28 views

Uploaded by necroteck1

Solucionario alpha chiang

- 2.1 Functions and Their Graphs (2)
- 154411992 Mariner Engineers Handbook PDF
- Essential Demographic Methods 1684829403.Wachter K(2006) (1)
- BBA_SY_2012.pdf
- libpari
- pp
- Chapter 7 Ytu Yr
- Maxima Notes 5 Simplify
- 2(A) Q & S
- m3-block1-Unit 2
- Gen Math HUMMS Daily Lesson Log
- 5 Indices and Logarithms
- Non Spatial Fields
- Pre-Calc Lesson 4
- Bbbm Solving Log and Indeks Equation
- definition of function
- 6PH06_1A_pef_20100818
- ryan hromadka exponents and logarithms unit portfolio - google docs
- tugas mtk
- lecture_7

You are on page 1of 7

Exercise 10.1

1. (a) Yes.

(b) Yes, because at t = 0, the value of y for the two functions are identical: 3

0

= 1, and

3

2(0)

= 1.

(a) Yes.

(b) No, because at t = 0, the value of y for the two functions are unequal: 4

0

= 1, but

3

4

0

= 3.

2. (a) Let w = 5t (so that dw/dt = 5), then y = e

w

and dy/dw = e

w

. Thus,by the chain rule,

dy

dt

=

dy

dw

dw

dt

= 5e

w

= 5e

5t

.

(b) Let w = 3t , then y = 4e

w

and dy/dw = 4e

w

. Thus,we have

dy

dt

=

dy

dw

dw

dt

= 12e

3t

(c)Similarly to (b) above, dy/dt = 12e

2t

.

3. The rst two derivatives are y

0

(t) = y

00

(t) = e

t

= (2.718)

t

. The value of t can be either

positive, zero, or negative. If t > 0, then e

t

is clearly positive; if t = 0, then e

t

= 1, again

positive; nally, if t < 0, say t = 2, then e

t

= 1/ (2.718)

2

, still positive. Thus y

0

(t) and y

00

(t)

are always positive, and the function y = e

t

always increases at an increasing rate.

4. (a) The curve with a = 1 is the mirror image of the curve with a = 1 with reference to the

horizontal exis.

(b) The curve with c = 1 is the mirror image of the curve with c = 1 with reference to the

vertical exis.

Exercise 10.2

1. (a) e

2

= 1+2+

1

2

(2)

2

+

1

6

(2)

3

+

1

24

(2)

4

+

1

120

(2)

5

+

1

720

(2)

6

+

1

5040

(2)

7

+

1

40320

(2)

8

+

1

362880

(2)

9

+

1

3628800

(2)

10

= 1 + 2 + 2 + 1.333 + 0.667 + 0.267 + 0.089 + 0.025 + 0.006 + 0.001 + 0.000 = 7.388

(b) e

1/2

= 1+

1

2

+

1

2

(

1

2

)

2

+

1

6

(

1

2

)

3

+

1

24

(

1

2

)

4

+

1

120

(

1

2

)

5

= 1+0.5+0.125+0.021+0.003+0.000 = 1.649

56

2. (a) The derivatives are:

0

= 2e

2x

,

00

= 2

2

e

2x

,

0

0

0

0

= 2

3

e

2x

, or in general

(k)

= 2

k

e

2x

. Thus

we have

0

(0) = 2,

00

(0) = 2

2

, or more generally

(k)

(0) = 2

k

. Accordingly,

P

n

= 1 + 2x +

1

2!

2

2

x

2

+

1

3!

2

3

x

3

+ +

1

n!

2

n

x

n

= 1 + 2x +

1

2!

(2x)

2

+

1

3!

(2x)

3

+ +

1

n!

(2x)

n

(b) R

n

=

(n+1)

(p)

(n+1)!

x

n+1

=

2

(n+1)

e

2p

(n+1)!

x

n+1

=

e

2p

(n+1)!

(2x)

n+1

It can be veried that R

n

0 as n .

(c) Hence (x) can be expressed as an innite series:

(x) = 1 + 2x +

1

2!

(2x)

2

+

1

3!

