You are on page 1of 97

CE2255HIGHWAY ENGINEERING CE2255 HIGHWAYENGINEERING

Syllabus
CE2255HIGHWAYENGINEERING LTPC
Syllabus
3003
OBJECTIVE
The objective of the course is to educate the students on the various components of Highway
Engineering. It exposes the students to highway planning, engineering surveys for highway Engineering. It exposes the students to highway planning, engineering surveys for highway
alignment, Design of Geometric Elements of Highways and Urban roads, Rigid and Flexible
pavements design. The students further learn the desirable properties of highway materials
and various practices adopted for construction. This course enables the students to develop
skill on evaluation of the pavements and to decide appropriate types of maintenance.
UNITI HIGHWAYPLANNINGANDALIGNMENT 9
History of Road Construction, Highway Development in India Jayakar Committee
Recommendations and Realisations, Twentyyear Road Development Plans, Concepts of
O i Hi h D l t P t N ti l L l I tit ti f Hi h Ongoing Highway Development Programmes at National Level, Institutions for Highway
Development at National level Indian Roads Congress, Highway Research Board, National
Highway Authority of India, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH) and Central
Road Research Institute. Requirements of Ideal Alignment, Factors Controlling Highway
Alignment Engineering Surveys for Alignment Conventional Methods and Modern Methods
(R t S i GIS d GPS t h i ) Cl ifi ti d C S ti f U b d (Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS techniques) Classification and Cross Section of Urban and
Rural Roads (IRC), Highway Cross Sectional Elements Right of Way, Carriage Way, Camber,
Kerbs, Shoulders and Footpaths [IRC Standards], Cross sections of different Class of Roads
Principles of Highway Financing.
UNIT II GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAYS 9
Syllabus
UNIT II GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAYS 9
Design of Horizontal Alignment Horizontal Curves Super elevation, Widening of Pavements
on Horizontal Curves and Transition Curves Design of Vertical Alignments Rolling, Limiting,
Exceptional and Minimum Gradients, Summit and Valley CurvesSight Distances Factors
affecting Sight Distances PIEV theor Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) O ertaking Sight affecting Sight Distances, PIEV theory, Stopping Sight Distance (SSD), Overtaking Sight
Distance (OSD), Sight Distance at Intersections, Intermediate Sight Distance and Illumination
Sight Distance [Derivations and Problems in SSD and OSD] Geometric Design of Hill Roads
[IRC Standards Only]
UNIT III FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS 9
Rigid and Flexible Pavements Components and their Functions Design Principles of Flexible
and Rigid Pavements, Factors affecting the Design of Pavements ESWL, Climate, Subgrade
Soil and Traffic Design Practice for Flexible Pavements [IRC Method and Recommendations g [
Problems] Design Practice for Rigid Pavements IRC Recommendations concepts only.
UNIT IV HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE 9
Desirable Properties and Testing of Highway Materials: Soil California Bearing Ratio Test Desirable Properties and Testing of Highway Materials: Soil California Bearing Ratio Test,
Field Density Test Aggregate Crushing, Abrasion, Impact Tests, Water absorption, Flakiness
and Elongation indices and Stone polishing value test Bitumen Penetration, Ductility,
Viscosity, Binder content and Softening point Tests. Construction Practice Water Bound
Macadam Road, Bituminous Road and Cement Concrete Road [as per IRC and MORTH
specifications] Highway Drainage [IRC Recommendations] specifications] Highway Drainage [IRC Recommendations]
UNIT V HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE 9
Syllabus
Types of defects in Flexible pavements Surface defects, Cracks, Deformation, Disintegration
Symptoms, Causes and Treatments. Types of Pavement, Failures in Rigid Pavements
Scaling, Shrinkage, Warping, Structural Cracks Spalling of Joints and Mud Pumping and
Special Repairs. Pavement Evaluation Pavement Surface Conditions and Structural Special Repairs. Pavement Evaluation Pavement Surface Conditions and Structural
Evaluation, Evaluation of pavement Failure and strengthening Overlay design by Benkelman
Beam Method [Procedure only],
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
TEXT BOOKS
1.Khanna KandJustoCEG,HighwayEngineering,Khanna Publishers,Roorkee,2001.
2.Kadiyali LR,PrinciplesandPracticeofHighwayEngineering,Khanna Technical
Publications,Delhi,2000.
REFERENCES
1 Transportation Engineering & Planning C S Papacostas PD Prevedouros Prentice 1.TransportationEngineering&Planning,C.S.Papacostas,P.D.Prevedouros,Prentice
HallofIndiaPvt ltd,2006.
2.IRCStandards(IRC37 2001&IRC581998)
3.BureauofIndianStandards(BIS)PublicationsonHighwayMaterials
4.SpecificationsforRoadandBridges,MORTH(India)
Road development in India RoaddevelopmentinIndia
There was no planned development of roads Therewasnoplanneddevelopmentofroads
inthecountrybeforeIndependence.
In 1927, the central government appointed a In1927,thecentralgovernmentappointeda
committeeunderthechairmanshipofDr.M.R.
Jayakar toreportontheconditionofthe
existingroadsandtosuggestwaysandmeans
fortheirfuturedevelopment.
Onlyduringthefiveyearplanssince1951,
roaddevelopmentworkswerespeededup.
Jayakar Comittee y
Jayakar committeerecommendations
Theroaddevelopmentinthecountryshouldbetakenupbycentralgovernmentasanational
interest,asthishasbecomebeyondthecapacityoftheprovincialgovernmentsandthelocal
bodies.
Anextrataxshouldbeleviedonpetrolfromtheroaduserstodeveloparoaddevelopment
fundcalledCentralroadfund.
Asemiofficialtechnicalbodyshouldbeformedtopooltechnicalknowhowfromvarious
partsofthecountryandtoactasanadvisorybodyonvariousaspectsofroads.
Aresearchorganizationshouldbeinstitutedtocarryoutresearchanddevelopmentandto
be available for consultations beavailableforconsultations.
Theygavemorestressonlongtermplanningprogramme,foraperiodof20years(hence
calledtwentyyearplan)thatistoformulateplansandimplementthoseplanswithinthe
next20years.
Inresponsetotherecommendationsofthecommittee
Centralroadfundwasformedintheyear1929.
A semi official technical bodyIndian roads congress (IRC) was formed in 1934 Asemiofficialtechnicalbody Indianroadscongress(IRC)wasformedin1934.
CentralRoadResearchInstitutewasstartedin1950underCouncilofScientificandIndustrial
Research(CSIR)atNewDelhi.
Twenty year plans Twentyyearplans
Nagpurroadcongress1943
The second World War saw a rapid growth in road traffic and this led to the deterioration in the
condition of roads. To discuss about improving the condition of roads, the government convened a
conference of chief engineers of provinces at Nagpur in 1943. The result of the conference is famous as
the Nagpur plan.
