. Cell cycle and its regulation : 3. 2. chi.2.Measurement of dispersion – Standard Deviation. Nuclear lamina and Nuclear pore complex.2.2. spindle apparatus & telomere–structural organization and functions.3.1. Standard error of Mean. Somatic embryogenesis. kinetochore.3 Salt stress PAPER VI (THEORETICAL) : 100 MARKS : 4 HOURS Cell Biology 20 Marks (16 Periods) Plant Breeding & Biometry 15 Marks (12 Periods) Plant Biotechnology 15 Marks (12 Periods) Genetics & Molecular Biology 50 Marks (40 Periods) PAPER VI (THEORETICAL) CELL BIOLOGY 20 Marks (16 Periods) 1. . growth and maintenance. 2. 2.2. 3. 9.5. Karyotype concept and its parameters. Tissue culture 2.DNA).3.1. Plant Breeding: 1. Feqeuency distribution. Applications. Significance. Test of significance: ‘t’. 1. Ribozymes. Nucleus and Chromosome : 2.6 Molecular Breeding (use of DNA markers in plant breeding). 3. Artificial seed. Organogenesis (direct and indirect). Cellular totipotency.1 Maintenance of germplasm. Origin and Evolution of Cells : 1.2. Stress Physiology: Plant responses to: 9. Chromatin ultrastructure and DNA packaging in eukaryotic chromosome. Concept of RNA world. 3. Heterosis and hybrid seed production. 1. Biometry: 2.3.1. Callus culture : 15 Marks (12 Periods) 1.1. 2. 1.2 Mass selection and Pure line selection. 2.2. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 1.1 Random sampling. 2. Origin of eukaryotic cell.1 Water stress. 2.5 Probability ( Addition and Multiplication rules).1. Mechanism of cell cycle control in Yeast (checkpoints and role of MPF).10. PLANT BREEDING & BIOMETRY 15 Marks (12 Periods) Back cross method.4. 1. 3.4.square test for goodness of fit.2 Temperature stress. Apoptosis (Brief idea). Central tendency– Arithmetic Mean. 2. Organellar DNA (cp-and mt. 1. First cell. Centromere. Micropropagation : 3. Nuclear envelope. 2. 1. Male sterility and its use in plant breeding.6 Measurement of gene frequency (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium).test. Plant tissue culture –Introduction: media.3. Aseptic manipulation. Callus initiation. Mode and Median. 3. Nucleolus-ultrastructure and ribosome biogenesis.2. 1. 3. 2. Dynamics of chromosome movement in anaphase.

9. Role of Reporter gene.2 Polyploidy. 2. 6.2 Molecular mechanism (tautomerisation.2.1. DNA Replication. Protoplast fusion (somatic hybridization). Mapping function.5 Repetitive DNA-tandem and interspersed.1. 10.6 Transposon (Ac-Ds system). alkylation. Complete and incomplete linkage. 1.6 Problems on gene mapping. 1. 5.6 Translation.5 Co-efficient of coincidence and interference. 1. Bioinformatics : Brief concept on 11.1.2 Vector (plasmid pBR 322) 10. Chromosomal aberration: Types and meiotic behaviour of: 4. Linkage.4. 6. 5.6 Genomic DNA and cDNA library. 3. 6. 10. Significance . Transcription and Translation (Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes): 7.2 Semiconservative replication – mechanism. 5. 4.1 One Gene–one polypeptide concept.1 Genomics. Steps of cloning technique. Significance.5 PCR and its application 10.2 Proteomics. 4. meiotic behaviour and importance of: 3. GENETICS & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 50 Marks (40 Periods) 1.2 Decipherence of codon (Binding technique ) . 7.1 Properties-evidences & exceptions.4.3 Molecular mechanism of crossing over (Holliday model). 1. Epistasis and Polygenic inheritance in plants. 4. linkage group. 8. 6. deamination.1. ligase). special emphasis on Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer.3. 1.3 Transcription.2.1 Enzyme (Restriction endonuclease.1 Point mutation-Transition. 6. Mutation : 5.5 Aminoacylation of tRNA.4 Inversion. examples. Recombinant DNA Technology: 10. 6. 6. Structural organisation of Gene : 6.7 Homoeotic gene in plants (ABC model in Arabidopsis). Brief concept of different gene transfer methods. 10. 6. 6.2 Complementation test (rII locus). 1. base analogue incorporation. 11. Transversion and Frame shift mutation. 3. 10. 4. . 7. 5. Plant Genetic Engineering : 6.3 Marker gene.7 Molecular mapping – ISH.2 Positive and negative control.1 Concept of Lac-operon. Haploid Culture : 4. 7. Anther and Pollen culture methods. Protoplast isolation and culture. FISH (brief idea).2 Duplication. 7. dimerisation).1 Central Dogma. Aneuploidy and Polyploidy: Types. 11. 5.3 Translocation.4 RNA processing. Protoplast Culture : 5. 7. Gene Regulation : 8.2 Detection of crossing over (McClintock’s experiment).1 Deletion. 9.3 Split gene.4 Gene mapping (three point test cross).4 Overlapping gene.3 DNA repair (brief idea). Achievements in crop biotechnology (suitable examples of transgenic plants). 4. Crossing over and Gene Mapping : 1. Genetic Code : 9. 7.1 Aneuploidy. 8.2. 5.