(2x)

3

+

3. (a) $70e

0.04(3)

= $70e

0.12

(b) $690e

0.05(2)

= $690e

0.10

4. (a) 0.07 ( or 7%) (b) 0.03 (c) 0.40 (d) 1 ( or 100% )

5. When t = 0, the two functions have the same value ( the same y intercept ). Also, y

1

= Ae

r

when t = 1, but y

2

= Ae

r

when t = 1. Generally, y

1

= y

2

whenever the value of t in one

function is the negative of the t value in the other; hence the mirror- image relationship.

Exercise 10.3

1. (a) 4 (b) -4 (c) 4 (d) 5

2. (a) 7 (b) -4 (c) -3 (d) -2 (e) 6 (f) 0

3. (a) log

10

(100)

13

= 13 log

10

100 = 13(2) = 26

(b) log

10

(

1

100

) = log

10

1 log

10

100 = 0 2 = 2

(c) ln

3

B

= ln3 lnB

(d) ln Ae

2

= lnA = lne

2

= lnA + 2

(e) lnABe

4

= lnA + lnB + lne

4

= lnA + lnB 4

(f) (log

4

e)(log

e

64) = log

4

64 = 3

4. (a) and (c) are valid; (b) and (d) are not.

5. By denition, e

ln(u/v)

=

u

v

. But we can also write

u

v

=

e

ln u

e

ln v

= e

(ln uln v)

. Equating the two

expressions for

u

v

, we obtain ln

u

v

= lnu lnv.

57

Exercise 10.4

1. If r = 0, then y = Ae

rt

= Ae

0

= A, and the function degenerates into a constant function.

The nonzero requirement serves to preclude this contingency.

2. The graphs are of the same general shap as in Fig. 10.3; the y intercepts will be A (i.e., y = A)

for both.

3. Since y = ab

ct

, we have log

b

y = log

b

a + ct log

b

b = log

b

a + ct.

Thus, by solving for t, we get

t =

log

b

ylog

b

a

c

(c 6= 0)

This is the desired inverse function because it expresses t in terms of y.

4. (a) a = 1, b = 8, and c = 3; thus r = 3 ln8, and y = e

(3 ln 8)t

. We can also write this as

y = e

6.2385t

.

(b) a = 2, b = 7, and c = 2; thus r = 2 ln7, and y = 2e

(2 ln 7)t

. We can also write this as

y = 2e

3.8918t

.

(c) a = 5, b = 5, and c = 1; thus r = ln5, and y = 5e

(ln 5)t

. We can also write this as

y = 5e

1.6095t

.

(d) a = 2, b = 15, and c = 4; thus r = 4 ln15, and y = 2e

(4 ln 15)t

. We can also write this as

y = 2e

10.8324t

.

5. (a) a = 1, b = 7, c = 1; thus t =

1

ln 7

lny(=

1

1.9459

lny = 0.5139 lny)

(b) a = 1, b = 8, c = 3; thus t =

1

ln 8

ln3y(=

1

2.0795

ln3y = 0.4809 ln3y)

(c) a = 3, b = 15, c = 9; thus t =

3

ln 15

ln9y(=

3

2.7081

ln9y = 1.1078 ln9y)

(d) a = 2, b = 10, c = 1; thus t =

2

ln 10

lny(=

2

2.3026

lny = 0.8686 lny)

6. The conversion involved is Ae

rt

= A(1+

i

c

)

ct

, where c represents the number of compoundings

per year. Similarly to formula (10.18), we can obtain a general conversion formula r =

c ln(1 +

i

c

).

(a) c = 1, and i = 0.05; thus r = ln1.05.

(b) c = 2, and i = 0.05; thus r = 2 ln1.025.

(c) c = 2, and i = 0.06; thus r = 2 ln1.03.

58

(d) c = 4, and i = 0.06; thus r = 4 ln1.015.

7. (a)The 45

0

line drawn through the origin serves as a mirror.

(b)Yes, the horizonal axis is a mirror.

(c) Yes, the horizonal axis is a mirror.

Exercise 10.5

1. (a) 2e

2t+4

(b) 9e

17t

(c) 2te

t

2

+1

(d) 10te

2t

2

(e) (2ax +

b)e

ax

2

+bx+c

(f)

dy

dx

= x

d

dx

e

x

+ e

x dx

dx

= xe

x

+ e

x

= (x + 1)e

x

(g)

dy

dx

= x

2

(2e

2x

) + 2xe

2x

= 2x(x + 1)e

2x

(h)

dy

dx

= a(xbe

bx+c

+ e

bx+c

) = a(bx + 1)e

bx+c

2. (a)

d

dt

lnat =

d

dt

(lna + lnt) = 0 +

d

dt

lnt =

1

t

.

