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MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014

Name: Exam #1
Copyright 2014 –Phillip M. Cormier and Jobaidur R. Khan 1

Print your name at the top each page. You will turn in both this exam sheet and your equation sheet.
Point distribution is shown for each problem (this may be helpful in allocating time for each question.
Any instance of academic dishonesty will result in a zero for the exam, and has the potential for further
disciplinary action (including expulsion from the university). By printing your name you
acknowledge you will not discuss this exam with anyone prior to 5:00 PM on March 14
th
, 2014.
Problem 1 (15 Points Total)
A carbon steel component (elastic modulus of 30∙10
6
psi and a Poisson’s ration of 0.3) has the stress
state listed below (all other stresses are zero):

σxx = 300 psi, σyy = -200 psi, τxy = 400 psi, τxz = -200 psi

Do the following:
a) Determine all strains. (12 Points)
b) Briefly describe what Poisson’s ratio captures. (This can be done in 1-2 sentences). (3 Points)

Sol. a) o
xx
= 300 psi, o
yy
= –200 psi, o
zz
= 0 psi, t
xy
= 400 psi, t
yz
= 0 psi, t
zx
= –200 psi
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

t
t
t
o
o
o
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¸
¸
¸
c
c
c
v v
v v
v v
zx
yz
xy
z
y
x
G
1
G
1
G
1
E
1
E E
E E
1
E
E E E
1
zx
yz
xy
zz
yy
xx
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

For the material, v = 0.3, psi 10 30 E
6
× = ,
( ) ( )
psi 10 5 . 11
3 . 0 1 2
psi 10 30
1 2
E
G
6
6
× ~
+
×
=
v +
=

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

× ÷
×
× ÷
× ÷
×
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¸
¸
¸
c
c
c
¬
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
×
×
×
× × ×
× × ×
× × ×
5
5
6
6
5
10 5 . 11
1
10 5 . 11
1
10 5 . 11
1
10 30
1
10 30
292 . 0
10 30
292 . 0
10 30
292 . 0
10 30
1
10 30
292 . 0
10 30
292 . 0
10 30
292 . 0
10 30
1
zx
yz
xy
zz
yy
xx
10 739 . 1
0
10 478 . 3
10 0 . 1
10 667 . 9
10 2 . 1
200
0
400
0
200
300
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
6
6
6
6 6 6
6 6 6
6 6 6


b) Poisson’s ratio is the ratio between axial strain and lateral strain.



Copyright 2014 –Phillip M. Cormier and Jobaidur R. Khan 2
Problem 2 (15 Points Total)
For the component shown below in Figure 1, do the following:
a) Determine the maximum stress in the component given it is made of carbon steel.
(For carbon steel: S
y
=190 MPa, elastic modulus of 206.8 GPa, and a Poisson’s ration of 0.3) (10
Points)
b) Would your analysis process change if the material were made of gray cast iron? If so, what would
change and why? (5 Points)
(For gray cast iron: S
UT
=150 MPa, elastic modulus of 103.4 GPa, and a Poisson’s ration of 0.28)


Figure 1: Machine Component for Problem 2
Sol. (a) If the material is carbon steel, it is ductile. So, stress concentration is not considered here.
The maximum stress will take place at minimum area, which is the center of the
component.

So, the minimum area is A = Width (with hole) × Thickness = (25 – 6) × 10 = 190 mm²
So, the maximum stress will be, MPa
mm
N
A
P
05 . 1
190
200
2
max
= = = o

(b) If the material is gray cast iron, it is brittle. Because brittle materials do not yield locally,
the stress concentration needs to be considered. We would take our nominal stress and
multiply it by the stress concentration factor.

Stress concentration factor (from the chart provided)
The parameter, 065 24 . 0
mm 25
mm 6
W
d
< = = [So, the correlation is valid]

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4427 . 2
24 . 0 9684 . 2 24 . 0 8145 . 1
24 . 0 2659 . 9 24 . 0 9735 . 7 24 . 0 753 . 3 0039 . 3
9684 . 2 8145 . 1 2659 . 9 9735 . 7 753 . 3 0039 . 3
5 4
3 2
5 4 3 2
=
× + × +
× ÷ × + × ÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ~
W
d
W
d
W
d
W
d
W
d
K
t

So, the maximum stress will be, MPa 56 . 2 MPa 05 . 1 4427 . 2 K
o t max
= × = o = o

MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Name: Exam #1
Copyright 2014 –Phillip M. Cormier and Jobaidur R. Khan 3
Problem 3 (30 Points Total)
For the given state of stress (magnitudes and directions indicated in Figure 2):
a) Create the stress tensor for this problem. (5 Points)
b) Determine the principal stresses and order them appropriately. Clearly document your approach
showing all work. (15 Points)
c) Identify the principal direction for σ1. (10 Points)