raphides (Colocasia). 7. Quantitative : 1. 3. Determination of the RQ of germinating seeds. Laboratory Records (Laboratory note books-8 & Slides-2) 10 Marks 8. Estimation of urease activity in plant samples. Comparison of imbibitions of water by starchy. 9. oil glands. tartaric. Relationship between transpiration and evaporation. 4. 2. Detection of organic acids: citric . (b) Alkaloid ( Catharanthus roseus) .) 6. Mg. Tecoma. Pharmacognosy 10 Marks 5. 2.5) 5 Marks 7. Powder microscopy – . Measurement of oxygen uptake by respiring tissue (per g/hr. Determination of loss of water per stoma per hour. Estimation of catalase activity in plant samples. 3. proteinaceous and fatty seeds. Identification (Anatomy-2x2. 5. 2. sclereids. Estimation of titratable acidity from lemon. sucrose and starch from laboratory samples. Microscopic studies on: Types of stomata. 3. 2. fructose . ANATOMY 1. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 1. Study of adaptive anatomical features : Hydrophytes ( Nymphaea – petiole ) and Xerophytes (Nerium – leaf). oxalic and malic from laboratory samples.Estimation of amino-nitrogen by formol titration method (glycine) . Detection of carbohydrate and protein from plant samples. aleurone grains. 6. Estimation of glucose by Benedicts quantitative reagent. 2. Effect of temperature on absorption of water by storage tissue and determination of Q10. laticiferous ducts. Colorimetric estimation of protein by Folin phenol reagent. Boerhaavia. cystolith (Ficus leaf) starch grains. Separation of plastidial pigments. Chemical tests for (a) Tannin (Camellia sinensis / Terminalia chebula ). Rate of photosynthesis under varying HCO-3 concentration in an aquatic plant using bicarbonate and to find out the optimum and toxic concentration . Study of anomalous secondary structure in stem of Bignonia. Detection of the nature of carbohydrate – glucose. Fe. 4. Measurement of osmotic pressure of Rhoeo leaf by plasmolytic method. 4. 5. Plant Physiology 25 Marks 3.PAPER VII (PRACTICAL): 100 MARKS : 6 HOURS 1. Dracaena and root of Tinospora 3. Plant Biochemistry (Quantitative & Qualitative)(20+10)= 30 Marks 2. Viva 10 Marks PAPER VII ( PRACTICAL) PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY Qualitative : 1. Detection of Ca. S from plant ash sample. PHARMACOGNOSY 1. Measurement of osmotic pressure of storage tissue by weighing method. 8. Anatomy 10 Marks 4. 10.

(c) Alkaloid (stem of Catharanthus and bark of Holarrhena ). 3. (ii) abnormal stages. LABORATORY RECORDS 1. Identification : Pathological specimens of Brown spot of rice. 9:3:3:1. Cell Biology and Genetics (20+10) = 30 Marks 2. anaphase bridge. Pathology . mode . Study of mitotic chromosome : Metaphase chromosome preparation . Sterilization process. 2. BIOMETRY 1. Mitosis –(i) normal stages. Determination of mitotic index and frequency of different mitotic stages in pre-fixed root tips of Allium cepa. Aloe vera . 2. (b) Preparation of slants and pouring Petri. 3. Slides-3) 10 Marks 7. Fixation. 13:3.Loose smut of wheat. Identification from permanent slides : Meiosis – (i) normal stages (ii) abnormal stages – laggard. Lens esculenta. Slides of uredial. Preparation of fungal media (PDA). Determination of goodness of fit in normal and modified mono-and dihybrid ratios ( 3:1. Gram staining from bacterial culture. Bacterial blight of rice . multipolarity . 2. Squash and Smear preparation. PLANT PATHOLOGY 1. Laboratory Note Book of each section must be signed by the respective teacher with date during practical classes. 5. 3. free hand drawing under high power objective. determination of 2n number. median . Viva 10 Marks PAPER VIII (PRACTICAL) CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS 1. 2. 4. fragmentation. drawing with drawing prism under oil immersion lens. late separation. pycnial & aecial stages of Puccinia graminis. mean .early separation. Microbiology 12 Marks 4. Plant Pathology 10 Marks 5. 9:7. Staining. PAPER VIII (PRACTICAL) : 100 MARKS : 6 HOURS 16 1. 1:1. 4. 1:1:1:1 ) by Chi-square analysis and comment on the nature of inheritance . Late blight of potato. Slides (permanent) prepared during practical classes. comment on chromosome morphology of the following specimens from root tips: Allium cepa . Microscopic examination of bacteria from natural habitat(curd ) by simple staining. Preparation of permanent slides. Identification (Cell Biology . 3. ring chromosome (Rhoeo discolor).5X6) = 15 Marks 6. Slides (permanent) prepared during practical classes. Laboratory Records (Laboratory note books-8. Introduction to chromosome preparation: Pretreatment. Inoculation of fruit and subculturing. Isolation of pathogen from diseased leaf. identification of different stages and free hand drawing of the following specimens from flower buds: Allium cepa and Setcreasea sp. 5. (ii) pollen mitosis. Histochemical tests of (a) Curcumin ( Curcuma longa ) . telial. Preparation of bacterial media – (a) Nutrient agar and nutrient broth. Study of meiotic chromosome: Smear preparation of meiotic cells. Laboratory Note Book of each section must be signed by the respective teacher with date during practical classes. . 2.4. (b) Starch in non-lignified vessel ( Zingiber). Sub-culturing of bacterial culture.plates. Univeriate analysis of statistical data : Statistical tables . Biometry 13 Marks 3.Zingiber and Holarrhena . 15:1. 2. Stem rot of jute. standard deviation and standard error (using seedling population / leaflet size ).2) (2. LABORATORY RECORDS 1. 4. sticky bridge. MICROBIOLOGY 1.