Atwentyyeardevelopmentprogrammefortheperiod(19431963)wasfinalized.Itwasthefirst
attempttoprepareacoordinated roaddevelopmentprogrammeinaplannedmanner.
Theroadsweredividedintofourclasses:
I. Nationalhighwayswhichwouldpassthroughstates,andplaceshavingnational
importanceforstrategic,administrativeandotherpurposes.
II State highways which would be the other main roads of a state II. Statehighwayswhichwouldbetheothermainroadsofastate.
III. Districtroadswhichwouldtaketrackfromthemainroadstotheinteriorofthe district.
Accordingtotheimportance,someareconsideredasmajordistrict roadsandthe
remainingasotherdistrictroads.
IV. Villageroadswhichwouldlinkthevillagestotheroadsystem.
Th itt l d t t t 2 l kh k f d th t ithi 20 Thecommitteeplannedtoconstruct2lakh kms ofroadacrossthecountrywithin20years.
Theyrecommendedtheconstructionofstarandgridpatternofroadsthroughoutthecountry.
Oneoftheobjectivewasthattheroadlengthshouldbeincreasedsoastogivearoaddensityof
16kmsper100sq.km
Nagpurplantargetwasachievedabouttwoyearsaheadin1961. gp p g y
Twenty year plans
Bombayroadcongress1961
Twentyyearplans
y g
Though the target length of roads envisaged under the Nagpur plan was
achieved two years ahead, the changed economic, industrial and agricultural
conditions in the country warranted a review of the Nagpur plan. Accordingly
second 20 year plan was drafted by the Roads wing of Government of India second 20year plan was drafted by the Roads wing of Government of India,
which is popularly known as the Bombay plan. The highlights of the plan
were:
Thetotalroadlengthtargetedtoconstructwasabout10lakhs.
Ruralroadsweregivenspecificattention.Scientificmethodsof
constructionwasproposedfortheruralroads.Thenecessarytechnical
advicetothePanchayaths shouldbegivenbyStatePWD's.
They suggested that the length of the road should be increased so as to Theysuggestedthatthelengthoftheroadshouldbeincreasedsoasto
givearoaddensityof32kms/100sq.km
Theconstructionof1600kmofexpresswayswasalsothenincludedinthe
plan.
Twenty year plans
Lucknow roadcongress1984
Twentyyearplans
g
This is the third 20 year plan (Lucknow road plan 19812001) prepared by
keeping in view the growth pattern envisaged in various fields by the turn of
the century. Some of the salient features of this plan are as given below:
It i d t t ti d l th f 12 l kh kil t b th Itaimedatconstructingaroadlengthof12lakh kilometres bytheyear
1981resultinginaroaddensityof82kms/100sq.km
TheplanhassetthetargetlengthofNHtobecompletedbytheendof
seventh,eighthandninthfiveyearplanperiods.
Itaimsatimprovingthetransportationfacilitiesinvillages,townsetc.
suchthatnopartofcountryisfartherthan50kmfromNH.
Oneofthegoalscontainedintheplanwasthatexpresswaysshouldbe
constructed on major tracfic corridors to provide speedy travel constructedonmajortracfic corridorstoprovidespeedytravel.
Energyconservation,environmentalqualityofroadsandroadsafety
measureswerealsogivendueimportanceinthisplan.
Indianroadandoverview
Road Transport is vital to India's economy. It enables the country's
transportation sector contribute 4.7 percent of Indias gross domestic
product, in comparison to railways that contributed 1 percent, in 2009
2010.
The government of India considers road network as critical to the
country's development, social integration and security needs of the
country.
India's road network carries over 65 percent of its freight and about 85
percent of passenger traffic
According to 2009 estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to invest
US$1.7 trillion on infrastructure projects before 2020 to meet its economic
needs, a part of which would be in upgrading India's road network
India plans to spend approximately US$70 Billion by 2013 to modernize its
highway network.
Indianroadandoverview
Courtesy:http://infrastructure.gov.in/pdf/NHDP.pdf
National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is responsible for the implementation and
Indianroadandoverview
National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is responsible for the implementation and
monitoring of National Highways Development Projects (NHDP). Contracts are executed by the
Project Implementation Units(PIUs) of National Highways Authority of India.
National Highway account for only about 2% of the total length of roads, but carry about 40% of
the total traffic across the length and breadth of the country This project is managed by the the total traffic across the length and breadth of the country. This project is managed by the
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
The Indian Government has set ambitious plans for upgrading of the National Highways in a
phased manner in the years to come. The details are as follows:
Phase I: The Golden Quadrilateral (GQ; 5,846 km) connecting the four major cities of Delhi,
Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Total cost of the project is Rs.300 billion, funded largely by the
governments special petroleum product tax revenues and government borrowing. In January
2012, India announced the four lane GQ highway network as complete.
Phase II: NorthSouth and EastWest corridors comprising national highways connecting four
extreme points of the country. The North South and EastWest corridor (NSEW; 7,300 km)
connecting Srinagar in the north to Kanyakumari in the south and Silchar in the east to
Porbandar in the west. Total length of the network is 7,300 km (4,500 mi). As of April 2012,
84.26% of the project had been completed and 15.7% of the project work is currently at
progress. It also includes Port connectivity and other projects 1,157 km (719 mi). The final
completion date to February 28, 2009 at a cost of Rs.350 billion, with funding similar to
Phase I.
Phase III: The government recently approved NHDPIII to upgrade 12,109 km (7,524 mi)of
Indianroadandoverview
g y pp pg , ( , )
national highways on a Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis, which takes into account
highdensity traffic, connectivity of state capitals via NHDP Phase I and II, and connectivity to
centres of economic importance. contracts have been awarded for a 2,075 km (1,289 mi).
Phase IV: The government is considering widening 20,000 km (12,000 mi) of highway that
were not part of Phase I, II, or III. Phase IV will convert existing single lane highways into two were not part of Phase I, II, or III. Phase IV will convert existing single lane highways into two
lanes with paved shoulders. The plan will soon be presented to the government for approval.
Phase V: As road traffic increases over time, a number of four lane highways will need to be
upgraded/expanded to six lanes. The current plan calls for upgrade of about 5,000 km
(3,100 mi) of fourlane roads, although the government has not yet identified the stretches.