(b)

d

dt

lnt

c

=

d

dt

c lnt = c

d

dt

lnt =

c

t

.

3. (a)

dy

dt

=

35t

4

7t

5

=

5

t

(b)

dy

dt

=

act

c1

at

c

=

c

t

(c)

dy

dt

=

1

t + 19

(d)

dy

dt

= 5

2(t+1)

(t+1)

2

=

10

t+1

(e)

dy

dx

=

1

x

1

1+x

=

1

x(1+x)

(f)

dy

dx

=

d

dx

[lnx + 8 ln(1 x)] =

1

x

+

8

1x

=

19x

x(1x)

(g)

dy

dx

=

d

dx

[ln2x ln(1 + x)] =

2

2x

1

1+x

=

1

x(1+x)

(h)

dy

dx

= 5x

4 2x

x

2

+ 20x

3

lnx

2

= 10x

3

(1 + 2 lnx

2

) = 10x

3

(1 + 4 lnx)

4. (a)

dy

dt

= 5

t

ln5 (b)

dy

dt

=

1

(t+1) ln 2

(c)

dy

dt

= 2(13)

2t+3

ln13

(d)

dy

dx

=

14x

7x

2

1

ln 7

=

2

xln 7

(e)

dy

dx

=

16x

(8x

2

+3) ln 2

(f)

dy

dx

= x

2 d

dx

log

3

x + log

3

x

d

dx

x

2

= x

2 1

xln 3

+ (log

3

x)(2x) =

x

ln 3

+ 2xlog

3

x

5. (a) Let u = f(t), so that du/dt = f

0

(t). Then

d

dt

b

f(t)

=

db

u

dt

=

db

u

du

du

dt

= (b

u

lnb)f

0

(t) = f

0

(t)b

f(t)

lnb

(b) Let u = f(t). Then

d

dt

log

b

f(t) =

d

dt

log

b

u =

d

du

log

b

u

du

dt

=

1

uln b

f

0

(t) =

f

0

(t)

f(t)

1

ln b

59

6. For V = Ae

rt

, the rst two derivatives are V

0

= rAe

rt

> 0 and V

00

= r

2

Ae

rt

> 0

Thus V is strictly increasing at an increasing rate, yielding a strictly convex curve. For A =

V e

rt

, the rst two derivatives are

A

0

= rV e

rt

< 0 and A

00

= r

2

V e

rt

> 0

Thus A is strictly decreasing at an increasing rate (with the negative slope taking smaller

numerical values as t increases ), also yielding a strictly convex curve.

7. (a) Since lny = ln3x ln(x + 2) ln(x + 4), we have

1

y

dy

dx

=

1

x

1

x+2

1

x+4

=

8x

2

x(x+2)(x+4)

and

dy

dx

=

8x

2

x(x+2)(x+4)

3x

(x+2)(x+4)

=

3(8x

2)

(x+2)

2

(x+4)

2

(b) Since lny = ln(x

2

+ 3) + x

2

+ 1, we have

1

y

dy

dx

=

2x

x

2

+3

+ 2x =

2x(x

2

+4)

x

2

+3

and

dy

dx

=

2x(x

2

+4)

x

2

+3

(x

2

+ 3)e

x

2

+1

= 2x(x

2

+ 4)e

x

2

+1

Exercise 10.6

1. Since A = Ke

2

trt

, we have lnA = lnK + 2

1

A

dA

dt

= t

1/2

r or

dA

dt

= A(t

1/2

r)

Setting

dA

dt

= 0, we then nd: t

= 1/r

2

.

In the second derivative,

d

2

A

dt

2

= A

d

dt

(t

1/2

r) + (t

1/2

r)

dA

dt

the second term vanishes when

dA

dt

= 0. Thus

d

2

A

dt

2

= A/2

t

3

< 0, which satises the

second-order condition for a maximum.

2.

d

2

A

dt

2

= A

d

dt

(

ln 2

2

t

r) + (

ln 2

2

t

r)

dA

dt

= A

d

dt

(

ln 2

2

t

1/2

r) + 0 =

Aln 2

4

t

3

< 0 [ since A < 0 and

ln2 > 0]

Thus the second-order condition is satised.

