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Step-1 : Review of vessel drawing (Vendor Equipment Drawing)

You need to review Vessel drawings from foundation design point of view and
check whether you have all the following information:
Vessel Erection weight (D
e1
):
Vessel Empty weight (D
e2
):
Vessel Operating weight (D
o
):
Vessel Hydrotest weight (D
t
):
Wind Shear and Moment
Seismic Shear and Moment (if the Project site is at Seismic zone)
Total Height of vessel
Vessel Center of Gravity location for Seismic load calculation and application
Anchor bolt location (Bolt circle Dia) with respect to center of vessel and also
bolt offset with respect to Plant North line.
Anchor bolt supporting detail ( Anchor bolt size and detail of anchor chair)
Base plate detail
Step-2 : Verification of foundation location, elevation and external fittings loads

You need to review Plot plan, Equipment location drawings and 3 -D Models and check
whether you have all the following information:
Verify the area available for foundation.
Verify Foundation location and Elevation
Pipe supports and Nozzle loads on Equipment (Dp)
Location and size of Platforms around the vessel
Locations of underground pipes
Electrical and Instrument duct banks
Locations and extent of adjacent foundations
Verify the location and extent of new/existing foundations not shown in 3D
model or plot plan.
Step-3 : Description of Foundation Loads:

Please follow this section to understand the different loads on foundation:

Vessel Erection weight (D
e1
): The erection weight is the fabricated weight of the vessel,
plus internals, platforms, etc., that are actually erected with the vessel. Data from
Equipment drawing.

Vessel Empty weight (D
e2
): The empty weight is the in-place weight of the completed
vessel, including the fabricated weight of the vessel, plus the weight of internals, piping,
insulation, and platforms, but excluding the weight of fluids or products which will be
contained in the vessel during operation. Data from Equipment drawings.

Vessel Operating weight (D
o
): Vessel Empty weight (D
e2
) + Weight of Fluid inside the
vessel. Data from Equipment drawings.

Vessel Hydrotest weight (D
t
): Vessel Empty weight (D
e2
) + Weight of test water

Pipe supports and Nozzle loads on Equipment (Dp): Please Coordinate with the Pipe
Stress Group for determination of nozzle loads and loads due to pipe supports attached to
the vessel.

Wind Shear and Moment: You will find this load data in vendor drawings. However, you
have to calculate this load based on project design basis. During wind load calculation,
you need to consider the pipes and platforms attached with the vessel. Compare both the
data (vendor load data and your calculated data) and apply the critical one for foundation
design.

Seismic Shear and Moment (if the Project site is at Seismic zone): You will find this load
data in vendor drawings. However, you have to calculate this load based on project design
basis. During seismic load calculation, you need to consider the pipes and platforms
attached with the vessel. Compare both the data (vendor load data and your calculated
data) and apply critical one for foundation design.

Step-4 : Pedestal Sizing Criteria:
Concrete pedestals supporting vertical vessels shall be sized according to the following
criteria:

Face-to-face pedestal size shall be the larger of the following:

(a) Bolt circle + 175mm

(b) Bolt circle + 8 x bolt diameters

(c) Bolt circle + sleeve diameter + 150mm

(d) Diameter of baseplate + 100mm

(e) Bolt circle + 2 x (minimum bolt edge distance)

Pedestals having a diameter or least dimension across sides that is equal to or greater
than 1.5m shall be octagonal in shape. All other pedestals shall be square in shape. For
ease of forming, use multiples of 25mm for each octagonal side or side of square.

It is desirable to make the pedestal deep enough to contain the anchor bolts and keep
them out of the mat.

Step-5 : Anchor Bolt Check:

Design of anchor bolts shall be based on the following considerations. Corrosion
allowance should be considered when required by the project design criteria.

Tension Check:

The maximum tension force in the anchor bolts (T
max
) may be calculated according with
following formula:

T
max
= 4*M / (N
b
x BCD) - (D
e1
or D
e2
) / N
b


Where, M = total maximum moment on foundation
BCD = Bolt circle diameter
N
b
= no. of anchor bolt

Use D
e1
or D
e2
whichever is critical.

The above formula provides a conservative value of T
max
compared to the concrete
transformed section method.

Shear Check:

When anchor bolts are utilized to resist shear, the unit shear per bolt shall be calculated as
follows:


V
max
= V / N
b
where, V = total shear force on anchor bolt.

When oversized anchor bolt holes are provided in the vessel base plates or when anchor
bolt sleeves that are not grout-filled are used, anchor bolts should be designed to resist
tension only.


Frictional resistance to shear between the vessel base plate and the concrete or grouted
bearing surface shall be utilized to resist shears induced by wind or by other static
loads. Frictional resistance shall not be employed to resist shear induced by seismic
loads. For seismic-induced shear, adequate mechanical means shall be provided to resist
horizontal shear, either by means of properly detailed anchor bolt / bolt hole arrangements
or through a combination of anchor bolts, shear lugs, or other anchorage devices. The
static coefficient of friction between steel and concrete or between steel and cementitious
grout shall be considered as 0.4 or specified in project design criteria.

Tension Shear Interaction check:

When anchor bolts are subjected to combined shear and tension loads, the design shall
be based on satisfying interaction formula (say Appendix-d of ACI 318).

Please note that anchor bolt edge distance, spacing and load capacity shall be as per
project design criteria.

Step-6 : Load combinations for foundation sizing / Pile loads and Foundation design:

You need to create the load combination per your project design criteria. However, I have
created this load combination based on ACI 318:

Load combination for Foundation sizing and Pile load calculation (un-factored load
calculation):
LC1: D
o
+ D
p

LC2: (D
e1 or
D
e2
) + Wind
LC3: D
e2
+ Seismic
LC4: D
o
+ D
p
+ Wind
LC5: D
o
+ D
p
+ Seismic
LC6: D
t
+ 025*Wind
Load combination for Pedestal and Foundation design (factored load calculation):
LC7: 1.4*(D
o
+ D
p)

LC8: 0.75 [1.4 D
e2
(or 1.4 D
e1
)] 1.6 Wind
LC9: 1.2 D
e2
+1.0 E
LC10: 0.75 (1.4 D
o
+ 1.4 D
p
) 1.6 Wind
LC11: 1.2 (D
o
+ D
p
) 1.0 E
LC12: 0.75 (1.4 D
t
) 1.6 (0.25 W)

The weight of the foundation and of the soil on top of the foundation shall be included as
dead load in all of these load combinations.

Now from above steps, you have learnt the following:
Different types of loads on foundation
Different criterias for the pedestal sizing
Maximum tension and shear force on each anchor bolt
A sample load combinations.
To complete the foundation design, your work will be to create following calculation
sheets:
o A calculation sheet for anchor bolt embedment length check (ex: ACI 318
appendix-D).
o A calculation sheet for foundation sizing (considering soil bearing
pressure, Sliding, Buoyancy and overturning) or pile load (tension,
compression and shear on each pile) calculation and check with soil
consultant for acceptable values.
o A calculation sheet for foundation and pedestal reinforcement calculation
per your project design criteria.