Ph VI Th t i ki t ti th t ld t j Phase VI: The government is working on constructing expressways that would connect major
commercial and industrial townships. It has already identified 400 km (250 mi) of Vadodara
(earlier Baroda)Mumbai section that would connect to the existing Vadodara (earlier
Baroda)Ahmedabad section. The World Bank is studying this project. The project will be
funded on BOT basis. The 334 km (208 mi) Expressway between Chennai Bangalore and
277 k (172 i) E b t K lk t Dh b d h b id tifi d d f ibilit 277 km (172 mi) Expressway between KolkataDhanbad has been identified and feasibility
study and DPR contract has been awarded by NHAI.
Phase VII: This phase calls for improvements to city road networks by adding ring roads to
enable easier connectivity with national highways to important cities. In addition,
improvements will be made to stretches of national highways that require additional flyovers
and bypasses given population and housing growth along the highways and increasing traffic.
The government has not yet identified a firm investment plan for this phase. The 19 km
(12 mi) long Chennai PortMaduravoyal Elevated Expressway is being executed under this
phase.
Indianroadandoverview
Courtesy:http://infrastructure.gov.in/pdf/NHDP.pdf
Indianroadandoverview
Comparisonofmajorroaddensitywithfewotherdevelopedeconomiesintheworld
Country NHlength inkms Kmper1000people
India 70,548 0.069
Germany 53,010 0.64
Japan 61,730 0.49
Courtesy:http://infrastructure.gov.in/pdf/NHDP.pdf
Canada 103,000 3.1
USA 351,428 1.4
L II LectureII
Highway Construction HighwayConstruction
HistoryofHighwayConstruction
1. RomanRoads
Builtstraightregardlessofgradients
Builtonhardstrataafterremoving
softsoils
Total road thickness is 0 75 to 1 2 m Totalroadthicknessis0.75to1.2m
Largesizefoundationstoneswith
limemortarIslaidforabout10to20cm
thickformingbottomcourse.
Verticalkerb stoneswereplacedalongtheedgesofthepavement.
Asecondlayeroflimemortarwithlargesizebrokenstonesmixedwithlimemortar
waslaidoverbottomcourseforabout25to40cm.
Anotherlayeroflimemortarwithsmallersizebrokenstoneswerelaidoverthe y
secondlayerforathicknessof25to40cm.
Wearingcoursewithlargesizedressedstoneswerepavedwithlimemortarastop
layerfor10to15cmthickness.
Thisroadisuneconomicalconsideringthemagnitudeofwheelloadsofanimal g g
drawncartsinthosedays.
2. FrenchRoads
(T C i ) (TresaguetConstruction)
Thenextmajordevelopmentinthe
roadconstructionoccurredduring
theregimeofNapoleon.
ThesignificantcontributionsweregivenbyTresaguetin1764.
Hedevelopedacheapermethodofconstructioncomparedtotheuneconomical
Romanpractice.
Thesubgrade waspreparedandalayeroflargefoundationstoneswerelaidonitby
hand.Largestonedwerelaidontheeitheredgesofthepavementtoserveas
b d k b t submergedkerb stones.
Smallerpiecesofbrokenstones(8cmsize)werethencompactedintothespaces
betweenlargerstonestoprovidealevelsurface.
Finally the top wearing course was laid with a layer of 2 5 cm sized broken stones by Finallythetopwearingcoursewaslaidwithalayerof2.5cmsizedbrokenstonesby
givingtheroadsurfaceacrossslopeof1in45forprovidingsurfacedrainage.
Shoulderswerealsoprovidedforsufficientslopetodrainthesurfacewatertothe
sidedrain.
3. BritishRoads
(Macadam Construction) (MacadamConstruction)
TheBritishengineerJohnMacadam
introducedwhatcanbeconsideredas
the first scientific road construction thefirstscientificroadconstruction
methodin1827.
Stonesizewasanimportantelementof
Macadamconstruction.
Byempiricalobservationofmanyroads,
hecametorealizethat25cmlayersofwell
compactedbrokenangularstonewouldprovide
thesamestrengthandstiffnessandabetterrunning
surfacethananexpensivepavementfoundedonlargestoneblocks.Thushe
introducedaneconomicalmethodofroadconstruction.
The mechanical interlock between the individual stone pieces provided strength and Themechanicalinterlockbetweentheindividualstonepiecesprovidedstrengthand
stiffnesstothecourse.
Buttheinterparticlefrictionabradedthesharpinterlockingfacesandpartlydestroy
theeffectivenessofthecourse.Thiseffectwasovercomebyintroducinggood
quality finer material to produce a well graded mix Such mixes also proved less qualityfinermaterialtoproduceawellgradedmix.Suchmixesalsoprovedless
permeableandeasiertocompact.
Macadam Road MacadamRoad
ConstructionmethodofMacadamroad
Subgradeiscompactedandpreparedwithacrossslopeof1in36uptoa
desiredwidth(about9m)
Broken stones of size passing through 5 cm sieve were compacted to a Brokenstonesofsizepassingthrough5cmsievewerecompactedtoa
uniformthicknessof10cm.
Thesecondlayerofstrongbrokenstonesofsize3.75cmwascompactedto
thickness of 10 cm thicknessof10cm.
Thetoplayerconsistedofstonesofsizelessthan2cmcompactedtoa
thicknessofabout5cmandfinishedsothatthecrossslopeofpavement
surface was also 1 in 36 surfacewasalso1in36.
OrganizationsandInstitutionresponsibleforHighwayPlanning,
Design and Implementation in India DesignandImplementationinIndia
CentralRoadFund(1929)
IndianRoadsCongress(IRC),1934
CentralRoadResearchInstitute(CRRI),1950
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) 1995 NationalHighwayAuthorityofIndia(NHAI),1995
HighwayResearchboard(1973)
NationalTransportPolicycommittee(1978)
Nationalhighwayact(1956)
CentralRoadFund,1929
CRFAct,2000
Distributionof100%cess onpetrolasfollows: p
57.5%forNH
30% for SH
MORTH
30%forSH
12.5%forsafetyworksonrailRoadcrossing.
50%cess ondieselforRuralRoaddevelopment
50% cess on diesel for maintenance of existing roads 50%cess ondieselformaintenanceofexistingroads.
Indian Roads Congress, 1934 IndianRoadsCongress,1934
ObjectiveofIRCis
Toprovidenationalforumforregularpoolingofexperienceandideason
mattersrelatedtoconstructionandmaintenanceofhighways.
Toformulatestandardspecificationsandcodesforroadconstruction.
Toprovideaplatformforexpressionofprofessionalopiniononmatters
relatingtoroadsandroadtransport.
IRCplayedimportantrolein
Formulationof20yearroaddevelopmentplans.
Controllingspecifications,standardizationandrecommendationson
materials,designandconstructionofroads.Andbridges.
ThetechnicalactivityofIRCaremainlycarriedoutbytheHighway
ResearchBoard.