3. (a) Since A = V e

rt

= f(t) e

rt

, we have lnA = lnf(t) rt, and

1

A

dA

dt

=

f

0

(t)

f(t)

r = r

v

r

or

dA

dt

= A(r

v

r)

Inasmuch as A is nonzero, dA/dt = 0 if and only if r

v

= r.

(b) The second derivative is

d

2

A

dt

2

= A

d

dt

f

0

(t)

f(t)

= A

d

dt

r

v

< 0 i

d

dt

r

v

< 0

4. The value of t

dt

dr

=

d

dr

1

4

r

2

=

1

2r

3

< 0, a higher

interest rate means a smaller t

60

Exercise 10.7

1. (a) lny = ln5 + 2 lnt; thus r

y

=

d

dt

lny =

2

t

.

(b) lny = lna + c lnt; thus r

y

= c/t.

(c) lny = lna + t lnb; thus r

y

= lnb.

(d) Let u = 2

t

and v = t

2

. Then r

u

= ln2, and r

v

= 2/t. Thus r

y

= r

u

+ r

v

= ln2 + 2/t.

Alternatively, we can write lny = t ln2 + 2 lnt; thus

r

y

=

d

dt

lny = ln2 =

2

t

(e) Let u = t and v = 3

t

. Then r

u

=

d(ln u)

dt

=

d(ln t)

dt

=

1

t

, and r

v

=

d(ln v)

dt

=

d(ln 3

t

)

dt

=

d(t ln c)

dt

= ln3. Consequently, r

y

= r

u

r

v

=

1

t

ln3.

Alternatively, we can write lny = lnt t ln3; thus r

y

=

d

dt

lny =

1

t

ln3

2. lnH = lnH

0

+ bt ln2; thus r

H

= b ln2. Similarly, lnC = lnC

0

+ at lne; thus r

C

= a lne = a.

It follows that r

(C/H)

= r

C

r

H

= a b ln2.

3. Taking log, we get lny = k lnx. Dierentiating with respect to t, we then obtain r

y

= kr

x

.

4. y =

u

v

implies lny = lnu lnv; it follows that r

y

=

d

dt

lny =

d

dt

lnu

d

dt

lnv = r

u

r

v

.

5. By denition, y = Y/P. Taking the natural log, we have lny = lnY lnP. Dierentiation of

lny with respect to time t yields

d

dt

lny =

d

dt

lnY

d

dt

lnP, which means r

y

= r

Y

r

P

where

r

P

is the rate of ination.

6. z = u v implies lnz = ln(u v); thus r

z

=

d

dt

lnz =

d

dt

ln(u v) =

1

uv

d

dt

(u v) =

1

uv

d

dt

[f

0

(t) g

0

(t)] =

1

uv

(ur

u

vr

v

)

7. lnQ

d

= lnk nlnP. Thus, by (10.28),

d

= n, and |

d

| = n.

8. (a) Since lny = lnw + lnz, we have

yx

=

d(ln y)

d(ln x)

=

d(ln w)

d(ln x)

+

d(ln z)

d(ln x)

=

wx

+

zx

(b) Since lny = lnu lnv, we have

yx

=

d(ln y)

d(ln x)

=

d(ln u)

d(ln x)

d(ln v)

d(ln x)

=

ux

+

vx

9. Let u = log

b

y, and v = log

b

x (implying that x = b

v

). Then

du

dv

=

du

dy

dy

dx

dx

dv

=

1

y

(log

b

e)

dy

dx

b

v

lnb.

Since log

b

e =

1

ln b

, and since b

v

= x, we have

du

dv

=

x

y

dy

dx

=

yx

.

10. Since M

d

= f[Y (t), i(t)], we can write the total derivative

dM

d

dt

= f

y

dy

dt

+ f

i

di

dt

.

61

Thus the rate of growth of M

d

is r

M

d

=

dM

d

/dt

M

d

=

f

Y

f

dY

dt

+

f

i

f

di

dt

=

f

Y

f

Y

Y

dY

dt

+

f

i

f

i

i

di

dt

=

f

Y

Y

f

(

1

Y

dY

dt

) +

fii

f

(

1

i

di

dt

) =

M

d

Y

r

Y

+

M

d

i

r

i

.

Alternatively, using logarithms, we may write r

M

d

=

d

dt

lnM

d

=

1

M

d

d

dt

M

d

, but this then leads

us back to the preceding process.

