You are on page 1of 45

I NTRODUCTI ON TO PHOTOVOLTAI C

PUMPI NG SYSTEMS
Yi ngl i Sol ar Ac ademy
Yingli Green Energy Spain
April, 24
th
2014
Alicia Canut Montesinos
Project Engineer
Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Selection of pump type
3. Photovoltaic Pumping System Components
4. Photovoltaic Pumping Systems more usual settings
5. Sizing
6. New technologies


Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Selection of pump type
3. Photovoltaic Pumping System Components
4. Photovoltaic Pumping Systems more usual settings
5. Sizing
6. New technologies

Proprietary and Confidential
4 4
Introduction
In the cases below, the option of Pumping Photovoltaic System is the
most adequate. Even in developed countries, if the grid is located more
than half kilometer:
 Solar water pumping option is feasible for many agricultural producers.
 The equipment available in the market are reliable, durable and easy to operate.
 The initial cost is relatively high compared to other traditional options, but may be more
economical to long term due to its low cost of operation and maintenance.








Proprietary and Confidential
5 5
Introduction
 The benefit of this pump technology has a greater impact when it is accompanied by
an overall improvement of the farming or ranching.
 There are still vast rural areas where they do not reaches the conventional electricity
grid.
 Water for human consumption or pets, characterized by low power demands, are still
taken from wells or rivers.
 People do not have irrigation systems, or those they have, are inefficient.
 Fossil fuels supply is very irregular or non existent.








Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Selection of pump type
3. Photovoltaic Pumping System Components
4. Photovoltaic Pumping Systems more usual settings
5. Sizing
6. New technologies

Proprietary and Confidential
7 7
Selection of pump type
 Selection of pump technology.







Id Nombre de tarea Duración Comienzo
1 Senelec_Senegal 2MWp 19 días jue 27/03/14 lun 21/04/14 2 Cont r act Signat ur e 19 días jue 27/03/14 lun 21/04/14 3 Pr ecedent s Condit ions Compliance 27 días lun 31/03/14 dom 04/05/14 4 Geot echnical St udy 17 días lun 31/03/14 lun 21/04/14 5 Topogr aphic St udy 4 días lun 31/03/14 jue 03/04/14 6 Recibo Downpayment 10días mar 22/04/14 dom04/05/14 2 7 Acces & St ock ar ea 33días vie 28/03/14 vie 09/05/14 8 Engineer ing 105 días lun 05/05/14 mié 24/09/14 3
Id Nombre de tarea Duración Comienzo
1 Senelec_Senegal 2MWp 19 días jue 27/03/14 lun 21/04/14 2 Cont r act Signat ur e 19 días jue 27/03/14 lun 21/04/14 3 Pr ecedent s Condit ions Compliance 27 días lun 31/03/14 dom 04/05/14 4 Geot echnical St udy 17 días lun 31/03/14 lun 21/04/14 5 Topogr aphic St udy 4 días lun 31/03/14 jue 03/04/14 6 Recibo Downpayment 10días mar 22/04/14 dom04/05/14 2 7 Acces & St ock ar ea 33días vie 28/03/14 vie 09/05/14 8 Engineer ing 105 días lun 05/05/14 mié 24/09/14 3
Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Selection of pump type
3. Photovoltaic Pumping System Components
4. Photovoltaic Pumping Systems more usual settings
5. Sizing
6. New technologies

Proprietary and Confidential
9 9









Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
10 10
Modules:
Operation is defined by
I-V curve, radiation and
temperature.








Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
11 11
Batteries:
 They are not often use in Pumping PV System.

 Are necessary if there are no deposits to accumulate water or
when the flow rate, given by the well, doesn´t cover demand
during the hours of sun. Also if an alternative use the generator is
given.

 They have the advantage of allowing the operation of the pump
at any time and at constant power.







Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
12 12
Regulators:

 They have assigned two basic functions:

1 -. Prevent Overload Generator batteries.

2 -. Prevent battery discharge more than permissible.





Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
13 13
Converters:

 They can convert DC / DC and DC / AC.

 The topology and control of DC / DC allows the system always
works at maximum generator power. It is called MPPT.

 The DC / AC are required for connection of induction motors.
Normally incorporating a MPPT. Those are the inverters.




Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
14 14
Maximum peak power Tracker (MPPT):
 Topology.




Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
15 15
Maximum peak power Tracker (MPPT):
 Control




Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
16 16
Inverters

 They have control over the voltage and frequency.

 The knowledge of the wave shape is essential.

 All current models have high efficiencies




Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
17 17
Single Phase Inverters (Square wave):




Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
18 18
DC Motors:
 Classics (blades): maintenance problem

 They have the advantage of high efficiency and easy
control.




Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
19 19
AC Motors:

 Induction or asynchronous, very robust and economic. Require
little maintenance.

 They have the disadvantage of the inverter and its control is
more complex.

Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
20 20
Pumps:
 Volumetric and positive displacement
 Centrifugal





Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
21 21
Pumps:
 Positive displacement (of piston and diaphragm, mainly). Ideals
for low flow and high altitudes gauge.






Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
22 22
Pumps:
Require a very high starting torque.



Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
23 23
Pumps:

 Dynamic exchange or amount of motion (centrifugal). For large
flows and small and medium altitudes.

 They are very simple, they have few moving parts and the starting
torque is very low, so it makes them ideal for using with engines
induction ..
 They can be installed on the surface or submerged.
Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Proprietary and Confidential
24 24
Pumps:
 Surface
Centrifugal pump
.




 Sumerge
Centrifugal pump
Photovoltaoc Pumping System Components
Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Selection of pump type
3. Photovoltaic Pumping System Components
4. Photovoltaic Pumping Systems more usual
settings
5. Sizing
6. New technologies

Proprietary and Confidential
26 26
Photovoltaic pumping systems more usual settings
Proprietary and Confidential
27 27
Photovoltaic pumping systems more usual settings
Proprietary and Confidential
28 28
 DC solar pumping:

Photovoltaic pumping systems more usual settings
Proprietary and Confidential
29 29
 Equipment with AC Motor.

Photovoltaic pumping systems more usual settings
Proprietary and Confidential
30 30
 Coupling generator - engine - pump.
Curve A:Centrifugal pumps or
battery systems
Curve B:positive
displacement pumps
Curve C: Point Tracking
maximum power system
Photovoltaic pumping systems more usual settings
Proprietary and Confidential
31 31
Pumping battery support:

 There is no dependence on solar radiation. The
system can operate at any time at constant power.
 Control systems are simpler (it is not indispensable
MPPT).
 Need maintenance and replacement of defective
items.
Photovoltaic pumping systems more usual settings
Proprietary and Confidential
32 32
Pumping battery support:

Photovoltaic pumping systems more usual settings
Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Selection of pump type
3. Photovoltaic Pumping System Components
4. Photovoltaic Pumping Systems more usual settings
5. Sizing
6. New technologies

Proprietary and Confidential
34 34
Electric energy → hydraulic energy + losses

Applications

• Irrigation

• Domestic use
Sizing
Maximum
efficiency is
looked for
Proprietary and Confidential
35 35
Factors determining the configuration:
• Hydraulic conditions :Evaluating the necessary hydraulic power.


• Depth water level in the well under the surface
• Static water lift height
• Dynamic head: losses in pipes and fittings


• Power supplied by generator
Sizing
Dynamic head: Hd = Pd - did + Hc + heqt
Proprietary and Confidential
36 36
Photovoltaic along day:
• Solar Radiation: Evaluating the available
solar energy.
• Weather Condition
Dimensioning the PV generator:
Determining the peak power of the generator that is necessary set to
satisfy the water needs throughout the year.
Considerations:
1) It is supposed to work under standard conditions (25 º 1000 W/m2).
2) Point coincides with the MPPT work all day.

Sizing
Proprietary and Confidential
37 37
Electric energy needed = E. hydraulic /η (average daily generator).
Electric power generator (25 º - 1000 W/m2).

(1)
Pp: CEM Electric Power (W).
ηg: gen performance. FV at 25 ° C.
A: Active Area of the modules.
(2) (2)
Ee: daily electricity (kWh).
ηfv = monthly average yield on Daily Generator operating conditions.
Gdm = monthly average daily radiation incident on the plane of
generator (kWh/m2 day).
Sizing
Proprietary and Confidential
38 38

(3)

Fm = average coupling factor (ratio of the electrical energy generated in operation
conditions and the electricity that would be generated if the system worked in the maximum
power point).
It can be taken as Fm = 0.95 for MPPT systems monitoring, 0.9 to centrifugal
pumps and 0.8 to other pumps.
γ = Coefficient of variation of the power with the cell temperature(from 0.004 to
0.005 / ° C).
Tc = daily average temperature of the modules during daylight hours.

Sizing
Proprietary and Confidential
39 39
The electrical energy required is given based on performance
Average daily motor subsystem - pump.

(4)

Substituting into equation 1 equation 2, 3, and 4, the power required peak
watts, depending on the Eh, radiation and engine performance subsystem
- pump is:
Sizing
Proprietary and Confidential
40 40
Tc can be estimated from the average ambient temperature and Global
incident irradiance G in the plane of the generator (average values
daytime):

Tc = Ta + 0.03 G.

The correction value of T in the equation can be replaced by
Ft = (1 - (Tc-25)) = 0.8 to 0.9 for warm and cold weather climates
respectively.
Sizing
Proprietary and Confidential
41 41
Ones the necessary pumping equipment is already defined.

Regarding type of pumps, manufacturers usually specify the diameter and
material of the pipe.

Sizing
Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Selection of pump type
3. Photovoltaic Pumping System Components
4. Photovoltaic Pumping Systems more usual settings
5. Sizing
6. New technologies
Proprietary and Confidential
43 43
Variable Frequency Drive: The
range of allowable stresses for the
drive MX2 or RX are:

• 220V models: from 173Vcc to 400VDC,
recommended 310Vcc
• 400V models: 345Vcc up to 800Vdc,
recommended 535Vcc
New technologies
Proprietary and Confidential
44 44
• Single Phase
New technologies
Proprietary and Confidential
45 45
• Three Phase

New technologies