ListofIRCCodesforHighwayPlanningand
Construction Construction
IRC:51998(SeventhRevision)StandardspecificationsandCodeofpracticeforRoad
Bridges,
Section1GeneralfeaturesofDesign.
IRC:101961RecommendedPracticeforBorrowpitsforRoadEmbankments
Constructedby
ManualOperation.
IRC: 34 1970 Recommendations for Road Construction in Waterlogged Area IRC:341970 RecommendationsforRoadConstructioninWaterloggedArea .
IRC:361970RecommendedPracticefortheConstructionofEarthEmbankmentsfor
Road
Works.
IRC:451972RecommendationsforEstimatingtheResistanceofSoilBelowtheMaximum
Scour
LevelintheDesignofWellFoundationsofBridges.
IRC: 52 2001 (Second revision) Recommendations about the Alignment Survey and IRC:522001(Secondrevision) RecommendationsabouttheAlignmentSurveyand
Geometric
DesignofHillRoads.
IRC:561974RecommendedPracticeforTreatmentofEmbankmentSlopesforErosion
C t l Control.
IRC:751979GuidelinesfortheDesignofHighEmbankments.
ListofIRCCodesforHighwayPlanningand
Construction
IRC:782000(SecondRevision) StandardspecificationsandCodeofpracticefor
road,bridges,
SectionVII Foundationsandsubstructure.
Construction
IRC:891997(FirstRevision)GuidelinesforDesignandConstructionofRiverTrainingand
Control
WorksforRoadBridges.
IRC: 104 1988 Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highway Projects. IRC:1041988 GuidelinesforEnvironmentalImpactAssessmentofHighwayProjects .
IRC:SP:132004(FirstRevision)GuidelinesfortheDesignofSmallBridgesandCulverts.
IRC:SP:421994GuidelinesonRoadDrainage.
IRC: SP: 50 1999 Guidelines of Urban Drainage. IRC:SP:501999 GuidelinesofUrbanDrainage .
IRC:6 2000 Standardspecificationsandcodeofpracticeforroadbridges section:II
Loads&
stresses.
IRC:SP:572001 Guidelinesforqualitysystemsforroadconstruction.
IRC:281967 Recommendationofroadconstructioninwaterloggedareas.
IRC:871984 Guidelinesfordesignanderection.
IRC:212000 Standardspecificationandcodesforroadsandbridges.
IRC:SP:202002 Ruralroads.
MORT&HPocketBookforHighwayEngineers,2002(SecondRevision)
CentralRoadResearchInstitute(CRRI)
CRRIaconstituentbodyofCSIRisformedinNewDelhiin1950tocarryout
researchanddevelopmentactivitiesrelatedtoHighwaydevelopmentinIndia.
CRRIplaysvitalrolein
design,constructionandmaintenanceofroadsandrunways,trafficand
transportationplanningofmegaandmediumcities,managementofroadsin
differentterrains,
Sophistication of road construction materials Sophisticationofroadconstructionmaterials,
Utilizationofindustrialwasteinroadconstruction,
Landslidecontrol,,
Groundimprovementsenvironmentalpollution,
Roadtrafficsafety,
Servicelifeassessmentandrehabilitationofhighway&railwaybridges.
MinistryofRoadTransport&Highways(MORTH)
MORTHisinvolvedin
Planning, development and maintenance of National Planning,developmentandmaintenanceofNational
Highwaysinthecountry.
ExtendingtechnicalandfinancialsupporttoState
Governments for the development of state roads and the Governmentsforthedevelopmentofstateroadsandthe
roadsofinterstateconnectivityandeconomic
importance.
Evolving standard specifications for roads and bridges in Evolvingstandardspecificationsforroadsandbridgesin
thecountry.
Servingasarepositoryoftechnicalknowledgeonroads
d b id andbridges.
Classification of Roads ClassificationofRoads
Dependingonweather
All weather roads Allweatherroads
Fairweatherroads
Nationalhighwayact(1956)
DependingthetypeofCarriageway
Pavedroads
Unpavedroads p
Dependinguponthepavementsurface
Surfaced roads Surfacedroads
Unsurfacedroads
Classification of Roads
BasedontheTrafficVolume
Heavy
ClassificationofRoads
Heavy
Medium
Light
d d BasedonLoadorTonnage
Class1orClass2etcorClassA,BetcTonnes perday
Based on location and function ( Nagpur road plan ) Basedonlocationandfunction(Nagpurroadplan)
NH
SH
MDR
ODR
VR
BasedonmodifiedsystemofHighways
l ifi i classification
Forthepurposeoftransportplanning,functionalidentification p p p p g,
andforearmarkingadministrativejurisdiction
Primarysystem y y
Expressways
NationalHighways(NH)
S d t Secondarysystem
StateHighway(SH)
MajorDistrictRoads(MDR)
Tertiarysystem
OtherDistrictRoads(ODR)
VillageRoads(VR) g ( )
Urban Road Classification UrbanRoadClassification
ARTERIAL ROADS ARTERIALROADS
SUBARTERIAL
COLECTOR STREET COLECTORSTREET
LOCALSTREET
Expressways Expressways
Heavy traffic at high speed (120km/hr) Heavytrafficathighspeed(120km/hr)
LandWidth(90m)
ll l Fullaccesscontrol
Connectsmajorpointsoftrafficgeneration
Noslowmovingtrafficallowed
No loading unloading parking Noloading,unloading,parking.
NationalHighways
Indiahasahugenetworkofnationalhighways.
The national highways have a total length of 70 548 kms Indian Thenationalhighwayshaveatotallengthof70,548kms.Indian
highwayscover2%ofthetotalroadnetworkofIndiaandcarry40%
ofthetotaltraffic.
h i hi h k f di i d b h i l TheentirehighwaynetworkofIndiaismanagedbytheNational
HighwayAuthorityofIndiawhichisresponsiblefordevelopment
andmaintenanceofhighways.
ThelongesthighwayinIndiaisNH7whichstretchesfromVaransi in
UttarPradeshtoKanyakumari inthesouthernmostpointofIndian
mainland.
TheshortesthighwayisNH47AwhichstretchesfromErnakulam to
Kochiandcoverstotallengthof4Kms.
State Highways StateHighways
They are the arterial roads of a state Theyarethearterialroadsofastate,
connectingupwiththenationalhighwaysof
adjacent states district head quarters and adjacentstates,districtheadquartersand
importantcitieswithinthestate.
TotallengthofallSHinthecountryis1,37,119
KKms.
Major District Roads MajorDistrictRoads
Important roads with in a district serving areas Importantroadswithinadistrictservingareas
ofproductionandmarkets,connectingthose
with each other or with the major highways witheachotherorwiththemajorhighways.
I di h l f 4 70 000 k f MDR Indiahasatotalof4,70,000kms ofMDR.