11. By the same procedure used in 10 above, we can nd that r

Q

=

QK

r

K

+

QL

r

L

.

62

- 2.1 Functions and Their Graphs (2)Uploaded byodlanyer
- 154411992 Mariner Engineers Handbook PDFUploaded byAmina Amina
- Essential Demographic Methods 1684829403.Wachter K(2006) (1)Uploaded byNayara Siviero
- BBA_SY_2012.pdfUploaded byjangra17
- libpariUploaded byalbertofranzin
- ppUploaded byPREMENDRA SAMEER
- Chapter 7 Ytu YrUploaded byHusseinali Hussein
- Maxima Notes 5 SimplifyUploaded byyjlee123
- 2(A) Q & SUploaded byAjay Khalsa
- m3-block1-Unit 2Uploaded bycooooool1927
- Gen Math HUMMS Daily Lesson LogUploaded byjun del rosario
- 5 Indices and LogarithmsUploaded byZahid Yasin
- Non Spatial FieldsUploaded byMariano Serrano
- Pre-Calc Lesson 4Uploaded byezmoreldo
- Bbbm Solving Log and Indeks EquationUploaded byAhmadHairiGhafar
- definition of functionUploaded byapi-247658686
- 6PH06_1A_pef_20100818Uploaded byParbon Acharjee
- ryan hromadka exponents and logarithms unit portfolio - google docsUploaded byapi-287723780
- tugas mtkUploaded byGhalih Hakiki Kavisa
- lecture_7Uploaded byEric Parker
- sm_06Uploaded byk
- Class 12Uploaded byserendipity zemblanity
- Chapter 4Uploaded byTom Davis
- 12.Coupled Binary Embedding ForUploaded byVigneshInfotech
- 12thmaths Integrationbyparts Jeemain2014 140210043450 Phpapp02Uploaded byEthan Hunt
- Ti Baii PlusUploaded bytorjha
- Finding Rules in DataUploaded byMauricio Reyes
- comp5Uploaded bymonu991
- McCallum1996Uploaded byaaxsenaa
- petrophyisct 16 induction NewUploaded byMichele Stephens

- wu2005.pdfUploaded byChikh Yassine
- Steel TestingUploaded bySumeet Saini
- Model TheoryUploaded byMizanur Rahman
- Michio Morishima-Dynamic Economic Theory (2009)Uploaded byLucas Carvalho
- Quiz-7 - World & Indian Geography Questions for All Competitive ExamsUploaded byCharan Reddy
- Mathcad - CAPE - 2004 - Math Unit 2 - Paper 02Uploaded byNefta Baptiste
- thermodynamicsUploaded byantoniodrifter
- 1000R4-en-pdfUploaded byaa
- Interference and DiffractionUploaded bymumtazali
- SedUploaded byFetra Manoela Raneria
- 2016010517493667735.pdfUploaded bytjiangtjiangs
- Análise do Comportamento de Transformadores de Potência Durante Curto Circuito InternoUploaded byMarco Oliveira
- Eigenvalues and EigenvectorsUploaded byanon_351812634
- Kawale_MSc_Thesis_Final.pdfUploaded byShehzad Ahmed
- 51692773 ASIC Design Flow TutorialUploaded byashhbam
- Flurocent LampUploaded byNagineni Naresh
- e Ch02 Expv1 Ircd InstructionsUploaded bySpenser Andrew Snyder
- 599683481Uploaded bya c r o s s
- Metal_Finishing_-_May_2009Uploaded byqyly78
- E 1108Uploaded byEmrahCayboylu
- Car Nap QuineUploaded byJulian Ortiz
- Chem 28.1 Midterm PSUploaded byAnonymous ee5dOj
- Selenium Content,selenium online trainingUploaded byQshore online training
- 02_Frobenius-31-12-14_ppUploaded byChristian Malacapo Mortel
- 134_2assistant Executive Engineers(01 July 2012)VijayawadaUploaded bySri Kanth
- RLPC Desalination DesignUploaded byafsalmohmd
- Extractive Metallurgy of IronUploaded byBharichalo007
- DGS 1140-001 Rev 1Uploaded byEfficiency2010
- Circuit Theory PPTUploaded byArunmozhi Sinouvassane
- Microwave Grid Antennas 323-333Uploaded byFabio Costa