Figure 2: Stress Element for Exam Problem 3


Sol. (a) o
xx
= 900 psi, o
yy
= 400 psi, o
zz
= –500 psi, t
xy
= 600 psi, t
yz
= 0 psi, t
zx
= 0 psi
(b) | |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
500 0 0
0 400 600
0 600 900
zz yz zx
yz yy xy
zx xy xx
zz yz zx
yz yy xy
zx xy xx
o t t
t o t
t t o
o o o
o o o
o o o
o
For non-trivial solution, ( ) 0 I det
p
= o ÷ o
( )
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
÷
= ÷ ¬
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
÷
= ÷
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
I I
o
o
o
o o
o
o
o
o o
500 0 0
0 400 600
0 600 900
det
500 0 0
0 400 600
0 600 900

So, ( ) ( )( ) | | 0 600 600 400 900 500 0
500 0 0
0 400 600
0 600 900
= × ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ =
÷ ÷
÷
÷
p p p
p
p
p
o o o
o
o
o

( ) ( ) | |
( )( ) | |
( ) ( ) | | 0 1300 500
0 1300 500
0 3600 900 400 3600 500
2
2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬
= · ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬
= ÷ + · ÷ · ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬
p p p
p p p
p p p p
o o o
o o o
o o o o

Copyright 2014 –Phillip M. Cormier and Jobaidur R. Khan 4
5 . 67 , 5 . 1332
2
000 , 600 , 1 1400
2
000 , 90 4 400 , 1 400 , 1
, 400
2
p p
=
±
=
× ÷ ±
= o ÷ = o ¬
Ordering the results following the convention on largest to smallest:
psi psi psi 500 , 0 , 1300
3 2 1
÷ = = = o o o
(c) With Eigen Values now known, we can determine the principal direction of o
1
,
( ) 0 I 0
p p p
= | o ÷ o ¬ = | o ÷ | o ¬ | o = | o
    

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
|
= |
n
z
n
y
n
x
n


Determine
1
|

using o
1
= 1300 psi,
( )
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
¬
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
¬
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
÷
= ÷
0
0
0
1 0 0
0 5 . 1 1
0 5 . 1 1
0
0
0
1800 0 0
0 900 600
0 600 400
0
0
0
1300 500 0 0
0 1300 400 600
0 600 1300 900
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
y
x
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| o o


For row 1 or 2,
1 1 1 1
5 . 1 0 5 . 1
y x y x
| | | | = ¬ = ÷ ,
For row 3, 0
1
z
= |
So,
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¬
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
5547 . 0
8321 . 0
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
0
1
5 . 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
z
y
x
z
y
x
|
|
|
|
|
|




This will not
be necessary
MAE 311: Machines and Mechanisms I Spring 2014
Name: Exam #1
Copyright 2014 –Phillip M. Cormier and Jobaidur R. Khan 5
Problem 4 (40 Points Total)
A machine component has been simplified to create the diagram shown in Figure 3. The loading in the
problem is F
x
= 0 lb, F
z
= -100 lb and F
y
= -200 lb. If all connections are assumed to be rigid, do the
following:
a) Draw the stress element at Point A, clearly labeling the source of all stresses. (15 Points for Labeling
Element, 5 Points for Sources of Each Stress)
b) Determine all stress magnitudes and create the stress tensor. (15 Points for Magnitudes, 5 Points for
Putting them in the Tensor)

Figure 3: Component for Problem 4


Copyright 2014 –Phillip M. Cormier and Jobaidur R. Khan 6



Sol. (a) Point A will have a bending moment from F
y
, which is M
y
= 200 × 10 = 2,000 lb.in and it
will cause axial tension. F
y
will also have a torque (T
y
= 200 × 5 = 1000 lb.in) and it will
cause shear.
Point A will have a bending shear from F
z
.

Let’s build the stress on element A.













The normal stress from bending,
( )
psi 036 , 6
in 5 . 1
in . lb 000 , 2 32
d
M 32
I
c M
3 3
y y
x
=
t
×
=
t
= = o ,
The shear from torsion,
( )
psi 509 , 1
in 5 . 1
in . lb 000 , 1 16
d
T 16
J
c T
3 3
y y
Ty
=
t
×
=
t
= = t ,
The shear from bending,
( )
psi 4 . 75
in 5 . 1 3
in . lb 100 16
d 3
F 16
A 3
F 4
Ib
FQ
2 2
z z
Fz
=
t
×
=
t
= = = t ,
So, shear in xz, psi 434 , 1 4 . 75 509 , 1
Fz Ty xz
= ÷ = t ÷ t = t

(b) The stress tensor is, | |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

o t t
t o t
t t o
= o
0 0 psi 434 , 1
0 0 0
psi 434 , 1 0 psi 036 , 6
zz yz zx
yz yy xy
zx xy xx


o
x from My

x z
y
t
xz from Ty

t
xz from Fz