Other district roads Otherdistrictroads
Roadsservingruralareasofproductionand
providing them with outlet to market centers providingthemwithoutlettomarketcenters
orotherimportantroadslikeMDRorSH.
Village roads Villageroads
They are roads connecting villages or group of Theyareroadsconnectingvillagesorgroupof
villageswitheachotherortothenearestroad
of a higher category like ODR or MDR ofahighercategorylikeODRorMDR.
I di h 26 50 000 k f ODR VR f h Indiahas26,50,000kms ofODR+VRoutofthe
total33,15,231kms ofalltypeofroads.
Highway Alignment HighwayAlignment
Alignment Alignment
Positioningthecenterlineoftheroadforcomfortable
vehiclemovementiscalledalignment.
Thealignmentofcenterlineonthehorizontalplaneforthe
vehicletonegotiatesalientpointsonthegroundiscalled
horizontalalignment(Horizontaldeviationsandcurve).
Thealignmentofcenterlinebytraversingtheundulations
ofthegroundforacomfortablevehiclemovementiscalled
verticalalignment(Changesingradientandverticalcurves).
Donebymeansofseriesofstraights(tangents),circular
curvesandtransitioncurves
Aimistoprovidesafetravelatauniformdesignspeed
Effects of Improper alignment EffectsofImproperalignment
Improper road alignment could lead to one or Improperroadalignmentcouldleadtooneor
moreofthefollowingconsequences
a) Increase in construction cost a) Increaseinconstructioncost
b) Increaseinmaintenancecost
c) Increaseinvehicleoperation
d) Increaseinaccidentrate )
RequirementsofHighwayAlignment
BasicRequirements:
Short
Itisalwaysdesirabletohaveshortestalignmentbetweentwoterminals.
Astraightalignmentismostpreferredasitistheshortest.
Duetosomepracticalconsiderationsalignmentmaydeviatefromtheshortest
path. p
Easy
Alignmentshouldbemadesuchawaythatitiseasytoconstructandmaintain
theroad.
Should be easy for operation of vehicles with smooth gradients and curves Shouldbeeasyforoperationofvehicleswithsmoothgradientsandcurves.
Safe
Alignmentshouldbecomfortablefortrafficoperationwithsafegeometric
features.
It h ld b f h ith d t bilit f t l hill l t l Itshouldbesafeenoughwithgoodstabilityofnaturalhillslopes,cutslopes,
foundationofembankmentsetc.
Economical
Analignmentisconsideredtobeeconomicalifthetotalcost(Constructioncost+
i t t ti t) i i i ibl maintenancecost+operationcost)isasminimumaspossible.
FactorsControllingAlignment g g
1) Obligatorypoints
Pointsthroughwhichalignmenthastopass(bridgesite,intermediate
i ) town,mountainpass,quarryetc.)
Pointsthroughwhichalignmentshouldnotpass(Religiousspots,
historicalstructures,cemeteries,burialgrounds,unsuitableland).
2) Traffic
Thealignmentshouldsuitthetrafficrequirementsofthefuture
3) Geometric design 3) Geometricdesign
Facilitateeasygradientandcurvature
Enablerulinggradientinmostsections
Avoid sudden changes in sight distance especially near crossings Avoidsuddenchangesinsightdistance,especiallynearcrossings
Avoidsharphorizontalcurves
Avoidroadintersectionsnearbendoratthetoporbottomofahill
FactorsControllingAlignment
4) Economics
Th t t l t (C t ti t i t t ti t)
g g
Thetotalcost(Constructioncost+maintenancecost+operationcost)
shouldbekeptminimum.
Initialcostbyavoidinghighembankmentsanddeepcutting
Maintenancecostbyavoidingunsuitableland
Operation cost by avoiding steep gradient and curves Operationcost byavoidingsteepgradientandcurves
5)Otherconsiderations
Environmentalconsiderations
Engineeringfeasibility
Socialconsiderations
DrainageandHydrologicalfactors
Politicalconsiderations avoidingintoforeignterritory
Monotony longstretchofstraightroadleadstodrivingdiscomfort.
AlignmentofHillRoads
Additionalcareinhillroads
Stability
Avoidprobablelandslidelocations
Cuttingandfillingshouldnotaffectthestabilityoftheroad
Drainage Drainage
Stretchwithadequatenaturaldrainagefacility
Avoidstretchwhichrequirestoomanycrossdrainagestructures
Geometric standards of hill roads Geometricstandardsofhillroads
Caremustbetakenwithreferencetogradient,curvesandspeedwhichinfluencethe
sightdistance,raduis ofcurveandotherfeatures.
Minimise steepgradients,hairpinbendsandunnecessaryriseandfall.
Resistinglength
Resistinglengthofthealignmentshouldbekeptaslowaspossible.
Itiscalculatedastotalworktobedonetomovetheloadsalongaroadtakingthe
horizontallength,theactualdifferenceinlevelsbetweentwostationsandsumofthe
ineffective rise and fall. ineffectiveriseandfall.
EngineeringSurveyforHighway
Alignment
EngineeringSurveysforHighwaylocations
1) Mapstudy(ProvisionalalignmentIdentification)
2) Reconnaissancesurvey
3) Preliminarysurvey
4) Finallocationtodeterminecenterlineanddetailedsurvey
Map Study MapStudy
TopographicmapsareavailablefromSurveyofIndia
ith 15 30 t i t l with15or30mcontourintervals
Itisavailableforthescaleof1:2,50,000,1:50,000
and1:25,000 ,
Featureslikerivers,hills,valleys,ponds,etc.are
showninthemap.
l h l l bl Helpstohaveapreliminaryideaonseveralpossible
routesforinitialplanning.
Gives a rough idea on the routes to be further Givesaroughideaontheroutestobefurther
surveyedinthefield.
ReconnaissanceSurvey
Mapupdating toconfirmfeaturesindicatedonmap.
Checking for: Checkingfor:
Numberofcrossdrainagestructures.
HighFloodLevel(HFL)
Confirming Length and value of gradient to IRC standards ConfirmingLengthandvalueofgradienttoIRCstandards.
SoilCharacteristics.
Geologicalfeatures.
Proximitytosourceofconstructionmaterials quarries,water y q ,
sources.
Additionaldatageologicalformation,typeofrock,seepageflow
etc.incaseofhillroadalignment
Fewalternatealignmentcanbemadebasedontheactualsite
conditionsasaresultofreconnaissancesurvey.
Prepareareportonmeritsanddemeritsandprofilemapofscale p p p p
1:50,000.
Preliminary Survey
The preliminary survey is carried out to collect all the physical information
which are necessary in connection with the proposed highway alignment.
PreliminarySurvey
which are necessary in connection with the proposed highway alignment.
Objectiveofthepreliminarysurvey
To collect all necessary physical information and details of topography,
drainage and soil.
To compare the different proposals in view of the requirements of a good To compare the different proposals in view of the requirements of a good
alignment.
To estimate quantity of earth work materials and other construction
aspects and to workout the cost of alternate proposals. p p p
To finalize the best alignment from all considerations.
Methods of preliminary survey Methodsofpreliminarysurvey
Preliminary survey methods: Preliminarysurveymethods:
a) Conventional approach a) Conventionalapproach
It is a usual survey with the conventional survey techniques like chaining,
tachometry, leveling etc.
b) Modernapproach
It is an aerial survey approach by taking aerial photograph of the area and
photo interpretation techniques. photo interpretation techniques.
ConventionalApproach
I. Primarytraverse
II. Topographicalfeatures
III. Levelling work
IV D i t di d H d l i l d t IV. DrainagestudiesandHydrologicaldata
V. Soilsurvey
VI. Materialsurveyy
VII. Trafficsurvey
VIII. Determinationoffinalcentreline
ModernApproach
Generaly applied when the distance and area to be covered are vast.
Following is the brief procedure followed.
I T ki i l h h f h i f l d b d i h h I. Taking aerial photograph of the strips of land to be surveyed with the
required longitudinal and lateral overlaps.
II. The photographs are examined under stereoscopes and control points
are selected for establishing the traverses of the alternate proposals are selected for establishing the traverses of the alternate proposals.
The control points are located on the maps.
III. Contour lines and topographical details are marked on the maps.
IV. Photo interpretation methods are used to assess the geological IV. Photo interpretation methods are used to assess the geological
features, soil conditions, drainage requirements etc.
ComparisonofConventionalandModern
h d f i MethodsofSurveying
Elements of
comparison
Conventional Modern
comparison
Maps- Base
material
Topo sheets RS data, Aerial Photos,
Satellite Imageries
I t t Ch i T Th d lit EDM T t l St ti GPS Instruments Chains, Tapes, Theodolite,
Dumpy levels
EDM, Total Station, GPS,
Auto and Digital Level,
Photogrammetry.
Accuracy Chain/Tape 1 in 3000 to 1 in EDM/TS 1 in 10000 to 1 in Accuracy Chain/Tape 1 in 3000 to 1 in
30,000
Tacheometer 1 in 1000 to 1 in
10,000
EDM/TS 1 in 10000 to 1 in
1,00,000
Photogrammetry. 1 in 10000
to 1 in 1,00,000 , , ,
Plotting CAD Systems Software
Errors Human errors Closing Errors hence re
measuring is required. measuring is required.
FinalLocationandDetailedSurvey
FinalLocationsurveyy
The alignment finalized after preliminary survey is to be
transferred to the field by establishing the centre line.
The centre line should follow as closely as the alignment
fi li d ft li i finalized after preliminary survey.
Major and minor control points are established on the ground
for the geometric design requirements.
Any modification in the final alignment may be made based on Any modification in the final alignment may be made based on
the field study if found essential.
The center line stakes are driven at suitable intervals, say at
50m intervals in plains and rolling terrains, 20m intervals in hilly
terrain terrain.
FinalLocationandDetailedSurvey
DetailedSurvey
Detailedsurveyshouldbecarriedoutforcollectingtheinformationnecessaryfor
preparationofplansandconstructiondetailsforthehighwayproject.
Levels along the final centre line should be taken at all staked points which is Levelsalongthefinalcentrelineshouldbetakenatallstakedpointswhichis
importantfordesignofverticalalignment,earthworkcalculationsanddrainage
details.
Thecrosssectionlevelsaretakeupattheintervalsasgivenbelow
Plain 50 100m
Rolling 50 75m
Builtuparea 50m
Hillyterrain 20m
Closerintervalsathorizontalcurveswherethereisabruptchangein
l crossslopes.
Alltopographicaldataarecollectedandplottedwiththerespectiveconventional
signs.
Rivercrossing,valleysetc.shouldbesurveyedindetailuptoconsiderable
distance along with adequate hydrological details distancealongwithadequatehydrologicaldetails.
Adetailedsoilsurveyistobecarriedouttoobtainasoilprofile.Soilsampling
shouldbecollectedupto1.5to3mbelowthegroundline.
CBRvaluesofthesoilalongthealignmentmaybedeterminedfordesigningthe
pavement.
Thedataduringthedetailedsurveyshouldbeelaborateandcompletefor
preparingdetailedplans,designandestimateoftheproject.
DrawingandReport g p
1) Keymap
2) Index map 2) Indexmap
3) Preliminarysurveyplans
4) Detailedplanandlongitudinalsection
5) Detailedcrosssection
6) Landacquisitionplans
7) Drawings of cross drainage and other retaining structures 7) Drawingsofcrossdrainageandotherretainingstructures
8) Drawingsofroadintersections
9) Landplansshowingquarriesetc
HighwayCrossSectional
Elements
HighwayCrossSectionalElements g y
AsperIRC861983thehighwaycrosssectionalelementsare
classified into classifiedinto,
1. Carriageway(Pavementwidth)
2. Camber
3. Kerb
4. TrafficSeparators
5. Widthofroadwayorformationwidth
6. Rightofway(LandWidth)
7 R d i 7. Roadmargins
8. PavementSurface
Carriage Way CarriageWay
WidthofCarriagewaydependsonwidthoftrafficlaneandnumberof
lanes lanes.
Lanewidthisdeterminedonthebasisofwidthofvehicle+minimumside
clearance.
Maximumlanewidthis3.8m.
Class of Road Width of
Maximumwidthofvehicleis2.44m.
Sideclearanceis0.68meachside.
Pavementswithtwoormorelanes
ClassofRoad Widthof
carriageway
1 Singlelane 3.8m
3.5mperlane.
Widthofsinglelaneorvillageroads
maybedecreasedto3.0m.
i i id h d d f
2 Twolane
withoutkerbs
7.0m
3 Twolane with
raised kerbs
7.5m
Minimumwidthrecommendedfor
kerbedurbanroadis5.5mto
makeallowanceforstalledvehicle.
raised kerbs
4 Intermediate
carriage
5.5m
5 M lti l 3 5 l 5 Multilane 3.5mperlane
Carriage Way CarriageWay
Factorswhichinfluencethewidthofacarriagewayare: g y
Designvolume
Vehicledimensions
Designspeed
Roadclassification
Camber Camber
Camber or cant is the cross slope provided to raise middle of the
road surface in the transverse direction to drain rain water from
d f road surface.
Provided on the straight roads by raising the center of carriage way
with respect to the edges.
It is normally expressed in 1 in n or in n%.
Theobjectivesofprovidingcamberare:
Surface protection especially for gravel and bituminous roads Surfaceprotectionespeciallyforgravelandbituminousroads
Subgradeprotectionbyproperdrainage
Quickdryingofpavementwhichinturnincreasessafety.
Camber Camber
Therequiredcamberforapavementdependson
I. ThetypeofPavementsurface
II. Amount of rainfall of the region II. Amountofrainfalloftheregion
ThevaluessuggestedbyIRCforvariouscategoriesofpavementis
Effectsofsteepcamber:
Transversetiltofvehiclescauseunnecessarythrustonwheelsleadingtowearing
of tyres and road surface oftyres androadsurface.
Discomfortwhencrossingcrownduringovertakingoperations.
Problemsoftopplingofhighlyladenvehicles.
Formationofcrossrutsduetorapidflowofwater.
Tendencyofmostvehiclestotravelalongthecenterline.
Camber
Thecommontypesofcamberareparabolic,straight,orcombinationofthem
Kerb
Kerbs indicate the boundary between the carriage
way and the shoulder or islands or footpaths.
Diff t t f k b
Kerb
Differenttypesofkerbs are:
Low or mountable kerbs : This type of kerbs are
provided such that they encourage the track to
remain in the through track lanes and also allow the
d i t t th h ld ith littl difi lt driver to enter the shoulder area with little dificulty.
The height of this kerb is about 10 cm above the
pavement edge with a slope which allows the
vehicle to climb easily. This is usually provided at
medians and channelization schemes and also helps medians and channelization schemes and also helps
in longitudinal drainage.
Semibarrier type kerbs : When the pedestrian
track is high, these kerbs are provided. Their height
is 15 cm above the pavement edge This type of is 15 cm above the pavement edge. This type of
kerb prevents encroachment of parking vehicles,
but at acute emergency it is possible to drive over
this kerb with some dificulty.
Kerb
Barrier type kerbs : They are designed to
discourage vehicles from leaving the pavement.
Kerb
g g p
They are provided when there is considerable
amount of pedestrian track. They are placed at a
height of 20 cm above the pavement edge with a
steep batter.
Submerged kerbs : They are used in rural roads.
The kerbs are provided at pavement edges
between the pavement edge and shoulders. They
provide lateral confinement and stability to the
pavement.
Traffic Separators (or) Medians TrafficSeparators(or)Medians
Trafficseparatorsareprovided p p
To separate the lanes meant for opposite traffic
movement preventing headon collusion of vehicles.
To canalize traffic into streams at intersections
To shadow the crossing and turning traffic
T t l t ffi d t t t d t i To segregate slow traffic and to protect pedestrians.
IRC recommendations
Minimum disirable width of 5 m for rural highways Minimum disirable width of 5 m for rural highways
(may be reduced to 3 m where land is restricted).
Absolute minimum of 1.2 m for urban roads
WidthofRoadway
Itisasumofcarriagewaywidth,mediansandshoulders.
Width of roadway as per IRC WidthofroadwayasperIRC
RightofWay
Right of way (ROW) or land width is the width of land acquired for the road, along its
alignment. It should be adequate to accommodate all the crosssectional elements of
the highway and may reasonably provide for future development.
The right of way width is governed by:
Widthofformation:Itdepends
onthecategoryofthehighway
and width of roadway and road andwidthofroadwayandroad
margins.
Heightofembankmentordepthof
cutting:Itisgovernedbythe
h d h i l li topographyandtheverticalalignment.
Sideslopesofembankmentorcutting:Itdependsontheheightoftheslope,soil
typeetc.
Drainagesystemandtheirsizewhichdependsonrainfall,topographyetc.
Sightdistanceconsiderations:Oncurvesetc.thereisrestrictiontothevisibilityon
theinnersideofthecurveduetothepresenceofsomeobstructionslikebuilding
structuresetc.
Reservelandforfuturewidening:Somelandhastobeacquiredinadvance
anticipatingfuturedevelopmentslikewideningoftheroad.
Right of Way
ThenormalROWrequirementsforbuiltupandopenareasasspecifiedbyIRCisas
RightofWay
follows
Road Margins RoadMargins
Variouselementsincludedintheroadmarginsare
Shoulders
Parkinglanes
L b Laybyes
Busbays
Frontage roads Frontageroads
Cycletracks
FootpathorSidewalks
Guardrails
Embankmentslopes
Road Margins
Shoulders
Sh ld id d l th d d d
RoadMargins
Shoulders are provided along the road edge and
is intended for accommodation of stopped vehicles,
serve as an emergency lane for vehicles and provide g y p
lateral support for base and surface courses.
The shoulder should be strong enough to bear the weight
of a fully loaded truck even in wet conditions. y
The shoulder width should be adequate for giving
working space around a stopped vehicle.
It is desirable to have a width of 4 6 m for the shoulders It is desirable to have a width of 4.6 m for the shoulders.
A minimum width of 2.5 m is recommended for 2lane
rural highways in India.
Road Margins
ImportanceofShoulders
Spaceforvehicleswithproblemstopark
S f d i d h k
RoadMargins
Spacefordriverstostopandcheckmaps,etc
Spaceforevasivemaneuverstoavoidcollisions
Thesenseofopenness
Helpprovidingrequiredsightdistance p p g q g
Increasedaesthetics
Improvedcapacity
Spaceformaintenanceoperations(snow&storage)
Lateral clearance for signs and guardrails Lateralclearanceforsignsandguardrails
Dischargestormwaterawayfromtheedgeofpavement(reducepavementbreakup)
Structuralsupportforthepavement
Spaceforpedestriansandbicycles
RoadMargins
ParkingLanes
Parking lanes are provided in urban lanes for side parking.
Parallel parking is preferred because it is safe for the vehicles moving in the
road.
Parking lane should have a minimum of 3.0 m width in the case of parallel g p
parking.
RoadMargins
Laybyesandbusbays
Laybyes are provided near public
conveniences with guide maps to g p
enable drivers to stop clear off the
carriage way.
It is normally of 3 m width for atleast
30 m length with 15 m end tapers on 30 m length with 15 m end tapers on
both ends.
Bus bays may be provided by recessing
the kerb to avoid conflict with moving
traffic Bus bays should be located traffic. Bus bays should be located
atleast 75 m away from the
intersections.
RoadMargins
Frontage(or)Serviceroads
Provided to give access to the properties along the highways with
t ll d t controlled access to express way
Run parallel to the highway separated by a separators
Road Margins
Cycletrack
Cycletracksareprovidedinurbanareaswhenthevolumeofcycle
RoadMargins
y p y
trackishighMinimumwidthof2meterisrequired,whichmaybe
increasedby1meterforeveryadditionaltrack.
RoadMargins
Guardrails
They are provided at the edge of the shoulder usually when the road is on an
embankment They serve to prevent the vehicles from running on the embankment embankment. They serve to prevent the vehicles from running on the embankment,
especially when the height of the fill exceeds 3 m.
They also give better visibility of curves at night under headlights of vehicles.
Embankmentslopes
Provided for safe traffic movement.
Improves landscaping and
aesthetic features of road.
Should be as flat as possible.
PavementSurface
For a safe and comfortable driving following four aspects are important for a
pavement surface.
a) Friction between the wheels and the pavement surface
b) Smoothness of the road surface or Pavement unevenness. b) Smoothness of the road surface or Pavement unevenness.
c) Light reflection characteristics of the top of pavement surface, and
d) Drainage to water.
) F i ti a) Friction
Lack of adequate friction can cause skidding or slipping of vehicles. Further, it also
affect the acceleration and deceleration ability of vehicles.
Skidding happens when the path traveled along the road surface is more than the
i f i l f h h l d f i i circumferential movement of the wheels due to friction.
Slip occurs when the wheel revolves more than the corresponding longitudinal
movement along the road.
The frictional force that develops between the wheel and the pavement is the load
i l i li d b f ll d h ffi i f f i i d d d f acting multiplied by a factor called the coefficient of friction and denoted as f.
IRC suggests the coefficient of longitudinal friction as 0.350.4 depending on the
speed and coefficient of lateral friction as 0.15. The former is useful in sight
distance calculation and the latter in horizontal curve design.
Pavement Surface PavementSurface
Variousfactorsthataffectfrictionare:
Typeofthepavement(likebituminous,concrete,orgravel),
Paymentroughness
Condition of the pavement (dry or wet hot or cold etc) Conditionofthepavement(dryorwet,hotorcold,etc),
Conditionofthetyre (neworold),and
Speedofthevehicle.
Loadofthevehicle.
Tyre pressure(airpressure)
Temperature of the road and tyre Temperatureoftheroadandtyre
PavementSurface
b) PavementUnevenness
A good pavement surface with minimum possible unevenness is desired to maintain
higher operating speed. But it is seldom possible to achieve pavement surfaces with
less undulations The pavement unevenness affects less undulations. The pavement unevenness affects
Vehicle operating cost
Vehicle riding and comfort
Speed and safety
Higher fuel consumption
Wear and tear of tyres and other moving parts.
Pavement unevenness is measured in unevenness index using an equipment called Pavement unevenness is measured in unevenness index using an equipment called
bump integrator. It is the cumulative measure of vertical undulation of the pavement
surface recorded per unit horizontal length of the road. Unevenness index values are
expressed in cm/km and classified as follows.
S No Unevenness index Comfort S.No Unevennessindex Comfort
1 < 150cm/km Good
2 150250cm/km Satisfactoryupto100kmph
3 >320cm/km Uncomfortableevenfor55kmph
Pavement Surface PavementSurface
Causesofpavementunevenness
I. Inadequateorimpropercompactionofthefill,subgrade andpavement
layers.
II. Unscientificconstructionpracticesincludingtheuseofboulderstones p g
andbricksassoilingcourseoverloosesubgrade soil.
III. Useofinferiorpavementmaterials
IV Improper surface and subsurface drainage IV. Impropersurfaceandsubsurfacedrainage.
V. Useofimproperconstructionmachinery
VI. Poormaintenancepractices
Pavement Surface PavementSurface
c) Lightreflection
Nightvisibilityofroadsdependonlightreflectingcharacteristicsofthe
pavementsurface.
Whiteroadshavegoodvisibilityatnight,butcausedglareduringdaytime.
Blackroadshasnoglareduringday,buthaspoorvisibilityatnightespecially
duringwetcondition.
Concreteroadshasbettervisibilityandlessglare
d) Drainage
Pavementsurfaceshouldbeabsolutelyimpermeabletopreventseepageof
waterintothepavementlayers. p y
Boththegeometryandtextureofpavementsurfaceshouldhelpindraining
outthewaterfromthesurfaceinlesstime.
Highway cross section elements Highwaycrosssectionelements
RoadSectionsandHighway
Financing
Road Cross Sections RoadCrossSections
Road Cross Sections RoadCrossSections
Road Cross Sections RoadCrossSections
Road Cross Sections RoadCrossSections
Road Cross Sections RoadCrossSections
Highway Financing HighwayFinancing
Basic principle of highway financing is that the funds spent on highways are
recovered from the road users The recovery may be both direct and indirect recovered from the road users. The recovery may be both direct and indirect.
Twogeneralmethodsofhighwayfinancingare
I. Payasyougomethod
II Credit financing method II. Creditfinancingmethod
Payasyougomethod
Involvespayingofallhighwayimprovementsandcostsofmaintainingand p y g g y p g
operatingthehighwaysystemfromcurrentrevenues.
Thismethodiscurrentlyinusebymanygovernmentagencies.
Creditfinancingmethod
f hi h i i d f b d d hi Paymentforhighwayimprovementismadefrombarrowedmoneyandthis
amountandtheinterestsarerepaidfromthefutureincome.
Highway Financing HighwayFinancing
PayasyougomethodversusCreditfinancingmethod
S.No Payasyougo Credit financing
1 Therevenuefromthefacilitycan
beutilizedforfuturemaintenance
Requiredtoprepareaccurateestimates
forfinancing(includingmaintenance,
anddevelopment operation,depreciation)otherwise
leadtopayingforcapitalfacilityeven
afteritoutliveditsutility.
2 Req ires a so nd financial Ad antageo s for the capital facilities 2 Requiresasoundfinancial
position.
Advantageousforthecapitalfacilities
withlonglife
3 Adoptedduringgoodeconomic
d f ll l t it ti i
Adoptedduringrecessionandunder
l t il i th t and fullemploymentsituationin
thecountry. Underthissituation
creditfinancingwillmostlikely
promoteinflation.
employmentprevailsinthecountry.
Thiswilllikelyimprovetheeconomic
stability byacceleratingmoney
circulation. p
UNITII:GEOMETRICDESIGNOF
HIGHWAYS
Goals of Geometric Design GoalsofGeometricDesign
To provide optimum efficiency in traffic Toprovideoptimumefficiencyintraffic
operations.
Maximize the driving comfort Maximizethedrivingcomfort.
Safetyforusers
Loworoptimumcost
SustainableTransportationPlanning. p g
Highway geometric design Highwaygeometricdesign
FundamentalsofhighwayGeometricdesigndealswith g y g
Crosssectionelements
Sightdistanceconsiderations
Horizontal alignment details Horizontalalignmentdetails
Verticalalignmentdetails
Intersectionelements